WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy nuclear collisions

  1. High energy nuclear collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review some basic concepts of relativistic heavy-ion physics and discuss our understanding of some key results from the experimental program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We focus in particular on the early time dynamics of nuclear collisions, some result from lattice QCD, hard probes and photons.

  2. Interferometry of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The interferometry is used for determining large space time dimensions of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed in high energy nuclear collisions or in high multiplicity fluctuations in p-barp collisions. (M.C.K.)

  3. Perspectives in high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1983-08-01

    This report gives an overview of some aspects of hadronic physics relevant for the conception of a research facility devoted to the study of high energy nuclear collisions. Several concepts to be studied in nuclear collisions are selected, with emphasis placed on the properties and nature of the quark-gluon plasma, the formation of the plasma state in the central region and its anticipated lifetime, and the observability, through strangeness content of this new form of nuclear matter. (orig.)

  4. Models of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1978-06-01

    The discussion covers nuclear collisions at relativistic energies including classes of high energy nucleus--nucleus collisions, and the kinetics of a central collision; and the asymptotic hadron spectrum including known and unknown hadrons, the relevance of the spectrum and the means of its study, thermodynamics of hadronic matter, examples of hadronic spectra, the temperature, composition of the initial fireball and its expansion, isoergic expansion with no pre-freezeout radiation, isentropic expansion of the fireball, the quasi-dynamical expansion, and finally antinuclei, hypernuclei, and the quark phase. 28 references

  5. Transparency in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with transparency schemes based on sharp cutoff models are discussed. The soft spheres model of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions has been used to explore the influence of the realistic nuclear density geometry on transparency. An average nuclear transparency and an average reaction transparency are defined and their dependence on target and projectile dimensions and on the hadron-nucleon collision cross section are described. The results are expected to be valid for projectile energies above several hundred MeV/nucleon through the ultrarelativistic regime. For uniform (hard sphere) nuclear profiles, methods for obtaining effective total transparencies are suggested

  6. High energy nuclear collisions: theory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Rainer J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: High Energy Nuclear Collisions are studied at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and, starting next year, also at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to study the formation and properties of quark gluon plasma (QGP). This effort is driven by the prediction that above a certain critical temperature quarks and gluons are deconfined. For the past ten years of running RHIC has performed marvelously. Data from RHIC has answered many initial questions, but it has also provided new, more challenging problems to understand the nature of quark gluon plasma and the dynamics of heavy ion collisions. In this talk I review some of the basic concepts of high energy nuclear collisions and quark gluon plasma formation. We also discuss some of the novel and open questions that we are faced with. We discuss recent predictions on properties of hot quantum chromodynamics, emerging signatures for the color glass condensate, the fascinating idea of local P and CP violation in QCD, as well as ongoing research on hard probes and electromagnetic signatures

  7. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  8. On Markov processes in the hadron-nuclear and nuclear-nuclear collisions at superhigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, A.A.; Rus'kin, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    In the article the possibility of the Markov processes use as simulation method for mean characteristics of hadron-nuclear and nucleus-nuclear collisions at superhigh energies is discussed. The simple (hadron-nuclear collisions) and non-simple (nucleus-nuclear collisions) non-uniform Markov process of output constant spectrum and absorption in a nucleon's nucleus-target with rapidity y are considered. The expression allowing to simulate the different collision modes were obtained

  9. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1012 K, were deconfined and existed as a quark gluon plasma (QGP). These ideas can be tested in collisions of nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies. At the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), nuclei as heavy as gold are accelerated to an energy of 100 GeV per nucleon. A total energy of 40 TeV is available in the collision of.

  10. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1992-06-01

    Nuclear collisions are interpreted theoretically. The nuclear equation of state is studied in a wide energy range. Subnucleonic degrees of freedom are invoked at high energy densities and at short length-scales. Questions of dynamical collision simulations are investigated. Direct support is provided for experiment in the form of collaborative projects. The major objective of this nuclear theory program is a better understanding of the properties of strongly interacting matter on the nuclear energy scale, as manifested in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

  11. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.

    2010-08-01

    We review some basic concepts of relativistic heavy-ion physics and discuss our understanding of some key results from the experimental program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We focus in particular on the early time dynamics of nuclear collisions, some result from lattice QCD, hard probes and photons.

  12. Comparison of models of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of high energy nuclear reaction models covers goals of such collisions, the choice of theoretical framework, the zoo of models (p inclusive), light composites, models versus experiment, conclusions drawn, needed experiments, and pion production. 30 diagrams

  13. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear collision data are interpreted theoretically. The nuclear equation of state is investigated with particular emphasis on momentum-dependent mean field effects. Subnucleonic degrees of freedom are invoked at high energies and densities, and a short length-scales. A nontopological soliton model for baryons is studied in which effective meson fields are generated from extended quark-antiquark pairs. The major objective of this nuclear theory project is a better understanding of the properties of strongly interacting matter on the nuclear energy scale, as manifested in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

  14. Theoretical interpretation of data from high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1988-09-01

    Nuclear collision data at energies ranging from medium to relativistic are interpreted theoretically. The major objective is a better understanding of high-energy heavy-ion collisions, with particular emphasis on the properties of excited nuclear matter. Further progress towards a satisfactory description of excited subsaturation nuclear matter is achieved. The mean free path of a nucleon in nuclear matter, which is a critical parameter in assessing the applicability of certain nuclear collision models, is investigated. Experimental information is used together with theoretical concepts in collaborations with experimentalists in order to learn about the reaction mechanism and about excited nuclear matter properties. In the framework of a more strictly theoretical program development, subnuclear degrees of freedom and nonlinear phenomena in model field theories are studied

  15. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  16. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kai; Dai, Wei; Xu, Nu; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  17. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions

  18. Probing the nuclear symmetry energy with heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ion collisions (HIC have been widely used to extract the parametrization of symmetry energy term of nuclear equation of state as a function of barionic density. HIC in fact are a unique tool in terrestrial laboratories to explore the symmetry energy around the saturation density (ρ0 = 0.16fm−3 from sub-saturation densities (Fermi energies towards compressed nuclear matter (ρ > 2 − 3ρ0 that can be reached at relativistic energies, as a function of different conditions of temperature, mass asymmetry and isospin. One of the main study at present is to reach a coherent description of EOS of asymmetric nuclear matter from heavy ion collisions of stable and exotic nuclei, nuclear structure studies and astrophysical observations. In this work an overview of the current status of the research is shortly reviewed together with new perspectives aimed to reduce the present experimental and theoretical uncertainties.

  19. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, Rudolph C. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  20. Mesonic atom production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, M.; Bando, H.; Sano, M.

    1987-08-01

    The production probability of π-mesonic atom in high-energy nuclear collisions is estimated by a coalescence model. The production cross section is calculated for p + Ne and Ne + Ne systems at 2.1 GeV/A and 5.0 GeV/A beam energy. It is shown that nuclear fragments with larger charge numbers have the advantage in the formation of π-mesonic atoms. The cross section is proportional to Z 3 and of the order of magnitude of 1 ∼ 10 μb in all the above cases. The production cross sections of K-mesonic atoms are also estimated. (author)

  1. QCD and high-energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Six years ago, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  2. Initial angular momentum and flow in high energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Chen, Guangyao; Somanathan, Sidharth

    2018-03-01

    We study the transfer of angular momentum in high energy nuclear collisions from the colliding nuclei to the region around midrapidity, using the classical approximation of the color glass condensate (CGC) picture. We find that the angular momentum shortly after the collision (up to times ˜1 /Qs , where Qs is the saturation scale) is carried by the "β -type" flow of the initial classical gluon field, introduced by some of us earlier. βi˜μ1∇iμ2-μ2∇iμ1 (i =1 ,2 ) describes the rapidity-odd transverse energy flow and emerges from Gauss's law for gluon fields. Here μ1 and μ2 are the averaged color charge fluctuation densities in the two nuclei, respectively. Interestingly, strong coupling calculations using anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) techniques also find an energy flow term featuring this particular combination of nuclear densities. In classical CGC the order of magnitude of the initial angular momentum per rapidity in the reaction plane, at a time 1 /Qs , is |d L2/d η |≈ RAQs-3ɛ¯0/2 at midrapidity, where RA is the nuclear radius, and ɛ¯0 is the average initial energy density. This result emerges as a cancellation between a vortex of energy flow in the reaction plane aligned with the total angular momentum, and energy shear flow opposed to it. We discuss in detail the process of matching classical Yang-Mills results to fluid dynamics. We will argue that dissipative corrections should not be discarded to ensure that macroscopic conservation laws, e.g., for angular momentum, hold. Viscous fluid dynamics tends to dissipate the shear flow contribution that carries angular momentum in boost-invariant fluid systems. This leads to small residual angular momentum around midrapidity at late times for collisions at high energies.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation from nuclear collisions at RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Turbide, Simon; Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The hot and dense strongly interacting matter created in collisions of heavy nuclei at RHIC energies is modeled with relativistic hydrodynamics, and the spectra of real and virtual photons produced at mid-rapidity in these events are calculated. Several different sources are considered, and their relative importance is compared. Specifically, we include jet fragmentation, jet-plasma interactions, the emission of radiation from the thermal medium and from primordial hard collisions. Our calculations consistently take into account jet energy loss, as evaluated in the AMY formalism. We obtain results for the spectra, the nuclear modification factor (R_AA), and the azimuthal anisotropy (v_2) that agree with the photon measurements performed by the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC.

  4. Disoriented Chiral Condensates in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, Jorgen

    2000-10-18

    This brief lecture series discusses how our current understanding of chiral symmetry may be tested more globally in high-energy nuclear collisions by suitable extraction of pionic observables. After briefly recalling the general features of chiral symmetry, we focus on the SU(2) linear sigma model and show how a semi-classical mean-field treatment makes it possible to calculate its statistical properties, including the chiral phase diagram. Subsequently, we consider scenarios of relevance to high-energy collisions and discuss the features of the ensuing non-equilibrium dynamics and the associated characteristic signals. Finally, we illustrate how the presence of vacuum fluctuations or the inclusion of strangeness may affect the results quantitatively.

  5. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Henry J.; Engelage, Jon M.

    1999-01-01

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year

  6. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  7. Kaon production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russkikh, V.N.; Ivanov, Yu.B.

    1992-01-01

    Production of positive kaons in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies (∝ 1-2 GeV/nucleon) is studied within the 3-dimensional fluid dynamics combined with the hadrochemical kinetics for strangeness production. Sensitivity of the kaon probe to a form of the nuclear equation of state is analyzed. The model reproduces total and differential cross sections of Ne+NaF→K + +X and Ne+Pb→K + +X reactions at E lab =2.1 GeV/nucleon, provided a soft equation of state is used. The pion-production data are also well described employing the same equation of state. Predictions are made for the current experiment on kaon production at the SIS accelerator. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of other models. (orig.)

  8. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Indore (India); Sarkisyan, Edward K.G. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Physics, Arlington, TX (United States); Sakharov, Alexander S. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  9. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K.G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  10. Transverse energy production in high energy nuclear collisions and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, K.G.R.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Schmidt, H.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.

    1987-08-01

    In nuclear collisions of AU+Au, Nb+Nb and Ca+Ca at bombarding energies between 150 and 800 MeV per nucleon transverse energy and transverse momenta of light particles are studied event by event at θ = 90 0 in the center of mass system. At all energies a rise of the mean transverse energy per nucleon is observed with increasing charged particle multiplicity. Particularly large values of E perpendicular to have been found for 3 He-fragments. The hydrodynamical picture is discussed for a possible separation of the collective flow and the thermal parts of the E perpendicular to -spectrum. From this, evidence for a rather stiff equation of state is found. (orig.)

  11. Global flow of glasma in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2013-06-25

    We discuss the energy flow of the classical gluon fields created in collisions of heavy nuclei at collider energies. We show how the Yang–Mills analog of Faraday's Law and Gauss' Law predicts the initial gluon flux tubes to expand or bend. The resulting transverse and longitudinal structure of the Poynting vector field has a rich phenomenology. Besides the well-known radial and elliptic flow in transverse direction, classical quantum chromodynamics predicts a rapidity-odd transverse flow that tilts the fireball for non-central collisions, and it implies a characteristic flow pattern for collisions of non-symmetric systems A+B. The rapidity-odd transverse flow translates into a directed particle flow v{sub 1} which has been observed at RHIC and LHC. The global flow fields in heavy ion collisions could be a powerful check for the validity of classical Yang–Mills dynamics in high energy collisions.

  12. Transverse momentum in high-energy nuclear collisions: Collective expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Hwa, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Hadron production in the central region in high-energy nuclear collisions is investigated. The hydrodynamical expansion of a locally thermalized system is studied for both the cases with and without phase transition. The case with phase transition is considered by using a sound-velocity function c/sub s/(T) parametrized to fit the energy density determined in a lattice gauge calculation. The effect of a transverse rarefaction wave is included in the calculation of the temperature profile of the expanding fluid. The transverse-momentum distribution of hadrons is calculated by collecting all the hadrons produced when the hadron gas is cooled down to a freeze-out temperature at different times in the expansion. Fluctuation in initial temperature and radius is allowed due to variation in impact parameter. On the basis of a study of the thermalization process in the parton model we impose a constraint on the initial temperature and the thermalization time, the simultaneous variation of both of which gives rise to a relationship between the average transverse momentum and rapidity density. We have found that there is no so-called ''plateau'' region in that relationship. The implication on the diagnostics of a quark-gluon plasma is discussed

  13. Constituent quark model for nuclear stopping in high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T.K.; Maruyama, M.; Takagi, F.

    1997-01-01

    We study nuclear stopping in high energy nuclear collisions using the constituent quark model. It is assumed that wounded nucleons with a different number of interacted quarks hadronize in different ways. The probabilities of having such wounded nucleons are evaluated for proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. After examining our model in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions and fixing the hadronization functions, it is extended to nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is used to calculate the rapidity distribution and the rapidity shift of final-state protons in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data on 32 S+ 32 S at E lab =200A GeV and 208 Pb+ 208 Pb at E lab =160A GeV. Theoretical predictions are also given for proton rapidity distribution in 197 Au+ 197 Au at √(s)=200A GeV (BNL-RHIC). We predict that the nearly baryon-free region will appear in the midrapidity region and the rapidity shift is left-angle Δy right-angle=2.24

  14. Investigation of nuclear matter properties by means of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.

    1985-09-01

    We review recent advances towards an understanding of high density nuclear matter, as created in central collisions of nuclei at high energy. In particular, information obtained for the nuclear matter equation of state will be discussed. The lectures focus on the Bevalac energy domain of 0.4 to 2 GeV per projectile nucleon. (orig.)

  15. Final stage of high energy hadron-nucleus nuclear collision reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugal'ski, Z.; Jedrzejec, H.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Mulas, E.

    1996-01-01

    The final or 'slow' stage of the hadron-nucleus collision reactions at high energy is considered on the basis of the collision mechanism prompted experimentally. The transmutation process of the damaged target nucleus into nucleons and stable nuclear fragments is discussed. Relations between intensities or multiplicities n p of the emitted fast protons and the mean intensities or multiplicities b > of the evaporated nucleons and nuclear fragments are presented. 14 refs

  16. Angular pattern of minijet transverse energy flow in hadron and nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, A.V.; Ostrovsky, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry of a minijet system produced at the early stage of nucleon-nucleon and nuclear collisions in a central rapidity window is studied. We show that, in pp collisions, the minijet-transverse-energy production in a central rapidity window is essentially unbalanced in azimuth because of asymmetric contributions in which only one minijet hits the acceptance window. We further study the angular pattern of the transverse-energy flow generated by semihard degrees of freedom at the early stage of high-energy nuclear collisions and its dependence on the number of semihard collisions in the models either including or neglecting soft contributions to the inelastic cross section at RHIC and LHC energies, as well as on the choice of infrared cutoff

  17. Angular pattern of minijet transverse energy flow in hadron and nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, A.V.; Ostrovsky, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry of a minijet system produced at the early stage of nucleon-nucleon and nuclear collisions in a central rapidity window is studied. We show that in pp collisions the minijet transverse energy production in a central rapidity window is essentially unbalanced in the azimuth due to asymmetric contributions in which only one minijet hits the acceptance window. We further study the angular pattern of the transverse energy flow generated by the semihard degrees of freedom at the early stage of high energy nuclear collisions and its dependence on the number of semihard collisions in the models both including and neglecting soft contributions to the inelastic cross section at RHIC and LHC energies as well as on the choice of the infrared cutoff. (orig.)

  18. Direct photons in nuclear collisions at fair energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Using the extrapolation of existing data, estimations of prompt-photon production at FAIR energies have been made. At y = y c.m. the rapidity density of prompt photons with p t > 1.5 GeV/c per central Au + Au event at 25 A GeV is estimated as ∼10 -4 . With the planned beam intensity 10 9 per second and 1% interaction probability, for 10% of most central events one can expect the prompt-photon rate ∼10 2 photons per second. Direct photons from the hadron scenario of ion collisions generated by the Hadron-String-Dynamics (HSD) transport approach with implemented meson scatterings πρ → πγ, ππ → ργ have been analyzed. Photons from short-living resonances (e.g., ω → π 0 γ) decaying during the dense phase of the collision should be considered as direct photons. They contribute significantly in the direct photon spectrum at p t = 0.5-1 GeV/c. At the FAIR energy 25 A GeV in Au + Au central collisions the HSD generator predicts, as a lower estimate, γ direct /γ ( π 0 ) ≅ 0.5% in the region p t = 0.5-1 GeV/c. At p t = 1.5-2 GeV/c γ prompt / γ ( π 0 ) ≅ 2%. Thermal direct photons have been evaluated with the Bjorken Hydro-Dynamics (BHD) model. The BHD spectra differ strongly from the HSD predictions. The direct-photon spectrum is very sensitive to the initial temperature parameter T 0 of the model. The 10-MeV increase in the T 0 value leads to ∼2 times higher photon yield.

  19. Mean free paths for high energy hadron collisions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The mean free paths for various collisions of high energy pion in nuclear matter are determined experimentally using pion-xenon nucleus collision events at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. The relation between the mean free path lambdasub(i) for hadron-nucleon particle producing collisions in nuclear matter and corresponding cross section σsub(i) for particle producing collisions of this hadron with free nucleon is derived and discussed. This relation is lambdasub(i)=k/σsub(i), where lambdasub(i) is in nucleons per fm 2 and σ sub(i) - in fm 2 per nucleon, correspondingly, k=3.00+-0.26 is a coefficient accounting for the display of the nucleon inner structure in hadron-nucleus collisions

  20. Out-of-equilibrium phenomena in high energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Serreau, J

    2001-01-01

    In the first part we study the possibility that a Disoriented Chiral Condensate (DCC) forms when hot hadronic matter is quenched, using the linear sigma model. We formulate an original sampling strategy for the initial field configuration in order to get an estimate of the probability that a potentially observable coherent pion field appears in a heavy-ion collision. We obtain a probability of the order of 1/1000 at CERN SPS energies. Next, we study the correlation between isospin orientations of the distinct modes of the pion field emerging after a quench. We show that this correlation is absent: the distinct modes behave as distinct DCCs. This contradicts the common belief that the state produced in the simplest form of the quench scenario - with a fully thermalized initial state - is identical to the originally proposed DCC. In the second part, we investigate the role of elastic scatterings in the process of kinetic equilibration of gluons produced in the very early times of the collision. We compare the t...

  1. Observation of strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast particles from high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Loehner, H.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Warwick, A.; Wieman, H.

    1984-10-01

    Evidence is presented for the strong azimuthal asymmetry between slow and fast fragments in nuclear collisions in the energy interval of 0.4 to 1 GeV per nucleon. The asymmetry gets stronger when incident energy and impact parameter decrease. The results on the A dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry are also presented. (orig.)

  2. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Al; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed by taking into account different scales related to the fragment sizes. Considering two fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained was done. Goldhaber formula was improved by analyzing the discrepancies between data and theories concerning the projectile fragmentation. We implied that the projectile fragmentation process would be governed by the distribution of nucleon momenta in the projectile after the collision occurred. We used in our analysis protons from the 4 He + 7 Li at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum, as well as from 40 Ar + 12 C at 213 AMeV bombarding energy. We proved that in order to proceed in analyzing the projectile fragmentation process at intermediate and high energies one has to consider the dependence σ 0 on the apparent temperature of projectile nucleus after the collision took place. The generalized Bertsch correction for light projectile nuclei and fragments was used and the number of spatial correlations between identical nucleons having anticorrelated momenta was found. Thus we found apparent temperature values close to the separation energies of the considered fragments per number of fragments. The temperatures associated to kinetic energy spectra of the projectile fragments were calculated following two methods. The results from Bauer's method were compared with those obtained by fitting the kinetic energy distributions of the projectile fragments in the rest frame of the projectile with a Maxwellian curve. We also accomplished the comparison of the experimental results with similar events simulated with RQMD 2.4. All the results obtained suggested two nuclear fragmentation mechanisms: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the

  3. Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).

  4. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions --What next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Aichelin, J.; Allton, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Bass, S. A.; Bedda, C.; Brambilla, N.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bruno, G. E.; Dahms, T.; Das, S. K.; Dembinski, H.; Djordjevic, M.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Frawley, A.; Gossiaux, P. B.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grelli, A.; He, Ming; Horowitz, W. A.; Innocenti, G. M.; Jo, M.; Kaczmarek, O.; Kuijer, P; Laine, M.; Lombardo, M. P.; Mischke, A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nahrgang, M.; Nguyen, Mai; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Petreczky, P.; Rothkopf, A.; Schmelling, M.; Scomparin, E.; Song, Ting; Stachel, J.; Suaide, A. A P; Tolos, L.; Trzeciak, B.; Uras, A.; van Doremalen, L.; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S.; Xu, N.; Ye, Z.; Zanoli, H.J.C.; Zhuang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results

  5. Origin of the finite nuclear spin and its effect in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao

    2012-01-01

    The heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model is used to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin in intermediate energy heavy-ion collision (HIC). The spin of maximal projectile-like fragment is found to depend strongly on impact parameter of a reaction system,while it relates weakly to the collision violence. Some interesting multi-fragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown. We also found that the excitation energy in the de-excitation stage plays a robust role at the de-excitation stage in HIC. (authors)

  6. Deconfinement and nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Nataraja

    1992-01-01

    Expensive experiments to detect a deconfined parton phase have been done and are being planned. In these experiments it is hoped that nuclear collisions at relativistic energies will exhibit signals of this new phase. So far all the results may be interpreted in terms of independent nucleon-nucleon interactions. These elementary collisions at very high energies are therefore worth examination since each such collision produces a highly excited entity which emits a large number of hadrons. In the hadronic phase this results in the GS multiplicity distribution. In the parton phase, parton branching results in the popular negative binomial distribution. Though neither the GS nor the NB distribution alone agrees with the data beyond 200 GeV, it is fitted exceedingly well by a weighted sum of the two distributions. Since the negative binomial distribution arises from the branching of partons, we interpret the increase with energy of the negative binomial component in the weighted sum as the onset of a deconfined phase. The rising cross section for the negative binomial component parallels very closely the inclusive cross section for hadron jets which is also considered a consequence of partons branching. The consequences of this picture to nuclear collisions is discussed. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Statistical calculation of complete events in medium-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1984-01-01

    Several heavy-ion accelerators throughout the world are presently able to deliver beams of heavy nuclei with kinetic energies in the range from tens to hundreds of MeV per nucleon, the so-called medium or intermediate energy range. At such energies a large number of final channels are open, each consisting of many nuclear fragments. The disassembly of the collision system is expected to be a very complicated process and a detailed dynamical description is beyond their present capability. However, by virtue of the complexity of the process, statistical considerations may be useful. A statistical description of the disassembly yields the least biased expectations about the outcome of a collision process and provides a meaningful reference against which more specific dynamical models, as well as the data, can be discussed. This lecture presents the essential tools for formulating a statistical model for the nuclear disassembly process. The authors consider the quick disassembly (explosion) of a hot nuclear system, a so-called source, into multifragment final states, which complete according to their statistical weight. First some useful notation is introduced. Then the expressions for exclusive and inclusive distributions are given and the factorization of an exclusive distribution into inclusive ones is carried out. In turn, the grand canonical approximation for one-fragment inclusive distributions is introduced. Finally, it is outlined how to generate a statistical sample of complete final states. On this basis, a model for statistical simulation of complete events in medium-energy nuclear collisions has been developed

  8. High energy nuclear collisions in the few GeV/nucleon region: projectile and target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1980-06-01

    A general review of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for incident energies <10 GeV/nucleon is presented. The division of these interactions into peripheral and central collisions is briefly discussed. Subjects treated include the following: target and projectile fragmentation systematics, production of exotic nuclear fragments, studies of multiparticle final states, total cross section measurements, results from an experiment that indicate the production of projectile fragments with an anomalously short reaction mean free path, high-energy particle production at backward angles beyond simple N-N kinematic limits, and recent results on backward particle emission in studies with the Berkeley streamer chamber. Both the particle and nuclear physics aspects that are present are considered. A brief discussion of future trends in this energy range ends the presentation. 65 references, 37 figures

  9. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1990-08-01

    In the following, I briefly summarize the research results and progress under this project in the time period January 1, 1988--July 31, 1990. Published and unpublished research in this time period focused on aspects of nuclear disassembly, nuclear dynamics, and subnucleonic degrees of freedom in model field theories

  10. A study of vorticity formation in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becattini, F. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Inghirami, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rolando, V.; Pagliara, G. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Nardi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Del Zanna, L. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy); Chandra, V. [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujrat (India)

    2015-09-15

    We present a quantitative study of vorticity formation in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 200 GeV by using the ECHO-QGP numerical code, implementing relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics in the causal Israel-Stewart framework in 3 + 1 dimensions with an initial Bjorken flow profile. We consider different definitions of vorticity which are relevant in relativistic hydrodynamics. After demonstrating the excellent capabilities of our code, which proves to be able to reproduce Gubser flow up to 8 fm/c, we show that, with the initial conditions needed to reproduce the measured directed flow in peripheral collisions corresponding to an average impact parameter b = 11.6 fm and with the Bjorken flow profile for a viscous Quark Gluon Plasma with η/s = 0.1 fixed, a vorticity of the order of some 10{sup -2} c/fm can develop at freeze-out. The ensuing polarization of Λ baryons does not exceed 1.4 % at midrapidity. We show that the amount of developed directed flow is sensitive to both the initial angular momentum of the plasma and its viscosity. (orig.)

  11. Transverse Characteristics of Hadron Production in Elementary and Nuclear Collisions at the CERN SPS Energies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2076476; Bialkowska, H

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study of transverse phenomena at CERN-SPS energies has been performed using data collected by the NA49 experiment. Results on p, p, pi+ and pi- production in elementary hadronic interactions (p + p, pi+ +p and pi- + p) as well as in nuclear collisions (centrality-defined p + Pb, C + C, Si + Si And Pb + Pb) are presented. The dependence of transverse momentum spectra, and in particular the - xF correlations, on particle species, collision energy, size and structure of the colliding objects has been investigated. Particle composition, in terms of the nuclear modification factors RpA (pT) for different xF regions – and particle ratios, has been also studied. The whole set of experimental data puts strong constraints on theoretical models aiming at the description of hadron production in the studied reactions.

  12. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Enterria, D.G.

    2000-05-01

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E γ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar 36 + Au 197 , Ag 107 , Ni 58 , C 12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  13. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs

  14. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  15. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  16. Hadronic energy spectra from nuclear collisions: Effects from collective transverse flow and the phase transition to quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1988-11-01

    I give an overview of the processes determining the shape of energy spectra of hadrons emitted in relativistic nuclear collisions, and discuss how one can extract from them information on the presence of collective transverse flow and on the transition to quark-gluon matter in such collisions. 6 refs., 3 figs

  17. Heavy residue properties in intermediate energy nuclear collisions with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1990-10-01

    We have measured the target fragment production cross sections and angular distributions for the interaction of 32, 44 and 93 MeV/nucleon argon, 35 and 43 MeV/nucleon krypton with gold. The fragment isobaric yield distributions, moving frame angular distributions and velocities have been deduced from these data. This fission cross section decreases with increasing projectile energy and the heavy residue cross section increases. The ratio v parallel /v cn increases approximately linearly with mass removed from the target. 21 refs., 8 figs

  18. Formation of large target residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Xu, Z.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    We have used radiochemical techniques to measure the yields, angular distributions and velocity spectra of the large (A/sub frag/ ≥ 2/3 A/sub tgt/) target residues from the fragmentation of 197 Au by intermediate energy 12 C, 20 Ne, 32 S, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 139 La projectiles. The fragment moving frame angular distributions are asymmetric for the lighter projectiles (C-Ar). The fragment velocity spectra are Maxwellian for the Kr induced reactions and non-Maxwellian for the reactions induced by the lighter ions. We interpret these results in terms of a change in the dominant fragment production mechanism(s) from one(s) involving a fast non-equilibrium process for the lighter ions to a slow, equilibrium process for Kr. Comparison of the measured yields and angular distributions with calculations made using a Boltzmann transport equation with appropriate modifications for Pauli blocking, etc., show excellent agreement between data and theory. 12 refs., 12 figs

  19. Some comments on the behaviour of the excited nuclear matter formed in nuclear collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Argintaru, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In the last years many experiments have been performed in different laboratories to investigate the behaviour of the nuclear matter formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. Therefore, many experimental results are available at present. For explaining these experimental results a lot of models have been proposed. A very large number of concepts have been used. Taking into account some own experimental results obtained in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies between a few A GeV and a few hundred A GeV we comments in the frame a phenomenological geometric picture the main experimental results on charged particle multiplicities, participants, cross sections, momentum spectra, temperature slopes, nuclear matter flow, size and structure of the participant regions, antiparticle to particle ratios and chemical potential. Some jumps in the dependencies of some interesting physical quantities on the available energies in the centre of mass system can be reported. Trends to behaviours like-saturation of some physical quantities are observed, too. Therefore, some connections with the possible phase transitions in nuclear matter are included. A few specific signals of different phase transitions in nuclear matter are suggested. (authors)

  20. Forward-backward multiplicity fluctuation and longitudinal harmonics in high-energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiangyong; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj; Zhou, Mingliang; Huo, Peng

    2016-12-01

    Forward-backward (FB) multiplicity fluctuation in high-energy nuclear collisions can be quantified by two-particle pseudo-rapidity correlation function and its expansion into Legendre polynomials. The corresponding coefficients represent different fluctuation modes in longitudinal direction. The leading term corresponds to the asymmetry of numbers of the participants from the two colliding nuclei. This method is tested in events generated from AMPT and HIJING model. The an signal are found to be strongly dampened in AMPT than in HIJIGN, due to weaker short-range correlaitons and final-state effects in AMPT. Two-particle correlation also reveals an intresting shallow minimum around Δη ≈ 0 in AMPT events, which is absent in HIJING results. The method opens a new avenue to elucidate the particle production mechanism and early time dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

  1. On the balance energy and nuclear dynamics in peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Rajiv; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the system size dependence of balance energy for semi-central and peripheral collisions using quantum molecular dynamics model. For this study, the reactions of Ne 20 +Ne 20 , Ca 40 +Ca 40 , Ni 58 + Ni 58 , Nb 93 +Nb 93 , Xe 131 +Xe 131 , and Au 197 +Au 197 are simulated at different incident energies and impact parameters. A hard equation of state along with nucleon–nucleon cross-sections between 40 and 55 mb explains the data nicely. Interestingly, balance energy follows a power law ∝A τ for the mass dependence at all colliding geometries. The power factor τ is close to –1/3 in central collisions, whereas it is –2/3 for peripheral collisions suggesting stronger system size dependence at peripheral geometries. This also suggests that in the absence of momentum dependent interactions, Coulomb's interaction plays an exceedingly significant role. These results are further analyzed for nuclear dynamics at the balance point. (author)

  2. Semihard interactions in nuclear collisions based on a unified approach to high energy scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Hladik, M.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1998-01-01

    Our ultimate goal is the construction of a model for interactions of two nuclei in the energy range between several tens of GeV up to several TeV per nucleon in the centre-of-mass system. Such nuclear collisions are very complex, being composed of many components, and therefore some strategy is needed to construct a reliable model. The central point of our approach is the hypothesis, that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal (universality hypothesis). A model for nuclear interactions in a modular fashion is proposed. The individual modules, based on the universality hypothesis, are identified as building blocks for more elementary interactions (like e + e - , lepton-proton), and can therefore be studied in a much simpler context. With these building blocks under control, a quite reliable model is developed for nucleus-nucleus scattering, providing in particular very useful tests for the complicated numerical procedures using Monte Carlo techniques. (author)

  3. (Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.

  4. Explosion-evaporation model for fragment production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.; Randrup, J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear collisions at intermediate energies may create transient systems of hot nuclear matter that decay into many nuclear fragments. The disassembly of such a nuclear fireball is described as a two-stage process. In the primary explosion stage the system quickly fragments into nucleons and composite nuclei according to the available phase space. The explosion produces excited nuclei with half-lives longer than the time associated with the breakup. In the secondary evaporation stage, these nuclei decay, first by sequential emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, alphas), later by electromagnetic radiation. The secondary stage in general changes the relative abundancies of the various fragment species. This general feature makes it essential to take account of the composite fragments before using d/p as a measure of the entropy of the initial source. The formation of unbound nuclei at the explosion stage also has the desirable effect of enhancing the final abundancies of particularly stable nuclei, e.g., 4 He. For neutron-excessive sources the presence of composite nuclei amplifies the ratio of observed neutrons and protons; this effect persists for heavier mirror systems. Predictions of the model are qualitatively compared to available experimental data. The model offers a convenient way to augment existing dynamical models, such as intra-nuclear cascade and nuclear fluid dynamics, to yield actual nuclear fragments rather than merely matter distributions

  5. [Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy ( 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ''best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon 129 Xe with 197 Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon 12 C with 197 Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated

  6. Strangeness in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdzicki, M.; Roehrich, D.

    1996-01-01

    Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon-nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus-nucleus collisions than for nucleon-nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon-nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus-nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the quark gluon plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies. (orig.)

  7. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom); Aichelin, J.; Gossiaux, P.B.; Nahrgang, M. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Arnaldi, R.; Scomparin, E. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bass, S.A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Bedda, C.; Grelli, A.; Trzeciak, B.; Doremalen, L. van; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brambilla, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Munich (Germany); Bratkovskaya, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Braun-Munzinger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bari (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Dahms, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Das, S.K. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Dembinski, H.; Schmelling, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Djordjevic, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Ferreiro, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frawley, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Nguyen, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Palaiseau (France); He, M. [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing (China); Horowitz, W.A. [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa); Innocenti, G.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaczmarek, O. [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany); Kuijer, P.G. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laine, M. [University of Bern, AEC, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Munhoz, M.G.; Suaide, A.A.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira da Silva, A.C.; Zanoli, H.J.C. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Petreczky, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Rothkopf, A. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Song, T. [Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stachel, J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Tolos, L. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Uras, A. [Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xu, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Z. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhuang, P. [Tsinghua University, Beijng Shi (China)

    2017-05-15

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results from experiments and theoretical developments regarding open and hidden heavy-flavor dynamics have been debated at the Lorentz Workshop Tomography of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Heavy Quarks, which was held in October 2016 in Leiden, The Netherlands. In this contribution, we summarize identified common understandings and developed strategies for the upcoming five years, which aim at achieving a profound knowledge of the dynamical properties of the quark-gluon plasma. (orig.)

  8. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.; Iliescu, B.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, M.; Calin, C.; Horbuniev, A.; Arsene, I.; Esanu, T.; Ochesanu, S.; Caramarcu, C.; Bordeianu, C.; Rosu, I.; Grossu, V.; Zgura, I.S.; Stan, E.; Mitu, C.; Potlog, M.; Cherciu, M.; Stefan, I.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed taking into account different scales. These scales are related to the fragment sizes. Taking into account the possible different fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained in different experiments performed at the JINR Dubna (Russia), KEK Tsukuba (Japan), GSI Darmstadt (Germany) is done. Results on apparent temperatures, angular distributions, fragment momentum spectra, multiplicities of the intermediate mass fragments are used to analyse the competition between two possible nuclear fragmentation mechanisms, namely: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves, and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly, because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the participant region at transverse angles on the incident nucleus, in CMS.Some connections with chaos dynamics and fractal structure of the fragmentation patterns are included. (authors)

  9. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: QCD and high energy nuclear collision

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 7, 8, 9 May QCD and high energy nuclear collisions D. Kharzeev, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 on 7 and 8 May, Council Chamber on 9 May Six years ago, Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  10. 2006-2007 Academic training programme: QCD and high energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 7, 8, 9 May 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500 on 7 and 8 May, Council Chamber on 9 May QCD and high energy nuclear collisions D. Kharzeev, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA Six years ago, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven started colliding heavy nuclei at record center-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV/nucleon. Very soon, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will push the energy of the ions to an astounding 5 TeV/nucleon. What can be learnt from the experiments at these machines? What do we know about the physics of super--dense matter already? I will argue that heavy ion accelerators bring us to the new frontiers of physical knowledge by creating strong color fields and very high densities of partons, at which qualitatively new phenomena emerge. I will also discuss the cross-disciplinary implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and connections to condensed matter physics.

  11. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  12. Photon production in relativistic nuclear collisions at SPS and RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Turbide, S; Rapp, R; 10.1142/S0217751X0402258X

    2004-01-01

    Chiral Lagrangians are used to compute the production rate of photons from the hadronic phase of relativistic nuclear collisions. Special attention is paid to the role of the a/sub 1/ pseudovector. Calculations that include strange meson reactions, form factors, the use of consistent vector spectral densities, the emission from a quark-gluon plasma, and primordial nucleon-nucleon collisions reproduce the photon spectra measured at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Some predictions for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are made.

  13. Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures

  14. Effect of free-particle collisions in high energy proton and pion-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of free-particle collisions in simple ''knockout'' reactions of the form (a,aN) and in more complex nuclear reactions of the form (a,X) was investigated by using protons and pions. Cross sections for the 48 Ti(p,2p) 47 Sc and the 74 Ge(p,2p) 73 Ga reactions were measured from 0.3 to 4.6 GeV incident energy. The results indicate a rise in (p,2p) cross section for each reaction of about (25 +- 3) percent between the energies 0.3 and 1.0 GeV, and are correlated to a large increase in the total free-particle pp scattering cross sections over the same energy region. Results are compared to previous (p,2p) excitation functions in the GeV energy region and to (p,2p) cross section calculations based on a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation model. Cross section measurements for (π/sup +-/, πN) and other more complex pion-induced spallation reactions were measured for the light target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F from 45 to 550 MeV incident pion energy. These measurements indicate a broad peak in the excitation functions for both (π,πN) and (π,X) reactions near 180 MeV incident energy. This corresponds to the large resonances observed in the free-particle π + p and π - p cross sections at the same energy. Striking differences in (π,πN) cross section magnitudes are observed among the light nuclei targets. The experimental cross section ratio sigma(π - ,π - n)/sigma(π + ,πN) at 180 MeV is 1.7 +- 0.2 for all three targets. The experimental results are compared to previous pion and analogous proton-induced reactions, to Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semi-classical nucleon charge exchange model. (108 references) (auth)

  15. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  16. Evidence for radial flow of thermal dileptons in high-energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cicalò, C; Colla, A; Cortese, P; Damjanovic, S; David, A; De Falco, A; Devaux, A; Ducroux, L; Enyo, H; Fargeix, J; Ferretti, A; Floris, M; Förster, A; Force, P; Guettet, N; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Heuser, J M; Keil, M; Kluberg, L; Lourenço, C; Lozano, J; Manso, F; Martins, P; Masoni, A; Neves, A; Ohnishi, H; Oppedisano, C; Parracho, P; Pillot, P; Poghosyan, T; Puddu, G; Radermacher, E; Ramalhete, P; Rosinsky, P; Scomparin, E; Seixas, J; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sonderegger, P; Specht, H J; Tieulent, R; Usai, G; Veenhof, R; Wöhri, H K

    2008-01-01

    The NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS has studied low-mass dimuon production in 158 AGeV In-In collisions. An excess of pairs above the known meson decays has been reported before. We now present precision results on the associated transverse momentum spectra. The slope parameter Teff extracted from the spectra rises with dimuon mass up to the rho, followed by a sudden decline above. While the initial rise is consistent with the expectations for radial flow of a hadronic decay source, the decline signals a transition to an emission source with much smaller flow. This may well represent the first direct evidence for thermal radiation of partonic origin in nuclear collisions.

  17. Microscopic description of low-energy nuclear collisions: review and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this lecture is a review of the microscopic approaches to nuclear reactions. Semi-phenomenological theories will not be discussed. First the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock formalism is recalled. The effective nucleon-nucleon interactions used in TDHF calculations are discussed. Applications to collisions are presented in different approximation scheme, one-dimensional dynamics, approximate three-dimensional ones.... Finally two microscopic extensions beyond mean-field are reviewed: the variational principal of Balian and Veneroni and the implementation of residual two-body interactions in the Time-Dependent Density Matrix (TDDM) and the Extended Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock schemes (ET-DHF). (author)

  18. Inclusive spectra of mesons with large transverse momenta in proton-nuclear collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykasov, G.I.; Sherkhonov, B.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Basing on the proposed earlier quark model of hadron-nucleus processes with large transverse momenta psub(perpendicular) the spectra of π +- , K +- meson production with large psub(perpendicular) in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies are calculated. The performed comparison of their dependence of the nucleus-target atomic number A with experimental data shows a good agreement. Theoretical and experimental ratios of inclusive spectra of K +- and π +- mesons in the are compared. Results of calculations show a rather good description of experimental data on large psub(perpendicular) meson production at high energies

  19. Event-by-Event Simulations of Early Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Matthew; Rose, Steven; Fries, Rainer

    2017-09-01

    Collisions of heavy ions are carried out at ultra relativistic speeds at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider to create Quark Gluon Plasma. The earliest stages of such collisions are dominated by the dynamics of classical gluon fields. The McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model of color glass condensate provides a model for this process. Previous research has provided an analytic solution for event averaged observables in the MV model. Using the High Performance Research Computing Center (HPRC) at Texas A&M, we have developed a C++ code to explicitly calculate the initial gluon fields and energy momentum tensor event by event using the analytic recursive solution. The code has been tested against previously known analytic results up to fourth order. We have also have been able to test the convergence of the recursive solution at high orders in time and studied the time evolution of color glass condensate.

  20. The origin of nuclear spin and its effect durning intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao; Ma Yugang; Cai Xiangzhou; Wang Hongwei; Fang Deqing; Tian Wendong; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei; Liu Guihua

    2010-01-01

    We use the heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin and its effect in Intermediate energy nuclear reaction. It is found that the spin of projectile depends on the impact parameter of the reaction system heavily, while on the violence lightly by contrast. Some interesting multifragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown, especially those of phase transition. At the same time, the role of excited energy for multifragmentation is also invested. We find the later plays a more robust role durning the nuclear disintegration. (authors)

  1. Effective equation of state of hot and dense matter in nuclear collisions around FAIR energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravina L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and thermal equilibration in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around FAIR is studied within two microscopic models. Two systems are utilized for the analysis: (i central cubic cell of fixed volume V = 125 fm3 and (ii expanding central area of uniformly distributed energy density. It is found that kinetic, thermal, and chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached in both systems for the period of 10–18 fm/c. The expansion proceeds almost isentropically. The extracted equation of state (EOS in P − ɛ plane has a linear dependence P = aɛ, where a ≡ c2s slightly increases with the collision energy from 0.12 to 0.145. Linear dependencies for the EOS are found also in T − μB and T − μS planes. The characteristic kinks observed in the last two phase diagrams are linked to inelastic freeze-out in the expanding fireball.

  2. Nuclear de-excitation processes following medium energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1986-09-01

    As heavy ion reaction studies have progressed from beam energies below 10 MeV/nucleon to higher energies, many non-equilibrium reaction phenomena have been observed. Among these are nucleon emission with velocities in excess of the beam velocity, incomplete momentum transfer to evaporation residue and fission-like fragments, γ-rays with energies in excess of 100 MeV, and π 0 production when beam energies are below the threshold for production by the nucleon-nucleon collision mechanism. Additionally, prefission neutrons have been observed in excess of numbers expected from equilibrium models. A few of the approaches which have been applied to these phenomena are as follows: Intranuclear cascade: two body collisions are assumed to mediate the equilibration. The geometry and momentum space is followed semiclassically. The approach has many successes though it may suffer in a few applications is not following holes; TDHF considers one body processes only; in the energy regime of interest, two body processes are important so that this may not be a viable approach; Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck or Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU/VUU) equations combine both one body and two body dynamics. The spatial and momentum evolution of the reactions are followed in a mean field. These should be the Cadillacs of the models. They are computationally tedious, and sometimes significant approximations are made in order to achieve computational tract ability; models of collective deceleration. A very simple model approach is discussed to interpret these phenomena, the Boltzmann master equation (BME). The hybrid model was the first to be applied to the question of heavy ion precompound decay, and the BME second. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Impact Parameter Dependence of π"-/π"+ Ratio in Probing the Nuclear Symmetry Energy Using Heavy-Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Guo-Qiang; Wei, Gao-Feng; Lu, Yi-Xin; Cao, Xin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The impact parameter dependence of π"-/π"+ ratio is examined in heavy-ion collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon within a transport model. It is shown that the sensitivity of π"-/π"+ ratio on symmetry energy shows a transition from central to peripheral collisions; that is, the stiffer symmetry energy leads to a larger π"-/π"+ ratio in peripheral collisions while the softer symmetry energy always leads this ratio to be larger in central collisions. After checking the kinematic energy distribution of π"-/π"+ ratio, we found this transition of sensitivity of π"-/π"+ ratio to symmetry energy is mainly from less energetic pions; that is, the softer symmetry energy gets the less energetic pions to form a smaller π"-/π"+ ratio in peripheral collisions while these pions generate a larger π"-/π"+ ratio in central collisions. Undoubtedly, the softer symmetry energy can also lead more energetic pions to form a larger π"-/π"+ ratio in peripheral collisions. Nevertheless, considering that most of pions are insufficiently energetic at this beam energy, we therefore suggest the π"-/π"+ ratio as a probe of the high-density symmetry energy effective only in central at most to midcentral collisions, thereby avoiding the possible information of low-density symmetry energy carried in π"-/π"+ ratio from peripheral collisions.

  4. Hydrodynamics in high-energy nuclear collisions. Quarterly report 3. quarter 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataja, Markku.

    1989-05-01

    This thesis is a review of six publications in which we make use of relativistic hydrodynamics to solve the evolution of matter produced in extremely energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the first one of these papers we study the thermodynamics, the hydrodynamics and the decoupling conditions of such matter. We discuss the initial conditions for the flow, the hydrodynamic equations for the transverse expansion of matter assuming cylindrical symmetry and longitudinal boost invariance and finally present a numeric algorithm, which we use to integrate these equations. In the subsequent three papers this framework is utilized to calculate the transverse momentum spectra of hadrons, the dilepon production and the abundance of strange particles in the final state. The bag model equation of state is used to simulate the first-order phase transition between baryonless hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma. In the fifth paper we include the particle production from decaying color electric field according to the flux tube model for heavy ion collisions. The hadronization is incorporated by introducing an equilibrium 'mixed state' of hadrons gas, plasma and the color field in analogy to the mixed phase described by the ordinary bag model equation of state. In the last paper I apply a 1+2 dimensional numeric code to analyze a 1+3 dimensional cylindrically symmetric flow of matter assumed to be formed in a central O+Pb collision at 200 GeV/nucleon. The flow data is used to calculte the pseudorapidity distribution of transverse energy for the produced pions

  5. On transient effects in violent nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.; Belkacem, M.; Feng-Shou Zhang; Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that the numerical simulations of the recently developed Boltzmann-Langevin model exhibit large dynamical fluctuations in momentum space during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, which arise from an interplay between the nuclear meanfield and binary collisions. It is pointed out that this transient behaviour provides an initial seed for the development of density fluctuations, and could strongly influence the particle production cross-sections at subthreshold energies. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs

  6. HARD PARTON PHYSICS IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARROLL,J.

    1999-09-10

    The RIKEN-BNL center workshop on ''Hard parton physics in high energy nuclear collisions'' was held at BNL from March 1st-5th! 1999. The focus of the workshop was on hard probes of nucleus-nucleus collisions that will be measured at RHIC with the PHENIX and STAR detectors. There were about 45 speakers and over 70 registered participants at the workshop, with roughly a quarter of the speakers from overseas. About 60% of the talks were theory talks. A nice overview of theory for RHIC was provided by George Sterman. The theoretical talks were on a wide range of topics in QCD which can be classified under the following: (a) energy loss and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect; (b) minijet production and equilibration; (c) small x physics and initial conditions; (d) nuclear parton distributions and shadowing; (e) spin physics; (f) photon, di-lepton, and charm production; and (g) hadronization, and simulations of high pt physics in event generators. Several of the experimental talks discussed the capabilities of the PHENIX and STAR detectors at RHIC in measuring high pt particles in heavy ion collisions. In general, these talks were included in the relevant theory sessions. A session was set aside to discuss the spin program at RHIC with polarized proton beams. In addition, there were speakers from 08, HERA, the fixed target experiments at Fermilab, and the CERN fixed target Pb+Pb program, who provided additional perspective on a range of issues of relevance to RHIC; from jets at the Tevatron, to saturation of parton distributions at HERA, and recent puzzling data on direct photon production in fixed target experiments, among others.

  7. Investigation of rare particle production in high energy nuclear collisions. Progress report, December 15, 1997--December 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.

    1998-01-01

    The program is an investigation of the hadronization process through experimental measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. These interactions provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. The authors are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. They have completed the first physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. They have prototyped the STAR trigger and are in the process of fabricating its components and installing them in the STAR detector

  8. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy; Bremsstrahlung thermique comme sonde de la multifragmentation nucleaire dans les collisions noyau-noyau aux energies de Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enterria, D.G

    2000-05-15

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (E{sub {gamma}} > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar{sup 36} + Au{sup 197}, Ag{sup 107}, Ni{sup 58}, C{sup 12} at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4{pi}. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pn{gamma}) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  9. Evolution of pressures and correlations in the glasma produced in high energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, M.; Liu, J. H.; Oliva, L.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the SU(2) glasma with Gaussian fluctuations and study its evolution by means of classical Yang-Mills equations solved numerically on a lattice. Neglecting in this first study the longitudinal expansion, we follow the evolution of the pressures of the system and compute the effect of the fluctuations in the early stage up to t ≈2 fm /c , that is the time range in which the glasma is relevant for high energy collisions. We measure the ratio of the longitudinal over the transverse pressure, PL/PT, and we find that unless the fluctuations carry a substantial amount of the energy density at the initial time, they do not change significantly the evolution of PL/PT in the early stage and that the system remains quite anisotropic. We also measure the longitudinal fields correlators both in the transverse plane and along the longitudinal direction: while at initial time fields appear to be anticorrelated in the transverse plane, this anticorrelation disappears in the very early stage, and the correlation length in the transverse plane increases. On the other hand, we find a dependence of the gauge invariant correlator on the longitudinal coordinate, which we interpret as a partial loss of correlation induced by the dynamics that we dub the gauge invariant string breaking. We finally study the effect of fluctuations on the longitudinal correlations: we find that string breaking is accelerated by the fluctuations and waiting for a sufficiently long time fluctuations lead to the complete breaking of the color strings.

  10. 6th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes of High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    One of the premier meetings in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, the Hard Probes conference series brings together the experimental and theoretical communities interested in the hard and electromagnetic observables related to nuclear matter at extreme temperatures and densities. Prior to the conference, the University of Cape Town will host a summer school for young physicists in the field. High energy nuclear physics focuses on the science of a trillion degrees. These temperatures were last seen in nature a microsecond after the Big Bang, but mankind recreates them thousands of times a second in particle accelerators such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider and BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. At these temperatures, 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun, the strong force is dominant, and we hope to learn about the fundamental and non-trivial emergent many-body dynamics of the quarks and gluons that make up 99% of the mass of the visible universe. We anticipate the usual format for the H...

  11. [Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions]. Nuclear chemistry progress report, August 1, 1990--August 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ``best`` semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.

  12. Multifragmentation and evaporation: two competing processes in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.; Desbois, J.; Lipparini, E.

    1984-05-01

    We study the conditions at which mutiple break up of nuclei occurs during a collision. A minimal temperature of about 5MeV seems to be necessary to produce multifragmentation. The average number of fragments produced is correlated with the average number of primary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on these ideas a simple model of evaporation-multifragmentation reactions is developed, which accounts for most of the existing data for protons and heavy ions induced reactions

  13. Dynamical effects and time scale in fission processes in nuclear collisions in the fermi energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, J.; Bocage, F.; Louvel, M.; Bellaize, N.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Lecolley, J.F.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Nguyen, A.D.; Peter, J.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Brun, C. le; Genoux-Lubain, A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent experimental results concerning heavy systems (Pb+Au, Pb+Ag, Pb+Al, Gd+U, Gd+C, Ta+Au, U+U, U+C, Xe+Sn... o btained at Ganil by the Indra and Nautilus collaborations will be presented. A study of reaction mechanisms has shown the dominant binary and highly dissipative character of the process. The two heavy and excited fragments produced after the first stage of the interaction can experience various decay modes: evaporation, fission, multifragmentation. However, deviations from this simple picture have been found by analysing angular and velocity distributions of light charge particles, IMF's (Intermediate Mass Fragment) and fragments. Indeed, there is an amount of matter in excess emitted in-between the two primary sources suggesting either the existence of a mid-rapidity source similar to the one observed in the relativistic regime (participants) or a strong deformation induced by the dynamics of the collision (neck instability). This last scenario is explored by analysing in details the angular distributions of the fission fragments. More precisely, authors observed two components: The first one is isotropic and consistent with the predictions of a statistical model, the second is aligned along the velocity direction of the fissioning nuclei and has to be compared with the predictions of dynamical calculations. In this talk, authors present the probability associated to each component as a function of the system size, the charge asymmetry of the fission fragments, the incident energy and the impact parameter. From the statistical component authors extract the temperature, the charge and the angular momentum of the fissioning nuclei. From the second component authors propose a scenario to explain such process and authors discuss the physical parameters which can be extracted

  14. Dynamical effects and time scale in fission processes in nuclear collisions in the Fermi energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, J.; Bocage, F.; Louvel, M.

    1999-10-01

    Recent experimental results concerning heavy systems (Pb+Au, Pb+Ag, Pb+Al, Gd+U, Gd+C, Ta+Au, U+U, U+C, Xe+Sn...) obtained at Ganil by the Indra and Nautilus collaborations will be presented. A study of reaction mechanisms has shown the dominant binary and highly dissipative character of the process. The two heavy and excited fragments produced after the first stage of the interaction can experience various decay modes: evaporation, fission, multifragmentation. However, deviations from this simple picture have been found by analysing angular and velocity distribution of light charge particles, IMF's (Intermediate Mass Fragment) and fragments. Indeed, there is an amount of matter in excess emitted in-between the two primary sources suggesting either the existence of a mi-rapidity source similar to the one observed in the relativistic regime (participants) or a strong deformation induced by the dynamics of the collision (neck instability). This last scenario is explored by analysing in details the angular distributions of the fission fragments. More precisely, we observed two components: the first one is isotropic and consistent with the predictions of a statistical model, the second is aligned along the velocity direction of the fissioning nuclei and has to be compared with the predictions of dynamical calculations. In this talk, we present the probability associated to each component as a function of the system size, the charge asymmetry of the fission fragments, the incident energy and the impact parameter. From the statistical component we extract the temperature, the charge and the angular momentum of the fissioning nuclei. From the second component we propose a scenario to explain such process and we discuss the physical parameters which can be extracted. (authors)

  15. Collective phenomena in non-central nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, Sergei A.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Snellings, Raimond

    2008-10-20

    Recent developments in the field of anisotropic flow in nuclear collision are reviewed. The results from the top AGS energy to the top RHIC energy are discussed with emphasis on techniques, interpretation, and uncertainties in the measurements.

  16. Collective phenomena in non-central nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, Sergei A.; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Snellings, Raimond

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of anisotropic flow in nuclear collision are reviewed. The results from the top AGS energy to the top RHIC energy are discussed with emphasis on techniques, interpretation, and uncertainties in the measurements

  17. Expansion, thermalization, and entropy production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Wang, X.

    1996-01-01

    The thermalization process is studied in an expanding parton gas using the Boltzmann equation with two types of collision terms. In the relaxation time approximation we determine the criteria under which a time-dependent relaxation time leads to thermalization of the partons. We calculate the entropy production due to collisions for the general time-dependent relaxation time. In a perturbative QCD approach on the other hand, we can, given the initial conditions, estimate the effective relaxation time due to elastic collisions; this will be an upper limit only since radiative processes will also contribute to thermalization. We find that the parton gas does thermalize eventually but only after having undergone a phase of free streaming and gradual equilibration where considerable entropy is produced (open-quote open-quote after burning close-quote close-quote). The final entropy and thus particle density depends on the collision time as well as the initial conditions (a open-quote open-quote memory effect close-quote close-quote). Results for entropy production are presented based upon various model estimates of early parton production. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. High energy collisions of nuclei: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, H.H.

    1977-09-01

    Heavy-ion nuclear reactions with projectile energies up to 2.1 GeV/A are reviewed. The concept of ''rapidity'' is elucidated, and the reactions discussed are divided into sections dealing with target fragmentation, projectile fragmentation, and the intermediate region, with emphasis on the production of light nuclei in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Target fragmentation experiments using nuclear emulsion and AgCl visual track detectors are also summarized. 18 figures

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  20. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain nucleus-nucleus collisions based on nuclear emulsion experiments. Peripheral and central collisions are described in detail. Assuming the fireball model, the concepts of geometry, kinematics and thermodynamics in this model are discussed. Projectile and target fragmentations are studied. The advantages of using nuclear emulsions as detectors, are mentioned. Proton-nucleus collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions are compared. Interactions, of projectiles such as Ca, B and C on targets such as Pb, Ag, Br etc. at very high energies (approximately 300 to 1700 Gev) are listed. A comparison of the near multiplicities in these interactions is given. A generalized explanation is given on the processes involved in these interactions. (A.K.)

  1. Heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.; Amsden, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of measurement are proposed for the analysis of heavy ion collisions in the range of energy of 20--200 MeV/A. First, measurement of the longitudinal component of the kinetic energy of the collision products characterizes the impact parameter of the collision. The distribution in this quantity allows the dissipation in the theoretical models to be determined. A second kind of measurement is that of the coefficients of a spherical harmonic expansion of the angular distribution of the products. Besides giving independent information on the impact parameter and reaction dynamics, measurement of these coefficients offers the possibility of measuring the stiffness of the equation of state of nuclear matter. These ideas are explored in the context of a hydrodynamic model for the collision. In the purely hydrodynamic model there is a large measurable asymmetry in the angular distribution, but the dependence on the equation of state is small

  2. Theory of low energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The basic notions of low-energy quantum scattering theory are introduced (cross sections, phase shifts, resonances,... ), in particular for positively-charged particles, in view of nuclear physics applications. An introduction to the reaction-matrix (or R-matrix) method is then proposed, as a tool to both solve the Schroedinger equation describing collisions and fit experimental data phenomenologically. Most results are established without proof but with a particular emphasis on their intuitive understanding and their possible analogs in classical mechanics. Several choices are made consequently: (i) the text starts with a detailed reminder of classical scattering theory, (ii) the concepts are first introduced in ideal theoretical cases before going to the more complicated formalism allowing the description of realistic experimental situations, (iii) a single example is used throughout nearly the whole text, (iv) all concepts are established for the elastic scattering of spinless particles, with only a brief mention of their multichannel generalization at the end of the text. (author)

  3. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  4. Nuclear suppression at large forward rapidities in d-Au collisions at relativistic and ultrarelativistic energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nemchik, J.; Petráček, Vojtěch; Potashnikova, I.K.; Šumbera, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2008), 025213/1-025213/5 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : GLUON DISTRIBUTION-FUNCTIONS * SMALL-X * TRANSVERSE -MOMENTUM Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2008

  5. A perspective on relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1979-01-01

    A quasi-dynamical model for the disassembly of a high energy hadronic fireball has been developed. It is fund that some signals from the early high density stage are expected to survive the expansion stage. Indeed cetain signals, the π /N and K / N ratio at high kinetic energy, are so qualitatively unique in their dependance on target projectile mass, that we believe they will survive a refinement of the collision dynamics. Therefore a determination of the assymptotic form of the hadron spectrum can be made by studying nuclear collisions. The required energies are high (approximately 10 GeV/ nucleon in C.M.), but they are within the reach of present technology

  6. Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 6 (2009), 064912/1-064912/9 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QUARK-GLUON PLASMA * CORRELATIONS * JETS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  7. The azimuthally anisotropic emission of unstable light nuclear in the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiyong; Jin Genming; Li Zuyu; Duan Limin; Dai Guangxi; Zhang Baoguo; Wu Heyu; Wen Wanxin; Qi Yujin; Luo Qingzheng

    1996-01-01

    The unstable light nuclei emitted in the interaction of 40 Ar on 197 Au have been detected at energy of 25 MeV/u by using particle-particle correlation measurement at small relative angle. Their in-plane and out-of-plane emission were measured for three bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter. The enhanced in-plane emission for mid-rapidity unstable nuclei is observed. This enhanced in-plane emission becomes stronger with increasing of impact parameter, but changes small with the mass of unstable nuclei. The in-plane enhancement decreases slightly with the energy of excited state of unstable nuclei. For projectile-like unstable nuclei, the in-plane emission dominates as expected

  8. New results on nuclear multifragmentation in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru; Iliescu, Bogdan; Felea, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Some new aspects on the multifragmentation processes in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions at high energies are discussed in this work. Experimental data obtained in international collaborations (for example, MULTI Collaboration with KEK Tsukuba (Japan) and SKM 200 Collaboration with JINR Dubna (Russia)) are used to discuss new mechanisms in the target nucleus fragmentation. Correlations with stopping power, participant region size and energy density are included. Comparisons of the experimental results with the predictions of a phenomenological geometric model of intermediate mass fragment multiplicity, caloric curves and angular distributions are also presented. These results are used for global description of the multifragmentation processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies. The size of the participant region and the average intermediate mass fragments multiplicity are taken into consideration using the free space probability. A few correlations between the deposited energy in the participant region and stability state of the intermediate mass fragments are presented in this work. The importance of the collision geometry in the multifragmentation processes is stressed. The results suggest different time moments for the incident nucleus fragmentation and for the target nucleus fragmentation. The associated entropies are distinct. (authors)

  9. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  10. Transverse-energy distribution in proton-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the model of nuclear-collision geometry, the independent N - N collision picture and participant contribution picture are used to describe the transverse-energy distribution in p-A collisions at high energy. In the independent N - N collision picture, the energy loss of leading proton in each p-N collision is considered. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data of p-Al, p-Cu, p-U collisions at 200 GeV/c. (author)

  11. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  12. Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Toneev, V.D.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1994-01-01

    Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e + e - pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed

  13. Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Toneev, V.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1994-11-07

    Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed.

  14. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  15. Pion production in relativistic collisions of nuclear drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.; McAbee, T.L.; Zingman, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    In a continuation of the long-standing effort of the nuclear physics community to model atomic nuclei as droplets of a specialized nuclear fluid, we have developed a hydrodynamic model for simulating the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic speeds. Our model couples ideal relativistic hydrodynamics with a new Monte Carlo treatment of dynamic pion production and tracking. The collective flow for low-energy (200 MeV/N) collisions predicted by this model compares favorably with results from earlier hydrodynamic calculations which used quite different numerical techniques. Our pion predictions at these lower energies appear to differ, however, from the experimental data on pion multiplicities. In this case of ultra-relativistic (200 GeV/N) collisions, our hydrodynamic model has produced baryonic matter distributions which are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data. These results may shed some light on the sensitivity of relativistic collision data to the nuclear equation of state. 20 refs., 12 figs

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  17. Effects of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section on collective flow and nuclear stopping in heavy-ion collisions in the Fermi-energy domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Yongjia; Li, Qingfeng; Guo, Chenchen; Zhang, Hongfei

    2018-04-01

    With the newly updated version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model, a systematic investigation of the effects of in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN ) elastic cross section on the collective flow and the stopping observables in 197Au+197Au collisions at beam energies from 40 to 150 MeV/nucleon is performed. Simulations with the medium correction factors F =σNN in -medium/σNN free=0.2 ,0.3 ,0.5 and the one obtained with the FU3FP1 parametrization which depends on both the density and the momentum are compared to the FOPI and INDRA experimental data. It is found that, to best fit the experimental data of the slope of the directed flow and the elliptic flow at midrapidity as well as the nuclear stopping, the correction factors of F =0.2 and 0.5 are required for reactions at beam energies of 40 and 150 MeV/nucleon, respectively. Whereas calculations with the FU3FP1 parametrization can simultaneously reproduce these experimental data reasonably well. And, the observed increasing nuclear stopping with increasing beam energy in experimental data can also be reproduced by using the FU3FP1 parametrization, whereas the calculated stopping power in Au + Au collisions with beam energies from 40 to 150 MeV /nucleon almost remains constant when taking F equal to a fixed value.

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  19. Strangeness and charm production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Nu

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical effects of strangeness and charm production in high energy nuclear collisions. In order to understand the early stage dynamical evolution, it is necessary to study the transverse momentum distributions of multi-strange hadrons like Ξ and Ω and charm mesons like J/Ψ as a function of collision centrality

  20. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  5. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress on grant No. DE-FG05-89ER40530 during the period April 15, 1990 to February 15, 1991. Our studies of heavy-ion collisions in the framework of ''a stochastic one-body transport model'' has progress in several directions. We developed a method for obtaining approximate numerical solutions of the transport-equation in semi-classical limit, i.e., Boltzmann-Langevin equation, and tested the method in realistic cases of heavy-ion collisions at energies below 100 MeV per nucleon. Some results of the numerical simulations for a head-on collision of 12 C + 12 C system is included in this report. Work has also continued on studying the stochastic one-body transport model in a quantal representation, which provides a microscopic basis for a consistent description of dissipation and fluctuation properties of large amplitude collective nuclear motion. The previous derivation of the stochastic one-body transport model was presented within the density matrix formalisam. We generalized this treatment and proposed an alternative derivation of the model by employing the Green's function approach within the real-time path formalism of Keldish. One manuscript has been submitted to Nucl. Phys. A for publication. Two other manuscripts are in preparation for publication. Several seminars and contributed talks were presented at various meeting

  6. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  7. Energy: nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  8. CMBE v05-Implementation of a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at the present BNL energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossu, I. V.; Felea, D.; Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Stan, E.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C.; Tuturas, N.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a new version of Chaos Many-Body Engine (CMBE) Grossu et al. (2014) [1]. Inspired by the Mean Free Path concept, we implemented a new parameter, namely the ;Mean Free Time;, which is defined as the mean time between one particle's creation and its stimulated decay. This new parameter should be understood as an effect of the nuclear environment and, as opposed to the particle lifetime, it has the advantage of not being affected by the relativistic dilation. In [2] we presented a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c (the SKM 200 collaboration). In this work, we extended our model to 200 A GeV (the maximum BNL energy).

  9. Collision simulations of an exclusive ship of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Ou; Endo, Hisayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Exclusive ships for sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuels operating in Japanese territorial waters are required to be built with the special hull structure against collision. To comply with the official notice 'KAISA No. 520' issued by the Ministry of Transport, the side structure of any such exclusive ship must be designed to secure the specified energy absorption capability based on Minorsky's ship collision model. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) has studied the safety in sea transport of nuclear fuels intermittently for these several decades. Recently, the adoption of finite element method has made detailed collision analyses practicable. Since 1998, the regulation research panel No. 46 of JSRA has carried out a series of finite element collision simulations in order to estimate the realistic damage to a typical exclusive ship of spent nuclear fuels. The expected structural responses, global motions and energy absorption capabilities of both colliding and struck ships during collision were investigated. The results of the investigations have shown that the ship is very likely to withstand the collision even with one of the world's largest ship. This is due mainly to her hull structure specially strengthened beyond the crushing strength of the colliding bow structures. (author)

  10. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  12. Kinetic energy dissipation in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, S.I.; Jolos, R.V.; Kartavenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic energy dissipation mechanism is considered in deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. It is shown that the significant part of the kinetic energy loss can be explained by the excitation of the nuclear matter multipole vibrations. The main contribution of the energy dissipation is given by the time dependent heavy-ion interaction potential renormalized due to the nuclear excitations, rather than by the velocity proportional frictional forces

  13. Massive target nuclei as disc-shaped slabs and spherical objects of intranuclear matter in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewislawski, Z.; Strugalski, Z.; Mausa, M.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found experimentally that a definite number of emitted nucleons corresponds to a definite impact parameter in hadron-nucleus collisions. This finding allows one: to treat the massive target nucleus as a piece of intranuclear matter of a definite thickness; to treat a numerous sample of collisions of monoenergetic identical hadrons with the nucleus as collection of interactions of a homogeneous beam of hadrons with disc-shaped slabs of intranuclear matter of definite thicknesses. 17 refs.; 1 fig

  14. Heavy-ion peripheral collisions in the Fermi energy domain: fragmentation processes or dissipative collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.; Rivet, M.F.; Tassan-Got, L.

    1990-01-01

    For several years a new field in nuclear physics has been opened by the opportunity to accelerate heavy ions through an energy domain including the Fermi energy of nucleons. This new domain has to be seen as a link between dissipative processes observed at low energies, dominated by mean field considerations, and high energy collisions for which nucleon-nucleon collisions play an important role. This paper reviews our present knowledge on peripheral collisions. A reminder of contiguous energy domains is done as well as their extension in the new field. Specific calculations are also presented. Finally a wide comparison between experiments and calculations is performed. A fast dissipative stage proves to be responsible for the dominant mechanisms involved, at least when the incident energy is lower than 50 MeV/nucleon

  15. Global Lambda hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 548, č. 7665 (2017), č. článku 23004. ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * heavy ion collisions * vorticity Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  16. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2000-01-01

    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  17. Global Λ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; de La Barca Sánchez, M. Calderón; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy atomic nuclei produce a state of matter that behaves surprisingly like a fluid, with exceptionally high temperature and low viscosity. Non-central collisions have angular momenta of the order of 1,000ћ, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to describe the fluid properly. The vortical structure is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have yet been found. Since vorticity represents a local rotational structure of the fluid, spin-orbit coupling can lead to preferential orientation of particle spins along the direction of rotation. Here we present measurements of an alignment between the global angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles (in this case the collision occurs between gold nuclei and produces Λ baryons), revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is the most vortical system so far observed. (At high energies, this fluid is a quark-gluon plasma.) We find that Λ and hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few per cent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. (A hyperon is a particle composed of three quarks, at least one of which is a strange quark; the remainder are up and down quarks, found in protons and neutrons.) A previous measurement that reported a null result, that is, zero polarization, at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide experimental access to the vortical structure of the nearly ideal liquid created in a heavy ion collision and should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that

  18. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  19. Exclusive observables from a statistical simulation of energetic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1983-01-01

    Exclusive observables are calculated in the framework of a statistical model for medium-energy nuclear collisions. The collision system is divided into a few (participant/spectator) sources, that are assumed to disassemble independently. Sufficiently excited sources explode into pions, nucleons, and composite, possibly particle unstable, nuclei. The different final states compete according to their microcanonical weight. Less excited sources, and the unstable explosion products, deexcite via light-particle evaporation. The model has been implemented as a Monte Carlo computer code that is sufficiently efficient to permit generation of large event samples. Some illustrative applications are discussed. (author)

  20. Nuclear compression effects on pion production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, M.; Gyulassy, M.; Wakai, M.; Kitazoe, Y.

    1984-11-01

    The pion multiplicity produced in nuclear collisions between 0.2 and 2 AGeV is calculated assuming shock formation. We also correct the procedure of extracting the nuclear equation of state as proposed by Stock et al. The nuclear equation of state would have to be extremely stiff for this model to reproduce the observed multiplicities. The assumptions of this model are critically analyzed. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  2. Mechanical Energy Changes in Perfectly Inelastic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Suppose a block of mass "m"[subscript 1] traveling at speed "v"[subscript 1] makes a one-dimensional perfectly inelastic collision with another block of mass "m"[subscript 2]. What else does one need to know to calculate the fraction of the mechanical energy that is dissipated in the collision? (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Fujio

    1983-02-01

    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  4. Collisions of low-energy multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Crandall, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental measurements of cross sections for collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms at the lowest attainable collision energies are reported. Emphasis is on electron capture from hydrogen atoms by multiply charged ions at energies below 1 keV/amu. The principal effort is the development of a merged-ion-atom-beams apparatus for studies down to 1 eV/amu relative energy

  5. Effects of retarded electrical fields on observables sensitive to the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Ou, Li; Cao, Xin-Wei; Liu, Xu-Yang

    2018-03-01

    Within the isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11, we examine the relativistic retardation effects of electrical fields on the π-/π+ ratio and neutron-proton differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Compared to the static Coulomb fields, the retarded electric fields of fast-moving charges are known to be anisotropic and the associated relativistic corrections can be significant. They are found to increase the number of energetic protons in the participant region at the maximum compression by as much as 25% but that of energetic neutrons by less than 10% in 197Au+197Au reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. Consequently, more π+ and relatively fewer π- mesons are produced, leading to an appreciable reduction of the π-/π+ ratio compared to calculations with the static Coulomb fields. Also, the neutron-proton differential transverse flow, as another sensitive probe of high-density symmetry energy, is also decreased appreciably due to the stronger retarded electrical fields in directions perpendicular to the velocities of fast-moving charges compared to calculations using the isotropic static electrical fields. Moreover, the retardation effects on these observables are found to be approximately independent of the reaction impact parameter.

  6. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-08-20

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.

  7. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-01-01

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at √s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state

  8. Nuclear suppression in p-A collisions from induced radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arleo, F.; Kolevatov, R.; Peigne, S.; Sami, T.

    2016-01-01

    The current status of coherent energy loss is reviewed, both in theory and in its phenomenological applications to p-A collisions. The induced energy loss is not bounded in general, but only in the specific situation where the energetic parton is suddenly accelerated (as in deep inelastic scattering) in the nuclear medium. In the situation where the parton is asymptotic, i.e. 'prepared' at t = -∞ and 'tagged' at t = +∞ after crossing a nuclear medium of thickness L (a situation relevant to forward hadron production in p-A collisions), ΔE appears to be proportional to E. Both situations are detailed in the article

  9. Calculation of Direct photon production in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cepila, J

    2012-01-01

    Prompt photons produced in a hard reaction are not expected to be accompanied by any final state interaction, either energy loss or absorption and one should not expect any nuclear effects at high pT . However, data from the PHENIX experiment indicates large-pT suppression in d+Au and central Au+Au collisions that cannot be accompanied by coherent phenomena. We propose a mechanism based on the energy sharing problem at large pT near the kinematic limit that is induced by multiple initial state interactions and that improves the agreement of calculations with PHENIX data. We calculate inclusive direct photon production cross sections in p+p collisions at RHIC and LHC energies using the color dipole approach without any additional parameter. Our predictions are in good agreement with the available data. Within the same framework, we calculate direct photon production rates in d+A and A+A collisions at RHIC energy. We also provide predictions for the same process in p+A collisions at LHC energy. Since the kinema...

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  11. Using MUSIC to study relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A large Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) has been developed as a part of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS). This facility is being used for the study of relativistic nuclear collisions at the Bevalac of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Preliminary data from MUSIC indicate that a charge resolution of one unit should be achieved from Z approximately equal to 7 to Z approximately equal to 100. (author)

  12. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Du Hwan

    1987-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of explanations of terminologies concerning to nuclear energy such as analysis of financial safety of nuclear energy, radwaste disposal, fast breeder reactor, nuclear reactor and device, nuclear fuel and technique for concentration, using of nuclear energy radiation and measurement, plan for development of nuclear energy and international institution. This book includes 160 terms on nuclear energy and arranges in Korean alphabetical order.

  13. A new approach of chaos and complex network method to study fluctuation and phase transition in nuclear collision at high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Susmita; Bhaduri, Anirban; Ghosh, Dipak [Deepa Ghosh Research Foundation, Kolkata (India)

    2017-06-15

    In the endeavour to study fluctuation and a signature of phase transition in ultrarelativistic nuclear collision during the process of particle production, an approach based on chaos and complex network is proposed. In this work we have attempted an exhaustive study of pion fluctuation in η space, φ space, their cross-correlation and finally two-dimensional fluctuation in terms of scaling of void probability distribution. The analysis is done on the η values and their corresponding φ values extracted from the {sup 32}S-Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 200 GeV per nucleon. The methods used are Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DXA) and a chaos-based rigorous complex network method -Visibility Graph. The analysis reveals that the highest degree of cross-correlation between pseudorapidity and azimuthal angles exists in the most central region of the interaction. The analysis further shows that two-dimensional void distribution corresponding to the η-φ space reveals a strong scaling behaviour. Both cross-correlation coefficients of MF-DXA and PSVG (Power of the Scale-freeness in Visibility Graph, which is implicitly connected with the Hurst exponent) can be effectively used for the quantitative assessment of pion fluctuation in a very precise manner and have the capability to assess the tendency of approaching criticality for phase transitions. (orig.)

  14. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.)

  15. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. Turin (Italy) INFN, Turin (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.).

  16. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Abstract. In this paper, we discuss the fascinating energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons in certain incoherently coupled and coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations arising in the context of nonlinear optics.

  17. Nuclear energy and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear energy and the renewable energies namely: solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and biomass are complementary. They are not polluting and they are expected to develop in the future to replace the fossil fuels

  18. The energy overcompensating disintegrations of residual target nuclei damaged in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Massive target nuclei damaged in hadron-nucleus collisions at high energies are used to disintegrate into nuclear fragments. In many cases such breakup is egzoergic - some portion of nuclear energy is released; this portion should be overcompensating the energy used for the nuclear damage, in some cases. 30 refs

  19. Multiple nucleon transfer in damped nuclear collisions. [Lectures, mass charge, and linear and angular momentum transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J.

    1979-07-01

    This lecture discusses a theory for the transport of mass, charge, linear, and angular momentum and energy in damped nuclear collisions, as induced by multiple transfer of individual nucleons. 11 references.

  20. Violent heavy ion collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results on central collisions will be presented and it will be shown that a fusion process still occurs; deexcitation of the hot fused systems formed will be discussed. Then, from the qualitative evolution of central collision products from different reactions studied in the E/A range 20-84 MeV, the vanishing of fusion processes will be inferred; it will be discussed in terms of critical energy deposit and maximum excitation energy per nucleon that nuclei can carry. Finally results concerning the large production of light fragments (3 < approximately Z < approximately 12) experimentally observed in the Fermi energy domain will be presented and discussed in terms of a multifragmentation of the whole nuclear system or of part of it for intermediate impact parameter collisions (109 refs, 49 fig)

  1. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (i) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (ii) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (iii) the e + e - annihilation. The geometrical description of high-energy elastic scattering developed earlier is still in general agreement with experiments at the CERN-S bar ppS energies. A simple one-parameter expression for the blackness of bar pp system has been proposed recently which describes very well all existing data from ISR to S bar ppS energies. The geometrical description has also been extended to include processes of fragmentation and diffraction dissociation and other phenomena. In the past five years, a unified physical picture for multiparticle emission in hadron-hadron and e + e - collisions was developed. It focuses on the idea of the wide range of values for the total angular momentum in hadron-hadron collisions. An extension of this consideration yields a theory for the momentum distribution of the outgoing particles which agrees with bar pp and e + e - collision experiments. The results and conclusions of this theory have been extrapolated to higher energies and yielded many predictions which can be experimentally tested. 37 refs

  2. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  3. Systematics of strong nuclear amplification of gluon saturation from exclusive vector meson production in high energy electron-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, Heikki; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-06-01

    We show that gluon saturation gives rise to a strong modification of the scaling in both the nuclear mass number A and the virtuality Q2 of the vector meson production cross-section in exclusive deep-inelastic scattering off nuclei. We present qualitative analytic expressions for how the scaling exponents are modified as well as quantitative predictions that can be tested at an Electron-Ion Collider.

  4. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  5. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.; Britt, H.C.; Claesson, G.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the production of intermediate mass fragments (A > 4) in intermediate and high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The mechanism for production of these fragments is not well understood and has been described by models employing a variety of assumptions. Some examples are: disassembly of a system in thermal equilibrium into nucleons and nuclear fragments, liquid-vapor phase transitions in nuclear matter, final state coalescence of nucleons and dynamical correlations between nucleons at breakup. Previous studies of fragment production, with one exception, have been single particle inclusive measurements; the observed fragment mass (or charge) distributions can be described by all of the models above. To gain insight into the fragment production mechanism, the authors used the GSI/LBL Plastic Ball detector system to get full azimuthal coverage for intermediate mass fragments in the forward hemisphere in the center of mass system while measuring all the light particles in each event. The authors studied the systems 200 MeV/nucleon Au + Au and Au + Fe

  6. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  7. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  8. Central collisions in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The critical collisions in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions are examined from both a microscopic and macroscopic viewpoint. In the microscopic description the proper tool is the extended TDHF approximation involving both the mean field and the particle collisions. To understand the underlying physics, the effect of the mean field and the effect of particle collisions are studied separately. It is found that th sudden increase in the density of the overlapping region can cause the volcano effect, leading to the complete disintegration of one of the nuclei. The self-consistent mean field also gives rise to the bunching instability when the two Fermi spheres of the colliding nucleons separate. The collision between nucleons, on the other hand, leads to irreversible dissipation, thermalization, and the possibility of a hydrodynamical description of the dynamics. Next is studied the dynamics of central collisions using the hydrodynamical description for many combinations of targets and projectiles at different energies. The formation of shock waves, sidesplash, and the complete disintegration of the whole nucleus are examined. Nuclear viscosity is found to affect the angular distribution of the reaction products and also the maximum compression ratio achieved during the collision. 28 references

  9. Nuclear energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)

  10. Jets in high energy nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    From the experimental studies of high-energy hardon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon collisions, by means of nuclear targets applied as detectors, it follows that particles are produced via intermediate objects created first in a 2 → 2 type endoergic reaction. These objects, called generons, decay in flight into finally observed particles and resonances after their lifetime tausub(g) > or approximately 10 - 22 s. The jet structure of the outcome in nucleon-nucleon collisions is a simple and indispensable consequence of this particle production mechanism. The picture of the jet structure in the collision outcome observed in the CMS of the colliding nucleons depends on the energy of these nUcleons. New particle production scheme is proposed, which can be tested experimentally; corresponding simple relations between characteristics of colliding nucleons and of produced jets are proposed for a testing

  11. Breakup of spectator residues in relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, A.I.; Wieman, H.H.; Gutbrod, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Low energy nuclear fragments (12 4 He, and 20 Ne projectiles are measured to yield information on the breakup of the target nucleus. We discuss the shapes of the fragment energy spectra across this broad range of fragment mass and pick out the fission component by its binary breakup. Multiplicities of coincident fast charged particles are presented as a measure of the degree of violence of the initial stage of the collision. Angular distributions of light fragments (8< or =Z< or =11) give the average velocities imparted to the residue in central collisions, and these values are compared to the results of cascade calculations. Measurements of slow fragment multiplicities from central events reveal a many-fragment final state. In the light of this finding we develop a simple calculation of the Coulomb features of the observed spectra. The applicability of a statistical breakup model is discussed

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  13. Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments

  14. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  15. Reaction mechanism in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao.

    1982-04-01

    The reaction mechanism in high energy heavy-ion collision is discussed. The discussion is mainly based on the experimental data. Empirical equations have been given for the total cross-sections of nucleus-nucleus reactions and the reaction cross-sections. These cross-sections are well described by the geometrical size of the colliding nuclei. The cross-sections are also understood by microscopic calculation. The charged particle multiplicity gives additional information about the geometrical aspect of heavy ion collision. The data suggested that the total energy, independent of projectile size, is most important for determining the multiplicity. The inclusive proton spectrum in a heavy ion collision showed two distinct regions. The one is the fragment region, and the other the participant region. The spectral shapes of inclusive pion spectra are reasonably well explained by the Coulomb interaction of pions with nuclear fragments. The high energy heavy ion reaction occurs in the overlap region of the projectile and target. This has been tested by measuring the number of participants for various reactions. The space and the time structure of the collision are also discussed in this paper as well as the dynamical aspects of the collision. (Kato, T.)

  16. Electron capture in ion-molecule collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress of theoretical charge transfer study in ion-molecule collisions at the intermediate energy is reviewed. Concept of close and distant collisions obtained from extensive ion-atom collision studies is identified so that it can be utilized to model two distinct collision processes. For a close collision, explicit representation of the whole collision complex is necessary to describe collision dynamics correctly, while a model potential approach for molecule is appropriate for a distant collision. It is shown that these two distinct models are indeed capable of reproducing experimental charge transfer cross sections. Some remarks for further theoretical study of ion-molecule collisions are also given. 21 refs., 8 figs

  17. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  18. Inelastic collisions of medium energy atomic elements. Qualitative model of energy losses during collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to the theoretical description of energy losses of atomic particle of medium energy during their interaction with the substance is proposed. The corner-stone of this approach is the supposition that all of the collision processes have inelastic nature during particle movement through the substance, while the calculation of the atomic particles braking is based on the law of their dispersion and the laws of energy and momentum conservation at the inelastic collisions. It is shown that inelastic atomic collision there are three dispersion zones for the only potential interaction with different laws, which characterize energy losses. The application conditions of this approach are determined [ru

  19. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  20. Review of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.)

  1. Dynamical and statistical aspects of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lectures presented deal with three different topics relevant for the discussion of nuclear collisions at medium to high energies. The first lecture concerns a subject of general interest, the description of statistical systems and their dynamics by the concept of missing information. If presents an excellent scope to formulate statistical theories in such a way that they carefully keep track of the known (relevant) information while maximizing the ignorance about the irrelevant, unknown information. The last two lectures deal with quite actual questions of intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. These are the multi-fragmentation dynamics of highly excited nuclear systems, and the so called subthreshold particle production. All three subjects are self-contained, and can be read without the knowledge about the other ones. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (authors)

  3. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  4. The mechanisms of the hadron-nucleus collision processes and of the hadron-nucleus collision induced nuclear reactions - in the light of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of the hadron-nucleus collision processes and of the hadron-nucleus collision induced nuclear reactions are described - as experimentally based. The target nuclei are damaged definitely and locally in the collisions and the configurations of the nucleons in them became instable. The configuration must transit into stable stages of the nuclear transition reaction products. The difference between the initial internal energy of the unstable residual nucleus and the total final energy of the stable products of the nuclear transition reaction may be released in some cases

  5. Theory of low energy collisions; Theorie des collisions a basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparenberg, J.M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The basic notions of low-energy quantum scattering theory are introduced (cross sections, phase shifts, resonances,... ), in particular for positively-charged particles, in view of nuclear physics applications. An introduction to the reaction-matrix (or R-matrix) method is then proposed, as a tool to both solve the Schroedinger equation describing collisions and fit experimental data phenomenologically. Most results are established without proof but with a particular emphasis on their intuitive understanding and their possible analogs in classical mechanics. Several choices are made consequently: (i) the text starts with a detailed reminder of classical scattering theory, (ii) the concepts are first introduced in ideal theoretical cases before going to the more complicated formalism allowing the description of realistic experimental situations, (iii) a single example is used throughout nearly the whole text, (iv) all concepts are established for the elastic scattering of spinless particles, with only a brief mention of their multichannel generalization at the end of the text. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy and the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromova, E.; Vargoncik, D.; Sovadina, M.

    2013-01-01

    A popular interactive multimedia publication on nuclear energy in Slovak. 'Nuclear energy and energy' is a modern electronic publication that through engaging interpretation, combined with a number of interactive elements, explains the basic principles and facts of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Operation of nuclear power plants, an important part of the energy resources of developed countries, is frequently discussed topic in different social groups. Especially important is truthful knowledgeability of the general public about the benefits of technical solutions, but also on the risks and safety measures throughout the nuclear industry. According to an online survey 'Nuclear energy and energy' is the most comprehensive electronic multimedia publication worldwide, dedicated to the popularization of nuclear energy. With easy to understand texts, interactive and rich collection of accessories stock it belongs to modern educational and informational titles of the present time. The basic explanatory text of the publication is accompanied by history and the present time of all Slovak nuclear installations, including stock photos. For readers are presented the various attractions legible for the interpretation, which help them in a visual way to make a more complete picture of the concerned issue. Each chapter ends with a test pad where the readers can test their knowledge. Whole explanatory text (72 multimedia pages, 81,000 words) is accompanied by a lot of stock of graphic materials. The publication also includes 336 photos in 60 thematic photo galleries, 45 stock charts and drawings, diagrams and interactive 31 videos and 3D models.

  7. Inner shell ionization accompanying nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Selected phenomena leading to inner shell ionization and being of relevance for nuclear physics are discussed. The selection emphasizes the K-shell ionization induced in head-on collisions by fast light and medium-heavy ions. Cross-sections are reviewed. Effects of multiple inner shell ionization on the K X-ray spectra are illustrated with recent results. Implications for nuclear experiments are noted. Use of atomic observables as clocks for proton induced nuclear reactions is reviewed. Prospects for H.I. reactions are discussed. Preliminary experimental results on the direct K-shell ionization accompanying H.I. fusion reactions are presented. The post-collisional K-shell ionization due to internal conversion of γ-rays is discussed as the dominating contribution to the ionization for residues of dissipative nuclear reactions with Z > 40. Systematics of the corresponding K X-ray multiplicities are presented for rotational nuclei. These multiplicity values can be used for determining cross-sections for e.g. incomplete fusion reactions. Examples of such applications are given. Also discussed is the use of target K X-rays for normalization purposes and of the post-collisional, residue K X-rays in the studies of high spin phenomena. 96 references, 35 figures, 3 tables

  8. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The booklet provides and up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear or energy sector in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. In the booklet nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market

  9. Energy from nuclear fission an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    De Sanctis, Enzo; Ripani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview on nuclear physics and energy production from nuclear fission. It serves as a readable and reliable source of information for anyone who wants to have a well-balanced opinion about exploitation of nuclear fission in power plants. The text is divided into two parts; the first covers the basics of nuclear forces and properties of nuclei, nuclear collisions, nuclear stability, radioactivity, and provides a detailed discussion of nuclear fission and relevant topics in its application to energy production. The second part covers the basic technical aspects of nuclear fission reactors, nuclear fuel cycle and resources, safety, safeguards, and radioactive waste management. The book also contains a discussion of the biological effects of nuclear radiation and of radiation protection, and a summary of the ten most relevant nuclear accidents. The book is suitable for undergraduates in physics, nuclear engineering and other science subjects. However, the mathematics is kept at a level that...

  10. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  11. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  12. Energy dependence of opaqueness for pp collisions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, T T

    1978-01-01

    Opaqueness of pp collisions is evaluated at three CERN-ISR energies. Comparisons with predictions of the factorisable eikonal models and the scaling hypothesis are made. It appears that results are in favour of the factorisable models. (20 refs).

  13. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Energy density, stopping and flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, H.; von Keitz, A.; Mattiello, R.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Lorentz invariant molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) is employed to investigate the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at energies (E kin = 10AGeV hor-ellipsis 200AGeV). The calculations for various nucleus nucleus reactions show a high degree of stopping power. The importance of secondary rescattering at these beam energies is demonstrated. The computed nucleon rapidity distributions are compared to available experimental data. It is demonstrated that nonlinear, collective effects like full stopping of target and projectile and matter flow could be expected for heavy projectiles only. For nuclear collisions in the Booster era at BNL and for the lead beam at CERN SPS the authors predict a stimulating future: then a nearly equilibrated, long lived (8 fm/c) macroscopic volume of very high energy density (> 1 GeV/fm 3 ) and baryon density (> 5 times ground state density) is produced

  15. {gamma}-radiation of excited nuclear discrete levels in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Chikin, K.A. [Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2002-06-01

    A new process of a nuclear excitation to discrete states in peripheral heavy ion collisions is studied. High-energy photons are emitted by the exited nuclei with energies up to a few tens of GeV at angles of a few hundred microradians with respect to the beam direction. We show that a two-stage process, where an electron-positron pair is produced by virtual photons emitted by nuclei and then the electron or positron excites the nucleus, has a large cross-section. It is equal to about 5 b for CaCa collisions. On the one hand, it produces a significant {gamma}-rays background in the nuclear fragmentation region but, on the other hand, it could be used for monitoring the nuclear beam intensity at the LHC. These secondary nuclear photons could be a good signal for triggering peripheral nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  16. γ-radiation of excited nuclear discrete levels in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, V. L.; Chikin, K. A.

    A new process of a nuclear excitation to discrete states in peripheral heavy ion collisions is studied. High-energy photons are emitted by the exited nuclei with energies up to a few tens of GeV at angles of a few hundred microradians with respect to the beam direction. We show that a two-stage process, where an electron-positron pair is produced by virtual photons emitted by nuclei and then the electron or positron excites the nucleus, has a large cross-section. It is equal to about 5 b for CaCa collisions. On the one hand, it produces a significant γ-rays background in the nuclear fragmentation region but, on the other hand, it could be used for monitoring the nuclear beam intensity at the LHC. These secondary nuclear photons could be a good signal for triggering peripheral nuclear collisions.

  17. γ-radiation of excited nuclear discrete levels in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Chikin, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new process of a nuclear excitation to discrete states in peripheral heavy ion collisions is studied. High-energy photons are emitted by the exited nuclei with energies up to a few tens of GeV at angles of a few hundred microradians with respect to the beam direction. We show that a two-stage process, where an electron-positron pair is produced by virtual photons emitted by nuclei and then the electron or positron excites the nucleus, has a large cross-section. It is equal to about 5 b for CaCa collisions. On the one hand, it produces a significant γ-rays background in the nuclear fragmentation region but, on the other hand, it could be used for monitoring the nuclear beam intensity at the LHC. These secondary nuclear photons could be a good signal for triggering peripheral nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear energy basic knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmer, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Atoms, nuclear decays and radioactivity, energy, nuclear fission and the chain reaction, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, safety installations in nuclear power plants, fuel supply and disposal, radiation measurement and radiation exposition of man. (HSI)

  19. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  20. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  1. A plausible picture of high-energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.O.

    1976-01-01

    Results experimentally obtained from jets of E(p)=10-10 3 GeV in nuclear emulsion show that the target nucleus in proton-nucleus collisions seems to present ''limiting fragmentation''. In the same energy range, proton-nucleus collisions resemble closely proton-proton collisions and asymmetric shape of rapidities is only caused by the break-up products of heavy targets [fr

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  3. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  4. Electricity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    Consequences of getting out from nuclear energy are discussed. It is concluded that the Chernobyl accident is no reason to withdraw confidence from Swiss nuclear power plants. There are no sufficient economizing potential and other energies at disposal to substitute nuclear energy. Switching to coal, oil and gas would increase environmental damages. Economic and social cost of getting out would be too high

  5. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-01-01

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs

  6. The picture of the nuclei disintegration mechanism - from nucleus-nucleus collision experimental data at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental data on nuclear collisions at high energies, mainly obtained from photographic emulsions, are considered from the point of view of the picture of the nuclear collision processes mechanisms prompted experimentally. In fact, the disintegration products of each nucleus involved in a nuclear collision, in its own rest-frame, are similar to that produced by the impact of a number of nucleons of velocity equal to that of the moving primary nucleus

  7. Achieving high baryon densities in the fragmentation regions in heavy ion collisions at top RHIC energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Kapusta, Joseph I.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at extremely high energy, such as the top energy at RHIC, exhibit the property of transparency where there is a clear separation between the almost net-baryon-free central rapidity region and the net-baryon-rich fragmentation region. We calculate the net-baryon rapidity loss and the nuclear excitation energy using the energy-momentum tensor obtained from the McLerran-Venugopalan model. Nuclear compression during the collision is further estimated using a simple space-time picture. The results show that extremely high baryon densities, about twenty times larger than the normal nuclear density, can be achieved in the fragmentation regions. (paper)

  8. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  9. Hadron collisions at TEV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for higher energy accelerators to probe the mysteries of the subatomic universe. Intermediate vector bosons are discussed as well as symmetry breaking and the standard model

  10. Formation and disintegration of high-density nuclear matter in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Kazuo; Sano, Mitsuo

    1976-01-01

    The formation of high-density nuclear matter which may be expected to be attained in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and the subsequent disintegration of dense matter are investigated by means of the hydrodynamics. Head-on collisions of identical nuclei are considered in the nonrelativistic approximation. The compressed density cannot exceed 4 times of the normal one so long as the freedom of only nucleons is considered, and can become higher than 4 times when other freedoms such as the productions of mesons and also nucleon isobars are additionally taken into account. The angular distributions for ejected particles predominate both forwards and backwards at low collision energies, corresponding to the formation of nuclear density less than 2 times of the normal density and become isotropic at the point of 2 times of the normal one. As the collision energy increases further, lateral ejection is intensified gradually. (auth.)

  11. High-energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    While high energy collision experiments yield a wealth of complicated patterns, there are a few general and very striking features that stand out. Because of the universality of these features, and because of the dominating influence they have on high energy phenomena, it is the authors opinion that a physical picture of high energy collisions must address itself first of all to these features before going into specific details. In this short talk these general and striking features are stated and a physical picture developed in the last few years to specifically accommodate these features is described. The picture was originally discussed for elastic scattering. But it leads naturally, indeed inevitably as they shall discuss, to conclusions about inelastic processes, resulting in an idea called the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

  12. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskii O. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect. The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process.

  13. Fluctuations in high-energy particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronqvist, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    We study fluctuations that are omnipresent in high-energy particle collisions. These fluctuations can be either of either classical or quantum origin and we will study both. Firstly, we consider the type of quantum fluctuations that arise in proton-proton collisions. These are computable perturbatively in quantum field theory and we will focus on a specific class of diagrams in this set-up. Secondly, we will consider the fluctuations that are present in collisions between nuclei that can be heavier than protons. These are the quantum laws of nature that describe the positions of nucleons within a nucleus, but also the hydrodynamic fluctuations of classical, thermal origin that affect the evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. The fluctuations arising in proton-proton collisions can be computed analytically up to a certain order in perturbative quantum field theory. We will focus on one-loop diagrams of a fixed topology. Loop diagrams give rise to integrals that typically are hard to evaluate. We show how modern mathematical methods can be used to ease their computation. We will study the relations among unitarity cuts of a diagram, the discontinuity across the corresponding branch cut and the coproduct. We show how the original integral corresponding to a given diagram can be reconstructed from the information contained in the coproduct. We expect that these methods can be applied to solve more complicated topologies and help in the computation of new amplitudes in the future. Finally, we study the two types of fluctuations arising in heavy-ion collisions. These are related either to the initial state or the intermediate state of matter produced in such collisions. The initial state fluctuations are experimentally observed to give rise to non-Gaussianities in the final-state spectra. We show how these non-Gaussianities can be explained by the random position and interaction energy of 'sources' in the colliding nuclei. Furthermore, we

  14. Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy in atomic and nuclear physics: applications to low energy ion-atom/molecule collisions and to beta-neutrino angular correlation in beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechard, X.

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1990's, Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy is an ideal tool for ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions study. We detail here the development of this experimental technique during the last twenty years, illustrated with some of the most striking results obtained at GANIL (Caen) and J.R. Mac Donald Laboratory (Kansas State University). Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy is also particularly well suited for β-ν angular correlation measurements in nuclear β decay. The LPCTrap experiment, installed at GANIL, is based on this technique, coupled to the use of a Paul trap for the radioactive ions confinement. The precise measurements performed with this setup allow both, to test specific aspects of the Standard Model of elementary particles, and to study the electron shake-off process following β decay. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-15

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  16. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  17. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  18. Soft energy vs nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    During the early 1960s, a plentiful, inexpensive supply of petroleum enabled Japanese industry to progress rapidly; however, almost all of this petroleum was imported. Even after the first oil crisis of 1973, the recent annual energy consumption of Japan is calculated to be about 360 million tons in terms of petroleum, and actual petroleum forms 73% of total energy. It is necessary for Japan to reduce reliance on petroleum and to diversify energy resources. The use of other fossil fuels, such as coal, LNG and LPG, and hydraulic energy, is considered as an established alternative. In this presentation, the author deals with new energy, namely soft energy and nuclear energy, and discusses their characteristics and problems. The following kinds of energy are dealt with: a) Solar energy, b) Geothermal energy, c) Ocean energy (tidal, thermal, wave), d) Wind energy, e) Biomass energy, f) Hydrogen, g) Nuclear (thermal, fast, fusion). To solve the energy problem in future, assiduous efforts should be made to develop new energy systems. Among them, the most promising alternative energy is nuclear energy, and various kinds of thermal reactor systems have been developed for practical application. As a solution to the long-term future energy problem, research on and development of fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are going on. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the booklet is to provide an up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear energy or other energy sectors in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. Nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market. (orig.)

  20. Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inghirami, Gabriele [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany); Del Zanna, Luca [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Beraudo, Andrea [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 397, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Becattini, Francesco [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3 + 1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    A general view about the use of energy for brazilian development is presented. The international situation of the nuclear field and the pacific utilization of nuclear energy in Brazil are commented. The safety concepts used for reactor and nuclear facilities licensing, the environmental monitoring program and radiation protection program used in Brazil are described. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Nuclear energy data 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers projections lengthened to 2030 for the first time and information on the development of new centrifuge enrichment capacity in member countries. The compilation gives readers a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, providing authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field

  3. Isospin effects in intermediate energy heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianye; Zuo Wei; Yang Yanfang; Zhao Qiang; Guo Wenjun

    2001-01-01

    Based on the achievements for the intermediate energy heavy ion collision in authors' recent work and the progresses in the world, the isospin effects and the dependence of the entrance channel conditions on them in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions were introduced, analysed and commended. From the calculation results by using isospin dependence quantum molecular dynamics, it is clear to see that the nuclear stopping power strongly depends on the in-medium isospin dependence nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the symmetry potential in the energy region from about Fermi energy to 150 MeV/u and the intermediate mass fragment multiplicity also sensitively depends on the in-medium isospin dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the symmetry potential in a selected energy region. But the preequilibrium emission neutron-proton ratio is quite contrary, it sensitively depends on the symmetry potential and weakly on the in-medium isospin dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section. In addition to the nuclear stopping sensitively depending on the beam energy, impact parameter and the mass of colliding system and weakly on the neutron-proton ratio of the colliding systems with about the same mass, the preequilibrium emission neutron-neutron ratio sensitively depends on the beam energy and the neutron-proton ratio of colliding system, but weakly on the impact parameter. From above results it is proposed that the nuclear stopping is a new probe to extract the information on the in-medium isospin dependence nucleon-nucleon cross section in energy region from about Fermi energy to 150 MeV/u and the preequilibrium emission neutron-proton ratio is a good probe for extracting the information about the symmetry potential from the lower energy to about 150 MeV/u

  4. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  5. Influence of the nuclear autocorrelation function on the positron production in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoda, T.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of a nuclear reaction on atomic positron production in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. Using statistical concepts, we describe the nuclear S matrix for a heavy-ion induced reaction as a statistically fluctuating function of energy. The positron production rate is then dependent on the autocorrelation function of this S matrix, and on the ratio of the ''direct'' versus the ''fluctuating'' part of the nuclear cross section. Numerical calculations show that in this way, current experimental results on positron production in heavy-ion collisions can be reproduced in a semiquantitative fashion

  6. Pair production from nuclear collisions and cosmic ray transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbury, John W

    2006-01-01

    Modern cosmic ray transport codes, that are capable of use for a variety of applications, need to include all significant atomic, nuclear and particle reactions at a variety of energies. Lepton pair production from nucleus-nucleus collisions has not been included in transport codes to date. Using the methods of Baur, Bertulani and Baron, the present report provides estimates of electron-positron pair production cross sections for nuclei and energies relevant to cosmic ray transport. It is shown that the cross sections are large compared to other typical processes such as single neutron removal due to strong or electromagnetic interactions. Therefore, lepton pair production may need to be included in some transport code applications involving MeV electrons. (brief report)

  7. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakacs, Istvan; Czeizel, Endre; Hajdu, Janos; Marx, Gyoergy.

    1984-01-01

    The text of a round-table discussion held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of neutron is given. The participants were the Chief Engineer of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Hungary started in November 1982, a geneticist treating the problems of genetic damages caused by nuclear and chemical effects, a nuclear physicist and a journalist interested in the social aspects of nuclear energy. They discussed the political, economical and social problems of nuclear energy in the context of its establishment in Hungary. (D.Gy.)

  8. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  9. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  10. Nuclear energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work pack contains illustrated booklets entitled: 'Uranium mining'; 'Reactors and radiation'; 'Nuclear waste'; 'Work book on energy'; 'Alternatives now'; 'Future energy choices'; 'Resources handbook'; and 'Tutors' guidelines': a map entitled 'Nuclear power in Britain': and two coloured pictures entitled 'Nuclear prospects' and 'Safe energy'. A cover note states that the material has been prepared for use in schools and study groups. (U.K.)

  11. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  12. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  13. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  14. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bozek, P

    1992-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experi- ments is done using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e + e~ annihilation data. The language of the self-similar distribution func- tions, which is used in this work, is shown to be largely equivalent to the well known a-model. In the case of the ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions, where the Monte-Carlo simulations fail to reproduce the data, we argue that the observed intermittency pattern is a signal of some nonlinear effect beyond the simple superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of t...

  15. b-jet tagged nuclear modification factors in heavy ion collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the b-jet spectra and the first measurement of the nuclear modification factors as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013.

  16. Neck instabilities in deep inelastic collisions at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania; Catania Univ.; Di Toro, M.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.; Catania Univ.; Jiquan, Z.; Catania Univ.; Lanzhou Univ., GS

    1994-01-01

    A novel reaction mechanism for semi-peripheral heavy ion collisions is discussed due to new features of the nuclear dynamics in the overlapping region. In a very selected beam energy range, between 40 and 70 Me/u, we see the onset of new neck instabilities coupled to an increasing amount of dynamical fluctuations. Expected consequences are a possibility of intermediate mass fragment emission form the neck region and large variances in the projectile-like and target-like observables. (authors). 11 refs., 3 figs

  17. Introduction to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    After some descriptions about atoms, fission and fusion, explanations are given about the functioning of a nuclear power plant. The safety with the different plans of emergency and factors that lead to a better nuclear safety are exposed, then comes a part for the environmental protection; the fuel cycle is tackled. Some historical aspects of nuclear energy finish this file. (N.C.)

  18. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  19. Two-dimensional multiplicity fluctuation analysis of target residues in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Hai, Zhang; Yao-Jie, Niu; Li-Chun, Wang; Wen-Jun, Yan; Li-Juan, Gao; Ming-Xing, Li; Li-Ping, Wu; Hui-Ling, Li; Jun-Sheng, Li

    2010-01-01

    Multiplicity fluctuation of the target residues emitted in the interactions in a wide range of projectile energies from 500 A MeV to 60 A GeV is investigated in the framework of two-dimensional scaled factorial moment methodology. The evidence of non-statistical multiplicity fluctuation is found in 16 O–AgBr collisions at 60 A GeV, but not in 56 Fe–AgBr collisions at 500 A MeV, 84 Kr–AgBr collisions at 1.7 A GeV, 16 O–AgBr collisions at 3.7 A GeV and 197 Au–AgBr collisions at 10.7 A GeV. (nuclear physics)

  20. Nuclear compression effects on pion production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, M.; Gyulassy, M.; Wakai, M.; Kitazoe, Y.

    1985-01-01

    We show that the method of analyzing the pion excitation function proposed by Stock et al. may determine only a part of the nuclear matter equation of state. With the addition of missing kinetic energy terms the implied high density nuclear equation of state would be much stiffer than expected from conventional theory. A stiff equation of state would also follow if shock dynamics with early chemical freeze out were valid. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  2. Radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Kuczera, B.

    2001-05-01

    The terms radioactivity and nuclear energy, which have become words causing irritation in the political sphere, actually represent nothing but a large potential for innovative exploitation of natural resources. The contributions to this publication of the Karlsruhe Research Center examine more closely three major aspects of radioactivity and nuclear energy. The first paper highlights steps in the history of the discovery of radioactivity in the natural environment and presents the state of the art in health physics and research into the effects of exposure of the population to natural or artificial radionuclides. Following contributions focus on: Radiochemical methods applied in the medical sciences (diagnostic methods and devices, therapy). Nuclear energy and electricity generation, and the related safety policies, are an important subject. In this context, the approaches and pathways taken in the field of nuclear science and technology are reported and discussed from the angle of nuclear safety science, and current trends are shown in the elaboration of advanced safety standards relating to nuclear power plant operation and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Finally, beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in the context of a sustainable energy policy are emphasized. In particular, the credentials of nuclear energy in the process of building an energy economy based on a balanced energy mix which combines economic and ecologic advantages are shown. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Nuclear energy in view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This leaflet advertises the availability of the following from UKAEA: film and video titles (nuclear fuel cycle; energy for all; power from the atom; using radioactivity; fast reactor; energy - the nuclear option; principles of fission; radiation); slide-tape packs (16 titles); other information services. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  5. Nuclear energy, economy, ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffaes, C.

    1995-01-01

    As its operating role, its economic competitiveness and its technological control in the area of nuclear energy, the France has certainly to take initiatives in a nuclear renewal activity. The France is criticized in the world for its exclusive position about nuclear energy, but it is well situated to attract attention on the coal risks and particularly about its combustion for environment. (N.C.)

  6. Nuclear energy inquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1993-02-01

    Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs

  7. Nuclear Energy Data 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'Statlinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link [fr

  8. Nuclear collision theory with many-body correlations, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yukio.

    1984-12-01

    A nuclear collision theory, in which the many-body correlation induced by the strong short-ranged repulsion and medium-ranged attraction of the realistic NN interaction is explicitly included, is applied to the deuteron+deuteron elastic scattering at low energies. Pair correlation functions calculated by the present theory are very different from the Hackenbroich et al. 's one. They contain not only the short-ranged suppressive correlation, but also the medium-ranged enhancing correlation. The former changes the shape of the d-d potential from the wine-bottle one. And the latter makes the d-d potential much more attractive. This effect is necessary for reproducing a bump around thatesub(cm)=90 0 in the experimental elastic differential cross section. The phase shifts evaluated by the present theory are compared with those from the resonating-group method. (author)

  9. Is nuclear energy justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1988-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Prof. Haerle a theologist, published earlier under the same heading, in which the use of nuclear energy is rejected for ethical reasons. The comment contents the claim mode by the first author that theologists, because they have general ethical competency, must needs have competency to decide on the fittest technique (of energy conversion) for satisfying, or potentially satisfying, the criteria of responsible action. Thus, an ethical comment on, for instance, nuclear energy is beyond the scope of the competency of the churches. One is only entitled as a private person to objecting to nuclear energy, not because of one's position in the church. (HSCH) [de

  10. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Relativistic Boltzmann-Langevin model for heavy-ion collision; K+ production far below free neucleon-nucleon threshold and damping of collective vibrations in a memory-dependent transport model

  11. Nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow. How to provide the energy demanded while protecting our environment and conserving natural resources is a vital question facing us today. Many parts of our society are debating how to power the future and whether nuclear energy should play a role. Nuclear energy is a complex technology with serious issues and a controversial past. Yet it also has the potential to provide considerable benefits. In pondering the future of this imposing technology, people want to know. - How safe is nuclear energy? - Is nuclear energy economically competitive? - What role can nuclear energy play in meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets? - What can be done with the radioactive waste it generates? - Does its use increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons? - Are there sufficient and secure resources to permit its prolonged exploitation? - Can tomorrow's nuclear energy be better than today's? This publication provides authoritative and factual replies to these questions. Written primarily to inform policy makers, it will also serve interested members of the public, academics, journalists and industry leaders. (author)

  12. Perspectives for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.-M.; Abderrahim, H.A.; Dekeyser, J.; Meskens, G.

    1998-09-01

    In Belgium, approximately 60 percent of the produced electricity is generated by nuclear power. At present, nuclear power production tends to stagnate in Europe and North America but is still growing in Asia. The document gives an overview of the present status and the future energy demand with emphasis on electric power. Different evaluation criteria including factors hindering and factors promoting the expansion of nuclear power as well as requirements of new nuclear power plants are discussed. The extension of the lifetime of existing facilities as well as fuel supply are taken into consideration. A comparative assesment of nuclear power with other energy sources is made. The report concludes with estimating the contribution and the role of nuclear power in future energy demand as well as with an overview of future reactors and research and development programmes

  13. Nuclear Energy Data - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants remained steady in 2013 despite the progressive shutdown of all reactors in Japan leading up to September and the permanent closure of six reactors in the OECD area. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for increasing nuclear generating capacity, and progress was made in the development of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, with Finland expected to have the first such facility in operation in the early 2020's. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link. (authors)

  14. Nuclear Energy Data - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2015, by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Two new units were connected to the grid in 2015, in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down - five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'Stat Links'. For each Stat Link, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link. (authors)

  15. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current technical and economical events in the nuclear field. Twelve papers have been abstracted and input to the data base. The ''international nuclear energy guide'' gives a general directory of the name, the address and the telephone number of the companies and bodies quoted in this guide; a chronology of the main events 1982. The administrative and professional organization, the nuclear courses and research centers in France are presented, as also the organization of protection and safety, and of nuclear fuel cycle. The firms concerned by the design and the construction of NSSS and the allied nuclear firms are also presented. The last part of this guide deals with the nuclear energy in the world: descriptive list of international organizations, and, the nuclear activities throughout the world (alphabetical order by countries) [fr

  16. Determination of the nuclear incompressibility from the rapidity-dependent elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies 0.4A-1.0A GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjia; Guo, Chenchen; Li, Qingfeng; Le Fèvre, Arnaud; Leifels, Yvonne; Trautmann, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    Background: The nuclear incompressibility (K0) plays a crucial role in understanding diverse phenomena in nuclear structure and reactions, as well as in astrophysics. Heavy-ion-collision measurements in combination with transport model simulations serve as important tools for extracting the nuclear incompressibility. However, uncertainties in transport models (or model dependence) partly affect the reliability of the extracted result. Purpose: In the present work, by using the recently measured data of rapidity-dependent flows, we constrain the incompressibility of nuclear matter and analyze the impact of model uncertainties on the obtained value. Method: The method is based on the newly updated version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model in which the Skyrme potential energy-density functional is introduced. Three different Skyrme interactions which give different incompressibilities varying from K0 = 201 to 271 MeV are adopted. The incompressibility is deduced from the comparison of the UrQMD model simulations and the FOPI data for rapidity-dependent elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions at beam energies 0.4A-1.0A GeV. Results: The elliptic flow v2 as a function of rapidity y0 can be well described by a quadratic fit v2 =v20 +v22 ṡ y02 . It is found that the quantity v2n defined by v2n = |v20 | + |v22 | is quite sensitive to the incompressibility K0 and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, but not sensitive to the slope parameter L of the nuclear symmetry energy. Conclusions: With the FU3FP4 parametrization of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section, an averaged K0 = 220 ± 40 MeV is extracted from the v2n of free protons and deuterons. However, remaining systematic uncertainties, partly related to the choice of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, are of the same magnitude (± 40 MeV). Overall, the rapidity dependent elliptic flow supports a soft symmetric-matter equation-of-state.

  17. Determination of the nuclear incompressibility from the rapidity-dependent elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies 0.4A–1.0A GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjia Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nuclear incompressibility (K0 plays a crucial role in understanding diverse phenomena in nuclear structure and reactions, as well as in astrophysics. Heavy-ion-collision measurements in combination with transport model simulations serve as important tools for extracting the nuclear incompressibility. However, uncertainties in transport models (or model dependence partly affect the reliability of the extracted result. Purpose: In the present work, by using the recently measured data of rapidity-dependent flows, we constrain the incompressibility of nuclear matter and analyze the impact of model uncertainties on the obtained value. Method: The method is based on the newly updated version of the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD model in which the Skyrme potential energy-density functional is introduced. Three different Skyrme interactions which give different incompressibilities varying from K0=201 to 271 MeV are adopted. The incompressibility is deduced from the comparison of the UrQMD model simulations and the FOPI data for rapidity-dependent elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at beam energies 0.4A–1.0A GeV. Results: The elliptic flow v2 as a function of rapidity y0 can be well described by a quadratic fit v2=v20+v22⋅y02. It is found that the quantity v2n defined by v2n=|v20|+|v22| is quite sensitive to the incompressibility K0 and the in-medium nucleon–nucleon cross section, but not sensitive to the slope parameter L of the nuclear symmetry energy. Conclusions: With the FU3FP4 parametrization of the in-medium nucleon–nucleon cross section, an averaged K0=220±40 MeV is extracted from the v2n of free protons and deuterons. However, remaining systematic uncertainties, partly related to the choice of in-medium nucleon–nucleon cross sections, are of the same magnitude (±40 MeV. Overall, the rapidity dependent elliptic flow supports a soft symmetric-matter equation-of-state.

  18. Dossier nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The present Dutch government compiled the title document to enable the future Dutch government to declare its opinion on the nuclear energy problemacy. The most important questions which occupy the Dutch society are discussed: safe application and risks of nuclear energy, radioactive wastes and other environmental aspects, and the possible danger of misusing nuclear technology. In chapter two attention is paid to the policy, as formulated by the Dutch government, with regard to risks of nuclear power plants. Next the technical safety regulations that have to be met are dealt with. A brief overview is given of the state of the art of commercially available nuclear reactors, as well as reactors under development. The nuclear waste problem is the subject of chapter three. Attention is paid to the Dutch policy that has been formulated and is executed, the OPLA-program, in which the underground storage of radioactive wastes is studied, the research on the conversion of long-lived radioactive isotopes to short-lived radioactive isotopes, and planned research programs. In chapter four, other environmental effects of the use of nuclear power are taken into consideration, focusing on the nuclear fuel cycle. International obligations and agreements to guarantee the peaceful use of nuclear energy (non-proliferation) are mentioned and discussed in chapter four. In chapter six the necessity to carry out surveys to determine public support for the use of nuclear energy is outlined. In the appendices nuclear energy reports in the period 1986-present are listed. Also the subject of uranium supplies is discussed and a brief overview of the use of nuclear energy in several other countries is given. 2 tabs., 5 annexes, 63 refs

  19. Nuclear Energy Data - 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, fuel cycle capacities and requirements, and projections to 2035, where available. Country reports summarise energy policies, updates of the status in nuclear energy programs and fuel cycle developments. In 2016, nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low-carbon baseload electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and subsidised renewable energy sources. Three new units were connected to the grid in 2016, in Korea, Russia and the United States. In Japan, an additional three reactors returned to operation in 2016, bringing the total to five under the new regulatory regime. Three reactors were officially shut down in 2016 - one in Japan, one in Russia and one in the United States. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports

  20. The nuclear energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have not been able to obtain closure in the nuclear energy debate because the public perception of nuclear energy is out of sync with reality. The industry has not been about to deal with the concerns of those opposed to nuclear energy because its reaction has been to generate and disseminate more facts rather than dealing with the serious moral and ethical questions that are being asked. Nuclear proponents and opponents appeal to different moral communities, and those outside each community cannot concede that the other might be right. The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) has been formed, sponsored by members of the Jewish, Baha'i, Roman Catholic, United, and Anglican faiths, to provide for a balanced discussion of the ethical aspects of energy. (L.L.)

  1. Mean charged hadron multiplicities in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albini, E [Istituto di Matematica dell' Universita Cattolica di Brescia (Italy); Capiluppi, P; Giacomelli, G; Rossi, A M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica

    1976-03-01

    A collection of mean charged hadron multiplicities per inelastic collision in various high-energy processes is presented. An extensive list of fits of as a function of energy is presented and discussed. As the energy increases the multiplicities for different collisions tend to a unique curve, independent of the type of colliding particles.

  2. Nuclear energy and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinger, N.

    1976-01-01

    Mr. Goldfinger, Research Director of AFL-CIO, examines the problem of energy in general, nuclear in particular, and the employment relationship. The energy shortages in the U.S. and its dependence on oil are cited. Directly connected with this serious problem relating to energy are jobs, income, and living standards. If energy is not available, industries will be unable to expand to meet the needs of the growing population; and prices of goods will rise. From an evaluation of what experts have said, Mr. Goldfinger concludes that increased coal production and better coal technology cannot meet energy demands; so the sharp increase both in volume and as a percentage of total energy needed in the future will have to come from nuclear power. Development of alternative sources is necessary, he feels, and intense research on these is needed now. The employment impact in the nuclear energy scenario is analyzed according to the trades involved. It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs in the nuclear industry would be open by the year 2000 if nuclear is to provide one-fourth of energy supplies. The employment picture, assuming abandonment of nuclear energy, is then discussed

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment on maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation (Part II: Ship collision probability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to assess and reduce risks of maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation with a probabilistic approach. Event trees detailing the progression of collisions leading to transport casks’ damage were constructed. Parallel and crossing collision probabilities were formulated based on the Poisson distribution. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data were processed with the Hough Transform algorithm to estimate possible intersections between the shipment route and the marine traffic. Monte Carlo simulations were done to compute collision probabilities and impact energies at each intersection. Possible safety improvement measures through a proper selection of operational transport parameters were investigated. These parameters include shipment routes, ship's cruise velocity, number of transport casks carried in a shipment, the casks’ stowage configuration and loading order on board the ship. A shipment case study is presented. Waters with high collision probabilities were identified. Effective range of cruising velocity to reduce collision risks were discovered. The number of casks in a shipment and their stowage method which gave low cask damage frequencies were obtained. The proposed methodology was successful in quantifying ship collision and cask damage frequency. It was effective in assisting decision making processes to minimize risks in maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation. - Highlights: • Proposes a probabilistic framework on the safety of spent nuclear fuel transportation by sea. • Developed a marine traffic simulation model using Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) algorithm. • A transportation case study on South Korean waters is presented. • Single-vessel risk reduction method is outlined by optimizing transport parameters.

  4. Jet and Leading Hadron Production in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Jet tomography has become a powerful tool for the study of properties of dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I will discuss recent progresses in the phenomenological study of jet quenching, including momentum, colliding energy and nuclear size dependence of single hadron suppression, modification of dihadron correlations and the soft hadron distribution associated with a quenched jet

  5. Axiology of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy was born in World War II and it has grown within the regime of Cold War. When the Cold War came to the end around early 1990 s, we who have benefited by the development of nuclear energy must have been challenged with a new tide of civilization change. Although it has not been so much closely questioned since then, such a new movement, that was submerging, abruptly manifested on September 11, 2001. Then, many of us realized that global circumstances, especially concerned with security, must have actually changed with the reordering of the world basic structures. This paper describes on the thoughts to reveal the cause and background of the event on September 11 with the linkage to nuclear energy development, or nuclear civilization in pursuit of the future regime of nuclear in harmonization with the global society in 21st century. (author)

  6. Development of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, John [Secretary of State for Energy, London (UK)

    1991-06-01

    The Government's views on the development of nuclear energy are outlined. In this country, we continue to see some important advantages in maintaining nuclear power generation. It increases diversity, and so helps to maintain security of energy supply. It does not produce greenhouse gases or contribute to acid rain. But it is equally clear that nuclear costs must be brought under control whilst at the same time maintaining the high standards of safety and environmental protection which we have come to expect in the UK. The three main elements which the nuclear industry must address in the future are summarized. First the costs of nuclear generation must be reduced. Secondly, once the feasibility and costings of PWRs have been established consideration must be given to the choices for the future energy policy and thirdly new reactor designs should be standardized so the benefits of replication can be realised. (author).

  7. Environmentalists for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels such as coal oil, and gas, massively pollute the Earth atmosphere (CO, CO 2 , SOX, NOX...), provoking acid rains and changing the global climate by increasing the greenhouse effect, while nuclear energy does not participate in these pollutions and presents well-founded environmental benefits. Renewable energies (solar, wind) not being able to deliver the amount of energy required by populations in developing and developed countries, nuclear energy is in fact the only clean and safe energy available to protect the planet during the 21 century. The first half of the book, titled The Atomic Paradox, describes in layman language the risks of nuclear power, its environmental impact, quality and safety standards, waste management, why a power reactor is not a bomb, energy alternatives, nuclear weapons, and other major global and environmental problems. In each case the major conclusions are framed for greater emphasis. Although examples are taken from the French nuclear power program, the conclusions are equally valid elsewhere. The second half of the book is titled Information on Nuclear Energy and the Environment and briefly provides a historical survey, an explanation of the different types of radiation, radioactivity, dose effects of radiation, Chernobyl, medical uses of radiation, accident precautions, as well as a glossary of terms and abbreviations and a bibliography. (author)

  8. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  9. Journalism and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The question as to why nuclear energy is a point of friction between journalists and the expert community is discussed. The areas in which the two communities fail to communicate are highlighted and the opportunities that exist for improved nuclear journalism are identified briefly. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  11. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  13. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  14. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  15. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  16. Nuclear energy: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.A.; Nader, R.; Udall, M.K.; Walske, C.

    1980-01-01

    This edited transcript of a televised American Enterprise Institute Public Poicy Forum explores the role of nuclear technology in energy production in the US today. A panel made up of Senator James A. McClure, Ralph Nader, Representative Morris K. Udall, and Dr. Carl Walske and moderated by John Charles Daly examines the lessons learned from the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant and the public attitudes toward nuclear energy, particularly in light of this accident. The experts discuss alternative energy sources, such as coal, gas, biomass, and solar power as well as conservation and more efficient use of present facilities. The issues of nuclear waste disposal and transport and US commitments to countries not self-sufficient in their energy needs are also explored

  17. Nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A country by country study of nuclear energy in the various European countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Federal German Republic, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR and Yugoslavia [fr

  18. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  19. Nuclear energy in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, S.; Kharazyan, V.

    2000-01-01

    This summary represents an overview of the energy situation in Armenia and, in particular, the nuclear energy development during the last period of time. the energy sector of Armenia is one of the most developed economy branches of the country. The main sources of energy are oil products, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower, and coal. In the period of 1985-1988 the consumption of these energy resources varied between 12-13 million tons per year of oil equivalent. Imported energy sources accounted for 96% of the consumption. During the period 1993-1995 the consumption dropped to 3 million tons per year. Electricity in Armenia is produced by three thermal, one nuclear, and two major hydroelectric cascades together with a number small hydro units. The total installed capacity is 3558 MW. Nuclear energy in Armenia began its development during the late 1960's. Since the republic was not rich in natural reserves of primary energy sources and the only domestic source of energy was hydro resource, it was decided to build a nuclear power plant in Armenia. The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) Unit 1 was commissioned in 1996 and Unit 2 in 1980. The design of the ANPP was developed in 1968-1969 and was based on the project of Units 3 and 4 of the Novovoronezh NPP. Both units of the plant are equipped with reactors WWER-440 (V -270) type, which are also in use in some power stations in Russian Federation, Bulgaria, and Slovakia. Currently in Armenia, 36% of the total electricity production is nuclear power electricity. (authors)

  20. Nuclear energy and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baisong

    1996-01-01

    The information tells us that since the first chain reaction discovery about 50 years ago up to now, there are more than 400 commercial nuclear power plants connected to electricity supply net works. The electricity supplied by nuclear power plants has exceeded 2000 TWH, which represents almost 17% of the total electricity generated in the world and this proportion is still increasing. The accumulated operating experience of nuclear power plants reach more than 6000 reactor-year. Quite high average life time energy availability factors demonstrate the good reliability of nuclear power plants. The present status of the electricity development in the world shows that nuclear power has become an imperative and exclusively realistic alternative energy source. All of these information demonstrate that nuclear power as a safe, clean and less cost power source has already been widely accepted in the world. In Asia and Pacific region, the fast development of economy provides a vast possibility for the development of nuclear power. In China, shortage of electricity has become the 'bottle neck' which retards the economic development nowadays. China has already drawn up the plan for the development of nuclear power. The information is of great significance to promote the development of nuclear power. It could be said that without information, nuclear power could not be smoothly introduced in any country or region. (J.P.N.)

  1. Energy transfer in diatom/diatom molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlberg, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    In a collision of two molecules, the translational energy of the collision may be redistributed into internal energy of rotation, vibration, or electron motion, in one or both of the colliding partners. In addition, internal energy in one or more of these modes may be open-quotes quenchedclose quotes into translation, leading to a superelastic collision. Such energy transfer may take place by a number of mechanisms. This energy transfer is of fundamental importance in understanding chemical reaction dynamics. Nearly all chemical reactions take place through a bimolecular collision process (or multiple bimolecular collisions) and the quantum state specificity of the reaction can have a major role in determining the kinetics of the reaction, In particular, the author has investigated vibrational energy transfer in collisions between two diatomic molecules. In addition to serving as models for all molecular collision process, gas phase collisions of these species are ubiquitous in atmospheric phenomena which are of critical importance in answering the current questions about the human induced degradation of the earth's atmospheric. Classical trajectory methods have been used to explore the excitation of vibrations in gas-phase collisions of the nitrogen molecular ion with its parent molecule. The near symmetry of the reactants is shown to result in a high probability that the two molecules are excited by an equal amount of energy. This provides a possible explanation of the molecular beam measurements which show that the total number of vibrational energy quanta excited in the collision is, with a high probability that the two molecules are excited by an equal amount of energy. This provides a possible explanation of the molecular beam measurements which show that the total number of vibrational energy quanta excited in the collision is, with a high probability, even

  2. Quantum mechanical theory of positron production in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    The interplay between atomic and nuclear interactions in heavy ion collisions with nuclear contact is studied. The general theoretical description is outlined and analyzed in a number of different limits (semiclassical approximation, DWBA, fully quantal description). The two most important physical mechanisms for generating atomic-nuclear interference, i.e., energy conservation and the introduction of additional phase shifts by nuclear reactions, are extracted. The resulting typical coupling matrix elements are analyzed for their relative importance in atomic and nuclear excitations. The description of nuclear influence on atomic excitations in terms of a classical time delay caused by nuclear reactions is reviewed, and its relationship to the underlying quantal character of the nuclear reaction is discussed. The theory is applied to spontaneous positron emission in supercritical heavy-ion collisions (Z/sub tot/ ≥ 173). It is shown that nuclear contact can lead to line structures in the positron energy spectra if the probability distribution for nuclear delay times caused by the contact has contributions for T ≥ 10 -19 sec. We explicitly evaluate a model where a pocket in the internuclear potential near the touching configuration leads to formation of nuclear molecules, and predict a resonance-like excitation function for the positron peak. 25 refs., 7 figs

  3. That compromising nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, E.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses a wide range of aspects of nuclear energy and its problems. Social and ideological as well as more technical sides of the nuclear controversy are dealt with. The author argues that just more information on the subject cannot solve the problem anyhow, as technologists naively hold. Being a christian, the author believes that the Bible can show us a way out, even as to these energy problems. (G.J.P.)

  4. Risk communication: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis is put on communication processes, here in particular with regard to nuclear energy. Not so much dealt with are questions concerning political regulation, the constellation of power between those becoming active and risk perception by the population. Presented are individual arguments, political positions and decision-making processes. Dealt with in particular are safety philosophies, risk debates, and attempts to 'channel' all sides to the subject of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  5. Deliberations about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskma, P.; Smit, W.A.; Vries, G.H. de; Dijk, G. van; Groenewold, H.J.; Jelsma, J.; Tans, P.P.; Doorn, W. van

    1975-01-01

    This report is a discussion of points raised in three safety studies dealing with nuclear energy. It reviews the problems that must be faced in order to form a safe and practical energy policy with regard to health and the environment (potential hazards, biological effects and radiation dose norms), the proliferation of nuclear weapons, reactor accidents (including their causes, consequences and evacuation problems that arise), the fallout and contamination problems, and security (both reactor security and national security)

  6. Nuclear energy outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With the launch today of its first Nuclear Energy Outlook, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) makes an important contribution to ongoing discussions of nuclear energy's potential role in the energy mixes of its member countries. As world energy demand continues to grow unabated, many countries face serious concerns about the security of energy supplies, rising energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. In his presentation, the NEA Director-General Luis Echavarri is emphasizing the role that nuclear power could play in delivering cost-competitive and stable supplies of energy, while also helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In one Outlook scenario, existing nuclear power technologies could provide almost four times the current supply of nuclear-generated electricity by 2050. Under this scenario, 1400 reactors of the size commonly in use today would be in operation by 2050. But in order to accomplish such an expansion, securing political and societal support for the choice of nuclear energy is vital. An ongoing relationship between policy makers, the nuclear industry and society to develop knowledge building and public involvement will become increasingly important, the publication notes. Moreover, governments have a clear responsibility to maintain continued effective safety regulation, advance efforts to develop radioactive waste disposal solutions and uphold and reinforce the international non-proliferation regime. The authors find that the security of energy from nuclear power is more reliable than that for oil or gas. Additionally, uranium's high energy density means that transport is less vulnerable to disruption, and storing a large energy reserve is easier than for fossil fuels. One tonne of uranium produces the same energy as 10 000 to 16 000 tonnes of oil using current technology. Ongoing technological developments are likely to improve that performance even more. Until the middle of the century the dominant reactor

  7. Thermalization in high energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedemann, R.S.

    1988-03-01

    A relativistic proton-nucleus collision using the intranuclear cascade model is studied. The purpose is to verify the equilibration hypothesis at fragmentation time made by many nuclear fragmentation models. (author)

  8. Angular-momentum transport in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschin, G.; Ayik, S.; Noerenberg, W.

    1978-01-01

    Among the various relaxation processes that can be observed in heavy-ion collisions, the dissipation of relative angular momentum into intrinsic angular momentum of the fragments attracts increasing attention. Here we present a transport theoretical description of angular-momentum and mass transport that allows for a transparent interpretation of the data. (orig.) [de

  9. Finite escape fraction for ultrahigh energy collisions around Kerr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the issue of observability of high-energy collisions around Kerr naked singularity and show that results are in contrast with the Kerr black hole case. We had shown that it would be possible to have ultrahigh energy collisions between the particles close to the location r = M around the Kerr naked ...

  10. Finite escape fraction for ultrahigh energy collisions around Kerr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the issue of observability of high-energy collisions around Kerr naked singularity and show that results are in contrast with the Kerr black hole case. We had shown that it would be possible to have ultrahigh energy collisions between the particles close to the location = M around the Kerr naked singularity if ...

  11. Nuclear energy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The total electricity generated in 1998 was 215,300 GWh with 43,261 MWe of total installed capacity of electric power, while in 1978 when the first Nuclear Power Plant began operation it was 31,510 GWh with 6,916 MWe installed capacity. The share of nuclear power generation in 1998 increased up to 41.7%. Currently, 16 units of nuclear power are operating with an additional four units under construction. Nuclear power has contributed to enhancing energy security and supplying stable energy for Korea. The government's strong commitment to the nuclear power program together with a long-term national policy resulted in favorable conditions for KEPCO to manage the program and promote increasing levels of national participation in successive nuclear power projects. The role of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource can not be emphasized enough with respect to global environmental issues. Increasing the share of nuclear power in the total installed capacity for electricity generation will undoubtedly play a very important role. (author)

  12. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  13. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...

  14. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the course of this reporting period, the PI returned to Kent from a 15-month leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, which had been devoted 100% to work on this research project. The EOS Time Projection Chamber at LBL's Bevalac accelerator has continued to be the major focus of research for all of the supported personnel; about a year ago, this detector successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and accumulated in excess of 1000 hours of beam time before the termination of the Bevalac in February 1993. Reduction and analysis of these data is currently our first priority. Effort has also been devoted to the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, in the form of contributions to the Conceptual Design Report, work on HV control hardware and software for use with the STAR Time Projection Chamber, and tracking software development

  15. Exclusive study of nuclear collisions at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, G.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to carry out a systematic and exclusive measurement of the energy and mass dependence of particle production, correlations and collective effects in Au+Au collisions. We wish to determine the highest compression achievable in nuclear matter and to study its properties. We shall search for evidence for an exotic Equation of State, that is, new physics such as Resonance Matter, Exotica, and QGP. We are also interested in signatures of critical phenomena in dilute nuclear matter. We propose to measure the four-momentum of light mass particles (π ± , K s 0 , K ± , Λ, n,p,d, 3 He, 4 He, 6 He, and the isotopes of Li and Be), projectile fragments from Z = 6 to Z = 79, and anti-proton production. The majority of the data will be acquired, on an event by event basis, from a state-of-the-art Time Projection Chamber (EOSTPC) built and used at LBL by the EOC collaboration. The TPC provides continuous tracking, almost 4π acceptance and particle identification for the light mass particles

  16. Collective processes in heavy-ion collisions with atomic nuclei. Dissipation of energy and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The collective processes in collision of heavy-ions with atomic nuclei are discussed. Measured data on the S+Ti collision at Esub(LAB)=105, 130 and 144 MeV have been analysed in terms of a ''fission-like'' processes which seem to be a special case of deep inelastic collisions whose total available kinetic energy is completely dissipated. Applying transport theory it was possible to introduce a ''clock'' for measuring the time scale of nuclear processes in collision of heavy-ions by measuring the FWHM of mass distribution of emitted reaction products. Experimental data on continuum gamma spectra from Cu+Au collision at Esub(LAB)=400 MeV are presented and the angular momentum dissipation in this reaction is discussed. (author)

  17. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Chapters are presented concerning the environmental impact of mining and milling of radioactive ores, upgrading processes, and fabrication of nuclear fuels; environmental impacts of nuclear power plants; non-radiological environmental implications of nuclear energy; radioactive releases from nuclear power plant accidents; environmental impact of reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; fuel cycle; and the future of nuclear energy

  19. Nuclear energy terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This is an English-Afrikaans / Afrikaans-English dictionary compiled by the Technical Language Committee of the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the Vaktaalburo of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns containing 8515 terms on nuclear energy.

  20. Nuclear energy terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is an English-Afrikaans / Afrikaans-English dictionary compiled by the Technical Language Committee of the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the Vaktaalburo of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns containing 8515 terms on nuclear energy

  1. Probing phase transitions via energetic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Csernai, L.P.

    1983-07-01

    The possible effects of the nucleon-quark phase transition on the dynamics of heavy ion collisions are discussed. It is shown that the formation of the quark phase can be expected at recent experiments. Nevertheless, the compressibility of the two-phase mixture remains relatively low, thus the quark phase remains limited in both space and time, and the observables are not strongly affected. (author)

  2. Balance Function in High-Energy Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.; Shalaby, Asmaa G.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects and implications of the balance functions (BF) in high-energy physics are reviewed. The various calculations and measurements depending on different quantities, for example, system size, collisions centrality, and beam energy, are discussed. First, the different definitions including advantages and even short-comings are highlighted. It is found that BF, which are mainly presented in terms of relative rapidity, and relative azimuthal and invariant relative momentum, are sensitive to the interaction centrality but not to the beam energy and can be used in estimating the hadronization time and the hadron-quark phase transition. Furthermore, the quark chemistry can be determined. The chemical evolution of the new-state-of-matter, the quark-gluon plasma, and its temporal-spatial evolution, femtoscopy of two-particle correlations, are accessible. The production time of positive-negative pair of charges can be determined from the widths of BF. Due to the reduction in the diffusion time, narrowed widths refer to delayed hadronization. It is concluded that BF are powerful tools characterizing hadron-quark phase transition and estimating some essential properties

  3. Nuclear energy versus coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm van Leeuwen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given of the consequences resulting from the Dutch government's decision to use both coal and uranium for electricity production. The energy yields are calculated for the total conversion processes, from the mine to the processing of waste and the demolition of the installations. The ecological aspects considered include the nature and quantity of the waste produced and its effect on the biosphere. The processing of waste is also considered here. Attention is given to the safety aspects of nuclear energy and the certainties and uncertainties attached to nuclear energy provision, including the value of risk-analyses. Employment opportunities, the economy, nuclear serfdom and other social aspects are discussed. The author concludes that both sources have grave disadvantages and that neither can become the energy carrier of the future. (C.F.)

  4. Parliament and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laermann, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a historical review of the behaviour of Parliament in the discussion about utilizing nuclear energy. An analysis of the positions taken and reasons advanced so far is necessary, because it is only from its results that promising strategies appropriate to bring about a consensus can be derived. There is no doubt that it is a genuine task of the democratically legitimated bodies to strive for a consensus in energy policy, in particular nuclear energy, in the interest of the whole State, with the legislative, executive and economic bodies combining their efforts. The reservedness of Parliament is regrettable. At the moment, however, there is the positive effect of the discussion being revived. It should be conducted rationally in the joint interest of reaching a political consensus and, on that basis, a broad acceptance of nuclear energy utilization. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiquni, A.

    1982-01-01

    A great deal of energy will be needed for industrial development. The risks of energy production can be either individual or social in nature. Individual risk occurs in different places and different times to individuals in a certain period of time. Social risk occurs to several people in a time. People tend to refuse a nuclear power plant because of its social risk. This attitude is based more on feelings than reason. In fact radiation from a nuclear power plant is only 0.15% while radiation from medical instruments and from the environment is 99%. From the safety, pollution effect, price, and uses point of view, it can be concluded that nuclear energy is the most appropriate energy to face the future of the nation. (RUW)

  6. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  7. Evaluation of electon and nuclear bremsstrahlung in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, P.

    1975-01-01

    The detection of quasimolecular X-ray continua provides the possibility of investigating the electron shells of quasimolecules transiently formed during adiabatic heavy ion-atomic collision. The contribution of the electron and nuclear bremsstrahlung to quasimolecular X-ray continua observed in bombarding various targets with 65 and 96 MeV Nb ions were estimated

  8. From nuclear reactions to liquid-drop collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchaca R, A.; Huidobro, F.; Martinez D, A.; Michaelian, K.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, V.; Carjan, N.

    1997-01-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical situation in coalescence and fragmentation studies of binary liquid-drop collisions is given, putting in perspective our own contributions, which include experiments with mercury and oil drops and the application of a nuclear reaction model, specifically modified by us for the macroscopic case. (Author)

  9. p-p minimum-bias dijets and nonjet quadrupole in relation to conjectured collectivity (flows in high-energy nuclear collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trainor Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of ridge-like structure in p-p and p-A angular correlations at the RHIC and LHC have been interpreted to imply collective motion in smaller collision systems. It is argued that if correlation structures accepted as manifestations of flow in A-A collisions appear in smaller systems collectivity (flow must extend to the smaller systems. But the argument could be reversed to conclude that such structures appearing in A-A collisions may not imply hydrodynamic flow. I present spectrum, correlation and fluctuation data from RHIC p-p and Au-Au collisions and p-p, p-Pb and Pb-Pb results from the LHC described accurately by a two-component (soft+dijet model of hadron production. I also present evidence for a significant p-p nonjet (NJ quadrupole (v2 component with nch systematics directly related to A-A NJ quadrupole systematics. The combination suggests that soft, dijet and NJ quadrupole com- ponents are distinct phenomena in all cases, inconsistent with hadron production from a common bulk medium exhibiting collective motion (flow.

  10. Freedom from nuclear energy myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonsik

    2001-09-01

    This book generalizes the history of nuclear energy with lots of myths. The contents of this book are a fundamental problem of nuclear power generation, the myth that nuclear energy is infinite energy, the myth that nuclear energy overcomes the crisis of oil, the myth that nuclear energy is cheap, safe and clean, the myth that nuclear fuel can be recycled, the myth that nuclear technology is superior and the future and present of nuclear energy problem related radiation waste and surplus of plutonium.

  11. Probing vacuum structure in nuclear collisions. Research report period: 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1995-02-01

    This is a report of the research activities in the field of Relativistic Nuclear Collisions/Theoretical Nuclear Physics of Johann Refelski at University of Arizona, supported by the Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics Division under grant No. DE-FG02-92ER40733. This report comprises: Section 1 surveys the general context of the work and presents summary of wider research objectives; Section 2 reviews the progress in the interpretation of experimental data, primarily related to diagnosis of high density nuclear matter with strange particle production, in heavy ion collisions at 10--200 GeV A; Section 3 presents the status of the studies of a relativistic quantum transport theory and the related vacuum structure and particle production processes; Section 4 presents a compilation of research projects completed under auspices of this program, with a short narrative description of publication contents

  12. Nuclear Energy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.

    2003-01-01

    The new energy approach towards nuclear, due to the growing political support at the beginning of this century, is the result of a complexity of economical, social, political and technological factors. The history of peaceful use of nuclear energy in Romania goes back 45 years. Considering the strategic importance of the energy sector in developing the national economy on sustainable basis, the sector evolution should be outlined through prognosis and strategies on different horizons of time, so that the development perspectives and the energy supply to be correctly estimated. This necessity is emphasized in the Governmental Program of the present administration, which takes into consideration Romanian Economic Strategy on medium term and also The Government Action Plan on 2000-2004, agreed with the European Commission. In order to implement the Governmental Program, the Ministry of Industries and Resources elaborates the National Energy Strategy. The Government Action Plan draw up the conclusion that Unit 2 from Cernavoda NPP must be finalized. This solution fits the least-cost energy development planning and answers to environment requirements. Romania became a Member State of the Agency in 1957. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s its technical co-operation program with the Agency covered mainly research in nuclear physics and some medical and other applications of radiation and isotopes. Since 1976, when the Romanian nuclear power program was embarking to use CANDU-type reactors, the Agency has supported mainly the activities related to the Cernavoda NPP. In the framework of the Romanian accession process to the European structures, CNCAN co-operates with European Commission for transposition of the communautaire acquis in the field of nuclear activities. Romania has had laws in place governing the regulation of nuclear activities since 1974. They were remained in force throughout and subsequent to the national constitutional changes started in 1989 until 1996

  13. Nuclear energy is promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.

    2000-02-01

    This document summarizes the different talks given by the participants to the winter meeting on nuclear energy which took place in Germany on January 27 and 28 2000. Representatives of the following companies and organisations attended the meeting: Deutsches Atomforum e.V., Bayernwerk AG, IG Bergau, Chemie und Energie, Siemens AG - energy production, VEBA AG and one public opinion poll institute. (J.S.)

  14. ATTILA (All Type Target Independent Lund Algorithm) for nuclear collisions at ≅ 200 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1987-08-01

    The Lund string model, Fritiof, is applied in the form of a Monte-Carlo event generator, ATTILA, to nuclear collisions in the 200 AGeV range. We study how uncertainties at the pp level amplify at the AB level and compare preliminary CERN data on multiplicity, transverse energy, and veto energy distributions to this linear extrapolation scheme from pp to AB dynamics. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  16. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  17. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  18. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  19. Energy supply and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The author emphasizes the necessity and importance of nuclear energy for the energy supply and stresses the point that it is extremely important to return to objective arguments instead of having emotional disputes. In this connection, it would be necessary for the ministries in question to have clear-cut political responsibility from which, under no circumstances, they may escape, and which they cannot pass on to the courts either. Within the framework of listing present problems, the author is concerned with the possibility of improved site planning, the introduction of a plan approval procedure and questions concerning immediately enforceable nuclear licences. He also deals with a proposal, repeatedly made, to improve nuclear licensing procedures on the one hand by introducing a project-free site-appointment procedure, and on the other hand by introducing a simplified licensing procedure for facilities of the same kind. Splitting the procedure into site and facility would make sense solely for the reason that in many cases the objections are, above all, directed against the site. (HP) [de

  20. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  1. Nuclear energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The film stresses that a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, must be achieved to limit a dangerous concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It compares the environmental costs of different energy sources, in particular the wastes of a coal-fired versus a nuclear plant, and mentions the measures taken to reinforce protection against the risk of nuclear accidents

  2. Teachers and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the seminar were: to exchange national experience in informing and assisting teachers in the nuclear field, and to determine the conditions for improving the effectiveness of these programmes; to develop an international understanding on the basic training and information requirements to assist secondary-school teachers in discussing nuclear energy in an appropriately wide and balanced context at school; to study the respective contributions of national authorities, industry and relevant institutes in this endeavour

  3. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this French-English bilingual Guide is to present a synthesis embracing all the aspects and all the implications of the development of nuclear energy by situating it both within the French administrative and professional framework and in the world context. Special attention has been paid to the protection of man and the environment and to safety and security problems; most of the other questions -technological, economic, industrial- which arise at all points in the nuclear cycle. Teaching and research are outlined and a special appendix is devoted to nuclear information [fr

  4. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpi, K.; Palmen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  5. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  6. Nuclear energy and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Today, about 80 developing countries are using nuclear techniques in various sectors of their national economies. In the sector of industry, the radiation processing using gamma rays of high energy electrons has grown. While in the sector of health care, an estimated 10000 gamma cameras-imaging instruments are used in combination with radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. In the field of agriculture there is, nearly, 1000 crop varieties derived from radiaton-induced mutations which are grown worldwide. Furthermore and concerning the energy sector there is 417 nuclear power plants operating in 26 countries, accounting for just 16% of the world's total electricity production; the nuclear energy helped in developing and supporting a variety of sciences. 2 tabs

  7. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.

    1996-01-01

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  8. Transverse-momentum and collision-energy dependence of high-pT hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at ultrarelativistic energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Drees, K A; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2003-10-24

    We report high statistics measurements of inclusive charged hadron production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. A large, approximately constant hadron suppression is observed in central Au+Au collisions for 5collision energy dependence of the yields and the centrality and p(T) dependence of the suppression provide stringent constraints on theoretical models of suppression. Models incorporating initial-state gluon saturation or partonic energy loss in dense matter are largely consistent with observations. We observe no evidence of p(T)-dependent suppression, which may be expected from models incorporating jet attenuation in cold nuclear matter or scattering of fragmentation hadrons.

  9. Covariance analysis of symmetry energy observables from heavy ion collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxun Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using covariance analysis, we quantify the correlations between the interaction parameters in a transport model and the observables commonly used to extract information of the Equation of State of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter in experiments. By simulating 124Sn + 124Sn, 124Sn + 112Sn and 112Sn + 112Sn reactions at beam energies of 50 and 120 MeV per nucleon, we have identified that the nucleon effective mass splitting is most strongly correlated to the neutrons and protons yield ratios with high kinetic energy from central collisions especially at high incident energy. The best observable to determine the slope of the symmetry energy, L, at saturation density is the isospin diffusion observable even though the correlation is not very strong (∼0.7. Similar magnitude of correlation but opposite in sign exists for isospin diffusion and nucleon isoscalar effective mass. At 120 MeV/u, the effective mass splitting and the isoscalar effective mass also have opposite correlation for the double n/p and isoscaling p/p yield ratios. By combining data and simulations at different beam energies, it should be possible to place constraints on the slope of symmetry energy (L and effective mass splitting with reasonable uncertainties.

  10. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  11. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a hybrid description of Cu + Cu collisions using (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics (music) for the bulk evolution and a Monte Carlo simulation (martini) for the evolution of high-momentum partons in the hydrodynamical background. We explore the limits of this description by going to small system sizes and determine the dependence on different fractions of wounded nucleon and binary collisions scaling of the initial energy density. We find that Cu + Cu collisions are well described by the hybrid description at least up to 20% central collisions.

  12. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  13. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  14. The nuclear energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With reference to the public discussion which is taking place at the moment concerning the future of nuclear energy in the UK, the document from the Advisory Council on Research and Development for Fuel and Power and also the report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution are considered. Although there have been many other projections of UK and world energy requirements prepared by many different organisations, few cover such a wide range of scenarios in such detail as the ACORD report. The Royal Commission report contains many reassuring findings on the more extreme claims of the worldwide anti-nuclear movement, but one cannot read it without gaining the impression that the nuclear option is the energy source they would most like to do without. It is felt that against this background, it would seem to be time for the power industry to stop defending nuclear energy as an acceptable necessity and rather promoting it as the best energy option. (U.K.)

  15. The geometry of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1992-01-01

    In a personal assessment of the ethics of nuclear energy, the author challenges some of the conventional wisdom surrounding the subject, and concludes that for many applications nuclear energy is the energy source of ethical choice

  16. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  17. Nuclear energy and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This article contains information related to the support that the Latin-American countries have counted, from the International Atomic Energy Agency, for the development and application of the nuclear energy in different fields. In the particular case of Costa Rica, it mentions some projects included in the program ARCAL. The achievements reached in the year 1998 and the goals proposed for 1999-2000. (S. Grainger) [es

  18. Vision of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A study about the perspectives of nuclear energy, in Japan, for the next 40 years is shown. The present tendencies are analyzed as well as the importance that the subject adquires for the economy and the industry. At the same time, the parameters of the governmental, private and foreign participation are established in the frame of the technological development. The aim fixed for the year 2030 can be divided into; 1: from 1986 to 2010-development of the technology of nuclear fuel cycle already stablished and in process of maturity. The LWR technology will reach a very advanced stage. The fast breeder reactors (FBRs) will become commercially available, and the nuclear fuel cycle will reach its maturity in Japan; 2: from 2011 to 2030-commercial use of the FBRS and further advance in the nuclear fuel cycle. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  20. High energy factorization in nucleus-nucleus collisions, I

    CERN Document Server

    Gelis, François; Venugopalan, Raju

    2008-01-01

    We derive a high energy factorization theorem for inclusive gluon production in A+A collisions. Our factorized formula resums i) all order leading logarithms (g^2 \\ln(1/x_{1,2}))^n of the incoming partons momentum fractions, and ii) all contributions (g \\rho_{1,2})^n that are enhanced when the color charge densities in the two nuclei are of order of the inverse coupling-- \\rho_{1,2}\\sim g^{-1}. The resummed inclusive gluon spectrum can be expressed as a convolution of gauge invariant distributions W[\\rho_{1,2}] from each of the nuclei with the leading order gluon number operator. These distributions are shown to satisfy the JIMWLK equation describing the evolution of nuclear wavefunctions with rapidity. As a by-product, we demonstrate that the JIMWLK Hamiltonian can be derived entirely in terms of retarded light cone Green's functions without any ambiguities in their pole prescriptions. We comment on the implications of our results for understanding the Glasma produced at early times in A+A collisions at coll...

  1. Heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huefner, J.

    These lectures cover only a few aspects of the field. The emphasis is pedagogical. 1) Elastic and total inelastic cross sections: their geometric properties and the energy dependence. 2) Physics of the spectator nuclei: their momentum distribution and the relation to Fermi motion. The production cross sections for a particular nucleus are discussed in the frame work of the excitation-evaporation model. 3) Physics of the participant particles. The number of the participants and their degree of thermalization are discussed. As well as, how can one derive a classical theory, like intra-nuclear cascade, from a quantum theory. The properties of the composite particles and the pions are presented [fr

  2. Intermediate energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)

  3. The church and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.

    1978-03-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: foreword (explaining that report is a synopsis of the Hearing on Nuclear Energy arranged by the World Council of Churches, held in Sigtune, Sweden, June 24 to 29, 1975); humanity's energy needs); alternative sources of energy (nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, non-nuclear processes; some generalisations (concerning the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy to various sections of the world); what risks are acceptable (radiation hazards, reactor safety, radioactive wastes, misuse of Pu, safeguarding); nuclear weapons; nuclear energy - a challenge to the Churches; social and ethical issues; certain conclusions; postscript -the American move. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear stopping power at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, S.; Gyulassy, M.; Sumiyoshi, H.

    1985-03-01

    Recent p + A → p + X data are analyzed within the context of the multi-chain and additive quark models. We deduce the average energy loss of a baryon as a function of distance traversed in nuclear matter. Consistency of the multi-chain model is checked by comparing the predictions for p + A → π +- + X with data. We discuss the space-time development of baryon stopping and show how longitudinal growth limits the energy deposition per unit length. Predictions are made for the proton spectra to be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and BNL. Finally, we conclude that the stopping domain for central collisions of heavy ions extends up to center of mass kinetic energies KEsub(em) asymptotically equals 3 +- 1 AGev. (author)

  5. Beam energy dependence of d and d ‾ production in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; STAR Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The binding energy of light nuclei is small compared to the temperature of the system created in heavy-ion collisions. Consequently, the yields of light nuclei can be used to probe the freeze-out properties, such as correlation volume and local baryon density of the medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. In this paper, we report the results of deuteron and anti-deuteron production in Au+Au collision at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV, measured by STAR at RHIC. The collision energy, centrality and transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameter B2 for deuteron and anti-deuteron production are discussed. We find the values of B2 for anti-deuterons are systematically lower than those for deuterons indicating the correlation volume of anti-baryon are larger than that of baryon. In addition, the values of B2 are found to vary with collision energy and show a broad minimum around √{sNN} = 20GeV, implying a change of the equation of state of the medium in these collisions.

  6. Heavy flavor production in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto-Pérez, Nestor; Capella, A; Pajares, C; Salgado, C A

    2001-01-01

    Heavy flavor production off nuclei is studied in the small x/sub F/ region of the produced heavy system. Corrections to the usually employed perturbative QCD factorization formula are considered in the framework of the Glauber-Gribov model. Transition from low to high energies is taken into account by using finite energy cutting rules. The low energy limit of the obtained results coincides with the probabilistic formula usually employed for quarkonium absorption. At finite energies both rescattering of the heavy flavor and corrections to nucleon parton densities inside nuclei appear, the latter also affecting lepton pair production. It turns out that at asymptotic energies both open heavy flavor and quarkonium are equally absorbed. The numerical differences between the results obtained with the probabilistic formula and the exact one are <20% up to LHC energies, and ~1/2% at SPS energies. (18 refs).

  7. Department of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activities of Department was engaged in the selected topics in nuclear fission reactor science and engineering. Present and future industry competitiveness, economic prosperity and living standards within the world are strongly dependent on maintaining the availability of energy at reasonable prices and with security of supply. Also, protection of man and the environment from the harmful effects of all uses of energy is an important element of the quality of life especially in Europe. It is unrealistic to assume that the technology for renewable (hydro, wind, solar and biomass) available within a 20-30 year perspective could provide the production capacity to replace present use of nuclear power and at the same time substantially reduce the use of fossil fuels, especially when considering that energy demand in industrialized countries can be expected to continue to increase even within a framework of overall energy conservation and continued improvement of efficiency in energy usage. In the area of nuclear fission, we continue support to maintain and develop the competence needed to ensure the safety of existing and future reactors and other nuclear installations. In addition support is given to explore the potential for improving present fission technology from a sustainable development point of view. The focus on advanced modelling of improved reactor and fuel cycle concepts, including supporting experimental research, with a view to improving the utilisation of the inherent energy content of uranium and other nuclear fuels, whilst at the same time reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste produced. A common scientific understanding of the frequently used concept of ''reasonable assurance of safety'' for the long-term, post-closure phase of repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste developed in order to ensure reasonably equivalent legal interpretations in environmental impact assessment and licensing procedures. Also, research is

  8. Nuclear matter flow in the Kr+Au collisions at 43 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Delaunay, F.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Aloff, J.C.; Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.; Glaser, M.; Rudolf, G.; Scheibling, F.; Stuttge, L.

    1989-01-01

    When heavy nuclei collide at energy far above the Coulomb barrier we may study the property of nuclear matter in temperature and also density regions far away from the equilibrium. We then hope to study dynamical effects related to the compressibility and the two body collision term. At relativistic energies, some collective effects (flow, bounce off) have been established from a shape analysis done with a large number of light particles with Z ≤ 10. For incident energies lower than 100 MeV/u we may expect that the number of nuclear species formed will be smaller and that a large part of the nuclear matter involved in the collision will be shared in a limited number of heavy fragments (Z ≥ 10). If dynamical effects are still present at GANIL energies they ought to manifest themselves through the properties of the produced fragments (masses, emission angles, velocities and correlated variables). We will present an analysis of heavy nuclei collisions at 43 MeV/u based on as exclusive as possible detection of large fragments

  9. Is nuclear energy acceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear hazards are assessed as being unique only in the sense of their unfamiliarity, with future development of nuclear energy dependent on overcoming public fears. Economics is clearly in favor of properly operated nuclear energy facilities for long-term power generation. Risks arise over the potential for human error to permit improper operation and for an industry shutdown because of a reactor accident. Attempts to ascertain accident probabilities have revealed that emergency core cooling systems and containment are not simply parallel, but operate in series and provide more safety than was thought. Insurance liability, resting on the small probability of very costly damage, is felt to be best placed on the utility with the government providing ultimate protection in the event of a potentially bankrupting accident. Problems of nuclear waste handling and low-level release are felt to be solvable with present technology. Proliferation is felt to be a political problem that is incidental to power plants. Public concern is blamed on possible diversion of materials for weapons, unfamiliarity with radiation, and the demand for meticulous handling of materials and operations. Burner reactors are projected to phase out and be replaced by breeder reactors that are operated in physical isolation under strict security by a professional cadre aware of its responsibility. A restructuring of the nuclear industry is called for so that the generation of power can be insulated from the distribution and marketing functions. (13 references)

  10. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  11. Nuclear energy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Both the light water reactor and the Canadian heavy water reactor systems produce electricity cheaply and efficiently. They produce some fissionable byproducts, which can be recycled to extend energy sources many-fold. Besides the production of electrical power, the nuclear industry produces various radioistopes used for treatment of cancer, in diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine, in ionization smoke detectors, and as radioactive tracers with various technological applications including the study of the mechanisms of life. The increment in environmental radiation levels resulting from operation of nuclear power reactors represents a very small fraction of the radiation levels to which we are all exposed from natural sources, and of the average radiation exposures resulting from diagnostic procedures in the healing arts. The total health hazard of the complete nuclear power cycle is generally agreed to be smaller than the hazards associated with the generation of an equal amount of electricity from most other currently available sources of energy. The hazards from energy production in terms of shortened life expectancy are much smaller in all cases than the resulting increase in health and life expectancy. (auth)

  12. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. One proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of bio-fuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. A large part of this paper follows chapters of the monograph 'L'energie de demain: technique, environnement, economie', EDP Sciences, 2005. (author)

  13. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, D.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the past year, the PI has been on leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and has worked on this research project full-time. A large fraction of the effort of the PI and graduate students has gone into preparing for experiments using the Time Projection Chamber at LBL's Bevalac accelerator; in March 1992, this device successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and the first physics analysis is now under way. The PI has carried out simulations that help to define the physics performance and engineering specifications of the recently-approved STAR detector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and has identified a new capability of this device with the potential for being an important quark-gluon plasma signature. A Postdoctoral Fellow, jointly supported by this grant and Kent State University, has been recruited to augment these efforts. Since May 1991, 11 journal papers have been published or submitted for publication; 2 conference proceedings and 9 reports or abstracts have also been published during the past year. One paper in Phys. Rev. Left., one in Phys. Rev. C, and one conference proceedings are based on the thesis project of one of the PI's Ph.D. students who is expected to graduate later this year. Partly in response to the impending closure of the Bevalac, the PI's group has recently joined the NA49 experiment at CERN

  14. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1979-03-01

    Work on high energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model, performed under the DOE Contract No. EY-76-S-09-0946, is summarized. Specific items studied include the behavior of elastic hadron scatterings at super high energies and the existence of many dips, the computation of meson radii in the geometrical model, and the hadronic matter current effects in inelastic two-body collisions

  15. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  16. Nuclear energy, the climate and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    The main concern of Pugwash, with very good reason, is nuclear disarmament, but a negative attitude towards nuclear energy is not only futile, but counterproductive as it misses opportunities to appropriately influence its development. Since nuclear energy cannot be abandoned for ecological (decrease in greenhouse gases emission) and economic reasons as a long term energy source, then efforts should be devoted to make it safe from proliferation, which is possible from scientific and technological point of view

  17. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Energy sharing and sputtering in low-energy collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.A.; Weller, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Using a non-linear transport equation to describe the energy-sharing process in an isotropic collision cascade, we have numerically calculated sputtered particle velocity spectra for several very low energy (=< 10 eV) primary recoil distributions. Our formulation of the sputtering process is essentially that used in the linear model and our equations yield the familiar linear model results in the appropriate limit. Discrepancies between our calculations and the linear model results in other cases may be understood by considering the effects of the linear model assumptions on the sputtering yield at very low energies. Our calculations are also compared with recent experimental results investigating ion-explosion sputtering. The results of this comparison support the conclusion that in insulators sputtering is initiated by very low energy recoil atoms when the energy of the incident beam is high enough that the stopping power is dominated by the electronic contribution. The calculations also suggest that energy spectra similar to those for evaporation may result from non-equilibrium processes but that the apparent temperatures of evaporation are not related in a simple way to any real temperature within the target. (author)

  19. Public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Man, being unacquainted with the advantages of Nuclear Energy associates it with the manufacture of weaponry. However, the benefits of Nuclear Energy is received daily. In Brazil the public has not taken an anti-nuclear position; it is recognized that the Nuclear Plan exists exclusively for peaceful purposes and the authorities keep the community well informed. The Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear along with the Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Instituto de Ingenieria Nuclear and the Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Nucleares has developed in 27 years of existence, a gradual, accute and effective long term programme for the formation of potentially receptive opinion of Nuclear Energy. (Author)

  20. Quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conesa del Valle, Z.; Corcella, G.; Fleuret, F.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kopeliovich, B.; Lansberg, J.P.; Lourenco, C.; Martinez, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Satz, H.; Scomparin, E.; Ullrich, T.; Teryaev, O.; Vogt, R.; Wang, J.X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarisation studies. Afterwards, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in broader perpectives, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  1. Signatures of new phenomena in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1983-11-01

    Three classes of observables are discussed which may shed light on the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. They are: (1) thermometers: the penetrating probes μ + μ - , γ, c, (2) barometers: transverse flow via , and (3) seismometers: fluctuations of dN/dy and dE perpendicular/dy. The need for reliable estimates of the background due to the non-equilibrium processes is emphasized. 49 references

  2. Theoretical trends in interferometry of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    A review is made of the main concepts of interferometry, since its discovery in the mid 50's as the HBT effect, until recently, where some new approaches to the field were suggested. A few modifications on the correlation function in the case of high energy collisions are discussed and illustrated. (author)

  3. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2006-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. On proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of biofuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. (author)

  4. Energy-Aware RFID Anti-Collision Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Laura; Simon, Hugo Landaluce; Ruiz, Asier Perallos

    2018-06-11

    The growing interest in mobile devices is transforming wireless identification technologies. Mobile and battery-powered Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers, such as hand readers and smart phones, are are becoming increasingly attractive. These RFID readers require energy-efficient anti-collision protocols to minimize the tag collisions and to expand the reader's battery life. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in RFID sensor networks with a growing number of RFID sensor tags. Thus, RFID application developers must be mindful of tag anti-collision protocols. Energy-efficient protocols involve a low reader energy consumption per tag. This work presents a thorough study of the reader energy consumption per tag and analyzes the main factor that affects this metric: the frame size update strategy. Using the conclusion of this analysis, the anti-collision protocol Energy-Aware Slotted Aloha (EASA) is presented to decrease the energy consumption per tag. The frame size update strategy of EASA is configured to minimize the energy consumption per tag. As a result, EASA presents an energy-aware frame. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated and compared with several state of the art Aloha-based anti-collision protocols based on the current RFID standard. Simulation results show that EASA, with an average of 15 mJ consumed per tag identified, achieves a 6% average improvement in the energy consumption per tag in relation to the strategies of the comparison.

  5. Study of heavy ions collision at SIS energies with the detector FOPI; Etude des collisions d'ions lourds aux energies de SIS avec le detecteur FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, N

    1999-09-23

    The present work has been carried out in the framework of experiments performed with the FOPI detector at the SIS/ESR accelerator facility of GSI-Darmstadt. It is devoted to the study of central and semi-central heavy ion collisions at beam energies ranging from 100 MeV to 2 GeV per nucleon. We present first generalities on relativistic heavy ion collisions then the FOPI detector with a special attention to the FOPI Inner Wall constructed by the Clermont-Ferrand group. The main results of the FOPI collaboration obtained with light and intermediate mass fragments and kaons are presented. A systematic study of the different forms of collection motion of nuclear matter, radial flow in very central reactions, sideward flow and squeeze-out in semi-central collisions, is performed. Further exciting possibilities concerning production and propagation of strangeness at SIS energies will be offered soon with the upgrade of the FOPI detector. The FOPI data have introduced constraints on parameters of theoretical models. Important progress concerning the knowledge of the properties of nuclear matter, the dynamics of the collisions and in-medium effects have been achieved. (author)

  6. 1-3 Nuclear In-medium Effects of Strange Particles in Proton-nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng; Zhaoqing[1

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of the in-medium properties of strange particles from heavy-ion collisions is very complicated, since he nuclear density varies in the evolution of nucleus-nucleus collisions. To avoid the uncertainties of the baryon ensities during the stage of strange particle production, one can investigate proton-nucleus collisions where the uclear density is definite around the saturation density. Dynamics of strange particles produced in the protoninduced uclear the reactions near the threshold energies has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum olecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. The in-medium modifications on particle production in densenuclear matter are considered through the corrections to the elementary cross sections via the effective mass and he mean-field potentials[1].

  7. arXiv Isothermal compressibility of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Chatterjee, Arghya; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Adhya, Souvik Priyam; Thakur, Sanchari; Nayak, Tapan K.

    We present the first estimates of isothermal compressibility (\\kT) of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions (\\sNN=7.7~GeV to 2.76~TeV) using experimentally observed quantities. \\kT~is related to the fluctuation in particle multiplicity, temperature and volume of the system formed in the collisions. Multiplicity fluctuations are obtained from the event-by-event distributions of charged particle multiplicities in narrow centrality bins. The dynamical components of the fluctuations are extracted by removing the contributions to the fluctuations from the number of participating nucleons. From the available experimental data, a constant value of \\kT~has been observed as a function of collision energy. The results are compared with calculations from UrQMD, AMPT and EPOS event generators, and estimations of \\kT~are made for Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. A hadron resonance gas (HRG) model has been used to calculate \\kT~as a function of collision energy. Our results show a dec...

  8. A century of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, M.

    2009-01-01

    The author proposes a history of the French nuclear industry and nuclear energy since the Nobel prizes of 1903 and 1911. He describes and comments the context of the energy production sector before the development of the nuclear energy, the development of the institutional context, the successive and different nuclear technologies, the main characteristics of the French program at its beginning, the relationship between the nuclear energy and the public, the main accidents and lessons learned from them, the perspectives of evolution of nuclear energy

  9. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  10. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  11. Strangeness production in nuclear collisions: Color rope formations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toneev, V.D.; Amelin, N.S.; Csernai, L.P.; Gudima, K.K.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.

    1992-12-01

    Strangeness production at SPS-CERN energies is studied within the Quark Gluon String Model. This analysis indicates that the observed shape of rapidity and transverse mass distributions are reproduced fairly well for both peripheral and central heavy ion collisions. However, for central collisions the model underpredicts strange particles abundance by a factor of about 2:2:4 for K S 0 , Λ and anti Λ, respectively. This discrepancy can be considered as a possible manifestation of string-string interactions of a collective type similar to the formation of a color rope. The model predictions for coming experiments with the Pb beam at CERN are given. (orig.)

  12. Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions

  13. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  14. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    TNC 90 focuses on nuclear energy technology. Some more basic or less central terms which were included in the previous glossary, TNC 55, have not been included in this version. About 1200 definitions in swedish included together with translations to english, german and french. The terms have been listed in alphabetical order. To make it easier to look up a certain term or terms that stand for related concepts the terms have been systematically arranged in a special index. (L.E.)

  15. Finnish energy outlook - role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    2004-01-01

    New nuclear power partly covers additional electricity demand and replaces retiring power plants in coming decades after 2010. Nuclear energy secures stable, economical and predictable electricity price as well as operation environment for the electricity intensive industry for coming decades. Nuclear energy also reduces the dependence on electricity import of Finland. Nuclear energy partly enables, together with renewable, fulfilment of Finland's Kyoto commitments. Solutions for nuclear waste management are a condition sine qua non for sound nuclear programmes. Funding has been arranged. All this is carried out in Finland in a transparent way and in accordance with any democratic requirements. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    The Malaysian Vision 2020 envisages doubling of the its economy every ten years for the next three decades. The Second Outline Perspective plan 1991-2000 (OPP2), also known as the National Development Policy (NDP) will set the pace to enable Malaysia to become a fully developed nation by the year 2020. The Malaysian economy is targeted to grow at 7 percent per annum in the decade of OPP2. In view of the targets set under Vision 2020, it is important to ensure that energy does not become a constraint to growth, and this sector develops in a least cost basis. Energy is crucial for industrialization and no modern industrial state can function without it. The paper presents a description of the main utilities in the country. Their installed capacities, maximum demand, generation mix and customers served are discussed. The electricity demand forecast till the year 2020 is presented. The paper presents this for 4 scenarios - a low growth, business as usual scenario, a moderate growth, business as usual scenario, a moderate growth, energy efficient scenario and a targeted growth, energy efficient scenario. The energy resources in the country is described together with its energy policy. The country's four-fuel policy is elaborated with the various options discussed. The environmental and pricing policies with regards to energy is also briefly given. Finally the nuclear option is presented in this context of the country's energy policy. The country had undertaken various studies for the nuclear option. These studies are given in the paper. The purpose of these studies and what the government decided is also discussed. Finally the prospects for the nuclear option in the future for the country is discussed. It is concluded that while, for the present, the nuclear option is not considered by the government, this may not be so in the future. The various reasons for this is given and the paper concludes that it may be prudent to keep this option under constant review. (J.P.N.)

  17. Nuclear energy achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette

    1992-01-01

    Within half a century nuclear energy achieved very successful results. Only for European Community, nuclear energy represents 30% in electricity generation. At this stage, one state that the nuclear energy winning cards are competitiveness and Gentleness to the environment. Those winning cards will still be master cards for the 21st century, provided nuclear energy handles rigorously: Safety in concept and operation of power plants; radioactive waste management, and communication

  18. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  19. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  20. Closing in on parton energy loss with charged particle spectra in Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    For comparison, a pp reference at the collision energy of 5.44 TeV is obtained by interpolating between existing pp measurements at 5.02 and 7 TeV.  The nuclear modification factor in Xe-Xe collisions is compared to Pb-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV and 2.76 TeV, showing remarkable similarity at pT > 10 GeV/c. The comparison of the measured nuclear mod...

  1. Mass distribution and multiple fragmentation events in high energy cluster-cluster collisions: evidence for a predicted phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Louc, S.; Martin, J.; Senn, G.; Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    Fragment size distributions including multiple fragmentation events have been measured for high energy H 25 + cluster ions (60 keV/amu) colliding with a neutral C 60 target. In contrast to earlier collision experiments with a helium target the present studies do not show a U-shaped fragment mass distribution, but a single power-law falloff with increasing fragment mass. This behaviour is similar to what is known for the intermediate regime in nuclear collision physics and thus confirms a recently predicted scaling from nuclear to molecular collisions

  2. High energy structures in heavy ion collisions: a multiphonon description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Frascaria, N.

    1984-01-01

    Energy spectra of fragments from the 36 Ar + 208 Pb reaction at 11 MeV/n exhibit structures at high excitation energies. These structures are interpreted in terms of target multi-phonon excitations built from giant resonances. The importance of such processes for the kinetic energy dissipation in heavy ion collisions is emphasized

  3. The economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, P.

    2004-01-01

    In common with many of the issues surrounding nuclear energy, there is some truth in the popular claim that nuclear energy is 'not economic', but this is far from being a universal truth. This paper puts forward the view that, overall, nuclear energy can be a competitive source of electricity and a realistic economic option for the future. (author)

  4. Strangeness and charm production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies near the thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senger, P.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of strangeness and charm in nucleus-nucleus collisions at threshold beam energies is discussed as a probe for compressed baryonic matter. Experimental data on strangeness production at SIS energies indicate that the properties of kaons and antikaons are modified in the dense nuclear medium. An experiment is proposed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of highest baryon densities. An important observable will be charm production close to threshold. (orig.)

  5. Interferometric probes of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, S.S. (Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Gyulassy, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.)

    1991-04-01

    We suggest that pion and kaon interferometry are complementary probes that help differentiate hadronic resonance gas from plasma dynamical models. We also discuss how interferometry could be used to test the presence of resonances at AGS energies. Finally, we study the A dependence of interferometry in the resonance model at 200 A GeV. (orig.).

  6. Interferometric probe of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-01-01

    We suggest that pion and kaon interferometry are complementary probles that help differentiate hadronic resonance gas from plasma dynamical models. We also discuss how interferometry could be used to test the presence of resonances at AGS energies. Finally, we study the A dependence of interferometry in the resonance model at 200 A GeV. (author) [pt

  7. Interferometric probes of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.; Gyulassy, M.

    1991-01-01

    We suggest that pion and kaon interferometry are complementary probes that help differentiate hadronic resonance gas from plasma dynamical models. We also discuss how interferometry could be used to test the presence of resonances at AGS energies. Finally, we study the A dependence of interferometry in the resonance model at 200 A GeV. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear energy prospects to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the potential and trends of electricity use in OECD-countries as the main parameter of nuclear power development, including oil displacement and future generation mix, gives a most recent assessment of nuclear power growth to the year 2000, deals with supply and demand considerations covering the whole fuel cycle, assesses the impact of the nuclear contribution on the overall energy situation according to three energy scenarios and the consequences of a possible nuclear shortfall, and finally reviews other factors influencing nuclear energy growth such as security of supply, economics of nuclear power production as wells as public and utility confidence in nuclear power

  9. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  10. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  11. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to make a real contribution to the nuclear energy debate (is nuclear energy the limitless solution to man's energy problems or the path to man's destruction) people must be aware of the facts. The Science Reference Library (SRL) has a collection of the primary sources of information on nuclear energy - especially journals. This guideline aims to draw attention to the up-to-date literature on nuclear energy and its technology, freely available for consultation in the main Holborn reading room. After explanations of where to look for particular types of information and the SRL classification, the booklet gives lists and brief notes on the sources held. These are abstracting and indexing periodicals and periodicals. Reports, conference proceedings, patents, bibliographies, directories, year-books and buyer's guides are covered very briefly but not listed. Nuclear reactor data and organisations are also listed with brief details of each. (U.K.)

  12. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  13. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  14. Symposium on Nuclear Energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The energy problem poses a big challenge to a developing country like the Philippines. The development of renewable energy sources is not enough. Aware then of the limitations of these energy sources, in spite of arguments against nuclear energy we have no other recourse but to go nuclear. This symposium emphasizes the importance of energy development to attain the country's progress and discusses the pros and economics of nuclear power. (RTD)

  15. Microscopic descriptions of high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    The essentials of the equation-of-motion (EOM) approach are given and some of its significant and interesting results are described. A framework for the theoretical description of high-energy heavy-ion (HE-HI) collisions is presented; specifically included are a critical assessment of various approaches--EOM calculations, Boltzmann equations/cascade calculations, and hydrodynamics--their relationships and their respective domains of applicability, if any, to HE-HI collisions. 11 figures, 3 tables

  16. Nuclear energy supports sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article is aimed at acceptability, compatibility and sustainability of nuclear energy as non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy , radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously abjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  17. The nuclear response and the imaginary potential for nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.; Sinha, B.

    1983-01-01

    The Fermi-gas model is used in this paper to study the nucleus-nucleus collision. The field produced by one of the nuclei is considered to act on nucleons in the other nucleus, which is treated as a Fermi gas of radius R. The imaginary part of the (non-local) nucleus-nucleus potential is then computed by evaluating the energy-conserving second-order term in which the intermediate states are particle-hole excitations produced in the Fermi gas. The equivalent local potential, obtained by using the Perey-Saxon method, is compared with phenomenological imaginary potentials. Later it is shown that, in the limit of small range of non-locality, the imaginary potential can be related to the nuclear response function. With this, one can write the nuclear friction coefficient that is used in phenomenological analyses of heavy-ion collisions in terms of the imaginary potential. (orig.)

  18. Inevitability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Indian atomic energy programme that has been launched in the late 1940s, with the courageous vision of Homi Bhabha, had made remarkable progress during the fifties, sixties and till the mid-seventies, leading to the establishment of a comprehensive base of nuclear science, technology and engineering, and the setting up of nuclear power stations. After the Pokharan experiment in 1974, the programme had to face a hostile attitude from the Western powers, with the stoppage of flow of technology and equipment from the West. The programme had shown the resilience to face the challenge, and march ahead, developing a range of indigenous capabilities both within the Department and in the Indian industry, though with a certain loss in the momentum. The successful design, construction and operation of the 100 Mw(t) research reactor Dhruva in Trombay, and the successful commissioning of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor in Kalpakkam, with a unique plutonium-uranium carbide fuel of Indian design, are significant capability demonstrations in the latter phase. On the power front, the twin-unit power stations at Narora (UP) and Kakrapar (Gujarat) have shown excellent performance, with respect to plant availability and capacity factor. This article presents an assessment of the progress achieved so far, amidst the difficulties encountered. Factors accounting for the apparently slow pace of growth are discussed, and the public concerns regarding nuclear safety and safety regulations are also addressed. In a situation where acute power shortages have become a fact of life, and difficulties can be foreseen in the development of coal and hydel resources (which are also limited in extent), the importance of pursuing the nuclear energy option is re-iterated. The need for unstinted government support to the program at this stage is also emphasized. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1978-01-01

    The pro-nuclear lobby in the United Kingdom won its battle. The Report on the Windscale Inquiry strongly endorsed the application by British Nuclear Fuels (a company owned by the government) to set up a plant to reprocess spent oxide fuels from thermal reactors; a motion in Parliament to postpone a decision was heavily defeated. The Windscale Inquiry was an attempt to settle in a civilized manner what has been tried in other countries by demonstrations and violence. In this exercise, a High Court Judge was given the task of assessing an enormous mass of highly complex technical and medical material, as well as economic, social, and political arguments. The outcome is bitterly disappointing to the objectors, all of whose arguments were rejected. Although the question of whether Britain should embark on a fast breeder reactor program was specifically excluded from the Inquiry, it clearly had a bearing on it. A decision not to proceed with the reprocessing plant would have made a fast breeder program impossible; indeed, the Report argues that such a decision would involve throwing away large indigenous energy resources, a manifest advocacy of the fast breeder. Other arguments for the decision to go ahead with the reprocessing plant included the need to keep the nuclear industry alive, and the profit which Britain will make in processing fuels from other countries, particularly Japan. The author comments further on present UK policy, taking a dissenting view, and then comments on the paper, Nuclear Energy and the Freedom of the West, by A.D. Sakharov

  20. Rapidity and multiplicity correlations in high energy hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    Rapidity and multiplicity correlations of particle production in high energy hadronic collisions are studied. A simple model including short range correlations in rapidity due to clustering and long range correlations due to energy conservation is able to describe the two-body correlation functions well hadron-nucleon collisions around lab energies of 250 GeV. In this model fractional moments are calculated and compared to data. The strong rise of the factorial moments in rapidity intervals by size δy∝1 can be explained by long and short range correlation alone whereas the factorial moments approach a constant value at very small δy due to lack of correlations also in agreement with experiment. There is therefore no need for introducing intermittency in the particle production in hadronic collisions at these energies. (orig.)

  1. Transverse energy distribution and hard constituent scattering in hadronic collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Åkesson

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the contributions to the total transverse energy spectrum from hard constituent scattering and the soft hadronic spectrum in hadron collisions. The transverse energy at which jet production starts to dominate is found to be essentially independent of the cms-energy (for large enough s and roughly a linear function of rapidity and azimuthal angle interval included. Calculations are presented for pp collisions at s= 25and60GeV, andp¯p interactions at s= 540GeV.

  2. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  3. Desalination and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeijn, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The techniques for fresh water production from seawater have matured and capacities have increased considerably over the past decades. It is feasible to combine seawater desalination with the generation of electricity since power stations can provide energy and low grade heat during off peak periods for the purpose of fresh water production. A dual purpose installation, combining a seawater desalination facility with a light water reactor power generation station promises interesting possibilities. The case in South Africa, where nuclear power stations are most economically sited far from the inland coal fields, is discussed. 1 ill

  4. Ethics and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezic, N.; Dodig, D.

    2000-01-01

    Should the scientist be a morally unbiased person? This is the eternal question asked by many great thinkers interested in science. The answer is hard to find. Scientists are expected to take into consideration the consequences of their actions before they actually start ot act. Sometimes they have to make certain sacrifices in order to help mankind. Unfortunately, we are witnesses of some intelligent, but inhuman and selfish people carrying out their even most destructive ideas. In this paper the relation between scientists and experts in the field of nuclear energy and the public will be discussed. (author)

  5. Nuclear Energy Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Wastin, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the light of five years after a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant it is interesting to make nuclear energy related literature review. There is a number of accidents related reports from all major international institutions (like the IAEA and OECD NEA) and research organizations have drawn conclusions and lessons to learn from this terrible accident. These reports are the result of expert and scientific analyses carried out during these five years and they present ideal sources for both understanding what has happened and what can be learned in order to avoid and mitigate effects of such events in the future. From a wider perspective it is also interesting to analyze the impact on research and development (R and D) activities. This literature review is performed with hope to gain some useful insights from the analysis of the volume and topics in all research activities related to the Fukushima accident and nuclear energy (NE) altogether. This kind of review should at least provide an overview of trends and provide base for better planning of future activities. This paper analyzes the published NE related research of over more than 50 years with focus on three major nuclear accidents (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima). It has been performed using Scopus tools and database, and mainly focuses on statistics related to the subjects, countries, keywords and type of publishing. It also analyses how responsive is nuclear energy related R and D regarding the volume and subjects, and how is that research spread among most active countries. Nuclear power accidents influence increase and change of research. Both accidents, Chernobyl and Fukushima had maximum share in all nuclear power related papers at similar yearly level (9 percent in 1991 and 12 percent in 2015 respectively). TMI peaked at the 2.5 percent share in 1982. Engineering is the most frequent subjects for TMI and cumulative NE related publishing. Medicine and environmental science subjects

  6. Discovery of hydrodynamic behavior in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamagaki, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of high energy heavy ion collision experiments is creating high temperature and high density states to investigate hadron matter properties in such extreme conditions. Since the start of heavy ion collision experiments with BEVALAC, knowledge of the space-time evolution of collision has become indispensable for understanding the hadronic matter properties. This problem is reviewed here from the hydrodynamics view point. Although its importance has been generally recognized since the time of BEVALAC, the hydrodynamic description has not been successful because the hydrodynamic model assuming non-viscous or small fluid had not been considered to be enough to properly describe the space-time evolution of hadron-hadron collisions until the RHIC experiments. Items of the following titles are picked up and reviewed here: Development of heavy ion accelerations; Space-time evolution of hadron collision process and hydrodynamic model; Chemical freezing and kinematical freezing, including transverse momentum spectra at proton-proton collisions and particle spectra in heavy ion collisions; Elliptical azimuthal angle anisotropy; Discovery of hydrodynamic flow at BEVALAC; Problems of incident beam dependence of v2; Elliptic azimuthal angle anisotropy at RHIC; What is it that carries the elliptic anisotropy? Discussion of attainment of thermodynamical equilibrium state at RHIC; and finally investigations of fluid properties other than azimuthal anisotropy, such as, Fluid properties probed by heavy quarks and Observing QCD fluid responses. (S. Funahashi)

  7. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments.

  8. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments. (U.K.)

  9. Scaling of charged particle multiplicity distributions in relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamd, N.; Hushnud; Azmi, M.D.; Zafar, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, M.M.; Tufail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Validity of KNO scaling in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions has been tested by several workers. Multiplicity distributions for p-emulsion interactions are found to be consistent with the KNO scaling hypothesis for pp collisions. The applicability of the scaling law was extended to FNAL energies by earlier workers. Slattery has shown that KNO scaling hypothesis is in fine agreement with the data for pp interactions over a wide range of incident energies. An attempt, is, therefore, made to examine the scaling hypothesis using multiplicity distributions of particles produced in 3.7A GeV/c 16 O-, 4.5A GeV/c and 14.5A GeV/c 28 Si - nucleus interactions

  10. Present Status of Nuclear Energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, SI (2013), s. 89-94 ISSN 0375-8842. [European Nuclear Forum. Praha, 12.05.2013-13.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear energy * nuclear reactors * electricity production Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  11. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  12. Solar nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlalka, R.

    1977-01-01

    Brief characteristics are given of solar radiation and of its spectral range. The relation is derived for the gas pressure in the centre of the Sun and the mechanism is described of particle interactions in the Sun. Using the Eddington model the basic nuclear reactions in the Sun are described, namely the proton-proton chain and the C-N cycle. The energy transfer is discussed from the Sun to the boundaries of the Earth atmosphere and inside the atmosphere. The measurement of solar energy is conducted with actinometers, i.e., pyrheliometers, pyranometers and combinations thereof. The results of solar radiation measurement in different weather conditions are graphically represented. (J.B.)

  13. Speaking of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    At the 1989 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference, the Japanese Government pledged an extra-budgetary contribution for a three-year enhanced public information programme. On this basis the programme was developed centering on a series of two-day regional media seminars. It was determined that these seminars were to be informative and educational, and provide balanced, honest background material on the subject of nuclear energy. The speakers chosen were a mix of IAEA and outside experts from around the world. About 500 participants from 20 countries took part over the initial three years of the programme. This document contains a selection of speeches and topics that, is believed, captured the essence of the information presented during the regional seminars

  14. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, G.; Borsch, P.; Halaszovich, S.; Laser, M.; Paschke, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Stippler, R.; Wagner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.) [de

  15. Communication techniques and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  16. Education of nuclear energy specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikas, V.

    1999-01-01

    Preparation system of nuclear energy specialists in Lithuania is presented. Nuclear engineers are being prepared at Kaunas University of Technology. Post-graduates students usually continue studies at Obninsk Nuclear Energy Institute in Russia. Many western countries like Sweden, Finland and US is providing assistance in education of Lithuanian specialists. Many of them were trained in these countries

  17. Nuclear energy and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is the opening speech from a national seminar on the uses for nuclear energy in everyday life. The speaker, the public information director for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), stresses the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. He points out that used for peaceful purposes, and prudently, nuclear energy applications have, tremendous benefits to offer mankind in both the industrial world and developing nations

  18. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  19. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear technology brings the chance to provide an essential long term contribution to the energy supply of the world population and to use the raw materials uranium and thorium which have no other use. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable providing certain simple fundamental rules for the design of nuclear facilities are observed. Such rules were clearly violated before the reactor accident at Chernobyl. They are, however, observed in our existing nuclear power plants. Compared with other energy systems nuclear energy has, with the exception of natural gas, the lowest risk. The consideration of the ethical justification of nuclear energy must also include the question of withdrawal. A withdrawal would have considerable social consequences for the industrial nations as well as for the developing countries. The problem of spreading alarm (and concern) by the opponents of nuclear energy should also be included in the ethical justification. 8 refs., 2 figs

  20. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  1. Nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter reports the nuclear energy beginning in the world including a chronology of the atomic bomb birth, the annual growth rate of electronuclear energy in the world, a comparison of energy production in thermoelectric bases

  2. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear technology offers the chance to make an extremely long term contribution to the energy supply of the earth. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable, provided that several fundamental rules are obeyed during the technical design of nuclear installations. Such fundamental rules were unequivocally violated in the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. They are, however, fulfilled in the existing Swiss nuclear power plants. Improvements are possible in new nuclear power plants. Compared to other usable energy systems nuclear energy is second only to natural gas in minimal risk per generated energy unit. The question of ethical justification also may rightly be asked of the non-use of nuclear energy. The socially weakest members of the Swiss population would suffer most under a renunciation of nuclear energy. Future prospects for the developing countries would deteriorate considerably with a renunciation by industrial nations of nuclear energy. The widely spread fear concerning the nuclear energy in the population is a consequence of non-objective discussion. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Hydrogen and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Hancox, W.T.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The current world-wide emphasis on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions provides an opportunity to revisit how energy is produced and used, consistent with the need for human and economic growth. Both the scale of the problem and the efforts needed for its resolution are extremely large. We argue that GHG reduction strategies must include a greater penetration of electricity into areas, such as transportation, that have been the almost exclusive domain of fossil fuels. An opportunity for electricity to displace fossil fuel use is through electrolytic production of hydrogen. Nuclear power is the only large-scale commercially proven non-carbon electricity generation source, and it must play a key role. As a non-carbon power source, it can also provide the high-capacity base needed to stabilize electricity grids so that they can accommodate other non-carbon sources, namely low-capacity factor renewables such as wind and solar. Electricity can be used directly to power standalone hydrogen production facilities. In the special case of CANDU reactors, the hydrogen streams can be preprocessed to recover the trace concentrations of deuterium that can be re-oxidized to heavy water. World-wide experience shows that nuclear power can achieve high standards of public safety, environmental protection and commercially competitive economics, and must . be an integral part of future energy systems. (author)

  4. Nuclear collisions at several tens of MeV per nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear beams with energies of several tens of MeV per nucleon will soon be available at a number of research centers around the world. Such beams offer a tool for probing new aspects of nuclear structure and dynamics. As the energy is raised models and concepts developed for the relatively well studied lower energy domain will be pressed to their limits and are likely to grow obsolete as novel phenomena enter the scene. The theory of ordinary damped collisions is considered; the testing of such theories is one important aspect of the research with higher beam energies. Another is the search for truly novel phenomena, and some more speculative material on that aspect are given. 15 references

  5. Nuclear collisions at several tens of MeV per nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear beams with energies of several tens of MeV per nucleon will soon be available at a number of research centers around the world. Such beams offer a tool for probing new aspects of nuclear structure and dynamics. As the energy is raised models and concepts developed for the relatively well studied lower energy domain will be pressed to their limits and are likely to grow obsolete as novel phenomena enter the scene. The theory of ordinary damped collisions is considered; the testing of such theories is one important aspect of the research with higher beam energies. Another is the search for truly novel phenomena, and some more speculative material on that aspect are given. 15 references.

  6. Relation between hard photon production and impact parameter in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Dependance de la production de photons durs avec le parametre d`impact dans les collisions entre ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Garcia, G.

    1994-06-01

    Hard photons produced in heavy-ions collisions at intermediate energies have been used in order to study hot and compresses nuclear matter created in these collisions (at Ganil). It was found that Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in np collisions is the main mechanism of hard-photon production for the whole range of impact parameter. Moreover, it was observed a substantial decrease of the hardness of hard-photon spectrum. The BUU model reproduces very well the experimental results, showing that the hardness of the spectrum reflects, mainly, nuclear-matter compression in the first stage of the collision. A new method was developed to measure the density of the nuclear matter created at the beginning of the collision. BUU results and some experimental evidences point out that a significant contribution of hard photons are produced in the last stage of the collision: thermal hard photons. These photons are sensitive to the density oscillation of nuclear matter. Its production cross-section will constitute a measurement of the compressibility of nuclear matter and its spectrum a measure of the temperature. (from author) 64 figs., 60 refs.

  7. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  8. Nuclear energy and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power plants against the greenhouse effects is evaluated, not only nuclear energy is unable to fight greenhouse effect increase but long life wastes endanger environment. 8 refs

  9. Nuclear energy and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The soundness of use of nuclear energy in electric energy generation has received public concern due to the public highly exaggerated fear of nuclear power. It is the purpose of this paper to clear up some issues of public misunderstanding of nuclear power. Those of most importance are the unjustified fears about safety of nuclear power plants and the misunderstanding of nuclear risks and fears of nuclear power plants environmental impact. The paper is addressed to the public and aims at clarifying these issues in simple, correct, and convincing terms in such a way that links the gap between the scientists of nuclear energy and the general public; this gap which the media has failed to cover and failed to convey honestly and correctly the scientific facts about nuclear energy from the scientists standards to the public

  10. Present market for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present market for nuclear energy is present since nuclear production and electric power generation to the utilization of radioisotopes in medicine and biology. Some data about the main world suppliers to this market are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Energy paper II: Nuclear energy revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anonymous

    2008-01-01

    ESI Energy paper is called 'Issue Paper' awarded by think-tank Energy Security Institute. The second issue focuses on the energy security of countries from the perspective of Renaissance of construction of nuclear power plants. Topicality is documented by fluctuations in fossil fuel prices on the world commodity markets and by extortionate potential, disposed by their main producers. The Slovak Republic is actively engaged into international dialogue on the need for the development of nuclear energy.

  12. J/psi production and nuclear effects in p-Pb collisions at=5.02 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Čepila, J.; Ferencei, Jozef; Křelina, M.; Křížek, Filip; Krus, M.; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mareš, Jiří A.; Pachr, M.; Petráček, V.; Petráň, M.; Pospíšil, V.; Schulc, M.; Šmakal, R.; Špaček, M.; Šumbera, Michal; Vajzer, Michal; Wagner, V.; Zach, Č.; Závada, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 2 (2014), 073 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE * heavy ion collisions * transverse momentum Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014

  13. Signatures of a new state of the nuclear matter: 'nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons' in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis for the 'Accreditation to lead research' diploma consists of six chapters. Chapter I provides an overview of my scientific career, including a summary of my research tasks, professional experiences, and scientific output, list of my oral presentations at international conferences and my publications history. Chapter II introduces the background and goals of research in relativistic heavy ion physics, the main axis of research at the RHIC collider facility. Chapter III describes the context of Quarks-Gluon Plasma (QGP) physics including theoretical aspects, experimental aspects, the signatures of deconfinement and the evolution of QGP physics from fixed-target (SPS) to collider (RHIC) beam energies. Chapter IV details my personal contribution to the construction, assembly, installation, operation, evaluation of the signals and the maintenance of (i) the silicon pixel detectors used for the measurements of the charged particles multiplicity in PHOBOS experiment, and also (ii) the silicon vertex tracker (VTX) in PHENIX, with the main goal being to differentiate measurements of the heavy quarks charm and beauty. Chapter V presents my analysis work using the 'hit-counting' method which allows the measurement of the pseudorapidity density distributions of charged particles in PHOBOS at several RHIC energies. This chapter also illustrates my predictions for the LHC as well my publications as principal author and my responsibilities as 'Co-convenor' of the multiplicity group in PHOBOS. Finally, chapter VI presents the highlights of the RHIC results: 'Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons'. This chapter illustrates a great wealth of scientific discoveries, and some great surprises encountered in the RHIC era which provided new perspectives in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. At the end of this chapter, I concluded while answering the question about what we have learnt and where we are. (author)

  14. Ultimate Choice for Energy: The Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yıldırım*

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the prices of oil, hard coal and natural gas, emergence of Russia as a not reliable resource for the natural and the developments in the security of the energy supply again have been started the nuclear energy as a hotly debated issue in the world. This is also a sensitive topic among the opponents and proponents of the nuclear energy in Turkey. Nuclear energy is very important since it provides about 17 % of the electric energy in the world and is used in industry and medical area. However, Turkey has not declared any policy about this yet, because of the worries about the environmental reasons and has not gained any progress about nuclear energy. First of all, Turkey must use her geothermal, hydropower, hard coal, solar and wind energies. Otherwise, Turkey may find herself in a competition with her neighboring countries

  15. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  16. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation.

  17. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation

  18. Should we embrace nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolch, Guy

    2006-01-01

    During his recent tour of North America, Australian Prime Minister John Howard called for a 'full-blooded debate' about the place of nuclear power in the nation's energy mix. 'I have a very open mind on the development of nuclear energy in my own country,' he said. Treasurer Peter Costello said that only economic arguments precluded Australia's move to nuclear energy. 'If it becomes commercial, we should have it,' he said on 23 May. But in reality the 'debate' had already been adjudicated. Three days later the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) presented Science Minister Julie Bishop with a report that delivered Costello's economic justification for nuclear power

  19. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e + e - resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs

  20. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  1. Quark and Gluon Degrees of Freedom in High-Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2008-06-01

    I discuss some recent progress in our understanding of high energy nuclear collisions. I will focus on two topics which I was lucky to co-pioneer in the recent past. One is recombination of quarks and its interpretation as a signal for deconfinement, the second is electromagnetic radiation from jets passing through a quark gluon plasma. This talk was given during the award ceremony for the 2007 IUPAP Young Scientist Award.

  2. Production of light fragments in hA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.

    1988-12-01

    Production of fast relativistic light fragments in hA collisions at high energies is considered. Direct coalescence of produced nucleons into fragments is shown to be the main mechanism for fragment production. The influence of the nuclear field is small and is not described by the well-known Butler-Pearson formulas. The coalescence coefficient strongly depends on the angle and on the behaviour of the fragment wave function at small internucleon distances. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  3. Energy situation and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megahid, M R [Reactor and Neutron physics Department Nuclear Research Center A.E., Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    A brief general review is given concerning the requirements of power throughout history with an indication to the world capital reserves of energy. The energy released from the conversion of mass in chemical and nuclear processes is also discussed with comparative analysis between conventional fuel fired plant and nuclear power plant having the same energy output. The advantages and disadvantages arising from having a nuclear power programme are also discussed. 1 fig.

  4. Nuclear energy, understand the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Barre, B.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of its first use for military needs, the nuclear became a substitution energy, especially for the electric power production. For many scientist the nuclear seems to be the main part to the world energy supply in an economic growth context, provided the radioactive wastes problems is solved. From the military origins to the electric power generation, this book explains the technical economical and political aspects of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Multiparticle production in particle and nuclear collisions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanki, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Kisei; Sumiyoshi, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Fujio.

    1990-01-01

    Multiparticle dynamics is related to many branches of particle and nuclear physics. This book provides a comprehensive review which covers the whole domain of multiparticle dynamics. The review consists of five chapters. Chapter D, which is the first chapter of this volume, is titled 'Mechanism of Fragmentation' and contains six sections dealing with 'parton densities inside hadrons', 'hadron fragmentation and quark picture', 'recombination type models', 'quark fragmentation models in soft interaction', 'diquark and its fragmentation' and 'fragmentation in string models'. Chapter E 'Diffractive Production of Hadrons' discusses 'diffractive inelastic processes of composite particles', 'diffractive processes and triple-pomeron coupling', 'properties of diffractive inelastic final states', and 'nature of pomeron'. Chapter F 'Unified Descriptions' focuses on 'general chain picture', 'dual parton model', 'Monte Carlo simulations' and 'unification of hard and soft interactions'. Chapter G, titled 'Multiparticle Production in Hadron-Nucleus Collisions and Other Nuclear Processes' and contains 11 sections. Chapter H presents conclusions. (N.K.)

  6. LOCAL COLLISION SIMULATION OF AN SC WALL USING ENERGY ABSORBING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUL-HUN CHUNG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  7. Local Collision Simulation of an SC Wall Using Energy Absorbing Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Choi, Hyun; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  8. Computer simulation studies of high energy collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1991-07-01

    A modified binary collision approximation allowing the proper order of the collisions in time was used to study cascades in Cu and Au at primary kinetic energies up to 100 keV. Nonlinearities were approximated by letting already-stopped cascade atoms become targets in later collisions, using an improved method of locating potential targets to extend the calculations to energies much higher than heretofore. Beside the effect of the approximate nonlinearity, the effect of thermal disorder in the targets was examined. Target redisplacements reduce the damage in Cu by 3% at most, but in Au they reduce it by amounts up to 20% at 100 keV. Thermal disorder is also important: by disrupting crystal effects, the damage is reduced significantly. 11 refs., 4 figs

  9. Nuclear energy in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a major role in the French economy because of the lack of fossil fuels on the French territory. About 75% of the French electric power is of nuclear origin. This paper gives an analysis of the French public attitude about nuclear energy and the methods used by the nuclear industrialists to better the electro-nuclear image. Communication, advertising and transparency are the best attitudes for a suitable public information and are necessary to reduce the public anxiety after the Chernobyl accident. Television advertising, magazines and organized visits of nuclear installations have allowed to explain the interest of nuclear energy in the environmental reduction of pollutants. However, public information must include the topic about nuclear wastes to remain credible. (J.S.)

  10. Climatic change and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2000-08-01

    The data presented in the different chapters lead to show that nuclear energy ids not a sustainable energy sources for the following reasons: investments in nuclear energy account financing that lacks to energy efficiency programmes. The nuclear programmes have negative effects such the need of great electric network, the need of highly qualified personnel, the freezing of innovation in the fields of supply and demand, development of small performing units. The countries resort to nuclear energy are among the biggest carbon dioxide emitters, because big size nuclear power plants lead to stimulate electric power consumption instead of inducing its rational use. Nuclear energy produces only electric power then a part of needs concerns heat (or cold) and when it is taken into account nuclear energy loses its advantages to the profit of cogeneration installations. Finally nuclear energy is a dangerous energy source, difficult to control as the accident occurring at Tokai MURA showed it in 1998. The problem of radioactive wastes is not still solved and the nuclear proliferation constitutes one of the most important threat at the international level. (N.C.)

  11. QMD and JAM calculations for high energy nucleon-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji

    2002-01-01

    We describe the two simulation codes, QMD and JAM (Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model), for high energy nuclear reactions. QMD can treat the nucleus-nucleus reactions as well as nucleon-nucleus reactions based on the molecular dynamics. We have applied the QMD code intensively to nucleon-nucleus reactions and checked its validity. The cross sections obtained by the QMD are now used for evaluation of high energy nuclear data in JAERI. JAM is a hadronic cascade code including the resonance and string model for the hadron-hadron collisions at high energy up to 200 GeV. We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM by including the JAM code for the intra-nuclear cascade part. (author)

  12. Energy from nuclear fission()

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripani, M.

    2015-08-01

    The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  13. Nuclear energy: a vital energy choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1980-01-01

    Speaking from the platform of the XIIIth annual session of the International Atomic Energy Agency, at New Delhi, AEC managing director Michel Pecqueur made a solemn appeal to the world community for the decisions which are needed on energy. The present energy crisis can lead the world to a recession and be a factor in grave troubles for peace and balance in the world. The crisis cannot be resolved without accrued recourse to the use of nuclear energy. Two essential themes were outlined: the development of nuclear energy in the world, and the increased reduction of proliferation risks. In concluding, he expressed the hop that with a greater effort in information media, the nuclear fact-of-life would be better accepted by the general public in future, for it is there that lies a brake which may hinder nuclear energy development [fr

  14. Finnish energy outlook - role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with production a consumption of electricity in the Finland. New nuclear power partly covers additional electricity demand and replaces retiring power plants in coming decades after 2010. Nuclear energy secures stable, economical and predictable electricity price as well as operation environment for the electricity intensive industry for coming decades. Nuclear energy also reduces the dependence on electricity import of Finland. Nuclear energy partly enables, together with renewable, fulfilment of Finland's Kyoto commitments. Solutions for nuclear waste management are a condition sine qua non for sound nuclear programmes. Funding has been arranged. All this is carried out in Finland in a transparent way and in accordance with any democratic requirements. (author)

  15. Avian collision risk models for wind energy impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masden, E.A., E-mail: elizabeth.masden@uhi.ac.uk [Environmental Research Institute, North Highland College-UHI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7EE (United Kingdom); Cook, A.S.C.P. [British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford IP24 2PU (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing global development of wind energy, collision risk models (CRMs) are routinely used to assess the potential impacts of wind turbines on birds. We reviewed and compared the avian collision risk models currently available in the scientific literature, exploring aspects such as the calculation of a collision probability, inclusion of stationary components e.g. the tower, angle of approach and uncertainty. 10 models were cited in the literature and of these, all included a probability of collision of a single bird colliding with a wind turbine during passage through the rotor swept area, and the majority included a measure of the number of birds at risk. 7 out of the 10 models calculated the probability of birds colliding, whilst the remainder used a constant. We identified four approaches to calculate the probability of collision and these were used by others. 6 of the 10 models were deterministic and included the most frequently used models in the UK, with only 4 including variation or uncertainty in some way, the most recent using Bayesian methods. Despite their appeal, CRMs have their limitations and can be ‘data hungry’ as well as assuming much about bird movement and behaviour. As data become available, these assumptions should be tested to ensure that CRMs are functioning to adequately answer the questions posed by the wind energy sector. - Highlights: • We highlighted ten models available to assess avian collision risk. • Only 4 of the models included variability or uncertainty. • Collision risk models have limitations and can be ‘data hungry’. • It is vital that the most appropriate model is used for a given task.

  16. Avian collision risk models for wind energy impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masden, E.A.; Cook, A.S.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global development of wind energy, collision risk models (CRMs) are routinely used to assess the potential impacts of wind turbines on birds. We reviewed and compared the avian collision risk models currently available in the scientific literature, exploring aspects such as the calculation of a collision probability, inclusion of stationary components e.g. the tower, angle of approach and uncertainty. 10 models were cited in the literature and of these, all included a probability of collision of a single bird colliding with a wind turbine during passage through the rotor swept area, and the majority included a measure of the number of birds at risk. 7 out of the 10 models calculated the probability of birds colliding, whilst the remainder used a constant. We identified four approaches to calculate the probability of collision and these were used by others. 6 of the 10 models were deterministic and included the most frequently used models in the UK, with only 4 including variation or uncertainty in some way, the most recent using Bayesian methods. Despite their appeal, CRMs have their limitations and can be ‘data hungry’ as well as assuming much about bird movement and behaviour. As data become available, these assumptions should be tested to ensure that CRMs are functioning to adequately answer the questions posed by the wind energy sector. - Highlights: • We highlighted ten models available to assess avian collision risk. • Only 4 of the models included variability or uncertainty. • Collision risk models have limitations and can be ‘data hungry’. • It is vital that the most appropriate model is used for a given task.

  17. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  18. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Bisquer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4π devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author)

  19. Introduction to the nuclear physics at very high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the nuclear physics at very high energies on the basis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus, hadron-nucleus and hadron-hadron collisions is made. Some theoretical models used nowadays to explain the experimental data, such as Quantum Chromodynamics, String Model, etc... are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Study of proton-nucleus collisions at high energies based on the hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, N.; Weiner, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    We study proton-nucleus collisions at high energies using the one-dimensional hydrodynamical model of Landau with special emphasis on the effect of the size of the target nucleus and of the magnitude of velocity of sound of excited hadronic matter. We convert a collision problem of a proton and a nucleus with a spherical shape into that of a proton and a one-dimensional nuclear tunnel whose length is determined from the average impact parameter. By extending the methods developed by Milekhin and Emelyanov, we obtain the solutions of the hydrodynamical equations of proton-nucleus collisions for arbitrary target tunnel length and arbitrary velocity of sound. The connection between these solutions and observable physical quantities is established as in the work of Cooper, Frye, and Schonberg. Extensive numerical analyses are made at E/sub lab/ = 200 GeV and for the velocity of sound u = 1/√3 of a relativistic ideal Bose gas and u = 1/(7.5)/sup 1/2/ of an interacting Bose gas. In order to compare proton-nucleus collisions with proton-proton collisions, all the analyses are made in the equal-velocity frame. We find the following results. (1) In comparing the number of secondary particles produced in p-A collisions N/sub p/A with those in p-p collisions N/sub p/p, while most of the excess of N/sub p/A over N/sub p/p is concentrated in the backward rapidity region, there exists also an increase of N/sub p/A with A in the forward rapidity region. This result is at variance with the predictions of the energy-flux-cascade model and of the coherent-production model. (2) The excess energies are contained exclusively in the backward region. We also find evidence for new phenomena in proton-nucleus collisions. (3) The existence of an asymmetry of average energies of secondary particles between forward and backward regions, in particular, >> for larger nuclear targets. Thus, energetic particles are predominantly produced in the backward region

  2. Inner-shell excitation in heavy ion collisions up to intermediate incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, T. de.

    1987-04-01

    Electronic excitations in collisions of very heavy ions with a total nuclear charge Z greater than 1/α ≅ 137 at bombarding energies reaching from 3.6 MeV/n up to 100 MeV/n are the subject of this thesis. The dynamical behaviour of the electron-positron-field is described within a semiclassical model, which is reviewed and extended to include electronic interactions via a mean field. A detailed comparison with experimental data of K-vacancy formation, δ-electron and positron emission shows an improved agreement compared with former calculations. Structures in spectra of positrons emitted in sub- and supercritical collision are discussed in two respects: Firstly as a signal of the vacuum decay in supercritical electromagnetic fields which evolve in the vicinity of long living giant nuclear molecules. Secondly as an atomic effect, which might be related to an instaneous formation of molecular 1sσ- and 2p 1/2 σ- levels. However, beyond this speculation the emission spectra of electrons and positrons in deep inelastic reactions have proven to be a powerful tool for measuring nuclear reaction or delay times in the order of 10 -21 s. This property was transfered to the domain of intermediate energy collisions. In first order perturbation theory we derived a scaling law, exhibiting how nuclear stopping times could be extracted from the emission spectra of high energetic δ-electrons. Quantitative calculations within a coupled channel code have been carried out for the system Pb+Pb, yielding cross sections of up to 20 nb for the emission of electrons with a kinetic energy of 50 MeV in 60 MeV/n-collisions. (orig./HSI)

  3. Energy dissipation and charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan Edward, K.G.; )

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use a model combining the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics. Within this model, the secondary particle production in nucleus-nucleus or nucleon-nucleon (p-barp/pp) collisions is basically driven by the amount of the initial effective energy deposited by participants (quarks or nucleons) into the Lorentz contracted overlap region

  4. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  5. Heterotic Pomeron: high energy hadronic collisions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-I Tan

    1993-01-01

    A unified treatment of high energy collisions in QCD is presented. Using a probabilistic approach, both perturbative (hard) and non-perturbative (soft) components are incorporated in a consistent fashion, leading to a ''Heterotic Pomeron''. As a Regge trajectory, it is non linear, approaching 1 in the limit t → -∞. 2 tabs., 9 refs

  6. Effects of collision energy on stereodynamical information of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with experimental data. Most recently, employing this new LEPS PES, Mu and Duan6 studied the influence of collision energy and rotational excitation of reac- tant molecules on stereodynamics for the first the reac- tive path through QCT method. However, to the best of our knowledge, the existing work on the F+HI reaction.

  7. 76 FR 67717 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear...: [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory...

  8. 77 FR 26274 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear[email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee...

  9. 78 FR 70932 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear[email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC...

  10. 75 FR 67351 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear... [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory...

  11. 75 FR 13269 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear[email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee...

  12. High energy nuclear collisions: physics perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.

    1985-01-01

    The main aim of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to study the states of matter in strong interaction physics. We survey the predictions which statistical QCD makes for deconfinement and the transition to the quark-gluon plasma. 10 refs., 6 figs

  13. Electrons with continuous energy distribution from energetic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenyi, D.

    1984-01-01

    The properties and origin of continuous electron spectrum emitted in high energy heavy ion collisions are reviewed. The basic processes causing the characteristic regions of the continuous spectrum are described. The contribution of electrons ejected from the target and from the projectile are investigated in detail in the cases of light and heavy projectiles. The recently recognized mechanisms, electron-capture-to-continuum (ECC) and electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC), leading to a cusp in forward direction, and their theoretical interpretations are discussed. The importance of data from ion-atom collisions in the field of atomic physics and in applications are briefly summarized. (D.Gy)

  14. Nuclear energy in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.N.; Carvalho, J.F. de; Goldemberg, J.; Menezes, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.; Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The basic requirements demanded for the physical protection of nuclear operational units, is established. These units can be, production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interesting to Brazilian Nuclear Program. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Expert judgment for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi

    2000-01-01

    Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea

  16. Nuclear energy promise or peril?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Hill, C.R.; Ripka, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy will inevitably become an important worldwide issue in the 21. century. The authors are authorities in their own fields and their contributions have been read, discussed and criticized by a wide, international group of experts. The today status of nuclear power is exposed, the authors weigh the pros and cons of nuclear energy. In a near future nuclear energy could play a major role in preventing climate change and atmospheric pollution. The main challenges that put at risk nuclear energy are: nuclear safety, radiation protection, the management of radioactive wastes, the problem of plutonium stocks and the risk of proliferation. For each of these open questions, a specialist makes a precise survey of the situation

  17. Nuclear: an energy in territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2016-01-01

    After having briefly outlined that introducing a relationship between geography and nuclear energy is a quite recent approach, and by often quoting a researcher (Teva Meyer) specialised in Swedish energy issues, the author briefly discusses how nuclear energy structures territories through meshing and 'polarisation' effects, and economic and social impacts. He also discusses whether territories then become dependent on nuclear activity, what happens when a nuclear plant stops, how the existence of a nuclear plant becomes an identity market for a territory, and how material flows also deal with geography. In the last part, the author notices that in Germany, nuclear industry is considered as an industry like any other one. He finally outlines that geography could be useful to achieve energy transition

  18. J/psi production in proton-nucleus collisions at ALICE: cold nuclear matter really matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Heavy quarkonia are expected to be sensitive to the properties of strongly interacting matter, at both low and high temperatures. In nucleus-nucleus collisions, a phase transition to a deconfined state of quarks and gluons (Quark-Gluon Plasma) is thought to take place once the temperature of the system exceeds a critical temperature of the order of 150-200 MeV. The deconfined state can induce a suppression of charmonium (due to color screening, dominant at SPS and RHIC energies), which can be overturned at LHC energy by the (re)combination of the large number of free c and cbar quarks, taking place when the system cools down below the critical temperature. Cold nuclear matter also has an influence on heavy quarkonia. Such effects can be studied in proton-nucleus collisions, where no deconfined state is expected to be created. At LHC energy, they mainly include nuclear shadowing, gluon saturation, break-up of the quarkonium states, and parton energy loss in the initial and final state. The study of these eff...

  19. Nuclear energy facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the IAEA, the contribution that nuclear energy can make to future world energy requirements is discussed and nuclear power generation statistics examined with especial reference to data on capacity and outages. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear energy: basics, present, future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricotti M. E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is conceived for non-nuclear experts, intended as a synthetic and simplified overview of the technology related to energy by nuclear fission. At the end of the paper, the Reader will find a minimal set of references, several of them on internet, useful to start deepening the knowledge on this challenging, complex, debated albeit engaging energy source.

  1. Social Institutions and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear technologists can offer an all but infinite source of relatively cheap and clean energy" but society must decide whether the price of eternal vigilance needed to ensure proper and safe operation of its nuclear energy system" is worth the benefits. (Author/AL)

  2. Symmetry energy in nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)

  3. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  4. Nuclear Energy in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the interested non-specialist reader with insights on five major issues associated with nuclear power generation: nuclear development and economics, protection of man and the environment, power plant safety, radioactive waste management and compensation for damage from a nuclear accident

  5. Exploring the Nuclear Phase Diagram with Beam Energy Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear phase diagram is mapped using beam energy scans of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This mapping is possible because different collision energies develop along different trajectories through the phase diagram. High energy collisions will evolve though a crossover phase transition according to lattice QCD, but lower collision energies may traverse a first order phase transition. There are hints for this first order phase transition and its critical endpoint, but further measurements and theoretical guidance is needed. In addition to mapping the phase transition, beam energy scans allow us to see if we can turn off the signatures of deconfinement. If an observable is a real signature for the formation of the deconfined state called quark-gluon plasma, then it should turn off at sufficiently low collision energies. In this summary talk I will show the current state of the field using beam energy scan results from RHIC and SPS, I will show where precise theoretical guidance is needed for understanding recent measurements, and I will motivate the need for more data and new measurements from FAIR, NICA, RHIC, and the SPS. (paper)

  6. Nuclear energy - myth and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael C. [Illinois Dept. of Nuclear Safety, IL (United States). Emergency Planning Section

    1997-12-31

    Socio-political aspects of the use of nuclear energy and radiation are presented. The behaviour of the general population, and many of the world`s political organizations who still resist or reject nuclear energy as a viable resource is discussed. The benefits from the production of electricity, medical diagnostics and treatment, engineering accomplishments, and scientific research applications involving the use of nuclear technology and radioactive materials are emphasized

  7. Nuclear energy - myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    Socio-political aspects of the use of nuclear energy and radiation are presented. The behaviour of the general population, and many of the world's political organizations who still resist or reject nuclear energy as a viable resource is discussed. The benefits from the production of electricity, medical diagnostics and treatment, engineering accomplishments, and scientific research applications involving the use of nuclear technology and radioactive materials are emphasized

  8. Nuclear energy: considerations about nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view of historical aspects of nuclear energy and the arrangements to assure its use for peaceful purposes are presented. Then the internal character of nuclear energy in a juride context is demonstrated; some consideration about the international organizations and conventions and the Brazilian Legislation in the nuclear area are examined. It also deals with the political aspects of nuclear trade and the function of IAEA in this are. Furthermore the restrictions imposed by Non-Proliferation Treaty-NPT, the objectures of the Tlatelolco Treaty and ''London Club'' guidelines. Afterwards the bilateral cooperation under taken by countries and its agreements are discussed. Besides some aspects of agreements made between United States, France Germany and Brazil are discussed [pt

  9. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  10. Heavy ion collisions at energies near the Coulomb barrier 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    During recent years, detailed experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out on heavy ion collisions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. These studies have provided direct evidence of strong couplings between the various reaction channels available at energies near the top of the Coulomb barrier. This field of research has remained the focus of interest and with improved experimental techniques, new detailed high resolution data have been obtained. The workshop on ''Heavy Ion Collisions at Energies Close to the Coulomb Barrier'' was organized with the aim of reviewing the current understanding of the collision dynamics and to discuss future directions in this area of research. The topics discussed at the workshop were broadly classified under the titles: quasielastic reactions; fusion of heavy ions; and shape and spin dependence in heavy ion collisions. The last of these topics was included to review new data obtained with polarized heavy ions and their theoretical interpretations. This volume contains the invited and contributed talks as well as a few short presentations during panel discussions. (author)

  11. A model for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    A model is developed for high-energy heavy-ion collisions that treats the variation across the overlap region of the target and projectile in the amount of energy and momentum that is deposited. The expression for calculating any observable takes the form of a sum over a series of terms, each one of which consists of a geometric, a kinematic, and a statistical factor. The geometrical factors for a number of target projectile systems are tabulated. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  13. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  14. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optical communication and in artificial metamaterials. ... multicomponent generalization of Manakov system have been obtained by Kanna et al .... The main objective of the present paper is to give a clear picture of various energy ... occur as a consequence of energy exchange between the two colliding solitons as well as.

  15. Geometrical scaling in high energy hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.

    1984-06-01

    The concept of geometrical scaling for high energy elastic hadron scattering is analyzed and its basic equations are solved in a consistent way. It is shown that they are applicable to a rather small interval of momentum transfers, e.g. maximally for |t| 2 for pp scattering at the ISR energies. (author)

  16. Do nuclear collisions create a locally equilibrated quark-gluon plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romatschke, P. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Physics, 390 UCB, Boulder, CO (United States); University of Colorado, Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Experimental results on azimuthal correlations in high energy nuclear collisions (nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus, and proton-proton) seem to be well described by viscous hydrodynamics. It is often argued that this agreement implies either local thermal equilibrium or at least local isotropy. In this note, I present arguments why this is not the case. Neither local near-equilibrium nor near-isotropy are required in order for hydrodynamics to offer a successful and accurate description of experimental results. However, I predict the breakdown of hydrodynamics at momenta of order seven times the temperature, corresponding to a smallest possible QCD liquid drop size of 0.15 fm. (orig.)

  17. Relativistic nuclear collisions from the EOS experiment at the Bevalac: collective observables and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insolia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The EOS Collaborations has completed an exclusive study of relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac using a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. We report here results on directed sidewards flow in Au+Au between 0.25 AGeV and 1.2 AGeV, using a standard in-plane transverse momentum analysis. We also report on projectile fragmentation of Au in C at 1 AGeV. An analysis of fluctuations and critical exponents for small systems seems to support the idea that the multifragmentation regime is associated with a liquid gas phase transition in nuclear matter. (authors)

  18. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, F.; De Ruiter, W.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purposes of the title workshop were to exchange ideas on the possible impact of nuclear energy on the sustainable development of the society, to outline the marginal conditions that have to be fulfilled by nuclear energy technology to fit in into sustainable development, to asses and determine the differences or agreements of the workshop participants and their argumentations, and to determine the part that the Netherlands could or should play with respect to a further development and application of nuclear energy. 35 Dutch experts in the field of energy and environment attended the workshop which is considered to be a success. It is recommended to organize a follow-up workshop

  20. Analysis of the apparent nuclear modification in peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Anaam, Mustafa Naji; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; 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Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Ahsan Mehmood; Khan, Shaista; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taejun; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Varga-kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konopka, Piotr Jan; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kralik, Ivan; 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Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zherebchevskii, Vladimir; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Charged-particle spectra at midrapidity are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and presented in centrality classes ranging from most central (0-5%) to most peripheral (95-100%) collisions. Possible medium effects are quantified using the nuclear modification factor ($R_{AA}$) by comparing the measured spectra with those from proton-proton collisions, scaled by the number of independent nucleon-nucleon collisions obtained from a Glauber model. At large transverse momenta (8 < $p_{T}$ < 20 GeV/$c$), the average $R_{AA}$ is found to increase from about 0.15 in 0-5% central to a maximum value of about 0.8 in 75-85% peripheral collisions, beyond which it falls off strongly to below 0.2 for the most peripheral collisions. Furthermore, $R_{AA}$ initially exhibits a positive slope as a function of $p_{T}$ in the 8–20 GeV/$c$ interval, while for collisions beyond the 80% class the slope is negative. To reduce uncertainties rela...