WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy models experience

  1. Analysis of hohlraum energetics of the SG series and the NIF experiments with energy balance model

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Guoli; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The basic energy balance model is applied to analyze the hohlraum energetics data from the Shenguang (SG) series laser facilities and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments published in the past few years. The analysis shows that the overall hohlraum energetics data are in agreement with the energy balance model within 20% deviation. The 20% deviation might be caused by the diversity in hohlraum parameters, such as material, laser pulse, gas filling density, etc. In addition, the NI...

  2. Analysis of hohlraum energetics of the SG series and the NIF experiments with energy balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic energy balance model is applied to analyze the hohlraum energetics data from the Shenguang (SG series laser facilities and the National Ignition Facility (NIF experiments published in the past few years. The analysis shows that the overall hohlraum energetics data are in agreement with the energy balance model within 20% deviation. The 20% deviation might be caused by the diversity in hohlraum parameters, such as material, laser pulse, gas filling density, etc. In addition, the NIF's ignition target designs and our ignition target designs given by simulations are also in accordance with the energy balance model. This work confirms the value of the energy balance model for ignition target design and experimental data assessment, and demonstrates that the NIF energy is enough to achieve ignition if a 1D spherical radiation drive could be created, meanwhile both the laser plasma instabilities and hydrodynamic instabilities could be suppressed.

  3. Damping-tunable energy-harvesting vehicle damper with multiple controlled generators: Design, modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longhan; Li, Jiehong; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ledeng; Cai, Siqi

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic dampers are used to decrease the vibration of a vehicle, where vibration energy is dissipated as heat. In addition to resulting in energy waste, the damping coefficient in hydraulic dampers cannot be changed during operation. In this paper, an energy-harvesting vehicle damper was proposed to replace traditional hydraulic dampers. The goal is not only to recover kinetic energy from suspension vibration but also to change the damping coefficient during operation according to road conditions. The energy-harvesting damper consists of multiple generators that are independently controlled by switches. One of these generators connects to a tunable resistor for fine tuning the damping coefficient, while the other generators are connected to a control and rectifying circuit, each of which both regenerates electricity and provides a constant damping coefficient. A mathematical model was built to investigate the performance of the energy-harvesting damper. By controlling the number of switched-on generators and adjusting the value of the external tunable resistor, the damping can be fine tuned according to the requirement. In addition to the capability of damping tuning, the multiple controlled generators can output a significant amount of electricity. A prototype was built to test the energy-harvesting damper design. Experiments on an MTS testing system were conducted, with results that validated the theoretical analysis. Experiments show that changing the number of switched-on generators can obviously tune the damping coefficient of the damper and simultaneously produce considerable electricity.

  4. Electrostatic model of the energy-bending within organic semiconductors: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, T J; Wong, W S; Talik, A N; Woon, K L; Chanlek, N; Nakajima, H; Saisopa, T; Songsiriritthigul, P

    2016-09-14

    The interfacial properties between electrodes and the various organic layers that comprise an organic electronic device are of direct relevance in understanding charge injection, extraction and generation. The energy levels and energy-bending of three interfaces; indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate ( PSS), ITO/poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and PSS/PVK were measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By decoupling the vacuum shift and energy-bending, the energy-bending at these interfaces can be simulated using an electrostatic model that takes into account the energetic disorder of the polymers. The model is further extended to include blended mixtures of semiconductors at differing concentrations and it was found that a very good agreement exists between the experiment and theory for all interfaces. This suggests that the electrostatic model can be used to describe energy-bending at the interface between any organic semiconductors. Further investigation into the effect of the Gaussian density of states width on energy-bending is warranted.

  5. Effect of Electron Energy Distribution on the Hysteresis of Plasma Discharge: Theory, Experiment, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Hysteresis, which is the history dependence of physical systems, indicates that there are more-than-two stable points in a given condition, and it has been considered to one of the most important topics in fundamental physics. Recently, the hysteresis of plasma has become a focus of research because stable plasma operation is very important for fusion reactors, bio-medical plasmas, and industrial plasmas for nano-device fabrication process. Interestingly, the bi-stability characteristics of plasma with a huge hysteresis loop have been observed in inductive discharge plasmas Because hysteresis study in such plasmas can provide a universal understanding of plasma physics, many researchers have attempted experimental and theoretical studies. Despite long plasma research, how this plasma hysteresis occurs remains an unresolved question in plasma physics. Here, we report theory, experiment, and modeling of the hysteresis. It was found experimentally and theoretically that evolution of the electron energy distribution (EED) makes a strong plasma hysteresis. In Ramsauer and non-Ramsauer gas experiments, it was revealed that the plasma hysteresis is observed only at high pressure Ramsauer gas where the EED deviates considerably from a Maxwellian shape. This hysteresis was presented in the plasma balance model where the EED is considered. Because electrons in plasmas are usually not in a thermal equilibrium, this EED-effect can be regarded as a universal phenomenon in plasma physics. This research was partially supported by Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science.

  6. Experiments and modeling of ballistic penetration using an energy failure criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolinski M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intricate problems in terminal ballistics is the physics underlying penetration and perforation. Several penetration modes are well identified, such as petalling, plugging, spall failure and fragmentation (Sedgwick, 1968. In most cases, the final target failure will combine those modes. Some of the failure modes can be due to brittle material behavior, but penetration of ductile targets by blunt projectiles, involving plugging in particular, is caused by excessive localized plasticity, with emphasis on adiabatic shear banding (ASB. Among the theories regarding the onset of ASB, new evidence was recently brought by Rittel et al. (2006, according to whom shear bands initiate as a result of dynamic recrystallization (DRX, a local softening mechanism driven by the stored energy of cold work. As such, ASB formation results from microstructural transformations, rather than from thermal softening. In our previous work (Dolinski et al., 2010, a failure criterion based on plastic strain energy density was presented and applied to model four different classical examples of dynamic failure involving ASB formation. According to this criterion, a material point starts to fail when the total plastic strain energy density reaches a critical value. Thereafter, the strength of the element decreases gradually to zero to mimic the actual material mechanical behavior. The goal of this paper is to present a new combined experimental-numerical study of ballistic penetration and perforation, using the above-mentioned failure criterion. Careful experiments are carried out using a single combination of AISI 4340 FSP projectiles and 25[mm] thick RHA steel plates, while the impact velocity, and hence the imparted damage, are systematically varied. We show that our failure model, which includes only one adjustable parameter in this present work, can faithfully reproduce each of the experiments without any further adjustment. Moreover, it is shown that the

  7. Modeling and experiment of bistable two-degree-of-freedom energy harvester with magnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Lihua

    2017-03-01

    The operating bandwidth of energy harvesters is one main concern in vibration energy harvesting due to the random and time-varying nature of most vibration sources. Recent research efforts have been made to address this issue including exploiting multimodal structures and nonlinear dynamics. These ideas have yielded some exciting results to leverage the broadband performance. Hybrid configurations combining these ideas are expected to provide an even better operating bandwidth and yet to be studied. In this paper, a bistable two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) with magnetic coupling is proposed, in which a linear parasitic oscillator attached to the main energy harvesting beam is used to generate two resonant peaks and the magnetic coupling is used to generate nonlinear dynamics, thus to achieve broadband electrical outputs. A nonlinear electromechanical model of the proposed harvester is established and the parametric study is conducted for various parasitic oscillator configurations. Experiment is subsequently performed to validate the theoretical analysis. The results indicate that nonlinear responses can appear at any of the two peaks or at both. One strong nonlinear peak in addition to a quasi-linear peak can be achieved by adequate adjustment of the parasitic oscillator. This is advantageous over the optimal linear 2-DOF PEH in terms of wider bandwidth thanks to the involved nonlinear dynamics. In addition, the load resistance has significant influence around the peak with strong nonlinear responses, resulting in evident peak shift. The best power output is accompanied with a shrunk bandwidth due to the peak shift.

  8. Modelling the effects of phase change materials on the energy use in buildings. Results of Experiments and System Dynamics Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prins, J.

    2012-02-15

    The current era is in need for more and more sustainable energy solutions. Phase Change Materials (PCM's) are a solution for a more sustainable build environment because they can help to reduce the energy use of buildings during heating and cooling of the indoor air. This paper presents the results of recent experiments that have been executed with test boxes. In addition a System Dynamics model has been developed to find out how PCM's can be used efficiently without testing in reality. The first experiment, in which PCM's were applied in a concrete floor, shows a reduction of peak temperatures with 4C {+-} 0.7C on maximum temperatures and over 1.5C {+-} 0.7C on minimum temperatures during warm periods. The model confirmed these findings, although the predicted reductions were slightly. During the second experiment more PCM's were applied by mounting them into the walls using gypsum plasterboard to increase the latent heat capacity. Remarkably, both the experimental set-up as the model showed that the increase of PCM's (of almost 98%) causes hardly any difference compared to the first situation. Adapting the exterior in a way to absorb more solar energy, increases the average indoor temperature but decreases the reduction of peak temperatures. Again the model confirmed these findings of the experiment. These results show that the effect of PCM's varies on different climatological contexts and with different construction components physics. This means no straight forward advice on the use of PCM's for a building design can be given. The solution for this problem is provided by the model, showing that the effects of PCM's can be modelled in order to use PCM's in an effective way in different climatological contexts and with different characteristics of construction components. The research shows that a simple model is already capable of predicting PCM performance in test boxes with reasonable accuracy. Therefore it can be

  9. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  10. Integrated modelling framework for short pulse high energy density physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircombe, N. J.; Hughes, S. J.; Ramsay, M. G.

    2016-03-01

    Modelling experimental campaigns on the Orion laser at AWE, and developing a viable point-design for fast ignition (FI), calls for a multi-scale approach; a complete description of the problem would require an extensive range of physics which cannot realistically be included in a single code. For modelling the laser-plasma interaction (LPI) we need a fine mesh which can capture the dispersion of electromagnetic waves, and a kinetic model for each plasma species. In the dense material of the bulk target, away from the LPI region, collisional physics dominates. The transport of hot particles generated by the action of the laser is dependent on their slowing and stopping in the dense material and their need to draw a return current. These effects will heat the target, which in turn influences transport. On longer timescales, the hydrodynamic response of the target will begin to play a role as the pressure generated from isochoric heating begins to take effect. Recent effort at AWE [1] has focussed on the development of an integrated code suite based on: the particle in cell code EPOCH, to model LPI; the Monte-Carlo electron transport code THOR, to model the onward transport of hot electrons; and the radiation hydrodynamics code CORVUS, to model the hydrodynamic response of the target. We outline the methodology adopted, elucidate on the advantages of a robustly integrated code suite compared to a single code approach, demonstrate the integrated code suite's application to modelling the heating of buried layers on Orion, and assess the potential of such experiments for the validation of modelling capability in advance of more ambitious HEDP experiments, as a step towards a predictive modelling capability for FI.

  11. Scaling water and energy fluxes in climate systems - Three land-atmospheric modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Lakshmi, Venkataraman

    1993-01-01

    Three numerical experiments that investigate the scaling of land-surface processes - either of the inputs or parameters - are reported, and the aggregated processes are compared to the spatially variable case. The first is the aggregation of the hydrologic response in a catchment due to rainfall during a storm event and due to evaporative demands during interstorm periods. The second is the spatial and temporal aggregation of latent heat fluxes, as calculated from SiB. The third is the aggregation of remotely sensed land vegetation and latent and sensible heat fluxes using TM data from the FIFE experiment of 1987 in Kansas. In all three experiments it was found that the surface fluxes and land characteristics can be scaled, and that macroscale models based on effective parameters are sufficient to account for the small-scale heterogeneities investigated.

  12. PODIO: An Event-Data-Model Toolkit for High Energy Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, F.; Hegner, B.; Mato, P.

    2017-10-01

    PODIO is a C++ library that supports the automatic creation of event data models (EDMs) and efficient I/O code for HEP experiments. It is developed as a new EDM Toolkit for future particle physics experiments in the context of the AIDA2020 EU programme. Experience from LHC and the linear collider community shows that existing solutions partly suffer from overly complex data models with deep object-hierarchies or unfavorable I/O performance. The PODIO project was created in order to address these problems. PODIO is based on the idea of employing plain-old-data (POD) data structures wherever possible, while avoiding deep object-hierarchies and virtual inheritance. At the same time it provides the necessary high-level interface towards the developer physicist, such as the support for inter-object relations and automatic memory-management, as well as a Python interface. To simplify the creation of efficient data models PODIO employs code generation from a simple yaml-based markup language. In addition, it was developed with concurrency in mind in order to support the use of modern CPU features, for example giving basic support for vectorization techniques.

  13. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.

    2013-01-01

    of waste wood combustion in a 13 MW grate-fired boiler in a WtE plant is presented. As a validation effort, the temperature profiles at a number of ports in the furnace are measured and the experimental results are compared with the CFD predictions. In the simulation, a 1D model is developed to simulate...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design......Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...

  14. Repulsive magnetic levitation-based ocean wave energy harvester with variable resonance: Modeling, simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Masoud; Wang, Ya

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates a magnetic levitation characteristic used in a vibration based energy harvester, called repulsive magnetic scavenger (RMS). The RMS is capable of harvesting ocean wave energy with a unique repelling permanent magnet array, which provides a stronger and more uniform magnetic field, compared to its attracting magnetic counterparts. The levitating magnets are stacked together around a threaded rod so that the same pole is facing each other. Two fixed magnets placed with one at each end of the RMS provides a collocated harvesting and braking mechanism in the face of high amplitude vibrations. Magnets in the levitated magnet stack are separated by pole pieces which are made of metals to intensify the magnetic field strength. The effect of the thickness and the use of different materials with different permeability for pole pieces is also studied to obtain an optimal energy harvesting efficiency. Moreover, the procedure to find the restoring force applied to the levitating magnet stack is demonstrated. Then, the Duffing vibration equation of the harvester is solved and the frequency response function is calculated for various force amplitudes and electrical damping so as to investigate the effect of these parameters on the response of the system. Furthermore, the effect of the maximum displacement of the moving magnet stack on the natural frequency of the device is studied. And finally, Faraday's law is employed to estimate the output voltage and power of the system under the specified input excitation force. Experiments show that the output emf voltage of the manufactured prototype reaches up to 42 V for an excitation force with the frequency of 9 Hz and the maximum amplitude of 3.4 g.

  15. Decay of C60 by delayed ionization and C2 emission: experiment and statistical modeling of kinetic energy release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeault, M-A; Baguenard, B; Concina, B; Calvo, F; Climen, B; Lépine, F; Bordas, C

    2012-08-07

    C(60) molecules highly excited in the nanosecond regime decay following ionization and dissociation by emitting a series of carbon dimers, as well as other small fragments if excitation is strong enough. The fragmentation mass spectrum and kinetic energy release of all charged fragments obtained in these experiments are interpreted within the framework of the Weisskopf theory, using a realistic Monte Carlo procedure in which the rates of all relevant decay channels are modeled using Arrhenius expressions. Comparison between the measurements and the simulated spectra allows the distribution of deposited energy to be accurately estimated. The dependence of the fragment kinetic energies on the laser fluence, found in the simulation but not observed in the experimental results, indicates that the small fragments are not necessarily emitted from small fullerenes resulting from C(60) by sequential decay. Rather, direct multifragmentation of C(60) is invoked to interpret the observed patterns. The possible role of post-ionization of neutral emitted fragments is discussed.

  16. Energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has turned to energy modelling in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under...

  17. An Experiment on Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Fiordilino, Emilio; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Aglieco, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We discuss an experiment on wind energy performed with home-made apparatus. The experiment reproduces a laboratory windmill, which can pump water from a lower level to a higher one. By measuring the gain of the gravitational potential energy of the pumped water, one can determine the power extracted from the wind. The activity was carried out with…

  18. Upscaling of business model experiments in off-grid PV solar energy in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash; Raven, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41331927X; Romijn, Henny

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly developing countries like India face numerous challenges related to social and environmental sustainability, which are associated with their fast economic growth and rising energy demand, climate change, and widening disparities between the rich and the poor. Recently, a number of claims

  19. Experience of applying information modeling technologies when executing infrastructure projects of fuel and energy complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinenkov Denis Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time all over the world the main concept of life cycle maintenance of complex objects is the use of data-centric information systems of engineering data management, which allow providing support of the correspondence of an object configuration to its present state. The central part of such a system is a 3D information model of the object. The information model has a fundamental advantage in comparison with typical user applications - presence of complete and up-to-date data on industrial object topology. The authors consider the practical use of information modeling technologies for solving the tasks of engineering data management on a large industrial facility on all the stages of the lifecycle: from design to utilization. Such Russian solutions are investigated as: 3D CAD POLYNOM - to create 3D model of an object, PLM/PDM-platform NEOSYNTEZ - to provide engineering data management on all the stages of the lifecycle and a software product InterBridge - to translate graphical and semantic 2D/3D data between CAD and PLM of different platforms.

  20. Reactive transport modeling of thermal column experiments to investigate the impacts of aquifer thermal energy storage on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; Breukelen, Boris M van

    2014-10-21

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems are increasingly being used to acclimatize buildings and are often constructed in aquifers used for drinking water supply. This raises the question of potential groundwater quality impact. Here, we use laboratory column experiments to develop and calibrate a reactive transport model (PHREEQC) simulating the thermally induced (5-60 °C) water quality changes in anoxic sandy sediments. Temperature-dependent surface complexation, cation-exchange, and kinetic dissolution of K-feldspar were included in the model. Optimization results combined with an extensive literature survey showed surface complexation of (oxy)anions (As, B, and PO4) is consistently exothermic, whereas surface complexation of cations (Ca and Mg) and cationic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) is endothermic. The calibrated model was applied to simulate arsenic mobility in an ATES system using a simple yet powerful mirrored axi-symmetrical grid. Results showed that ATES mobilizes arsenic toward the fringe of the warm water bubble and the center of the cold water bubble. This transient redistribution of arsenic causes its aqueous concentrations in the cold and warm groundwater bubbles to become similar through multiple heating cycles, with a final concentration depending on the average injection temperature of the warm and cold ATES wells.

  1. Energy: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Larry

    This book contains simple experiments through which students can learn about the properties of energy. These experiments include making a kitchen "volcano," a soda-pop "cannon," and a puffed-rice "scooter." Topics include: energy and work, fossil fuels, solar energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, sound energy,…

  2. Rapid energy modeling for existing buildings: Testing the business and environmental potential through an experiment at Autodesk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deodhar, Aniruddha; Stewart, Emma; Young, Rahul; Khan, Haider

    2010-09-15

    Retrofits of existing buildings represent a huge, growing market and an opportunity to achieve some of the most sizable and cost-effective carbon reductions in any sector of the economy. More 'zero energy' and 'carbon neutral' buildings are being conceived daily by combining energy efficiency measures with renewable energy technologies. However, for all the progress, the building industry faces technical and cost challenges in identifying the highest potential retrofit candidates. This presentation investigates one potential solution, a technology driven workflow called rapid energy modeling, to accelerate and scale the process of analyzing performance for existing buildings in prioritizing improvements.

  3. Reactive Transport Modeling of Thermal Column Experiments to Investigate the Impacts of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage on Groundwater Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonte, M.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; van Breukelen, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems are increasingly being used to acclimatize buildings and are often constructed in aquifers used for drinking water supply. This raises the question of potential groundwater quality impact. Here, we use laboratory column experiments to develop and

  4. Energy-balance climate models: stability experiments with a refined albedo and updated coefficients for infrared emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1978-01-01

    A zonally averaged' climate model of the energy-balance type is examined. Recently published satellite measurements were used to improve existing parameterizations of planetary albedo and outgoing radiation in terms of surface and sea level temperature. A realistic constant for the diffusion of

  5. Energy-consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  6. Thermal energy management process experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal energy management processes experiment (TEMP) will demonstrate that through the use of two-phase flow technology, thermal systems can be significantly enhanced by increasing heat transport capabilities at reduced power consumption while operating within narrow temperature limits. It has been noted that such phenomena as excess fluid puddling, priming, stratification, and surface tension effects all tend to mask the performance of two-phase flow systems in a 1-g field. The flight experiment approach would be to attack the experiment to an appropriate mounting surface with a 15 to 20 meter effective length and provide a heat input and output station in the form of heaters and a radiator. Using environmental data, the size, location, and orientation of the experiment can be optimized. The approach would be to provide a self-contained panel and mount it to the STEP through a frame. A small electronics package would be developed to interface with the STEP avionics for command and data handling. During the flight, heaters on the evaporator will be exercised to determine performance. Flight data will be evaluated against the ground tests to determine any anomalous behavior.

  7. The First Year Results of the LHCf Experiment to Verify Cosmic Ray Interaction Models at LHC Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Itow, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    The LHCf experiment is dedicated to the measurement of spectra of neutral particles at very forward region of the LHC collision point in order to verify various comsic ray interaction models used in air shower Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We report status of the first data taking at LHC and preliminary results from the first year data.

  8. Symmetron dark energy in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Amol

    2013-01-18

    The symmetron scalar field is a matter-coupled dark energy candidate which effectively decouples from matter in high-density regions through a symmetry restoration. We consider a previously unexplored regime, in which the vacuum mass μ~2.4×10(-3) eV of the symmetron is near the dark energy scale, and the matter coupling parameter M~1 TeV is just beyond standard model energies. Such a field will give rise to a fifth force at submillimeter distances which can be probed by short-range gravity experiments. We show that a torsion pendulum experiment such as Eöt-Wash can exclude symmetrons in this regime for all self-couplings λ is < or approximately equal to 7.5.

  9. Using experiments and demographic models to assess rare plant vulnerability to utlity-scale solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Pressing challenges for the implementation of solar energy are the effects of construction and operation on protected animal and plant species. Siting and mitigation of solar energy often requires understanding of basic biology and distributions of rare species that are unknown. How can we rapidly collect the information necessary on species- and site-specific population dynamics to effectively design mitigation and conservation measures? We have developed an integrated approach to assessing the vulnerability of a suite of representative rare plant species in the region. We implemented a prioritized series of demographic and experimental studies over the past four years to identify the types of species, populations, and life stages most vulnerable to impact or prone to conservation efforts. We have found substantial variation in vegetative and sexual reproduction between study populations for several rare plants, including between populations that vary in putative impact by development and/or effects of experimental solar arrays. For a subset of species, we designed population viability analysis and applied them to identify sensitive vital rates and compare quasi-extinction probabilities under different climate and impact scenarios. By utilizing practical experiments to test for the effects of real or simulated impacts, we found differences in vital rates between natural and disturbed populations adjacent to and within solar installations. We draw conclusions from our work to guide the analysis of benefits, permitting, and design of utility-scale solar energy facilities.

  10. Beyond Standard Model searches in jets plus missing transverse energy final states with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414488; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Conventi, Francesco

    Dark Matter (DM) is currently one of the most challenging goal in the LHC programme: if DM exists it can be pair-produced in proton-proton collisions. Since its weakly-interacting nature, final signatures with high missing momentum and Standard Model (SM) particles are employed in these searches. This thesis presents results on signatures involving bottom quarks in final states, described in models where DM production occurs via massive spin-0 mediators (scalar or pseudoscalar) with a coupling to SM particles proportional to their masses. These collider searches provide an interesting complementarity to DM direct and indirect detection experiments, covering the parameter space with low DM masses. The results shown in the thesis are obtained on the data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 and 2016.

  11. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  12. Simulation - modeling - experiment; Simulation - modelisation - experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    After two workshops held in 2001 on the same topics, and in order to make a status of the advances in the domain of simulation and measurements, the main goals proposed for this workshop are: the presentation of the state-of-the-art of tools, methods and experiments in the domains of interest of the Gedepeon research group, the exchange of information about the possibilities of use of computer codes and facilities, about the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena, and about development and experiment needs. This document gathers 18 presentations (slides) among the 19 given at this workshop and dealing with: the deterministic and stochastic codes in reactor physics (Rimpault G.); MURE: an evolution code coupled with MCNP (Meplan O.); neutronic calculation of future reactors at EdF (Lecarpentier D.); advance status of the MCNP/TRIO-U neutronic/thermal-hydraulics coupling (Nuttin A.); the FLICA4/TRIPOLI4 thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling (Aniel S.); methods of disturbances and sensitivity analysis of nuclear data in reactor physics, application to VENUS-2 experimental reactor (Bidaud A.); modeling for the reliability improvement of an ADS accelerator (Biarotte J.L.); residual gas compensation of the space charge of intense beams (Ben Ismail A.); experimental determination and numerical modeling of phase equilibrium diagrams of interest in nuclear applications (Gachon J.C.); modeling of irradiation effects (Barbu A.); elastic limit and irradiation damage in Fe-Cr alloys: simulation and experiment (Pontikis V.); experimental measurements of spallation residues, comparison with Monte-Carlo simulation codes (Fallot M.); the spallation target-reactor coupling (Rimpault G.); tools and data (Grouiller J.P.); models in high energy transport codes: status and perspective (Leray S.); other ways of investigation for spallation (Audoin L.); neutrons and light particles production at intermediate energies (20-200 MeV) with iron, lead and uranium targets (Le Colley F

  13. Dark Energy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Robert R.

    2013-08-01

    These lectures present an introduction to dark energy cosmology. We begin with a review of the Standard Cosmological Model, in which the accelerated cosmic expansion is due to a cosmological constant. We then turn to models of quintessence, a light cosmic scalar field, and explore the particle physics origins and cosmological behavior.

  14. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  15. A weighting lysimeter for a laboratory experiment on water and energy fluxes measurements and hydrological models verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; paleari, roberto; mantovani, federico; tarro, stefano; mancini, marco

    2017-04-01

    Weighting lysimeters allow a direct measurement of water loss from the soil, determining the soil water balance, and thus providing an interesting tool to validate hydrological models. Lysimeters, which world originates from the greek words "lysis" (movement) and "metron" (to measure) have been used to measure percolation of water through the soils for over 300 years. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to perform water and energy flux measurements under different meteorological conditions, irrigation practice (surface flood, drip and groundwater capillary rise), and soil coverage (bare soil and basil crop), 2) to verify hydrological model FEST-EWB parameterization at the lysimeter scale. A weighting lysimeter has been constructed in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. It consists of a steel box of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1 m containing reconstructed soil. The box is mounted on a scale with four load cells with a nominal weight of 6000 kg and a precision of 0,5 kg. The lysimeter is fully instrumented to measure all the main components of the hydrological cycle. Profiles of soil moisture and temperature are provided by 7 probes; ground heat flux is measured by a heat flux plate and two thermocouples; the drainage flux is measured by a tipping bucket rain gauge; the four components of radiation are provided by a net radiometer; air temperature and humidity are measured by a thermo-hygrometer. Data are collected every 10 minutes on a datalogger. A thermal camera is also installed to provide accurate maps of land surface temperature. The different instruments have been subjected to a rigorous calibration process. A low cost station is also installed based on an Arduino micro-controller measuring soil moisture and temperature, air humidity and temperature and solar radiation. The idea is to understand whether low cost instruments can be used to monitor the fundamental hydrological variables. The measured fluxes (e.g. evapotranspiration, soil moisture, land surface

  16. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  17. Energy Operation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-27

    Energy Operation Model (EOM) simulates the operation of the electric grid at the zonal scale, including inter-zonal transmission constraints. It generates the production cost, power generation by plant and category, fuel usage, and locational marginal price (LMP) with a flexible way to constrain the power production by environmental constraints, e.g. heat waves, drought conditions). Different from commercial software such as PROMOD IV where generator capacity and heat rate efficiency can only be adjusted on a monthly basis, EOM calculates capacity impacts and plant efficiencies based on hourly ambient conditions (air temperature and humidity) and cooling water availability for thermal plants. What is missing is a hydro power dispatch.

  18. High Energy Physics Research with the CMS Experiment at CERN - Energy Frontier Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Gail G. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland, is now the highest energy accelerator in the world, colliding protons with protons. On July 4, 2012, the two general-purpose experiments, ATLAS and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, announced the observation of a particle consistent with the world’s most sought-after particle, the Higgs boson, at a mass of about 125 GeV (approximately 125 times the mass of the proton). The Higgs boson is the final missing ingredient of the standard model, in which it is needed to allow most other particles to acquire mass through the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. We are members of the team in the CMS experiment that found evidence for the Higgs boson through its decay to two photons, the most sensitive channel at the LHC. We are proposing to carry out studies to determine whether the new particle has the properties expected for the standard model Higgs boson or whether it is something else. The new particle can still carry out its role in electroweak symmetry breaking but have other properties as well. Most theorists think that a single standard model Higgs boson cannot be the complete solution – there are other particles needed to answer some of the remaining questions, such as the hierarchy problem. The particle that has been observed could be one of several Higgs bosons, for example, or it could be composite. One model of physics beyond the standard model is supersymmetry, in which every ordinary particle has a superpartner with opposite spin properties. In supersymmetric models, there must be at least five Higgs bosons. In the most popular versions of supersymmetry, the lightest supersymmetric particle does not decay and is a candidate for dark matter. This proposal covers the period from June 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. During this period the LHC will finally reach its design energy, almost twice the energy at which it now runs. We will

  19. Energy System Modeling with REopt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Travis; Anderson, Kate; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; Elgqvist, Emma; DiOrio, Nick; Walker, Andy

    2016-07-15

    This poster details how REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - can help to model energy systems. Some benefits of modeling with REopt include optimizing behind the meter storage for cost and resiliency, optimizing lab testing, optimizing dispatch of utility scale storage, and quantifying renewable energy impact on outage survivability.

  20. Process-based modeling of coupled energy and water cycle under dry tropical conditions: an experiment at local scale in the cultivated Sahel (South-West Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Mainassara, I.; Boucher, M.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Ibrahim, M.; Oi, M.; Ramier, D.; Benarrosh, N.; Yahou, H.

    2012-04-01

    . Main questions raised in this modeling exercise were, whether such a model could be adequately calibrated and validated for the two studied sites, using realistic parameter values and, what uncertainty would result for model outputs (surface fluxes and soil heat/water profiles). The model was calibrated over a 2-year period and then validated over the other three years, for both sites. In both cases, observations are reproduced about as well for the two periods. The variations in water and energy variables, over the five contrasting years and between land covers, are highlighted. Multi-year, field-based estimations of land surface water and energy budgets are hence produced, for the first time in this area to our knowledge. Given model performances, it is felt that it can be applied with reasonable confidence to much longer periods, reflecting the strong variability that characterizes the Sahel climate. This modeling experiment takes part in the ALMIP (AMMA Land Model Intercomparison) project, which aims at comparing land surface models at local and meso scales over a north-south eco-climate gradient represented by three West-African sites of the AMMA-CATCH observatory (RBV network). Reference: Braud et al., 1995. A Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer model (SiSPAT) development and field verification. Journal of Hydrology 166(3-4), 213-250.

  1. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  2. The experience curve, option value, and the energy paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansar, Jasmin [Environmental Policy, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 77 Beale Street, San Francisco, CA 94106 (United States)]|[Mills College, Oakland, CA 94613 (United States); Sparks, Roger [Mills College, Oakland, CA 94613 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    This paper develops a model to explain the 'energy paradox,' the inclination of households and firms to require very high internal rates of return in order to make energy-saving investments. The model abstracts from many features of such investments to focus on their irreversibility, the uncertainty of their future payoff streams, and the investor's anticipation of future technological advance. In this setting, the decision to invest in energy-saving technology can be delayed, providing option value. In addition, delay allows the potential investor to cash in on future experience-curve effects: With the passage of time, firms gain practical knowledge in producing and installing the energy-saving technology, enabling them to reduce the technology's up-front cost per unit of energy saved. We incorporate these fundamentals into a stochastic model where the investment's discounted benefits follow geometric Brownian motion. To demonstrate the model's capabilities, we generate simulation results for photovoltaic systems that highlight the experience-curve effect as a fundamental reason why households and firms delay making energy-saving investments until internal rates of return exceed values of 50% and higher, consistent with observations in the economics literature. We also explore altruistic motivations for energy conservation and the model's implications for both 'additionality' and the design of energy-conservation policy. (author)

  3. Model-Driven Energy Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    building information model ( BIM ) for operations...estimate of the potential impact on energy performance at Fort Jackson. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Building Information Modeling ( BIM ), Energy, ECMs, monitoring...dimensional AHU Air Handling Unit API Application Programming Interface BIM building information model BLCC Building Life Cycle Cost

  4. Low energy observables with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent results in the soft QCD sector of the Standard Model are presented. Measurements of low energy observables were performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In particular, underlying event, charged particle correlation and diffraction observables are reported and various models of Monte Carlo predictions are compared to the data.

  5. Inventory of state energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

    1980-03-31

    These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

  6. Energy modelling in sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schmidt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are one of the key enabling technologies for the vision of ambient intelligence. Energy resources for sensor nodes are very scarce. A key challenge is the design of energy efficient communication protocols. Models of the energy consumption are needed to accurately simulate the efficiency of a protocol or application design, and can also be used for automatic energy optimizations in a model driven design process. We propose a novel methodology to create models for sensor nodes based on few simple measurements. In a case study the methodology was used to create models for MICAz nodes. The models were integrated in a simulation environment as well as in a SDL runtime framework of a model driven design process. Measurements on a test application that was created automatically from an SDL specification showed an 80% reduction in energy consumption compared to an implementation without power saving strategies.

  7. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  8. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility.

  9. Teaching Mass and Energy Balances by Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbey, Nese; De Jesús Vega, Marisel; Zalluhoglu, Fulya Sudur

    2017-01-01

    A general tank-draining problem was used as an experimental project in two undergraduate-level chemical engineering courses. The project aimed to illustrate the critical nature of experimentation in addition to use of mass and energy conservation principles in developing mathematical models that correctly describes a system. The students designed…

  10. Modelling Urban Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    How can urban designers develop an emotionally satisfying environment not only for today's users but also for coming generations? Which devices can they use to elicit interesting and relevant urban experiences? This paper attempts to answer these questions by analyzing the design of Zuidas, a new...

  11. Earth to Orbit Beamed Energy Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    As a means of primary propulsion, beamed energy propulsion offers the benefit of offloading much of the propulsion system mass from the vehicle, increasing its potential performance and freeing it from the constraints of the rocket equation. For interstellar missions, beamed energy propulsion is arguably the most viable in the near- to mid-term. A near-term demonstration showing the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion is necessary and, fortunately, feasible using existing technologies. Key enabling technologies are large area, low mass spacecraft and efficient and safe high power laser systems capable of long distance propagation. NASA is currently developing the spacecraft technology through the Near Earth Asteroid Scout solar sail mission and has signed agreements with the Planetary Society to study the feasibility of precursor laser propulsion experiments using their LightSail-2 solar sail spacecraft. The capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination now make it possible to investigate the practicalities of an Earth-to-orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX) - a demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail-2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously. While the technology demonstrated by such an experiment is not sufficient to enable an interstellar precursor mission, if approved, then it would be the next step toward that goal.

  12. Bridging experiments, models and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria; Burrage, Kevin; Rodríguez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    electrophysiology. Our analysis reveals that models, simulations, and experiments are intertwined, in an assemblage that is a system itself, namely the model-simulation-experiment (MSE) system. We argue that validation is part of the whole MSE system and is contingent upon 1) understanding and coping with sources...

  13. Europe's experience with carbon-energy taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge...... marked impacts on economic growth (GDP). There was a negative effect for energy-intensive industries but due to many exemptions the burden has remained modest and, where revenues have been recycled to lower employers’ costs for social security contributions, generally below 2% of gross operating surplus....... Econometrics. The results indicate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for six member states as a result of carbon-energy taxation under revenue-neutral environmental tax reform (ETR). These effects are mirrored by reductions in total fuel consumption, with the largest reductions occurring in countries...

  14. Alternate models to dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Kenath; Gudennavar, S. B.; Prasad, A.; Sivaram, C.

    2018-01-01

    One of the unresolved questions currently in cosmology is that of the non-linear accelerated expansion of the universe. This has been attributed to the so called Dark Energy (DE). The accelerated expansion of the universe is deduced from measurements of Type Ia supernovae. Here we propose alternate models to account for the Type Ia supernovae measurements without invoking dark energy.

  15. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10...... was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5...... conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments...

  16. Experiments beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-09-01

    This paper is based upon lectures in which I have described and explored the ways in which experimenters can try to find answers, or at least clues toward answers, to some of the fundamental questions of elementary particle physics. All of these experimental techniques and directions have been discussed fully in other papers, for example: searches for heavy charged leptons, tests of quantum chromodynamics, searches for Higgs particles, searches for particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, searches for particles predicted by technicolor theories, searches for proton decay, searches for neutrino oscillations, monopole searches, studies of low transfer momentum hadron physics at very high energies, and elementary particle studies using cosmic rays. Each of these subjects requires several lectures by itself to do justice to the large amount of experimental work and theoretical thought which has been devoted to these subjects. My approach in these tutorial lectures is to describe general ways to experiment beyond the standard model. I will use some of the topics listed to illustrate these general ways. Also, in these lectures I present some dreams and challenges about new techniques in experimental particle physics and accelerator technology, I call these Experimental Needs. 92 references.

  17. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  18. Models for the energy performance of low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    -building. The building is well-insulated and features large modern energy-effcient windows and oor heating. These features lead to increased non-linear responses to solar radiation and longer time constants. The building is equipped with advanced control and measuring equipment. Experiments are designed and performed......The aim of this thesis is data-driven modeling of heat dynamics of buildings. Traditionally, thermal modeling of buildings is done using simulation tools which take information about the construction, weather data, occupancy etc. as inputs and generate deterministic energy profiles of the buildings...... such as mechanical ventilation, floor heating, and control of the lighting effect, the heat dynamics must be taken into account. Hence, this thesis provides methods for data-driven modeling of heat dynamics of modern buildings. While most of the work in this thesis is related to characterization of heat dynamics...

  19. Stochastic Modelling of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2001-01-01

    of statistical methods and physical interpretation is exploited in the modelling procedure, from the design of experiments to parameter estimation and model validation. The presented models are mainly formulated as state space models in continuous time with discrete time observation equations. The state......In this thesis dynamic models of typical components in Danish heating systems are considered. Emphasis is made on describing and evaluating mathematical methods for identification of such models, and on presentation of component models for practical applications. The thesis consists of seven...... research papers (case studies) together with a summary report. Each case study takes it's starting point in typical heating system components and both, the applied mathematical modelling methods and the application aspects, are considered. The summary report gives an introduction to the scope...

  20. Establishing an Integration-Energy-Practice Model for Improving Energy Performance Indicators in ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Yung Chiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global energy sources are gradually becoming scarce and prices are continually rising. Governments and businesses in various countries are actively developing technologies for energy management and developing new sources of energy. On 15 June 2011, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO announced the ISO 50001 standard for energy management systems. Organizations and enterprises are confronted with challenges associated with enhancing energy performance indicators, continuing to improve energy consumption efficiency, and managing third-party international certifications. This study conducted cases studies of businesses that have introduced an ISO 50001 energy management system by using an integration-energy-practice model to improve energy performance indicators and to complete the international auditing and certification procedures for ISO 50001 energy management systems. Based on case study results, the achievement rates for annual energy performance indicators increased, thereby enhancing the energy intensity efficiency. Establishing an integration-energy-practice model for introducing an ISO 50001 energy management system can efficiently meet demands for energy performance indicators and pass the international certification for ISO 50001 energy management systems. The proposed model efficiently provides enterprises with methods for developing sustainable energy management. It integrates internal and external technical resources to establish energy technology think tanks, for promoting successful technology and experiences to various sectors, thereby allowing enterprises to integrate energy management, increase energy efficiency, and meet the ISO 50001 international standard for energy management systems.

  1. Search for physics beyond the Standard Model in pp collisions at the CMS experiment with a signature of a Z boson plus missing transverse energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren-Jie

    The Standard Model of elementary particles is a theory that describes the fundamental structure of matter and interactions among the elementary particles. While the gravitational evidence for the existence of Dark Matter (DM) is overwhelming, there is no good DM candidate in the Standard Model framework, and there is no evidence yet for non-gravitational interactions between DM and Standard Model particles. Therefore, the first analysis performed in this dissertation searches for evidence of particle DM production at the LHC. It uses events containing two charged leptons, consistent with the decay of a Z boson, and large missing transverse momentum. This study is based on data collected with the CMS detector corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7-1 of proton-proton collisions at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 8~TeV. No excess of events is observed above the number expected from the Standard Model contributions. The results are interpreted in terms of 90% confidence level limits on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section, as a function of the DM particle mass, for both spin-dependent and spin-independent scenarios. Limits are set on the effective cutoff scale, and on the annihilation rate for DM particles, assuming that their branching fraction to quarks is 100%. Additionally, the most stringent 95% confidence level limits to date on the unparticle model parameters are obtained. A second analysis is performed here to search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons using the same final states but in associated ZH production modes, with Z → l+l--. The study uses the full 2011 and 2012 data samples at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, respectively. The searches are sensitive to non-Standard-Model invisible decays of the recently observed Higgs boson, as well as additional Higgs bosons with similar production modes and large invisible branching fractions. The observed data are consistent with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. Limits are set on the production cross

  2. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  3. Models for 31-Mode PVDF Energy Harvester for Wearable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wearable electronics are increasingly widely used, leading to an increasing need of portable power supply. As a clean and renewable power source, piezoelectric energy harvester can transfer mechanical energy into electric energy directly, and the energy harvester based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF operating in 31-mode is appropriate to harvest energy from human motion. This paper established a series of theoretical models to predict the performance of 31-mode PVDF energy harvester. Among them, the energy storage one can predict the collected energy accurately during the operation of the harvester. Based on theoretical study and experiments investigation, two approaches to improve the energy harvesting performance have been found. Furthermore, experiment results demonstrate the high accuracies of the models, which are better than 95%.

  4. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  5. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  6. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  7. Modeling energy transport in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamatta, Arvind

    Heat transfer in nanostructures differ significantly from that in the bulk materials since the characteristic length scales associated with heat carriers, i.e., the mean free path and the wavelength, are comparable to the characteristic length of the nanostructures. Nanostructure materials hold the promise of novel phenomena, properties, and functions in the areas of thermal management and energy conversion. Example of thermal management in micro/nano electronic devices is the use of efficient nanostructured materials to alleviate 'hot spots' in integrated circuits. Examples in the manipulation of heat flow and energy conversion include nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion, thermophotovoltaic power generation, and data storage. One of the major challenges in Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices is to study the 'hot spot' generation by accurately modeling the carrier-optical phonon-acoustic phonon interactions. Prediction of hotspot temperature and position in MOSFET devices is necessary for improving thermal design and reliability of micro/nano electronic devices. Thermoelectric properties are among the properties that may drastically change at nanoscale. The efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion in a material is measured by a non-dimensional figure of merit (ZT) defined as, ZT = sigmaS2T/k where sigma is the electrical conductivity, S is the Seebeck coefficient, T is the temperature, and k is the thermal conductivity. During the last decade, advances have been made in increasing ZT using nanostructures. Three important topics are studied with respect to energy transport in nanostructure materials for micro/nano electronic and thermoelectric applications; (1) the role of nanocomposites in improving the thermal efficiency of thermoelectric devices, (2) the interfacial thermal resistance for the semiconductor/metal contacts in thermoelectric devices and for metallic interconnects in micro/nano electronic devices, (3) the

  8. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunnik, Tim [MARIN (Netherlands); Touzon, Imanol [Tecnalia (Spain); Nam, Bo Woo [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Kim, Jeong Seok [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Janson, Carl Erik [Chalmers University (Sweden); Jakobsen, Ken-Robert [EDRMedeso (Norway); Crowley, Sarah [WavEC (Portugal); Vega, Luis [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Rajagopalan, Krishnakimar [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Mathai, Thomas [Glosten (United States); Greaves, Deborah [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Ransley, Edward [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Lamont-Kane, Paul [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom); Sheng, Wanan [University College Cork (Ireland); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Thomas, Sarah [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Heras, Pilar [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Bingham, Harry [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Kurniawan, Adi [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kramer, Morten Mejlhede [Aalborg University (Denmark); Ogden, David [INNOSEA (France); Girardin, Samuel [INNOSEA (France); Babarit, Aurelien [EC Nantes (France); Wuillaume, Pierre-Yves [EC Nantes (France); Steinke, Dean [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Roy, Andre [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research (Canada); Schofield, Paul [ANSYS (United States); Kim, Kyong-Hwan [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Jansson, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); BCAM (Spain); Hoffman, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-10-16

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5 conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments, such as heave decay tests and regular and irregular wave cases. The simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. Energy Blocks — A Physical Model for Teaching Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most physics educators would agree that energy is a very useful, albeit abstract topic. It is therefore important to use various methods to help the student internalize the concept of energy itself and its related ideas. These methods include using representations such as energy bar graphs, energy pie charts, or energy tracking diagrams. Activities and analogies like Energy Theater and Richard Feynman's blocks, as well as the popular money (or wealth) analogy, can also be very effective. The goal of this paper is to describe a physical model of Feynman's blocks that can be employed by instructors to help students learn the following energy-related concepts: 1. The factors affecting each individual mechanical energy storage mode (this refers to what has been traditionally called a form of energy, and while the Modeling Method of instruction is not the focus of this paper, much of the energy related language used is specific to the Modeling Method). For example, how mass or height affects gravitational energy; 2. Energy conservation; and 3. The graphical relationships between the energy storage mode and a factor affecting it. For example, the graphical relationship between elastic energy and the change in length of a spring.

  10. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Ecological Greenhouses: Experiences from Murcia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Becerril

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a continuous growth in ecological agriculture (EA in recent years. It is recognized as a production system with rational energy use and low demand for fossil fuels. There are many studies relating to this subject, in contrast to the few studies regarding the use of energy and its impact on the environment in ecological greenhouses. This article analyzes the strategies adopted by a Transformational Agricultural Society (Sociedad Agraria de Transformación in order to improve energy efficiency in ecological greenhouses, with regards to the use of fossil fuels. The methodology is based on the Working With People (WWP Model, which involves social learning processes over 30 years in one of the largest regions of ecological crops in Spain. The results show that the measures taken to manage the greenhouses have achieved a decrease of over 80% in terms of fossil fuel consumption. The experience demonstrates that EA, as opposed to conventional agriculture (CA, is a system with great potential when it comes to reducing energy consumption and environmental improvements through various strategies.

  11. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....

  12. Modeling the Nab Experiment Electronics in SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blose, Alexander; Crawford, Christopher; Sprow, Aaron; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the Nab experiment is to measure the neutron decay coefficients a, the electron-neutrino correlation, as well as b, the Fierz interference term to precisely test the Standard Model, as well as probe for Beyond the Standard Model physics. In this experiment, protons from the beta decay of the neutron are guided through a magnetic field into a Silicon detector. Event reconstruction will be achieved via time-of-flight measurement for the proton and direct measurement of the coincident electron energy in highly segmented silicon detectors, so the amplification circuitry needs to preserve fast timing, provide good amplitude resolution, and be packaged in a high-density format. We have designed a SPICE simulation to model the full electronics chain for the Nab experiment in order to understand the contributions of each stage and optimize them for performance. Additionally, analytic solutions to each of the components have been determined where available. We will present a comparison of the output from the SPICE model, analytic solution, and empirically determined data.

  13. Experiences with auctions for renewable energy support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora Alvarez, David Fernando; Islam, Marco; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    Auctions is an increasingly popular instrument for introducing competitiveness in the support schemes for renewable energy, however, designing successful auctions appears to be a challenge. Policy makers seeking to introduce auctions are faced with a range of design choices, which may affect...

  14. Experiments with low-energy antimatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolati G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on antimatter allow us to shed light on fundamental issues of contemporary physics. The only antiatom presently available, antihydrogen, is produced making use of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD facility at CERN. International collaborations currently on the floor (ALPHA, ASACUSA and ATRAP have succeeded in producing antihydrogen and are now involved in its confinement and manipulation. The AEGIS experiment is currently completing the commissioning of the apparatus which will generate and manipulate antiatoms. The present paper, after a report on the main results achieved with antihydrogen physics, gives an overview of the AEGIS experiment, describes its current status and discusses its first target.

  15. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  16. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O A

    2007-10-29

    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  17. Large compact dimensions and high energy experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Extra dimensions; Kaluza–Klein; graviton. Abstract. Models of spacetime with extra compact dimensions and having the Standard Model fields confined to a narrow slice of 4-dimensional spacetime can have strong gravitational effects at the TeV scale as well as electroweak-strength interactions at present-day ...

  18. Economic Impacts from the Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies - The German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Frondel, Manuel; Ritter, Nolan; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Vance, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The allure of an environmentally benign, abundant, and cost-effective energy source has led an increasing number of industrialized countries to back public financing of renewable energies. Germany's experience with renewable energy promotion is often cited as a model to be replicated elsewhere, being based on a combination of far-reaching energy and environmental laws that stretch back nearly two decades. This paper critically reviews the current centerpiece of this effort, the Renewable Ener...

  19. Saturation of curvature-induced secondary flow, energy losses, and turbulence in sharp open-channel bends : Laboratory experiments, analysis, and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the influence of relative bend curvature on secondary flow, energy losses, and turbulence in sharp open-channel bends. These processes are important in natural streams with respect to sediment transport, the bathymetry and planimetry, mixing and spreading of pollutants, heat,

  20. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...... only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  1. ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ek

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.

  2. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  3. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  4. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  5. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  6. Occupant Experiences and Satisfaction with New Low-Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The development and the erection of low-energy buildings have been intensified in recent years. Still, there are only few studies on occupant experiences and satisfaction of living in low-energy houses. A questionnaire survey was therefore carried out in the autumn 2011 among occupants of low-ene...

  7. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

  8. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses....

  9. Trade-offs between Energy Efficiency improvements and additional Renewable Energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    , current issues concerning climate change and fossil fuels depletion has moved attention towards cleaner ways to produce energy. This trend facilitated the breakthrough of renewable technologies. Since then, support policies have promoted the large deployment of renewables, without considering enough...... improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, less attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures in energy systems modeling, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables’ share) are unbalanced and cost......-savings opportunities are missed. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along...

  10. Energy Conservation Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Alva Edison Foundation, Southfield, MI.

    Background information, lists of materials needed, and procedures are provided for 11 energy conservation experiments. They include: (1) five experiments on heating and cooling (investigating how insulation works, investigating how weatherstripping works, investigating how storm windows work, building a draftometer, and letting sun heat a house);…

  11. High power microwave diagnostic for the fusion energy experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Goncalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments. Th...

  12. Energy based prediction models for building acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach robust and simplified yet accurate prediction models, energy based principle are commonly used in many fields of acoustics, especially in building acoustics. This includes simple energy flow models, the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA) as well as more elaborated...... principles as, e.g., wave intensity analysis (WIA). The European standards for building acoustic predictions, the EN 12354 series, are based on energy flow and SEA principles. In the present paper, different energy based prediction models are discussed and critically reviewed. Special attention is placed...

  13. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G. [French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission CEA/DEN/DADN Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    operations at the CEA comes from the diversity of facilities to be dismantled, which are predominantly research facilities and therefore have no series advantage. There is tremendous operating feedback, however. For more than twenty years in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling research reactors or critical models and laboratories or plants. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 Millions for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2020, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, one of the largest dismantling works in the world, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. (authors)

  14. Energy Mental Models: Mechanics through Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itza-Ortiz, Salomon F.; Lawrence, Benjamin; Zollman, Dean

    2004-09-01

    We investigated students' mental models for energy, and changes in these models in going from mechanics to electromagnetism contexts. We interviewed students in a two-semester calculus-based physics course. Our research design included semi-structured interviews with demonstration. Based on our findings in the interviews we are developing a first version of an `Energy Mental Model Inventory.'

  15. Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

  16. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result...... of Balmorel as well as to inspire to new model developments and encourage new users to join the community. Some of the key strengths of the model are the flexible handling of the time and space dimensions and the combination of operation and investment optimisation. Its open source character enables diverse...

  17. Directory of Energy Information Administration models 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1995, DOE/EIA-0293(95), Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy, July 1995. Four models have been deleted in this directory as they are no longer being used: (1) Market Penetration Model for Ground-Water Heat Pump Systems (MPGWHP); (2) Market Penetration Model for Residential Rooftop PV Systems (MPRESPV-PC); (3) Market Penetration Model for Active and Passive Solar Technologies (MPSOLARPC); and (4) Revenue Requirements Modeling System (RRMS).

  18. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael; Carlini, E. Maria; Estanqueiro, Ana; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Holttinen, Hannele; Menemenlis, Nickie; Orths, Antje; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Smith, J. Charles; Soder, Lennart; Sorensen, Poul; Altiparmakis, Argyrios; Yasuda, Yoh; Miller, John

    2016-11-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases. This paper reviews international experience with curtailment of wind and solar energy on bulk power systems in recent years, with a focus on eleven countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. It examines levels of curtailment, the causes of curtailment, curtailment methods and use of market-based dispatch, as well as operational, institutional, and other changes that are being made to reduce renewable energy curtailment.

  19. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.

  20. Solar radiation practical modeling for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Daryl Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Written by a leading scientist with over 35 years of experience working at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Solar Radiation: Practical Modeling for Renewable Energy Applications brings together the most widely used, easily implemented concepts and models for estimating broadband and spectral solar radiation data. The author addresses various technical and practical questions about the accuracy of solar radiation measurements and modeling. While the focus is on engineering models and results, the book does review the fundamentals of solar radiation modeling and solar radiation m

  1. Probing Dark Energy models with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignol, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    There is a deep connection between cosmology — the science of the infinitely large — and particle physics — the science of the infinitely small. This connection is particularly manifest in neutron particle physics. Basic properties of the neutron — its Electric Dipole Moment and its lifetime — are intertwined with baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis in the early Universe. I will cover this topic in the first part, that will also serve as an introduction (or rather a quick recap) of neutron physics and Big Bang cosmology. Then, the rest of the paper will be devoted to a new idea: using neutrons to probe models of Dark Energy. In the second part, I will present the chameleon theory: a light scalar field accounting for the late accelerated expansion of the Universe, which interacts with matter in such a way that it does not mediate a fifth force between macroscopic bodies. However, neutrons can alleviate the chameleon mechanism and reveal the presence of the scalar field with properly designed experiments. In the third part, I will describe a recent experiment performed with a neutron interferometer at the Institut Laue Langevin that sets already interesting constraints on the chameleon theory. Last, the chameleon field can be probed by measuring the quantum states of neutrons bouncing over a mirror. In the fourth part, I will present the status and prospects of the GRANIT experiment at the ILL.

  2. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  3. Capabilities and accuracy of energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available consumption of future building will be. This can aid in selecting design changes to reduce energy consumption. Finally, calibrated energy models can be developed using the actual energy consumption results from a real building. Such a process can yield highly...

  4. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This directory revises and updates the 1993 directory and includes 15 models of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Three other new models in use by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) have also been included: the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), Distillate Market Model (DMM), and the Propane Market Model (PPMM). This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1994.

  5. G-corrected holographic dark energy model

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant,$G$, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of $G$, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of $G$. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of $G$- corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of $G$ on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for $G$- corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in $s-r$ plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

  6. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  7. Towards Generic Models of Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Shaker, Mohammad; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    -dependent and their applicability is usually limited to the system and the data used for model construction. Establishing models of user experience that are highly scalable while maintaing the performance constitutes an important research direction. In this paper, we propose generic models of user experience in the computer games...

  8. Optimal trade-offs between energy efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , current issues concerning climate change and fossil fuels depletion has moved attention towards cleaner ways to produce energy. This trend facilitated the breakthrough of renewable technologies. Since then, support policies have promoted the large deployment of renewables, without considering enough...... the improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, little attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables share) are unbalanced. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate...... international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along with a review of tools adopted for the analyses. The models are categorized...

  9. Overlap Synchronisation in Multipartite Random Energy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Giuseppe; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    In a multipartite random energy model, made of a number of coupled generalised random energy models (GREMs), we determine the joint law of the overlaps in terms of the ones of the single GREMs. This provides the simplest example of the so-called overlap synchronisation.

  10. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  11. Modeling energy and development: an evaluation of models and concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; Urban, F.; Benders, R.J.M.; Moll, H.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; de Vries, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599; van Vuuren, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Most global energy models are developed by institutes from developed countries, focusing primarily on issues that are important in industrialized countries. Evaluation of the results for Asia of the IPCC/SRES models shows that broad concepts of energy and development, the energy ladder and the

  12. Closing the Gap GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays and will continue to play an important role in the world to save energy and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, little is known on how much additional capital should be invested to ensure using energy efficiently as it should be, and very little is known which sub-areas, technologies, and countries shall achieve maximum greenhouse gas emissions mitigation per dollar of investment in energy efficiency worldwide. Analyzing completed and slowly moving energy efficiency projects by the Global Environment Facility during 1991-2010, Closing the Gap: GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency evaluates impacts of multi-billion-dollar investments in the world energy efficiency. It covers the following areas: 1.       Reviewing the world energy efficiency investment and disclosing the global energy efficiency gap and market barriers that cause the gap; 2.       Leveraging private funds with public funds and other resources in energy efficiency investments; using...

  13. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  14. Climate data and the energy sector: the ECEM experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Matteo; Dubus, Laurent; Claudel, Sandra; Khong, Duc-Huy; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien; Thornton, Hazel; Troccoli, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    ECEM is a Copernicus Climate Change Services project focused on the role climate has on the European energy mix (supply/demand). Climate data is converted into energy variables (energy demand and production for renewable energy sources) at country-level using statistical and physical models. Energy dataset have been gathered from a wide range of sources (e.g. ENTSO-E data and individual countries TSOs' data) to build a common database to be used to analyse the relationship between climate information and the energy sector. For the climate side, ERA-INTERIM reanalysis has been used for the essential climate variables after a bias-correction procedure. Modelling results reveal the uniqueness of each national power system, underlining the need of a diverse set of modelling methodologies. In fact, both physical and statistical models have been used, calibrated with all the available observed climate and energy data. Results demonstrate the good performance of the climate data as predictors for the target energy variables: cross-validation error for daily national electricity demand is below 2.5% while for RES generation it is commonly below 10%. Furthermore, the work has highlighted the need of high-quality and complete metadata to maximise the impact of the produced data on the targeted user community.

  15. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  16. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

  17. ENERGY PARTITIONING, ENERGY COUPLING (EPEC) EXPERIMENTS AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Dunlop, W H; Compton, S M; Kane, J O; Mirkarimi, P B; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2012-01-05

    The energy-partitioning, energy-coupling (EPEC) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will simultaneously measure the coupling of energy into both ground shock and air-blast overpressure from a laser-driven target. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of seismic and air-blast phenomena caused by a nuclear weapon. In what follows, we discuss the motivation for our investigation and briefly describe NIF. Then, we introduce the EPEC experiments, including diagnostics, in more detail.

  18. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences wi...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement.......The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...

  19. Modeling thermal dilepton radiation for SIS experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seck, Florian [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Dileptons are radiated during the whole time evolution of a heavy-ion collision and leave the interaction zone unaffected. Thus they carry valuable information about the hot and dense medium created in those collisions to the detector. Realistic dilepton emission rates and an accurate description of the fireball's space-time evolution are needed to properly describe the contribution of in-medium signals to the dilepton invariant mass spectrum. In this presentation we demonstrate how this can be achieved at SIS collision energies. The framework is implemented into the event generator Pluto which is used by the HADES and CBM experiments to produce their hadronic freeze-out cocktails. With the help of an coarse-graining approach to model the fireball evolution and pertinent dilepton rates via a parametrization of the Rapp-Wambach in-medium ρ meson spectral function, the thermal contribution to the spectrum can be calculated. The results also enable us to get an estimate of the fireball lifetime at SIS18 energies.

  20. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BIM Building Information Model BLCC building life cycle costs BPA Building Performance Analysis CAD computer assisted...utilizes information on operations, geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generating Three-Dimensional (3D) Building Information Models ( BIM ...executed a demonstration of Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and

  1. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  2. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  3. CHANGES: An Assessment Model Using Adventure Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael; Gillis, H. L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a model for using therapeutic adventure experiences to assess client or group behavior. Elements include accessing information from previous experiences with similar clients, hypothesizing about client behavior, introducing a novel adventure experience, examining potential interventions, integrating information to develop diagnoses, and…

  4. Physical Modeling of Activation Energy in Organic Semiconductor Devices based on Energy and Momentum Conservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, H.; Hu, Changjun; Lu, Zhaolin; Wang, Gaofeng

    2016-04-01

    Field effect mobility in an organic device is determined by the activation energy. A new physical model of the activation energy is proposed by virtue of the energy and momentum conservation equations. The dependencies of the activation energy on the gate voltage and the drain voltage, which were observed in the experiments in the previous independent literature, can be well explained using the proposed model. Moreover, the expression in the proposed model, which has clear physical meanings in all parameters, can have the same mathematical form as the well-known Meyer-Neldel relation, which lacks of clear physical meanings in some of its parameters since it is a phenomenological model. Thus it not only describes a physical mechanism but also offers a possibility to design the next generation of high-performance optoelectronics and integrated flexible circuits by optimizing device physical parameter.

  5. On Kinetics Modeling of Vibrational Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John O.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two models of vibrational energy exchange are compared at equilibrium to the elementary vibrational exchange reaction for a binary mixture. The first model, non-linear in the species vibrational energies, was derived by Schwartz, Slawsky, and Herzfeld (SSH) by considering the detailed kinetics of vibrational energy levels. This model recovers the result demanded at equilibrium by the elementary reaction. The second model is more recent, and is gaining use in certain areas of computational fluid dynamics. This model, linear in the species vibrational energies, is shown not to recover the required equilibrium result. Further, this more recent model is inconsistent with its suggested rate constants in that those rate constants were inferred from measurements by using the SSH model to reduce the data. The non-linear versus linear nature of these two models can lead to significant differences in vibrational energy coupling. Use of the contemporary model may lead to significant misconceptions, especially when integrated in computer codes considering multiple energy coupling mechanisms.

  6. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  7. Experiments and Data for Building Energy Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    This report documents experiments carried out in FlexHouse at Risø DTU during February and March of 2009. FlexHouse is a part of the experimental distributed energy system, Syslab. The building is controlled by one central server, where among other things it is possible to record temperature...

  8. The LHCf experiment modelling cosmic rays at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; D'Alessandro, R; Faus, A; Fukui, K; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Mizuishi, M; Menjo, H; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S B; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Tamura, T; Taki, K; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, K

    2008-01-01

    The LHCf experiment at LHC has been designed to provide a calibration of nuclear interaction models used in cosmic ray physics up to energies relevant to test the region between the knee and the GZK cut-off. Details of the detector and its performances are discussed.

  9. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  10. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  11. Energy and development : A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used explore

  12. Directory of energy information administration models 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-13

    This updated directory has been published annually; after this issue, it will be published only biennially. The Disruption Impact Simulator Model in use by EIA is included. Model descriptions have been updated according to revised documentation approved during the past year. This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1995. The first group is the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models. The second group is all other EIA models that are not part of NEMS. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems. Appendix B is a summary of the `Annual Energy Outlook` Forecasting System.

  13. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-06

    This directory contains descriptions about each model, including the title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 35 EIA models active as of May 1, 1993. Models that run on personal computers are identified by ``PC`` as part of the acronym. EIA is developing new models, a National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), and is making changes to existing models to include new technologies, environmental issues, conservation, and renewables, as well as extend forecast horizon. Other parts of the Department are involved in this modeling effort. A fully operational model is planned which will integrate completed segments of NEMS for its first official application--preparation of EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1994. Abstracts for the new models will be included in next year`s version of this directory.

  14. Modelling the energy transition in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Felix [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwarze, Bjoern; Spiekermann, Klaus; Wegener, Michael [Spiekermann und Wegener Urban and Regional Research, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The history of cities is a history of energy transitions. In the medieval city heating and cooking occurred with wood and peat. The growth of the industrial city in the 19th century was built on coal and electricity. The sprawling metropolis of the 20th century was made possible by oil and gas. How will the city of the 21st century look after the next energy transition from fossil to renewable energy? This paper reports on the extension of an urban land-use transport interaction model to a model of the energy transition in the Ruhr Area, a five-million agglomeration in Germany. The paper presents the planned model extensions and how they are to be integrated into the model and shows first preliminary results.

  15. Validation of Calibrated Energy Models: Common Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ramos Ruiz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is growing interest in all the smart technologies that provide us with information and knowledge about the human environment. In the energy field, thanks to the amount of data received from smart meters and devices and the progress made in both energy software and computers, the quality of energy models is gradually improving and, hence, also the suitability of Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs. For this reason, the measurement of the accuracy of building energy models is an important task, because once the model is validated through a calibration procedure, it can be used, for example, to apply and study different strategies to reduce its energy consumption in maintaining human comfort. There are several agencies that have developed guidelines and methodologies to establish a measure of the accuracy of these models, and the most widely recognized are: ASHRAE Guideline 14-2014, the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP and the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP. This article intends to shed light on these validation measurements (uncertainty indices by focusing on the typical mistakes made, as these errors could produce a false belief that the models used are calibrated.

  16. The database for reaching experiments and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Walker

    Full Text Available Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc. from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM. DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis.

  17. Nuclear curvature energy in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centelles, M.; Vinas, X. [Departament dEstructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Schuck, P. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS--IN2P3), Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    1996-02-01

    The difficulties arising in the calculation of the nuclear curvature energy are analyzed in detail, especially with reference to relativistic models. It is underlined that the implicit dependence on curvature of the quantal wave functions is directly accessible only in a semiclassical framework. It is shown that also in the relativistic models quantal and semiclassical calculations of the curvature energy are in good agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Li, Huiyun [Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-04-01

    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  19. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang; Li, Huiyun

    2015-04-01

    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  20. Hydraulic Hybrid Excavator—Mathematical Model Validation and Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent demands to reduce pollutant emissions and improve energy efficiency have driven the implementation of hybrid solutions in mobile machinery. This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental analysis conducted on a hydraulic hybrid excavator (HHE. The machinery under study is a middle size excavator, whose standard version was modified with the introduction of an energy recovery system (ERS. The proposed ERS layout was designed to recover the potential energy of the boom, using a hydraulic accumulator as a storage device. The recovered energy is utilized through the pilot pump of the machinery which operates as a motor, thus reducing the torque required from the internal combustion engine (ICE. The analysis reported in this paper validates the HHE model by comparing numerical and experimental data in terms of hydraulic and mechanical variables and fuel consumption. The mathematical model shows its capability to reproduce the realistic operating conditions of the realized prototype, tested on the field. A detailed energy analysis comparison between the standard and the hybrid excavator models was carried out to evaluate the energy flows along the system, showing advantages, weaknesses and possibilities to further improve the machinery efficiency. Finally, the fuel consumption estimated by the model and that measured during the experiments are presented to highlight the fuel saving percentages. The HHE model is an important starting point for the development of other energy saving solutions.

  1. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  2. Momentum and Energy Transfer in an Ionospheric Critical Ionization Velocity Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, O.; Brenning, N.; Swenson, C. M.; Primdahl, Fritz

    1995-01-01

    We present new data from the subpayload of the GRIT II ionospheric active injection experiment. The analysis made possible by these data provides a good understanding of the momentum transfer between the injected ions and the ambient ionosphere. It resolves the conflict between the two competing models for the energy transfer from the newly created ions to hot electrons, while also giving a natural coupling between the energy and momentum transfer processes.

  3. Langevin model of low-energy fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Arnold J.

    2017-09-01

    Background: Since the earliest days of fission, stochastic models have been used to describe and model the process. For a quarter century, numerical solutions of Langevin equations have been used to model fission of highly excited nuclei, where microscopic potential-energy effects have been neglected. Purpose: In this paper I present a Langevin model for the fission of nuclei with low to medium excitation energies, for which microscopic effects in the potential energy cannot be ignored. Method: I solve Langevin equations in a five-dimensional space of nuclear deformations. The macroscopic-microscopic potential energy from a global nuclear structure model well benchmarked to nuclear masses is tabulated on a mesh of approximately 107 points in this deformation space. The potential is defined continuously inside the mesh boundaries by use of a moving five-dimensional cubic spline approximation. Because of reflection symmetry, the effective mesh is nearly twice this size. For the inertia, I use a (possibly scaled) approximation to the inertia tensor defined by irrotational flow. A phenomenological dissipation tensor related to one-body dissipation is used. A normal-mode analysis of the dynamical system at the saddle point and the assumption of quasiequilibrium provide distributions of initial conditions appropriate to low excitation energies, and are extended to model spontaneous fission. A dynamical model of postscission fragment motion including dynamical deformations and separation allows the calculation of final mass and kinetic-energy distributions, along with other interesting quantities. Results: The model makes quantitative predictions for fragment mass and kinetic-energy yields, some of which are very close to measured ones. Varying the energy of the incident neutron for induced fission allows the prediction of energy dependencies of fragment yields and average kinetic energies. With a simple approximation for spontaneous fission starting conditions

  4. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the

  5. Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or any other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holographic dark energy is included, taking the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated flat universe (de Sitter-like expansion) for the two branches: {epsilon}={+-}1, of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter-like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. (orig.)

  6. High power microwave diagnostic for the fusion energy experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Goncalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments....... The ITER CTS diagnostic will inject a 1 MW 60 GHz gyrotron beam into the ITER plasma and observe the scattering off fluctuations in the plasma — to monitor the dynamics of the fast ions generated in the fusion reactions....

  7. The Utilization of Classifications in High-Energy Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Bill

    2012-03-01

    availability of electric power, etc.), this was the ideal technology for the next gamma-ray mission. Consistent with contemporary practice in particle physics, a nearly complete and detailed computer model of GLAST was made to study performance and optimize the design. The jargon in the field refers to such models generically as "the Monte Carlo" (MC) and it included a complete suite of radiation transport codes modeling most of the known interactions that particles undergo upon passage through matter. The MC is also used to provide a randomized source of incoming particles which can be made to mimic celestial sources of gamma rays as well as background cosmic rays. The cosmic rays referred to here are comprised of two main components: trapped radiation in the earth's magnetosphere and a flux of primary charged particles originating from outside. Both fluxes contain a variety of particle types including protons, heavier nuclei, electrons, and positrons. It cannot be emphasized too strongly the value that such a tool brings. Having the "Monte Carlo Truth" for each simulated event allows for the evaluation of what went right and what went wrong both at the detector level as well as at the data analysis level. The Monte Carlo simulations of GLAST are at the heart of its success today. The simulations allowed for the development of the reconstruction analysis (RA) of the flight data prior to the existence of the instrument. The RA transforms the collections of sensor readouts in an event into tracks, energies, and other higher analysis entities. In the case of GLAST, there were many iterations of the RA, first to prove the merits of the design and then, post awarding of the flight instrument contract, the creation of the code to be used in the initial phases of the mission. Since then, the now renamed Fermi-LAT mission is engaged in the 8th such iteration. Critical to the success of any experiment are the identification and quantification of the "signal." Mostly all experiments

  8. Experience with the CMS Computing Model from commissioning to collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Daniele; Cms Computing project, the

    2011-12-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the early experience with the CMS computing model from the last large scale challenge activities through the first six months of data taking. Between the initial definition of the CMS Computing Model in 2004 and the start of high energy collisions in 2010, CMS exercised the infrastructure with numerous scaling tests and service challenges. We will discuss how those tests have helped prepare the experiment for operations and how representative the challenges were to the early experience with data taking. We will outline how the experiment operations has evolved during the first few months of operations. The current state of the Computing system will be presented and we will describe the initial experience with active users and real data. We will address the issues that worked well in addition to identifying areas where future development and refinement is needed.

  9. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  10. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  11. Modeling Choice and Valuation in Decision Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a parsimonious descriptive model of individual choice and valuation in the kinds of experiments that constitute a substantial part of the literature relating to decision making under risk and uncertainty. It suggests that many of the best known "regularities" observed in those experiments may arise from a tendency for…

  12. Modeling and analysis of AGS thermal shock experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H.; Haines, J.R.

    1998-11-01

    An overview is provided on modeling and analysis of thermal shock experiments conducted with high-energy, short-pulse energy deposition in a mercury filled container in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The simulation framework utilized along with results of simulations for pressure and strain profiles are presented. While the magnitude of peak strain predictions versus data are in reasonable agreement, the temporal variations were found to differ significantly in selected cases, indicating lack of modeling of certain physical phenomena or due to uncertainties in the experimental data gathering techniques. Key thermal-shock related issues and uncertainties are highlighted.

  13. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  14. Walking model with no energy cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mario; Ruina, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We have numerically found periodic collisionless motions of a walking model consisting of linked rigid objects. Unlike previous designs, this model can walk on level ground at noninfinitesimal speed with zero energy input. The model avoids collisional losses by using an internal mode of oscillation: swaying of the upper body coupled to the legs by springs. Appropriate synchronized internal oscillations set the foot-strike collision to zero velocity. The concept might be of use for energy-efficient robots and may also help to explain aspects of human and animal locomotion efficiency.

  15. Modeling the residential demand for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    Demand for energy is derived from the demand for services that appliances and energy together provide. This raises a number of serious econometric issues when estimating energy-demand functions: delineation of short-run and long-run household responses, specification of the price variable and in particular, the assumption that the model is recursive, or in other words, that the appliance choice equation and the energy consumption equation are uncorrelated. The dissertation utilizes a structural model of energy use whose theoretical underpinnings derive from the conditional logit model and an extension of that model to the joint-discrete/continuous case by Dubin and McFadden (1980). It uses the 1978 to 1979 National Interim Energy Comsumption Survey. Three appliance portfolio choices are analyzed; choice of water and space heating and central air-conditioning; choice of room air conditioners; and choice of clothes dryers, either as multinomial logit or binary probit choices. Results varied widely across the appliance choice considered; use of Hausman's test led to acceptance of the null hypothesis of orthogonality in some cases but not in others. Demand for electricity and natural gas tended to be price inelastic; however, estimated own-price effects differed considerably when disaggregated by appliance categories and across methods of estimation.

  16. Modelling of micro vibration energy harvester considering size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuangye; Huo, Rui; Wang, Weike

    2017-09-01

    Considering increase of stiffness caused by size effect, equivalent Young's modulus was introduced for futher analysis. Experimental platform was established to test vibration characteristics. Dynamic equation for micro piezoelectric cantilever beam considering size effect was studied with finite element analysis and experiment. Results shows it is accurate. Based on that, dynamic model for micro vibration energy harvester was improved, a T-type micro vibration energy harvester was designed and fabricated. Resonant frequency, tip displacement and output voltage of the harvester were obtained. Comparing with macroscopic model for vibration harvester, improved one reduces errors by 13%, 35% and 22%.

  17. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or

  18. An in-space wireless energy transmission experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpadden, J.O.; Little, F.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Duke, M.B. [Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, TX (United States); Ignatiev, A. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center

    1996-12-31

    The concept for an orbiting power satellite capable of supplying the needs of several co-orbiting manufacturing satellites is similar to the central power station and distribution network found on Earth. An experiment for testing a portion of such an ``Orbital Power and Light`` space power utility system--a retrodirective phased array energy transmission system in space--is described. The experiment will demonstrate the ability of a wireless power transmission system to acquire and maintain a target in space. The experiment will consist of a planar phased array antenna on the Space Shuttle beaming to a target rectenna with a pilot guide beam on the free flying Wake Shield Facility (WSF).

  19. Jet energy scale uncertainty and resolution in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Doglioni, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    About one year after the first proton proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of sqrt(s)= 7 TeV the ATLAS experiment has achieved an accuracy of the jet energy measurement between 2-4\\% for jet transverse momenta from 20 GeV to 2 TeV in the pseudo-rapidity region up to eta=4.5. The jet energy scale uncertainty is derived from in-situ single hadron response measurement along with systematic variations in the Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events with only two jets at high transverse momentum is exploited. The obtained uncertainty is confirmed by direct in-situ measurements exploiting the transverse momentum balance between a jet and a well measured reference like the photon transverse in photon-jet events or the total transverse track momentum. Jets in the TeV-energy regime can be also tested using a system of well calibrated jets at low transverse momenta against a high-pt jet. The jet energy resolution can be determined in in-s...

  20. Jet energy scale uncertainty and resolution in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Doglioni, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    About one year after the first proton proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of sqrt(s)= 7 TeV the ATLAS experiment has achieved an accuracy of the jet energy measurement between 2-4% for jet transverse momenta from 20 GeV to 2 TeV in the pseudo-rapidity region up to eta=4.5. The jet energy scale uncertainty is derived from in-situ single hadron response measurement a long with systematic variations in the Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events with only two jets at high transverse momentum is exploited. The obtained uncertainty is confirmed by direct in-situ measurements exploiting the transverse momentum balance between a jet and a well measured reference like the photon transverse in photon-jet events or the total transverse track momentum. Jets in the TeV-energy regime can be also tested using a system of well calibrated jets at low transverse momenta against a high-pt jet. The jet energy resolution can be determined in in-s...

  1. Energy model for rumor propagation on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuo; Zhuang, Fuzhen; He, Qing; Shi, Zhongzhi; Ao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of social networks, the impact of rumor propagation on human lives is more and more significant. Due to the change of propagation mode, traditional rumor propagation models designed for word-of-mouth process may not be suitable for describing the rumor spreading on social networks. To overcome this shortcoming, we carefully analyze the mechanisms of rumor propagation and the topological properties of large-scale social networks, then propose a novel model based on the physical theory. In this model, heat energy calculation formula and Metropolis rule are introduced to formalize this problem and the amount of heat energy is used to measure a rumor’s impact on a network. Finally, we conduct track experiments to show the evolution of rumor propagation, make comparison experiments to contrast the proposed model with the traditional models, and perform simulation experiments to study the dynamics of rumor spreading. The experiments show that (1) the rumor propagation simulated by our model goes through three stages: rapid growth, fluctuant persistence and slow decline; (2) individuals could spread a rumor repeatedly, which leads to the rumor’s resurgence; (3) rumor propagation is greatly influenced by a rumor’s attraction, the initial rumormonger and the sending probability.

  2. Firn Model Intercomparison Experiment (FirnMICE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Jessica M.D.; Stevens, C. Max; Arthern, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cold dry snow and firn plays important roles in glaciology; however, the physical formulation of a densification law is still an active research topic. We forced eight firn-densification models and one seasonal-snow model in six different experiments by imposing step changes in tempe...

  3. Selection of perturbation experiments for model discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatcheva, Ivayla; de Jong, Hidde; Mars, Nicolaas

    2000-01-01

    It often occurs that a system can be described by several competing models. In order to distinguish among the alternative models, further information about the behavior of the system is required. One way to obtain such information is to perform suitably chosen perturbation experiments. We introduce

  4. Development of the Concept of Energy Conservation using Simple Experiments for Grade 10 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachniyom, S.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop students’ concept of and retention rate in relation to energy conservation. Activities included simple and easy experiments that considered energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy. The participants were 30 purposively selected grade 10 students in the second semester of the 2016 academic year. The research tools consisted of learning lesson plans and a learning achievement test. Results showed that the experiments worked well and were appropriate as learning activities. The students’ achievement scores significantly increased at the statistical level of 05, the students’ retention rates were at a high level, and learning behaviour was at a good level. These simple experiments allowed students to learn to demonstrate to their peers and encouraged them to use familiar models to explain phenomena in daily life.

  5. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P. (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Murakami, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P[sub rf] [approximately] 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  6. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P. [Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Murakami, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P{sub rf} {approximately} 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  7. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-03

    This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiation. It is based on the model used to calculate temperatures and volume fractions in an annular vessel containing an aqueous solution of uranium . The experiment was repeated at several electron beam power levels, but the CFD analysis was performed only for the 12 kW irradiation, because this experiment came the closest to reaching a steady-state condition. The aim of the study is to compare results of the calculation with experimental measurements to determine the validity of the CFD model.

  8. Addressing Energy System Modelling Challenges: The Contribution of the Open Energy Modelling Framework (oemof)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilpert, Simon; Günther, Stephan; Kaldemeyer, Cord

    2017-01-01

    complexity of energy systems and high uncertainties on different levels. In addition, interdisciplinary modelling is necessary for getting insight in mechanisms of an integrated world. At the same time models need to meet scientific standards as public acceptance becomes increasingly important......The process of modelling energy systems is accompanied by challenges inherently connected with mathematical modelling. However, due to modern realities in the 21st century, existing challenges are gaining in magnitude and are supplemented with new ones. Modellers are confronted with a rising....... In this intricate environment model application as well as result communication and interpretation is also getting more difficult. In this paper we present the open energy modelling framework (oemof) as a novel approach for energy system modelling and derive its contribution to existing challenges. Therefore, based...

  9. Metamaterial Model of Tachyonic Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dark energy with negative pressure and positive energy density is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Quite a few theoretical models of dark energy are based on tachyonic fields interacting with itself and normal (bradyonic matter. Here, we propose an experimental model of tachyonic dark energy based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Wave equation describing propagation of extraordinary light inside hyperbolic metamaterials exhibits 2 + 1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the metamaterial. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational force between extraordinary photons. We demonstrate that this model has a self-interacting tachyonic sector having negative effective pressure and positive effective energy density. Moreover, a composite multilayer SiC-Si hyperbolic metamaterial exhibits closely separated tachyonic and bradyonic sectors in the long wavelength infrared range. This system may be used as a laboratory model of inflation and late time acceleration of the universe.

  10. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jiali [Physics department, Kunming University, Kunming, 650214 (China); Tiedt, Douglas [Physics department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, 57701-3995 (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  11. OSeMOSYS Energy Modeling Using an Extended UTOPIA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The OSeMOSYS project offers open-access energy modeling to a wide audience. Its relative simplicity makes it appealing for academic research and governmental organizations to study the impacts of policy decisions on an energy system in the context of possibly severe greenhouse gases emissions limitations. OSeMOSYS is a tool that enhances the…

  12. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2014-10-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  13. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  14. Our clinical experience in low-energy laser medical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Bruckner, Ion I.; Crangulescu, Nicolae; Moldovan, Corneliu I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Stanciulescu, Viorica; Ionescu, Elena

    1996-05-01

    In clinical research the efficiency of low-energy laser (LEL) therapy remains controversial. We present here some of the most important results of our clinical experience in this field. We summarize our opinions about the LEL effects in rheumatic diseases, in chronic pelvic inflammatory disorders, in the treatment of some dermatological disorders, and in the recovery of the distal forearm nerve from traumatic lesion after surgical suture. We conclude that these results may be important evidence for the real clinical efficiency of the LEL.

  15. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  16. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  17. Numerical Forecasting Experiment of the Wave Energy Resource in the China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-term forecasting of wave energy is important to provide guidance for the electric power operation and power transmission system and to enhance the efficiency of energy capture and conversion. This study produced a numerical forecasting experiment of the China Sea wave energy using WAVEWATCH-III (WW3, the latest version 4.18 wave model driven by T213 (WW3-T213 and T639 (WW3-T639 wind data separately. Then the WW3-T213 and WW3-T639 were verified and compared to build a short-term wave energy forecasting structure suited for the China Sea. Considering the value of wave power density (WPD, “wave energy rose,” daily and weekly total storage and effective storage of wave energy, this study also designed a series of short-term wave energy forecasting productions. Results show that both the WW3-T213 and WW3-T639 exhibit a good skill on the numerical forecasting of the China Sea WPD, while the result of WW3-T639 is much better. Judging from WPD and daily and weekly total storage and effective storage of wave energy, great wave energy caused by cold airs was found. As there are relatively frequent cold airs in winter, early spring, and later autumn in the China Sea and the surrounding waters, abundant wave energy ensues.

  18. Modelling household responses to energy effciency interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specically the ... intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more effcient compact

  19. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-03

    Nov 3, 2016 ... and galaxy clustering statistics [15] are −1.67 <ω<. −0.62 and −1.33 <ω< −0.79, respectively. LRS Bianchi type-I cosmological models are inves- tigated by Akarsu and Kilinic [16] in the presence of dynamically anisotropic dark energy and perfect fluid. Precise solutions of Einstein's field equations.

  20. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  1. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł; Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  2. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurygin A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  3. Energy Blocks--A Physical Model for Teaching Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most physics educators would agree that energy is a very useful, albeit abstract topic. It is therefore important to use various methods to help the student internalize the concept of energy itself and its related ideas. These methods include using representations such as energy bar graphs, energy pie charts, or energy tracking diagrams.…

  4. The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

  5. A Model School Facility for Energy (with Related Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Seth; Crutchfield, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Energy modeling can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. Different types of energy models are developed at various stages of a project to provide data that can verify or disprove suggested energy-efficiency measures. Education institutions should understand what an energy model can do and, more important,…

  6. Modelling energy utilization for laying type Pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Neme

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were carried out to determine energy metabolized (EM requirement model for starting and growing pullets from different strains, at five ambient temperatures and different percentage feather coverage. In Trial I, metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance (MEm and efficiency of energy utilization were estimated using 64 birds of two different strains, Hy-Line W36 (HLW36 and Hy-Line Semi-heavy (HLSH, from 9 to 13 weeks of age. The effects of ambient temperature (12, 18, 24, 30 and 36ºC and percentage feather coverage (0, 50 and 100% on MEm were assessed in the second trial, using 48 birds per temperature per strain (HLSH and HLW36 from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Trial III evaluated ME requirements for weight gain (MEg using 1,200 birds from two light strains (HLW36 and Hisex Light, HL and two semi-heavy strains (HLSH and Hisex Semi-heavy, HSH reared until 18 weeks of age. According to the prediction models, MEm changed as a function of temperature and feather coverage, whereas MEg changed as a function of age and bird strain. Thus, two models were developed for birds aged 1 to 6 weeks, one model for the light strain and one for the semi-heavy strain. Energy requirements (ER were different among strains from 7 to 12 weeks, and therefore 4 models were elaborated. From 13 to 18 weeks, one single model was produced for semi-heavy birds, since ER between semi-heavy strains were not different, whereas two different models were elaborated for the light layers. MEg of light birds was higher than MEg of semi-heavy birds, independent of age.

  7. Monitoring of the energy scale in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083282

    The question of the absolute mass scale of neutrinos is of particular interest for particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The KATRIN experiment (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) aims to address the effective electron antineutrino mass from the shape of the tritium $\\beta$-spectrum with an unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. One of the major systematic effects concerns the experimental energy scale, which has to be stable at the level of only a few parts in a million. For its calibration and monitoring the monoenergetic electrons emitted in the internal conversion of $\\gamma$-transition of the metastable isotope $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr will be extensively applied. The aim of this thesis is to address the problem of KATRIN energy scale distortions and its monitoring in detail. The source of electrons based on $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr embedded in a solid as well as the source based on gaseous $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr are studied. Based on the experimental results an approach for the continuous stability m...

  8. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-07-08

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E{sup 3}) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term ({approximately}2,100) context. The E{sup 3} model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E{sup 3} area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E{sup 3} model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E{sup 3} model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E{sup 3} study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E{sup 3} model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project.

  9. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast...... the power output from PV and solar thermal collector systems. The first approach is based on a developed statistical clear-sky model, which is used for estimating the clear-sky output solely based on observations of the output. This enables local effects such as shading from trees to be taken into account....... The second approach to solar power forecasting is based on conditional parametric modelling. It is well suited for forecasting of solar thermal power, since is it can be make non-linear in the inputs. The approach is also extended to a probabilistic solar power forecasting model. The statistical clear...

  10. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby develop well handling bicycles for specific user groups in a much shorter time span. The recent benchmarking of the Whipple bicycle model for the balance and steer of a bicycle is an opening enabling t...

  11. PECULIARITIES OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY BUSINESS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLOI Ionut-Cosmin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By exploring the competitiveness of industries and companies, we could identify the factors whose importance is likely to generate competitive advantage. An inventory of content elements of the business model summarizes the clearest opportunities and prospects. The objectives developed throughout the paper want to identify the pillars of a renewable business model and to describe the strategic dimensions of their capitalisation in regional and national energy entrepreneurship. The trend of increasing the renewable energy business volume is driven by the entrepreneurs and company’s availability to try new markets, with many unpredictable implications and the willingness of these players or their creditors to spend their savings, in various forms, for the concerned projects. There is no alternative to intensive investment strategies, given that the small projects are not able to create high value and competitiveness for interested entrepreneurs. For this reason, the international practice shows that the business models in energy production are supported by partnerships and networks of entrepreneurs who are involved in the development of large projects. The most important feature of renewable business initiatives is on attracting the latest clean emerging technologies, and obviously the investors who can assume the risk of such great projects. The benefits of a well developed business model recommend a prudent approach in the launching in the investment strategies, because the competitive contexts hide always some dissatisfaction of the partners that endanger the business concept’s success. The small firms can develop a profitable business model by exploring the opportunity of the alliances, namely the particular joint ventures (association between Romanian and foreign firms. The advantages of joint venture's partners are considerable; they include access to expertise, resources and other assets that the partners could not achieve on their own

  12. A Comparison between High-Energy Radiation Background Models and SPENVIS Trapped-Particle Radiation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We have been assessing the effects of background radiation in low-Earth orbit for the next generation of X-ray and Cosmic-ray experiments, in particular for International Space Station orbit. Outside the areas of high fluxes of trapped radiation, we have been using parameterizations developed by the Fermi team to quantify the high-energy induced background. For the low-energy background, we have been using the AE8 and AP8 SPENVIS models to determine the orbit fractions where the fluxes of trapped particles are too high to allow for useful operation of the experiment. One area we are investigating is how the fluxes of SPENVIS predictions at higher energies match the fluxes at the low-energy end of our parameterizations. I will summarize our methodology for background determination from the various sources of cosmogenic and terrestrial radiation and how these compare to SPENVIS predictions in overlapping energy ranges.

  13. Nanodosimetry of electrons: analysis by experiment and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantsar, A; Pszona, S

    2015-09-01

    Nanodosimetry experiments for high-energy electrons from a (131)I radioactive source interacting with gaseous nitrogen with sizes on a scale equivalent to the mass per area of a segment of DNA and nucleosome are described. The discrete ionisation cluster-size distributions were measured in experiments carried out with the Jet Counter. The experimental results were compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo modelling. The descriptors of radiation damages have been derived from the data obtained from ionisation cluster-size distributions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... grasps. These affordances are represented probabilistically with grasp densities, which correspond to continuous density functions defined on the space of 6D gripper poses. A grasp density characterizes an object’s grasp affordance; densities are linked to visual stimuli through registration......We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...

  15. Bicycle Rider Control : Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby

  16. High energy physics experiment triggers and the trustworthiness of software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, T.

    1991-10-01

    For all the time and frustration that high energy physicists expend interacting with computers, it is surprising that more attention is not paid to the critical role computers play in the science. With large, expensive colliding beam experiments now dependent on complex programs working at startup, questions of reliability -- the trustworthiness of software -- need to be addressed. This issue is most acute in triggers, used to select data to record -- and data to discard -- in the real time environment of an experiment. High level triggers are built on codes that now exceed 2 million source lines -- and for the first time experiments are truly dependent on them. This dependency will increase at the accelerators planned for the new millennium (SSC and LHC), where cost and other pressures will reduce tolerance for first run problems, and the high luminosities will make this on-line data selection essential. A sense of this incipient crisis motivated the unusual juxtaposition to topics in these lectures. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Cooling tower plume - model and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizek Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the description of the simple model of the, so-called, steam plume, which in many cases forms during the operation of the evaporative cooling systems of the power plants, or large technological units. The model is based on semi-empirical equations that describe the behaviour of a mixture of two gases in case of the free jet stream. In the conclusion of the paper, a simple experiment is presented through which the results of the designed model shall be validated in the subsequent period.

  18. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Ahle, L E; Baca, D; Bangerter, R O; Bieniosek, F M; Celata, C M; Chacon-Golcher, E; Davidson, R C; Faltens, A; Friedman, A; Franks, R M; Grote, D P; Haber, I; Henestroza, E; de Hoon, M J; Kaganovich, I; Karpenko, V P; Kishek, R A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Meier, W R; Molvik, W; Olson, C; Prost, L R; Qin, H; Rose, D; Sabbi, G L; Sangster, T C; Seidl, P A; Sharp, W M; Shuman, D; Vay, J L; Waldron, W L; Welch, D; Yu, S S

    2001-07-10

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (approx 100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies ({approx} 1 - 10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tun depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now beginning at LBNL. The mission of the HCX is to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will

  19. Modeling Users' Experiences with Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karapanos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved from the study of the usability of interactive products towards a more holistic understanding of how they may mediate desired human experiences.  This book identifies the notion of diversity in usersʼ experiences with interactive products and proposes methods and tools for modeling this along two levels: (a) interpersonal diversity in usersʽ responses to early conceptual designs, and (b) the dynamics of usersʼ experiences over time. The Repertory Grid Technique is proposed as an alternative to standardized psychometric scales for modeling interpersonal diversity in usersʼ responses to early concepts in the design process, and new Multi-Dimensional Scaling procedures are introduced for modeling such complex quantitative data. iScale, a tool for the retrospective assessment of usersʼ experiences over time is proposed as an alternative to longitudinal field studies, and a semi-automated technique for the analysis of the elicited exper...

  20. Direct regional energy/economic modeling (DREEM) design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.D.; Pleatsikas, C.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the use of regional and multiregional economic models for estimating the indirect and induced impacts of Federally-mandated energy policies. It includes an examination of alternative types of energy policies that can impact regional economies and the available analytical frameworks for measuring the magnitudes and spatial extents of these impacts. One such analytical system, the National Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES), currently operational in the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), is chosen for more detailed investigation. The report summarizes the models capabilities for addressing various energy policy issues and then demonstrates the applicability of the model in specified contexts by developing appropriate input data for three scenarios. These scenarios concern the multi-state impacts of alternative coal-mining-development decisions, multi-regional impacts of macroeconomic change, and the comprehensive effects of an alternative national energy supply trajectory. On the basis of this experience, the capabilities of NRIES for analyzing energy-policy issues are summarized in a concluding chapter.

  1. Willingness to pay for renewable energy investment in Korea: A choice experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Se-Ju [Department of Economics, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea); Yoo, Seung-Hoon [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    Renewable energy sources are considered as alternatives for coping with the high price of oil and global warming. The Korean government has set a target that 11% of the total primary energy supply should be obtained through renewable energy sources until 2030. In order to develop proper policies for renewable energy investment, it is necessary to analyze the benefits of renewable energy investment based on households' willingness to pay. This study attempts to apply a choice experiment (CE) for assessing renewable energy investment in Korea. Moreover, we employ a multinomial probit (MNP) model to relax the assumption that all respondents have the same preferences for the attributes being valued, which is usually required in empirical CE studies. An MNP model allows the most flexible pattern of error correlation structure. The results reveal that the Korean public puts a value on the protection of wildlife, reduction of pollution, and increased employment opportunities. On the other hand, respondents do not derive significant values from the improvement of landscapes. This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning policies related to renewable energy investment. (author)

  2. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  3. Scripted Building Energy Modeling and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Benne, K.; Goldwasser, D.

    2012-08-01

    Building energy modeling and analysis is currently a time-intensive, error-prone, and nonreproducible process. This paper describes the scripting platform of the OpenStudio tool suite (http://openstudio.nrel.gov) and demonstrates its use in several contexts. Two classes of scripts are described and demonstrated: measures and free-form scripts. Measures are small, single-purpose scripts that conform to a predefined interface. Because measures are fairly simple, they can be written or modified by inexperienced programmers.

  4. Modeling and Analysis of AGS (1998) Thermal Shock Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1999-11-14

    An overview is provided on modeling and analysis of thermal shock experiments conducted during 1998 with high-energy, short-pulse energy deposition in a mercury filled container in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The simulation framework utilized along with the results of simulations for pressure and strain profiles are presented. While the magnitude of penk strain predictions versus data are in reasonable agreement, the temporal variations were found to differ significantly in selected cases, indicating lack of modeling of certain physical phenomena or due to uncertainties in the experimental data gathering techniques. Key thermal-shock related issues and uncertainties are highlighted. Specific experiments conducted at BNL's AGS facility during 1998 (the subject of this paper) involved high-energy (24 GeV) proton energy deposition in the mercury target over a time frame of - 0.1s. The target consisted of an - 1 m. long cylindrical stainless steel shell with a hemispherical dome at the leading edge. It was filled with mercury at room temperature and pressure. Several optical strain gages were attached to the surface of the steel target. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the test vessel along with the main dimensions and positions of three optical strain gages at which meaningful data were obtained. As

  5. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    PLAN, an energy system analysis tool, is chosen to develop the reference energy model. Secondly, this reference model is used to investigate the alternative energy system for integrating renewable energies. Three scenarios are developed towards the energy system of Beijing in 2030, which are: (i) reference...

  6. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  7. Isotope Separation and Decay Energy Calculation for LISA Commissioning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathaniel; Barker, Alyson; Garrett, Sierra; Rogers, Warren F.; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The commissioning experiment for the Large multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (LISA) was designed to investigate properties of neutron-unstable excited states of the 24O. The array is located at the NSCL, MSU and is used in conjunction with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and the Sweeper Magnet. Oxygen fragments produced by the 26F secondary beam incident on a Be target are directed through the Sweeper Chamber which includes two tracking CRDC detectors, an ion chamber, and a thin and thick scintillator. Plotting the fragment's trajectory position vs. angle vs. time of flight allows for separation of the individual 22 , 23 , and 24 O isotopes, necessary for the calculation of the decay properties of individual states. Anomalous features in the fragments' emittance distribution, believed to result from little understood issues with the tracking detectors, required that we adopt a slightly different approach than that developed recently by the collaboration. Once the isotopes are successfully separated, decay energies are calculated by applying mass-invariant decay spectroscopy by associating the fragment's precise trajectory (determined by inverse-tracking through the Sweeper Magnet) and energy with those of the emitted neutron. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-1101745.

  8. Data collection from energy certificates. Experiences and analysis. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Diefenbach, Nikolaus (eds.); Popiolek, Malgorzata; Panek, Aleksander [Narodowa Agencja Poszanowania Energii S.A. (NAPE), Warsaw (Poland); Cohen, Robert [Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd (ESD), Overmoor (GB)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    Apart from the described bottom-up approach DATAMINE also aims at drawing general conclu-sions concerning monitoring with the help of energy certificates. Of course 12 projects simultane-ously being carried out in 12 EU countries bring up the question if there is a way for a common analysis of the collected data or at least for a common understanding of the data from different projects. Against that background a harmonised data structure with 255 data fields was defined. The ''philosophy'' of this approach was as follows: Each project partner could use his own data structure and carry out his analysis in an individual way according to the objectives and conditions of his individual model project. But at the end he had to translate his data base in the harmonised data structure and to deliver it to the project coordinator IWU who collect all data in a common evaluation data base. This will make possible a cross-country comparison of the collected data - taking into consideration that because of the different types of energy certificates neither all data fields of the data structure can be filled in by the model projects nor will a comparison of all model projects be possible. So the harmonised data structure can be seen as a simplified ''common lan-guage'' that facilitates an understanding of data bases from different projects. A detailed descrip-tion of the data structure among with other general results from the first DATAMINE workpackages which were carried out before the model projects is given in the DATAMINE synthesis report ''Con-cepts for Data Collection and Analysis'' from December 2006 which is also available on the project website. (orig.)

  9. Modeling variability in porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Bowen; Bao, Jie; Oostrom, Mart; Battiato, Ilenia; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-07-01

    Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e.,fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rate. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  10. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  11. Modelling Regional Energy Use for Evaluating Global Climate Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen JC; Toet AMC; Vries HJM de; Wijngaart RA van den; MTV

    1995-01-01

    The Energy-Economy model presented in this report is a submodel of the integrated IMAGE 2.1 model (Integrated Model for Analyzing Greenhouse Effects). The Energy-Economy submodel computes total energy use, with a focus on final energy consumption in end-use sectors, based on economic activity levels

  12. Valuation Model for Adding Energy Resource into Autonomous Energy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, E.; Negeri, E.O.; Van Wijk, A.; Baken, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of distributed generation (DG), clusters that can autonomously manage their energy profile are emerging in the power grid. These autonomous clusters manage their load profiles by orchestrating their energy resources, such as DG, storage, flexible energy consuming appliances,

  13. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  14. The experiences of mastery of stand-by energy demand; Les experiences de MDE stand by

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the residential sector of the OECD countries, the electricity losses of domestic appliances in stand-by position represent 1.5% of the total electricity consumption. This study belongs to the SAVE project (pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy). Its aim is to observe the policies and experiments implemented by municipalities and municipal energy companies for the abatement of the electricity consumptions of stand-by origin. A working group consisting of the German Stadtwerke and some international partners have debated the possible actions and documents for an efficient information of the public. This document presents the brochures and local actions of this program. (J.S.)

  15. Variable Renewable Energy in Long-Term Planning Models: A Multi-Model Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Blanford, Geoffrey [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Young, David [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States); Marcy, Cara [U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Namovicz, Chris [U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Edelman, Risa [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Meroney, Bill [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Sims, Ryan [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Stenhouse, Jeb [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Long-term capacity expansion models of the U.S. electricity sector have long been used to inform electric sector stakeholders and decision-makers. With the recent surge in variable renewable energy (VRE) generators — primarily wind and solar photovoltaics — the need to appropriately represent VRE generators in these long-term models has increased. VRE generators are especially difficult to represent for a variety of reasons, including their variability, uncertainty, and spatial diversity. This report summarizes the analyses and model experiments that were conducted as part of two workshops on modeling VRE for national-scale capacity expansion models. It discusses the various methods for treating VRE among four modeling teams from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The report reviews the findings from the two workshops and emphasizes the areas where there is still need for additional research and development on analysis tools to incorporate VRE into long-term planning and decision-making. This research is intended to inform the energy modeling community on the modeling of variable renewable resources, and is not intended to advocate for or against any particular energy technologies, resources, or policies.

  16. Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Future large-scale implementation of wave energy converts (WECs) will introduce an anthropogenic activity in the ocean which may contribute to underwater noise. The Ocean houses several marine species with acoustic sensibility; consequently the potential impact of the underwater noise needs to be addressed. At present, there are no acoustic impact studies based on acquired data. The WEAM project (Wave Energy Acoustic Monitoring) aims at developing an underwater noise monitoring plan for WECs. The development of an acoustic monitoring plan must consider the sound propagation in the ocean, identify noise sources, understand the operational characteristics and select adequate instrumentation. Any monitoring strategy must involve in-situ measurements. However, the vast distances which sound travels within the ocean, can make in-situ measurements covering the entire area of interest, impracticable. This difficulty can be partially overcome through acoustic numerical modelling. This paper presents a synthetic study, on the application of acoustic forward modelling and the evaluation of the impact of noise produced by wave energy devices on marine mammals using criteria based on audiograms of dolphins, or other species. The idea is to illustrate the application of that methodology, and to show to what extent it allows for estimating distances of impacts due to acoustic noise.

  17. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  18. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  19. NEEDS for LHC experiment planning from results of very high energy cosmic ray Investigations (NEEDS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrukhin A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 12 years ago, at 12th ISVHECRI, a special NEEDS workshop was held to discuss future LHC data required for interpretation of cosmic ray experiments. Now, when the main task of LHC is solved – the Higgs boson is discovered – the question “What will be the next?” is very actual. In this paper the results of cosmic ray experiments at LHC energies are considered. Their possible explanation in the frame of a new model of production of quark-gluon matter blobs is discussed. The necessity to pass in LHC experiments from investigations of pp-interactions to investigations of nucleus-nucleus interactions is underlined since cosmic rays consist mainly of nuclei (≈ 60% which interact with nuclei of air. But namely in these nucleus-nucleus interactions many unusual results were obtained in cosmic ray investigations. Corresponding tasks for future LHC experiments are proposed.

  20. A Detailed Level Kinetics Model of NO Vibrational Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Gilmore, John; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Several contemporary problems have pointed to the desirability of a detailed level kinetics approach to modeling the distribution of vibrational energy in NO. Such a model is necessary when vibrational redistribution reactions are insufficient to maintain a Boltzmann distribution over the vibrational energy states. Recent calculations of the rate constant for the first reaction of the Zeldovich mechanism (N2 + O (goes to) NO + N) have suggested that the product NO is formed in high vibrational states. In shock layer flowfields, the product NO molecules may experience an insufficient number of collisions to establish a Boltzmann distribution over vibrational states, thus necessitating a level kinetics model. In other flows, such as expansions of high temperature air, fast, near-resonance vibrational energy exchanges with N2 and O2 may also require a level specific model for NO because of the relative rates of vibrational exchange and redistribution. The proposed report will integrate computational and experimental components to construct such a model for the NO molecule.

  1. Designing Meaningful User Experiences: Interactive Learning Experience Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer, Simon; Sies, Tony, Lindemann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    User Experience Design (UXD) addresses the increasing importance of emotional aspects in user product interaction and aims at creating holistic experiences. While UXD is a rather young field within product development, other disciplines outside engineering design (e.g. gaming, sports) traditionally focus on fascinating their users. Based on the approach of transferring insights from experience focused disciplines to UXD we aim at specifying the experience trigger “Learning”. Starting with ana...

  2. Energy production forecasting, experiences from Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lasse; Schelander, Peter; Haakansson, Maans; Hansson, Johan (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    Forecasts of energy production at Lillgrund are being made with the prediction tool WPPT. The forecasts are updated every hour with observed wind- and production data. WPPT combines statistical and physical methods and the nature of the model changes with time. In the very short range, the observed data is the dominant factor predicting energy production while the physical methods, e.g. the weather forecasts, gradually are given more weight as we go further away from the production hour. Until recently Vattenfall has relied solely on weather forecasts from one institute, namely DMI (The Danish Meteorological Institute), in predicting the energy produced at Lillgrund. The uncertainty in the forecast has been given some attention but since only one source of information has been available the possibilities of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been limited. To meet the growing demand for quality and delivery reliability, Vattenfall has begun to purchase additional weather data from the Swedish supplier WeatherTech Scandinavia. These data will be used together with data from DMI. You get a kind of ensemble forecast approach. The difference in structure, configuration and physical approaches of the models presumably makes the model related forecast errors uncorrelated. This lays the path for quality improvements when the different forecasts are combined optimally. WPPT has been used in forecasting the energy production at Lillgrund since production began in 2007. The average absolute error in the production forecast / turbine is 0.17 MW. If WPPT only relied on a persistence forecast for the next 24 hours the error will become almost three times as high. So far WPPT has a skill score of 86% in the 24-hour forecasts compared to an assumption of persistence. There is a clearly visible pattern that WPPT underestimates production in situations with strong winds and conversely overestimate production when winds are weak. This is also typical for pure persistence

  3. Absence of Energy Level Crossing for the Ground State Energy of the Rabi Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokawa, Masao; Hiroshima, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of the Rabi model is considered. It is shown that the ground state energy of the Rabi Hamiltonian is simple for all values of the coupling strength, which implies the ground state energy does not cross other energy

  4. Modified gravity models of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress of modified gravity models of dark energy--based on f(R) gravity, scalar-tensor theories, braneworld gravity, Galileon gravity, and other theories. In f(R) gravity and Brans-Dicke theory it is possible to design viable models consistent with local gravity constraints under a chameleon mechanism, while satisfying conditions for the cosmological viability. The Dvali-Gabadazde-Porrati braneworld model can be compatible with local gravity constraints through a nonlinear field self-interaction arising from a brane-bending mode, but the self-accelerating solution contains a ghost mode in addition to the tension with observational data about the cosmic expansion history. The extension of the field self-interaction to more general forms satisfying a Galilean symmetry in the flat space-time allows a possibility to avoid the appearance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities, while the late-time cosmic acceleration can be realized by the field kinetic energy. We study the evolution of cosmologic...

  5. Some Experiences with Numerical Modelling of Overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.

    2007-01-01

    and reliable formulas for the estimation of overflows have been derived. Numerical modelling of overflows is significantly more complicated than standard 1-dimensional river or sewer modelling. The problem is usually managed by incorporating the mentioned empirical formulas in the numerical models......Overflows are commonly applied in storm sewer systems to control flow and water surface level. Therefore overflows play a central role in the control of discharges of pollutants from sewer systems to the environment. The basic hydrodynamic principle of an overflow is the so-called critical flow...... across the edge of the overflow. To ensure critical flow across the edge, the upstream flow must be subcritical whereas the downstream flow is either supercritical or a free jet. Experimentally overflows are well studied. Based on laboratory experiments and Froude number scaling, numerous accurate...

  6. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  7. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Beijing, as the capital of China, is under the high pressure of climate change and pollution. The consumption of non-renewable energy is one of the most important sources of the CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modelling towards renewable...... energy and low carbon development for the city of Beijing. The analysis of energy system modelling is organized in two steps to explore the alternative renewable energy system in Beijing. Firstly, a reference energy system of Beijing is created based on the available data in 2014. The Energy......PLAN, an energy system analysis tool, is chosen to develop the reference energy model. Secondly, this reference model is used to investigate the alternative energy system for integrating renewable energies. Three scenarios are developed towards the energy system of Beijing in 2030, which are: (i) reference...

  8. The Energy of the Alphabet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Davide; Roncari, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    We call \\emph{Alphabet model} a generalization to N types of particles of the classic ABC model. We have particles of different types stochastically evolving on a one dimensional lattice with an exchange dynamics. The rates of exchange are local but under suitable conditions the dynamics is reversible with a Gibbsian like invariant measure with long range interactions. We discuss geometrically the conditions of reversibility on a ring that correspond to a gradient condition on the graph of configurations or equivalently to a divergence free condition on a graph structure associated to the types of particles. We show that much of the information on the interactions between particles can be encoded in associated \\emph{Tournaments} that are a special class of oriented directed graphs. In particular we show that the interactions of reversible models are corresponding to strongly connected tournaments. The possible minimizers of the energies are in correspondence with the Hamiltonian cycles of the tournaments. We can then determine how many and which are the possible minimizers of the energy looking at the structure of the associated tournament. As a byproduct we obtain a probabilistic proof of a classic Theorem of Camion \\cite{Camion} on the existence of Hamiltonian cycles for strongly connected tournaments. Using these results we obtain in the case of an equal number of k types of particles new representations of the Hamiltonians in terms of translation invariant $k$-body long range interactions. We show that when $k=3,4$ the minimizer of the energy is always unique up to translations. Starting from the case $k=5$ it is possible to have more than one minimizer. In particular it is possible to have minimizers for which particles of the same type are not joined together in single clusters.

  9. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-11

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vessel geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  10. Heatstroke Pathophysiology: The Energy Depletion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    Pathophysiology: The Energy Depletion Model Roger W. Hubbard, Ph.D., Director Heat Research Division U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental...Medicine Natick, MA 01760-5007 USA Send correspondence to: Roger W. Hubbard, Ph.D. Director Heat Research Division USARIEM Kansas St Natick, MA 01760...The NaK-Pump. Part B: Celular Asoects J.C. Skou, J.G. Normy, A.B. Maunsback, and M. Esmann (Eds) New York: Alan R. Uss, 1988, pp. 171-194. 54: Lewis

  11. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  12. The Geodynamo: Models and supporting experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.; Stieglitz, R.

    2003-03-01

    The magnetic field is a characteristic feature of our planet Earth. It shelters the biosphere against particle radiation from the space and offers by its direction orientation to creatures. The question about its origin has challenged scientists to find sound explanations. Major progress has been achieved during the last two decades in developing dynamo models and performing corroborating laboratory experiments to explain convincingly the principle of the Earth magnetic field. The article reports some significant steps towards our present understanding of this subject and outlines in particular relevant experiments, which either substantiate crucial elements of self-excitation of magnetic fields or demonstrate dynamo action completely. The authors are aware that they have not addressed all aspects of geomagnetic studies; rather, they have selected the material from the huge amount of literature such as to motivate the recently growing interest in experimental dynamo research. (orig.)

  13. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  14. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Atyah [Computation Science, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS); Hasan, Afif [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS)

    2008-11-15

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse. (author)

  15. Multi-scale modelling for HEDP experiments on Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircombe, N. J.; Ramsay, M. G.; Hughes, S. J.; Hoarty, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Orion laser at AWE couples high energy long-pulse lasers with high intensity short-pulses, allowing material to be compressed beyond solid density and heated isochorically. This experimental capability has been demonstrated as a platform for conducting High Energy Density Physics material properties experiments. A clear understanding of the physics in experiments at this scale, combined with a robust, flexible and predictive modelling capability, is an important step towards more complex experimental platforms and ICF schemes which rely on high power lasers to achieve ignition. These experiments present a significant modelling challenge, the system is characterised by hydrodynamic effects over nanoseconds, driven by long-pulse lasers or the pre-pulse of the petawatt beams, and fast electron generation, transport, and heating effects over picoseconds, driven by short-pulse high intensity lasers. We describe the approach taken at AWE; to integrate a number of codes which capture the detailed physics for each spatial and temporal scale. Simulations of the heating of buried aluminium microdot targets are discussed and we consider the role such tools can play in understanding the impact of changes to the laser parameters, such as frequency and pre-pulse, as well as understanding effects which are difficult to observe experimentally.

  16. Model projections for household energy use in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599; Isaac, M.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; Lucas, P.L.; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. Present day global energy models are mostly too aggregate to account for this heterogeneity. Here, a bottom-up model for residential energy use that starts from key dynamic concepts on energy use in developing countries is

  17. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  18. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  19. Precision high energy liner implosion experiments PHELIX [1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware design of a small megajoule sized transformer coupled pulse power system utilized to drive hydrodynamic liner experiments with a nominal current capability of 10 megAmperes. The resulting liner velocities and characteristics provide properties of physics interest. The capacitor banks utilize the ''Atlas'' plastic cased 60 kV, 60 kJ capacitors [2] and railgaps [3]. The air insulated marx'S are configured to dive a multi-filar toroidal transformer. The 4:1 multi-filar toroidal transformer is mechanically part of a circular disc line and this feature results in an attractive inductance budget. Because of the compact size, re-usable transformer, and resulting low maintenance cost, shot rates can be high compared to other ''large'' machines or explosively driven hydrodynamic methods. The PHELIX modeling, construction status, and test results will also be provided.

  20. A proposed experiment on ball lightning model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatovich, Vladimir K., E-mail: v.ignatovi@gmail.com [Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ignatovich, Filipp V. [1565 Jefferson Rd., 420, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: → We propose to put a glass sphere inside an excited gas. → Then to put a light ray inside the glass in a whispering gallery mode. → If the light is resonant to gas excitation, it will be amplified at every reflection. → In ms time the light in the glass will be amplified, and will melt the glass. → A liquid shell kept integer by electrostriction forces is the ball lightning model. -- Abstract: We propose an experiment for strong light amplification at multiple total reflections from active gaseous media.

  1. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F. (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

    2008-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  2. Experience with the CMS Event Data Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, P.; /Princeton U.; Hegner, B.; /CERN; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    The re-engineered CMS EDM was presented at CHEP in 2006. Since that time we have gained a lot of operational experience with the chosen model. We will present some of our findings, and attempt to evaluate how well it is meeting its goals. We will discuss some of the new features that have been added since 2006 as well as some of the problems that have been addressed. Also discussed is the level of adoption throughout CMS, which spans the trigger farm up to the final physics analysis. Future plans, in particular dealing with schema evolution and scaling, will be discussed briefly.

  3. How to teach friction: Experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; Borghi, Lidia; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Students generally have difficulty understanding friction and its associated phenomena. High school and introductory college-level physics courses usually do not give the topic the attention it deserves. We have designed a sequence for teaching about friction between solids based on a didactic reconstruction of the relevant physics, as well as research findings about student conceptions. The sequence begins with demonstrations that illustrate different types of friction. Experiments are subsequently performed to motivate students to obtain quantitative relations in the form of phenomenological laws. To help students understand the mechanisms producing friction, models illustrating the processes taking place on the surface of bodies in contact are proposed.

  4. Nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth in developed and developing countries : A modelling analysis from simultaneous-equation models

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Omri; Anissa Chaibi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship among two types of energy consumption (nuclear energy and renewable energy) and economic growth using dynamic simultaneous-equation panel data models for 17 developed and developing countries. Our results in

  5. Array Optimization for Tidal Energy Extraction in a Tidal Channel – A Numerical Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a hydrodynamic model to simulate tidal energy extraction in a tidal dominated estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to simulate tidal energy extraction with different turbine array configurations, including location, spacing and array size. Preliminary model results suggest that array optimization for tidal energy extraction in a real-world site is a very complex process that requires consideration of m...

  6. Minimal Self-Models and the Free Energy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub eLimanowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The term "minimal phenomenal selfhood" describes the basic, pre-reflective experience of being a self (Blanke & Metzinger, 2009. Theoretical accounts of the minimal self have long recognized the importance and the ambivalence of the body as both part of the physical world, and the enabling condition for being in this world (Gallagher, 2005; Grafton, 2009. A recent account of minimal phenomenal selfhood (MPS, Metzinger, 2004a centers on the consideration that minimal selfhood emerges as the result of basic self-modeling mechanisms, thereby being founded on pre-reflective bodily processes. The free energy principle (FEP, Friston, 2010 is a novel unified theory of cortical function that builds upon the imperative that self-organizing systems entail hierarchical generative models of the causes of their sensory input, which are optimized by minimizing free energy as an approximation of the log-likelihood of the model. The implementation of the FEP via predictive coding mechanisms and in particular the active inference principle emphasizes the role of embodiment for predictive self-modeling, which has been appreciated in recent publications. In this review, we provide an overview of these conceptions and illustrate thereby the potential power of the FEP in explaining the mechanisms underlying minimal selfhood and its key constituents, multisensory integration, interoception, agency, perspective, and the experience of mineness. We conclude that the conceptualization of MPS can be well mapped onto a hierarchical generative model furnished by the free energy principle and may constitute the basis for higher-level, cognitive forms of self-referral, as well as the understanding of other minds.

  7. Quark model and high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, V V; Nyíri, J; Shabelski, Yu M

    2004-01-01

    This is an updated version of the book published in 1985. QCD-motivated, it gives a detailed description of hadron structure and soft interactions in the additive quark model, where hadrons are regarded as composite systems of dressed quarks. In the past decade it has become clear that nonperturbative QCD, responsible for soft hadronic processes, may differ rather drastically from perturbative QCD. The understanding of nonperturbative QCD requires a detailed investigation of the experiments and the theoretical approaches. Bearing this in mind, the book has been rewritten paying special attenti

  8. Bayesian model calibration of ramp compression experiments on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Hund, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Bayesian model calibration (BMC) is a statistical framework to estimate inputs for a computational model in the presence of multiple uncertainties, making it well suited to dynamic experiments which must be coupled with numerical simulations to interpret the results. Often, dynamic experiments are diagnosed using velocimetry and this output can be modeled using a hydrocode. Several calibration issues unique to this type of scenario including the functional nature of the output, uncertainty of nuisance parameters within the simulation, and model discrepancy identifiability are addressed, and a novel BMC process is proposed. As a proof of concept, we examine experiments conducted on Sandia National Laboratories' Z-machine which ramp compressed tantalum to peak stresses of 250 GPa. The proposed BMC framework is used to calibrate the cold curve of Ta (with uncertainty), and we conclude that the procedure results in simple, fast, and valid inferences. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  10. Gravastar model in a dark energy universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Carlos Frederico Charret; Silva, Maria de Fatima Alves da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Chan, Roberto [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Pedro [Associacao Comunitaria Escola de Radio Progresso (ACERP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The study of gravastars, in general, has considered these objects embedded in a Schwarzschild spacetime. However, taking the point of view that the universe must be fulfilled by a considerable amount of dark energy, it is very important to investigate its influence in the gravastar stability and in the possible dynamical evolution. In a first step, we have considered the de Sitter-Schwarzschild exterior spacetime, in order to introduce a positive cosmological constant, which has been suggested as a dark energy candidate. Then, with this purpose, we constructed three-layer dynamical models, which consists of an internal anisotropic dark energy fluid, a dynamical infinitely thin shell of perfect fluid with the equation of state p = (1 - γ)σ, and an external de Sitter- Schwarzschild spacetime. The present work allows to confirm one of the conclusion of one of the our previous work, that is, the sign of the difference between the pressures (radial and tangential) affects the conditions of the formation of the gravastar and black hole when the interior fluid of prototype gravastars are anisotropic, even when combined with an external cosmological constant. We have shown explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, a 'bounded excursion' stable gravastar depending on the total mass m of the system, the cosmological constant L{sub e}, the parameter ω, the constant a, the parameter γ and the initial position R{sub 0} of the dynamical shell. Another interesting result is that we can have black hole and stable gravastar formation even with an interior and a shell constituted of dark and repulsive dark energy. We also would like to point out the significant influence of the presence of the exterior cosmological constant to formation of this kind of structure, since there are some cases where we have a stable gravastar (for Λ 0) or none structure (for Λ > 0). Still more interesting is a case, where for small radius of the shell, we have

  11. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-TR-8155 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model... Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) by Clayton Walker and Gail Vaucher Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...2017 June 28 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ROTC Internship

  12. Grameen Bank`s experience with energy related microenterprise development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    Increased population and growth of industry have resulted in greater demand for energy worldwide. Most of this energy is derived from fossil fuel (coal, gas, oil and nuclear) which will soon be depleted. In this context the need for developing renewable sources of energy has taken on a greater sense of importance and urgency. Over the years significant technological advances have been made in the area of renewable energies especially in the field of solar photovoltaics (PV), wind energy and bio-gas technology. In addition, for remote rural areas where there exists no infrastructure for conventional energy supply, these forms of decentralized alternative energy systems will be far more adaptable and well suited. Grameen Shakti (Energy) is an addition to the family of companies of Grameen Bank, to promote and supply renewable energy sources to rural households. GS, a not-for-profit company, expects not only to supply renewable energy services, but also to create employment and income generation opportunities in rural Bangladesh. GS will focus on supply, marketing, sales, testing and development of renewable energy systems of solar pv, biogas, wind turbines and windpumps.

  13. Modelling of Mechanical Coupling for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Adapted to Low-Frequency Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untoro, T.; Viridi, S.; Suprijanto; Ekawati, E.

    2017-07-01

    In our previous work, we have developed a mechanical coupling for energy harvester from vibration source. This energy harvester uses piezoelectric with additional cantilever beam and permanent magnets. Our work proposed alternative scheme of mechanical coupling for tune the vibration input into resonant frequency of piezoelectric. Based on the experiment, correlation between the length of cantilever beam and the output power also evaluated. In this paper, we try to modelling our work into mathematical model and apply it to some case study. For example application, we apply our energy harvester system to generate electrical energy to enlighten the street. The human footsteps can be used as vibration source to generate electrical energy.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    At a global level, it is essential that the world transfers from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources to minimize the implications of climate change, which has been clearly demonstrated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a). At a national level, for most countries......, the transition to renewable energy will improve energy security of supply, create new jobs, enhance trade, and consequently grow the national economy. However, even with such promising consequences, renewable energy only provided approximately 13% of the world's energy in 2007 (International Energy Agency, 2009a......). Therefore, identifying how to utilize more renewable energy is one of the most pressing challenges facing many countries at present. Owing to the ever-growing complexity of modern energy systems, energy-system-analysis tools are often used to analyze the potential of renewable energy in future energy...

  15. Mathematical Model of Nicholson’s Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey D. Glyzin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered  is a mathematical model of insects  population dynamics,  and  an attempt is made  to explain  classical experimental results  of Nicholson with  its help.  In the  first section  of the paper  Nicholson’s experiment is described  and dynamic  equations  for its modeling are chosen.  A priori estimates  for model parameters can be made more precise by means of local analysis  of the  dynamical system,  that is carried  out in the second section.  For parameter values found there  the stability loss of the  problem  equilibrium  of the  leads to the  bifurcation of a stable  two-dimensional torus.   Numerical simulations  based  on the  estimates  from the  second section  allows to explain  the  classical Nicholson’s experiment, whose detailed  theoretical substantiation is given in the last section.  There for an atrractor of the  system  the  largest  Lyapunov  exponent is computed. The  nature of this  exponent change allows to additionally narrow  the area of model parameters search.  Justification of this experiment was made possible  only  due  to  the  combination of analytical and  numerical  methods  in studying  equations  of insects  population dynamics.   At the  same time,  the  analytical approach made  it possible to perform numerical  analysis  in a rather narrow  region of the  parameter space.  It is not  possible to get into this area,  based only on general considerations.

  16. Energy demand modelling and GHG emission reduction: case study Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, in order to comply with all of the presented tasks. Planning future energy demand, considering various policy options like regulation, fiscal and financial measures, becomes one of the crucial issues of future national...... energy strategy. This paper analyses Croatian long term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG emissions. For that purpose the national energy demand model was constructed (NeD model). The model is comprised out of six modules each representing one sector, following Croatian national...... energy balance; industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. For three of the modules (industry, transport and households) previously developed long term energy demand models were used, while for the remaining three new models were constructed. As an additional feature, new...

  17. Development and Validation of an Enhanced Coupled-Field Model for PZT Cantilever Bimorph Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The power source with the limited life span has motivated the development of the energy harvesters that can scavenge the ambient environment energy and convert it into the electrical energy. With the coupled field characteristics of structure to electricity, piezoelectric energy harvesters are under consideration as a means of converting the mechanical energy to the electrical energy, with the goal of realizing completely self-powered sensor systems. In this paper, two previous models in the literatures for predicting the open-circuit and close-circuit voltages of a piezoelectric cantilever bimorph (PCB energy harvester are first described, that is, the mechanical equivalent spring mass-damper model and the electrical equivalent circuit model. Then, the development of an enhanced coupled field model for the PCB energy harvester based on another previous model in the literature using a conservation of energy method is presented. Further, the laboratory experiments are carried out to evaluate the enhanced coupled field model and the other two previous models in the literatures. The comparison results show that the enhanced coupled field model can better predict the open-circuit and close-circuit voltages of the PCB energy harvester with a proof mass bonded at the free end of the structure in order to increase the energy-harvesting level of the system.

  18. Modeling coherent cherenkov radio emissions from high energy electromagnetic showers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.

    1998-04-24

    A technique currently under study for the detection of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray neutrinos involves the measurement of radio emissions from the electromagnetic shower generated by the neutrino in a large volume of naturally occurring dielectric such as the Antarctic ice cap or salt domes. The formation of an electron excess in the shower leads to the emission of coherent Cherenkov radiation, an effect similar to the generation of wakefields in dielectric loaded structures. We have used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) wakefield code ARRAKIS to model coherent Cherenkov radiation fields from high energy showers; we present as an example calculations of expected signals in a proof of principle experiment proposed for the Fermilab Main Injector.

  19. Developing an Energy Performance Modeling Startup Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the NAHB Research Center began assessing the needs and motivations of residential remodelers regarding energy performance remodeling. This report outlines: the current remodeling industry and the role of energy efficiency; gaps and barriers to adding energy efficiency into remodeling; and support needs of professional remodelers to increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency.

  20. COMPUTER MODELLING OF ENERGY SAVING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian JANCZAREK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the dynamics of the heat transfer through the outer wall of the thermal technical spaces, taking into account the impact of the sinusoidal nature of the changes in atmospheric temperature. These temporal variations of the input on the outer surface of the chamber divider result at the output of the sinusoidal change on the inner wall of the room, but suitably suppressed and shifted in phase. Properly selected phase shift is clearly important for saving energy used for the operation associated with the maintenance of a specific regime of heat inside the thermal technical chamber support. Laboratory tests of the model and the actual object allowed for optimal design of the chamber due to the structure of the partition as well as due to the orientation of the geographical location of the chamber.

  1. Use, operation and maintenance of renewable energy systems experiences and future approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz Bobi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Fully accounting for their integration with the current electricity market, and dealing too with emerging uses of energy, this book is fully informed by real-life experiences that provide varying perspectives on the efficiency of renewable energy production.

  2. Neutral strange particle production at top SPS energy measured by the CERES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomski, S.

    2006-07-05

    Systematics of strange particle production in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei provides an insight into the properties of the strongly interacting matter. Hadrochemistry, the study of the relative yields, provides information about chemical freeze-out and the position of the system in the phase diagram. Strangeness production at Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is not fully explained by the thermal model of hadron gas. Data reported by one experiment show sharp structures as a function of energy which are interpreted as a signature for a phase transition, but due to discrepancies in the results between two different experiments, a conclusion can not be drawn. This thesis is part of an effort to build a database of the strangeness production at SPS energy. The particular subject of this work is a precise measurement of the production of K{sub S}{sup 0}. The results are compared with two other experiments and the prediction of the thermal model. The high precision data shed light on the systematics of strangeness production and allow clarification of the experimental status. The study of transverse momentum spectra provides information about the temperature and the radial expansion of the system. Here, as in the case of particle yields, interesting structures are visible as a function of energy. A rapid increase in the number of degrees of freedom is visible in the SPS region. A large part of the strangeness is carried by the neutral strange baryon {lambda}. Here the experimental situation is even more complicated because the reconstruction of the {lambda} yield requires large extrapolation to low transverse momentum. In this work first results on {lambda} production will be presented. (orig.)

  3. Development of Eulerian Code Modeling for ICF Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-27

    One of the most pressing unexplained phenomena standing in the way of ICF ignition is understanding mix and how it interacts with burn. Experiments were being designed and fielded as part of the Defect-Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project to obtain data about the extent of material mix and how this mix influenced burn. Experiments on the Omega laser and National Ignition Facility (NIF) provided detailed data for comparison to the Eulerian code RAGE1. The Omega experiments were able to resolve the mix and provide “proof of principle” support for subsequent NIF experiments, which were fielded from July 2012 through June 2013. The Omega shots were fired at least once per year between 2009 and 2012. RAGE was not originally designed to model inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. It still lacks lasers, so the code has been validated using an energy source. To test RAGE, the simulation output is compared to data and by means of postprocessing tools that were developed. Here, the various postprocessing tools are described with illustrative examples.

  4. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic metho...

  5. Tough and tunable adhesion of hydrogels: experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Lin, Shaoting; Parada, German A.; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2017-06-01

    As polymer networks infiltrated with water, hydrogels are major constituents of animal and plant bodies and have diverse engineering applications. While natural hydrogels can robustly adhere to other biological materials, such as bonding of tendons and cartilage on bones and adhesive plaques of mussels, it is challenging to achieve such tough adhesions between synthetic hydrogels and engineering materials. Recent experiments show that chemically anchoring long-chain polymer networks of tough synthetic hydrogels on solid surfaces create adhesions tougher than their natural counterparts, but the underlying mechanism has not been well understood. It is also challenging to tune systematically the adhesion of hydrogels on solids. Here, we provide a quantitative understanding of the mechanism for tough adhesions of hydrogels on solid materials via a combination of experiments, theory, and numerical simulations. Using a coupled cohesive-zone and Mullins-effect model validated by experiments, we reveal the interplays of intrinsic work of adhesion, interfacial strength, and energy dissipation in bulk hydrogels in order to achieve tough adhesions. We further show that hydrogel adhesion can be systematically tuned by tailoring the hydrogel geometry and silanization time of solid substrates, corresponding to the control of energy dissipation zone and intrinsic work of adhesion, respectively. The current work further provides a theoretical foundation for rational design of future biocompatible and underwater adhesives.

  6. Dynamic Model of a Wind Turbine for the Electric Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dynamic model is introduced for the modeling of the wind turbine behavior. The objective of the wind turbine is the electric energy generation. The analytic model has the characteristic that considers a rotatory tower. Experiments show the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Thermodynamic model of Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment (MOXIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyen, Forrest E.; Hecht, Michael H.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; MOXIE Team

    2016-12-01

    As humankind expands its footprint in the solar system, it is increasingly important to make use of the resources already in our solar system to make these missions economically feasible and sustainable. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), the science of using resources at a destination to support exploration missions, unlocks potential destinations by significantly reducing the amount of resources that need to be launched from Earth. Carbon dioxide is an example of an in-situ resource that comprises 96% of the Martian atmosphere and can be used as a source of oxygen for propellant and life support systems. The Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment (MOXIE) is a payload being developed for NASA's upcoming Mars 2020 rover. MOXIE will produce oxygen from the Martian atmosphere using solid oxide electrolysis (SOXE). MOXIE is on the order of magnitude of a 1% scale model of an oxygen processing plant that might enable a human expedition to Mars in the 2030s through the production of the oxygen needed for the propellant of a Mars ascent vehicle. MOXIE is essentially an energy conversion system that draws energy from the Mars 2020 rover's radioisotope thermoelectric generator and ultimately converts it to stored energy in oxygen and carbon monoxide molecules. A thermodynamic model of this novel system is used to understand this process in order to derive operating parameters for the experiment. This paper specifically describes the model of the SOXE component. Assumptions and idealizations are addressed, including 1D and 2D simplifications. Operating points are discussed as well as impacts of flow rates and production.

  8. Photogrammetry experiments with a model eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A R; Falconer, D G; Pieper, I

    1980-01-01

    Digital photogrammetry was performed on stereophotographs of the optic nerve head of a modified Zeiss model eye in which optic cups of varying depths could be simulated. Experiments were undertaken to determine the impact of both photographic and ocular variables on the photogrammetric measurements of cup depth. The photogrammetric procedure tolerates refocusing, repositioning, and realignment as well as small variations in the geometric position of the camera. Progressive underestimation of cup depth was observed with increasing myopia, while progressive overestimation was noted with increasing hyperopia. High cylindrical errors at axis 90 degrees led to significant errors in cup depth estimates, while high cylindrical errors at axis 180 degrees did not materially affect the accuracy of the analysis. Finally, cup depths were seriously underestimated when the pupil diameter was less than 5.0 mm. Images PMID:7448139

  9. Integrated Modeling of Short-Pulse Laser-Plasma Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, R. P. J.; Welch, D. R.

    2005-10-01

    Modeling high energy density physics applications driven by short-pulse lasers requires the integration of many areas of physics that operate on disparate spatial and temporal scales. To perform such modeling in one integrated code would be computationally prohibitive, therefore we use the python scripting language to couple together independent hydrodynamics, explicit particle-in-cell (PIC) (Z3), implicit hybrid PIC (LSP), and atomic physics codes (FLYCHK) into one virtual code. This paper will briefly review the integration methodology and outline the new physics packages that have recently been added to LSP. We will contrast our simulation approach with those pursued by other researchers. We will present integrated simulation results of recent Petawatt Kα radiography, electron transport, and isochoric heating experiments and show predictions of a proof-of-principle NIF fast ignition experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  11. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases....

  12. Financing energy efficiency: lessons from experiences in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Painuly, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Improving energy efficiency is considered one of the most desirable and effective short-term measures to address the issue of energy security, and also reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. However, lack of access to domestic finance is the major hindrance in achieving the potential ...

  13. A review of experience curve analyses for energy demand technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156419912; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Blok, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X

    2009-01-01

    Transitioning towards a sustainable energy system requires the large-scale introduction of novel energy demand and supply technologies. Such novel technologies are often expensive at the point of their market introduction but eventually become cheaper due to technological learning. In order to

  14. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  15. Energy siting in Utah: a programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, D.L.; Keith, J.E.; Glover, T.F.; Wooldridge, G.L.

    1981-06-01

    Using a conceptual model of a multiple-product firm, the necessary conditions for an optimal input and output allocation were determined for a region constrained by resource availabilities and/or policy constraints. A linear-programing model was developed to determine the optimal allocation of water between agricultural and coal-fired electrical generating entities as well as the trade offs which could occur if electrical generation were increased. Other areas of potential trade offs such as coal source restrictions and air quality regulations were also examined. Coal mining and transportation costs were included as were SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and particulate emission rates on a coal and plant basis. Few trade-offs between electrical power generation and irrigated agriculture were noted. However, substantial changes within the energy sector were discovered as coal capacities and air-quality standards were changed. Net revenues declined sharply as air costs after and/or pollution and coal-capacity restrictions were imposed and/or increased. It was determined that substantial changes in regional economic activity occurred as a result of these restrictions on development.

  16. Targets IMage Energy Regional (TIMER) Model, Technical Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries B de; Vuuren D van; Elzen M den; Janssen M; MNV

    2002-01-01

    The Targets IMage Energy Regional simulation model, TIMER, is described in detail. This model was developed and used in close connection with the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) 2.2. The system-dynamics TIMER model simulates the global energy system at an intermediate level

  17. Modelling energy consumption in a manufacturing plant using productivity KPIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallachoir, Brian O.; Cahill, Caiman (Sustainable Energy Research Group, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. College Cork (Ireland))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency initiatives in industrial plants are often focused on getting energy-consuming utilities and devices to operate more efficiently, or on conserving energy. While such device-oriented energy efficiency measures can achieve considerable savings, greater energy efficiency improvement may be achieved by improving the overall productivity and quality of manufacturing processes. The paper highlights the observed relationship between productivity and energy efficiency using aggregated data on unit consumption and production index data for Irish industry. Past studies have developed simple top-down models of final energy consumption in manufacturing plants using energy consumption and production output figures, but these models do not help identify opportunities for energy savings that could achieved through increased productivity. This paper proposes an improved and innovative method of modelling plant final energy demand that introduces standard productivity Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) into the model. The model demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and productivity, and uses standard productivity metrics to identify the areas of manufacturing activity that offer the most potential for improved energy efficiency. The model provides a means of comparing the effect of device-oriented energy efficiency measures with the potential for improved energy efficiency through increased productivity.

  18. Model Diagnostics for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, eight Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, four academic institutions, one company, and the National Centre for Atmospheric Research combined forces in a project called Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) with the goal to speed Earth system model development for climate and energy. Over the planned 10-year span, the project will conduct simulations and modeling on DOE's most powerful high-performance computing systems at Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Lawrence Berkeley Leadership Compute Facilities. A key component of the ACME project is the development of an interactive test bed for the advanced Earth system model. Its execution infrastructure will accelerate model development and testing cycles. The ACME Workflow Group is leading the efforts to automate labor-intensive tasks, provide intelligent support for complex tasks and reduce duplication of effort through collaboration support. As part of this new workflow environment, we have created a diagnostic, metric, and intercomparison Python framework, called UVCMetrics, to aid in the testing-to-production execution of the ACME model. The framework exploits similarities among different diagnostics to compactly support diagnosis of new models. It presently focuses on atmosphere and land but is designed to support ocean and sea ice model components as well. This framework is built on top of the existing open-source software framework known as the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT). Because of its flexible framework design, scientists and modelers now can generate thousands of possible diagnostic outputs. These diagnostics can compare model runs, compare model vs. observation, or simply verify a model is physically realistic. Additional diagnostics are easily integrated into the framework, and our users have already added several. Diagnostics can be generated, viewed, and manipulated from the UV-CDAT graphical user interface, Python command line scripts and programs

  19. Energy parameters and novel algorithms for an extended nearest neighbor energy model of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotu, Ivan; Mechery, Vinodh; Clote, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first algorithm and software, RNAenn, to compute the partition function and minimum free energy secondary structure for RNA with respect to an extended nearest neighbor energy model. Our next-nearest-neighbor triplet energy model appears to lead to somewhat more cooperative folding than does the nearest neighbor energy model, as judged by melting curves computed with RNAenn and with two popular software implementations for the nearest-neighbor energy model. A web server is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAenn/.

  20. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models; Ratios de Aprendizaje Tecnologico en Modelos Energeticos Globales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.

    2001-07-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this tend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy systems including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. Gravitational Acceleration Effects on Macrosegregation: Experiment and Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Torres, J.; Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Sen, S.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed under terrestrial gravity (1g) and during parabolic flights (10-2 g) to study the solidification and macrosegregation patterns of Al-Cu alloys. Alloys having 2% and 5% Cu were solidified against a chill at two different cooling rates. Microscopic and Electron Microprobe characterization was used to produce microstructural and macrosegregation maps. In all cases positive segregation occurred next to the chill because shrinkage flow, as expected. This positive segregation was higher in the low-g samples, apparently because of the higher heat transfer coefficient. A 2-D computational model was used to explain the experimental results. The continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the solidification phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The solidification event was divided into two stages. In the first one, the liquid containing freely moving equiaxed grains was described through the relative viscosity concept. In the second stage, when a fixed dendritic network was formed after dendritic coherency, the mushy zone was treated as a porous medium. The macrosegregation maps and the cooling curves obtained during experiments were used for validation of the solidification and segregation model. The model can explain the solidification and macrosegregation patterns and the differences between low- and high-gravity results.

  2. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  3. Urban form and energy use for transport. A Nordic experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P.

    1995-02-10

    The main research problem addressed in this thesis is the possible influence of several urban form variables on the amount of transportation, on the modal split between different means of transport, and on energy use for transportation. This problem is elucidated through five empirical investigations covering different geographic levels in a Nordic context, from individual employees and households to commuting regions. A main feature of the study is the combination of socioeconomic and urban form variables in empirical investigations, employing techniques of multivariate analysis. The investigations of residential areas and job sites have been based on travel surveys, while the investigations where the units of analysis are towns or regions have been based on fuel sales. The socioeconomic data have been collected from official statistics and from questionnaires. It is found that urban form variables exert important influences on transportation energy use. Urban density affects energy use for transportation. A central location of residences as well as workplaces is favourable with respect to energy conservation on an intra-urban scale, but not in a wider geographical context, where decentralization into several dense, relatively self-contained local communities distributed over the region is the most energy-saving pattern of regional development. Urban form characteristics favourable for minimizing transport energy requirements also seem favourable for energy conservation in buildings. 160 refs., 39 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos; Gligor Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical mo...

  5. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Hwang, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  6. Model projections for household energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daioglou, V.; Ruijven, B.J. van; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    The residential sector plays an important role in the energy system of developing countries. In this paper we introduce a bottom up simulation model for household energy use. The model describes energy demand for several end-use functions based on a set of physical drivers, such as floor space and

  7. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  8. The Shared Local Resources Energy Institute Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, John E.; Jones, Robert M.

    The formulation of the Energy Curriculum Institute by the University of Houston at Clear Lake City was based upon the idea that a new approach was needed to develop effective energy education programs. Institute staff assumed that education could no longer depend upon federal and state educational energy agencies for curricular or financial…

  9. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings – International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauskale L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  10. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - recueil d'experiences europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  11. The high-energy neutrino background - Limitations on models of deuterium production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that Epstein's (1977) model for deuterium production via high-energy spallation reactions produces high-energy neutrinos in sufficient quantity to stand out above those that are produced by cosmic-ray interactions in earth's atmosphere. That the Reines experiment detected neutrinos of atmospheric origin without detecting any cosmic component restricts deuterium production by spallation reactions to very high redshifts (z at least about 300). Improved neutrino experiments may be able to push these limits back to recombination.

  12. Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercader, Mª P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

    La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos num

  13. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  14. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point......Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...

  15. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in "Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment" (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards--$202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding--along with numerous energy conservation programs--are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages, impacts associated with climate change on human health, progress in

  16. Phenomenology of the Invisible Energy: Revisiting the Heitler-Matthews Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariazzi, A.; Tueros, M.

    The estimation of invisible energy is central for experiments where only the electromagnetic component of the air shower is measured. This estimation is based on complex Monte Carlo simulations where the influence of the parameters describing the high energy hadronic interactions is difficult to unravel. The Heitler-Matthews cascade model has been shown to be a powerful tool to understand the phenomenology of particle cascades. Despite its simplicity the model gives accurate predictions for many shower observables. In this work, we use this model to study the invisible energy of the cascade and its relationship with the primary particle mass and energy. The expressions derived from the Heitler-Matthews model were used to describe the results from full Monte Carlo simulations, gaining insight on how the pion critical energy, pion multiplicity and in-elasticity affects the amount of the invisible energy in the particle cascade.

  17. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  18. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  19. Annual Energy Consumption Forecasting Based on PSOCA-GRNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate energy consumption forecasting can provide reliable guidance for energy planners and policy makers, which can also recognize the economic and industrial development trends of a country. In this paper, a hybrid PSOCA-GRNN model was proposed for the annual energy consumption forecasting. The generalized regression neural network (GRNN model was employed to forecast the annual energy consumption due to its good ability of dealing with the nonlinear problems. Meanwhile, the spread parameter of GRNN model was automatically determined by PSOCA algorithm (the combination of particle swarm optimization algorithm and cultural algorithm. Taking China’s annual energy consumption as the empirical example, the effectiveness of this proposed PSOCA-GRNN model was proved. The calculation result shows that this proposed hybrid model outperforms the single GRNN model, GRNN model optimized by PSO (PSO-GRNN, discrete grey model (DGM (1, 1, and ordinary least squares linear regression (OLS_LR model.

  20. Energy systematics of heavy nuclei -- mean field models in comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, P. -G.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the systematics of binding energies computed within the standard and extended versions of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and the Skyrme Hartree-Fock (SHF) model. The general trends for the binding energies for super-heavy nuclei are significantly different for these models. The SHF models tend to underbind the superheavy nuclei, while, RMF models show just the opposite trend. The extended RMF model seems to provide remarkable improvements over the results obtained for the ...

  1. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  2. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...... and technologies, more remote location of energy plants and by reducing energy consumption. Considerable technical potential for energy demand reduction exists, particularly in buildings. In countries with cold climate, such as Denmark, energy demand for heating of buildings accounts for a significant share...... of the total energy consumption. Due to the long lifetime of buildings, they are an important part of the futureenergy systems. However, energy system studies often treat energy consumption and energy savings in buildings exogenously. At the same time heat savings in buildings are usually examined separately...

  3. Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, N.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O.Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Protein unfolding from free-energy calculations: Integration of the Gaussian network model with bond binding energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit; Granek, Rony

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by single molecule experiments, we study thermal unfolding pathways of four proteins, chymotrypsin inhibitor, barnase, ubiquitin, and adenylate kinase, using bond network models that combine bond energies and elasticity. The protein elasticity is described by the Gaussian network model (GNM), to which we add prescribed bond binding energies that are assigned to all (nonbackbone) connecting bonds in the GNM of native state and assumed identical for simplicity. Using exact calculation of the Helmholtz free energy for this model, we consider bond rupture single events. The bond designated for rupture is chosen by minimizing the free-energy difference for the process, over all (nonbackbone) bonds in the network. Plotting the free-energy profile along this pathway at different temperatures, we observe a few major partial unfolding, metastable or stable, states, that are separated by free-energy barriers and change role as the temperature is raised. In particular, for adenylate kinase we find three major partial unfolding states, which is consistent with single molecule FRET experiments [Pirchi et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 493 (2011), 10.1038/ncomms1504] for which hidden Markov analysis reveals between three and five such states. Such states can play a major role in enzymatic activity.

  5. Pain Energy Model of Mobility Limitation in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Peter C; Schrack, Jennifer A; Hicks, Gregory E

    2017-05-22

    Chronic pain is prevalent, costly, and disabling among older adults. Although mobility decline is inevitable with aging, it is clear, from current evidence, that older adults with chronic pain experience a greater rate of functional mobility decline than their pain-free peers. Past studies suggest that pain expedites the age-related decline in functional mobility; however, the pathways through which pain affects mobility remain unclear. Gerontological experts hypothesize that the age-related decline in mobility may be driven by alterations in energy expenditure; these concepts are outlined in a model known as the Energetic Pathway of Mobility Loss. Pain may play a critical role in this process through a pathway of energetic inefficiency, physical inactivity, and decreased capacity.  The purposes of this article are to 1) summarize the current literature that supports the Energetic Pathway of Mobility Loss model and 2) propose a new framework, known as the Pain Energy Model, to clarify how the disablement process may be amplified among older adults with painful conditions.  This new framework is designed to generate new clinical research and to suggest new clinical implications for older adults with painful conditions by identifying key steps and potential treatment targets in the pathway to functional mobility decline.

  6. A Romanian energy system model and a nuclear reduction strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gota, Dan-Ioan; Lund, Henrik; Miclea, Liviu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the Romanian energy system with the purpose of providing a tool for the analysis of future sustainable energy strategies. The model represents the total national energy system and is detailed to the level of hourly demand and production in order to be able to analyse...... the consequences of adding fluctuating renewable energy sources to the system. The model has been implemented into the EnergyPLAN tool and has been validated in order to determine if it can be used as a reference model for other simulations. In EnergyPLAN, two different future strategy scenarios for the Romanian...... energy system are compared to the actual data of Romania of year 2008. First, a comparison is made between the 2008 model and the 2013 strategy scenario corresponding to the grid of the Romanian transmission system operator (TSO) Transelectrica. Then, a comparison is made to a second strategy scenario...

  7. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  8. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  9. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  10. Review of recent benchmark experiments on integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Konno, Chikara; Fukahori, Tokio; Hayashi, Katsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A survey work of recent benchmark experiments on an integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation was carried out as one of the work of the Task Force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this paper the results are compiled and the status of recent benchmark experiments is described. (author)

  11. Jet energy scale determination in the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Abbott, B. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Acharya, B.S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Adams, T. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Agnew, J.P. [The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Alexeev, G.D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alton, A. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Askew, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Atkins, S. [Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Augsten, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Avila, C. [Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá (Colombia); Badaud, F. [LPC, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont (France); Bagby, L.; Baldin, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bandurin, D.V., E-mail: bandurin@fnal.gov [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Banerjee, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Barberis, E. [Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Baringer, P. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    The calibration of jet energy measured in the D0 detector is presented, based on pp{sup ¯} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Jet energies are measured using a sampling calorimeter composed of uranium and liquid argon as the passive and active media, respectively. This paper describes the energy calibration of jets performed with γ+jet, Z+jet and dijet events, with jet transverse momentum p{sub T}>6GeV and pseudorapidity range |η|<3.6. The corrections are measured separately for data and simulation, achieving a precision of 1.4–1.8% for jets in the central part of the calorimeter and up to 3.5% for the jets with pseudorapidity |η|=3.0. Specific corrections are extracted to enhance the description of jet energy in simulation and in particular of the effects due to the flavor of the parton originating the jet, correcting biases up to 3–4% in jets with low p{sub T} originating from gluons and up to 6–8% in jets from b quarks.

  12. Energy efficiency in urban management: Russian and world experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the role of energetics in creating a comfortable and safe environment of modern megacities, and the problem is considered in the socio-economic aspect. The object is the energy security of the city, and the subject is the influence of urban society on the formation of energy security. In particular, the problems are raised: ecological problems of urban energy supply, the condition of surface layer of the atmosphere near electric power lines. The author assesses the actions, implemented by the urban authorities in Mytischi, in the southwestern areas of New Moscow. The author assesses these sample areas on the basis of Ch. Landry’s concept of self-training, designated for municipal authorities and urban communities, and offers several successfully implemented self-study cases and in the light of modern methods of ensuring energy security. The forecasts of creation of energy-safe space, made by modern sociologist-urbanist Leo Hollis, are taken into account. The author also considers some of the economic aspects of biosphere safety. In particular, he insists that biosphere safety, convenience, and comfort have developed into competitive advantages in the housing market.

  13. Bionic models for new sustainable energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner Inst., Dept. Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the boundary conditions of an abundant, but diluted solar energy supply nature has successfully evolved sophisticated regenerative energy technologies, which are not yet familiar to human engineering tradition. Since until the middle of this century a substantial contribution of renewable energy to global energy consumption is required in order to limit environmental deterioration, bionic technologies may contribute to the development of commercially affordable technical options. Four biological energy technologies have been selected as examples to discuss the challenges, both in scientific and technological terms, as well as the material research aspects involved: photovoltaics based on irreversible kinetics, tensile water technology, solar powered protonic energy circuits, fuel cell catalysis based on abundant transition metals. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic modeling, simulation and control of energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    Vepa, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the core issues involved in the dynamic modeling, simulation and control of a selection of energy systems such as gas turbines, wind turbines, fuel cells and batteries. The principles of modeling and control could be applied to other non-convention methods of energy generation such as solar energy and wave energy.A central feature of Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Energy Generation is that it brings together diverse topics in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, electro-chemistry, electrical networks and electrical machines and focuses on their appli

  15. Modelling renewable energy economy in Ghana with autometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackah, Ishmael; Asomani, Mcomari [Africa Centre for Energy Policy, Accra (Ghana); Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2015-04-15

    Renewable energy consumption has been identified as a potential solution to the intermittent power supply in Ghana. Recently, a Renewable Energy Act has been passed which has a target of 10% of renewable energy component in Ghana's energy mix by 2020. Whilst effort is been made to enhance supply through feed in tariffs, education and tax reduction on renewable energy related equipment, there is the need to understand the drivers of renewable energy demand. In this study, the general unrestricted model through Autometrics is used to estimate the determinants of renewable energy demand in Ghana. The results indicate that both economic factors and non-economic affect the demand for renewable energy. In addition, the underlying energy demand trend exhibits energy using behaviour. The study recommends that economic factors such as consumer subsidies should be considered when promoting renewable energy demand.

  16. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  17. Towards a generalized energy prediction model for machine tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinge, Raunak; Park, Jinkyoo; Law, Kincho H; Dornfeld, David A; Helu, Moneer; Rachuri, Sudarsan

    2017-04-01

    Energy prediction of machine tools can deliver many advantages to a manufacturing enterprise, ranging from energy-efficient process planning to machine tool monitoring. Physics-based, energy prediction models have been proposed in the past to understand the energy usage pattern of a machine tool. However, uncertainties in both the machine and the operating environment make it difficult to predict the energy consumption of the target machine reliably. Taking advantage of the opportunity to collect extensive, contextual, energy-consumption data, we discuss a data-driven approach to develop an energy prediction model of a machine tool in this paper. First, we present a methodology that can efficiently and effectively collect and process data extracted from a machine tool and its sensors. We then present a data-driven model that can be used to predict the energy consumption of the machine tool for machining a generic part. Specifically, we use Gaussian Process (GP) Regression, a non-parametric machine-learning technique, to develop the prediction model. The energy prediction model is then generalized over multiple process parameters and operations. Finally, we apply this generalized model with a method to assess uncertainty intervals to predict the energy consumed to machine any part using a Mori Seiki NVD1500 machine tool. Furthermore, the same model can be used during process planning to optimize the energy-efficiency of a machining process.

  18. South African energy model: a system dynamics approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musango, JK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a South African energy model that was developed as a first step towards a comprehensive Threshold 21 model for South Africa. The energy sector consists of five sub-models, which are structured around the supply and demand...

  19. Mathematical modeling and simulation methods in energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales; Haurie, A. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions]|[Geneva Univ., (Switzerland); Zachary, D.S. [American Univ. of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Physics

    2004-05-01

    This study reviewed a modeling approach that evaluates the interactions between the economy of a region, its energy production/consumption system and the environmental impacts of these activities. Various linear programming models have been used to examine how an economy can adapt to abrupt changes in crude oil supply as a primary energy source. Although the models capture the complex interactions between technologies, energy options, economic development and social acceptance of energy policies, they should be modified to clarify the fact that energy demand is a derived demand that is related to technology choices. The models should also clarify that energy is a fundamental resource for the economy. As such, energy demand is influenced by macro-economic adjustments occurring in other economic sectors. This paper presents a first account of the general structure and potential use of mathematical and simulation models of energy systems. A first taxonomy of energy-economy-environment (E3) models was provided along with their main modeling approach. An alternative classification was proposed and technology ranking was discussed along with some issues in energy modeling. 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  20. Radial structure of the constricted positive column: Modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskii, Yu.; Kalanov, D.; Maiorov, V.

    2017-08-01

    We present a detailed self-consistent model of a positive column in argon glow discharge at moderate pressures and currents. This model describes the discharge transition between diffuse and constricted states. The model includes an extensive set of plasma chemical reactions and equation for inhomogeneous gas heating. The nonequilibrium behavior of an electron distribution function is also considered. One of the main features of the model is an accurate treatment of radiation trapping by solving the Holstein-Biberman equation directly. Influence of the radiation trapping on macroscopic parameters of the constricted positive column is studied. We propose a method for solving a boundary-value problem, including particle and energy balance equations for electrons, ground state atoms, atomic and molecular ions, and excited species. Unlike traditional solution approaches for similar systems, the method provides continuous Z- and S-shaped characteristics of discharge parameters, describing hysteresis in transition between diffuse and constricted discharge regimes. Performed experiments include measurements of volt-ampere characteristics and spectroscopic study of radial density profiles of excited atoms by measuring line emission and absorption, and electrons by measuring bremsstrahlung intensity. The role of resonance radiation trapping in spatial redistribution of 1 s and 2 p states of argon is demonstrated. Results of modeling are compared to the experimental data.

  1. Dynamic crack initiation toughness : experiments and peridynamic modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, John T.

    2009-10-01

    This is a dissertation on research conducted studying the dynamic crack initiation toughness of a 4340 steel. Researchers have been conducting experimental testing of dynamic crack initiation toughness, K{sub Ic}, for many years, using many experimental techniques with vastly different trends in the results when reporting K{sub Ic} as a function of loading rate. The dissertation describes a novel experimental technique for measuring K{sub Ic} in metals using the Kolsky bar. The method borrows from improvements made in recent years in traditional Kolsky bar testing by using pulse shaping techniques to ensure a constant loading rate applied to the sample before crack initiation. Dynamic crack initiation measurements were reported on a 4340 steel at two different loading rates. The steel was shown to exhibit a rate dependence, with the recorded values of K{sub Ic} being much higher at the higher loading rate. Using the knowledge of this rate dependence as a motivation in attempting to model the fracture events, a viscoplastic constitutive model was implemented into a peridynamic computational mechanics code. Peridynamics is a newly developed theory in solid mechanics that replaces the classical partial differential equations of motion with integral-differential equations which do not require the existence of spatial derivatives in the displacement field. This allows for the straightforward modeling of unguided crack initiation and growth. To date, peridynamic implementations have used severely restricted constitutive models. This research represents the first implementation of a complex material model and its validation. After showing results comparing deformations to experimental Taylor anvil impact for the viscoplastic material model, a novel failure criterion is introduced to model the dynamic crack initiation toughness experiments. The failure model is based on an energy criterion and uses the K{sub Ic} values recorded experimentally as an input. The failure model

  2. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  3. Energy balance of forage consumption by phyllophagous insects: optimization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of optimal food consumption by phytophagous insects proposed, in which the metabolic costs are presented in the form of two components – the cost of food utilization and costs for proper metabolism of the individuals. Two measures were introduced – the «price» of food conversion and the «price» of biomass synthesis of individuals to assess the effectiveness of food consumption by caterpillars. The proposed approach to the description of food consumption by insects provides the exact solutions of the equation of energy balance of food consumption and determining the effectiveness of consumption and the risk of death of the individual. Experiments on larvae’s feeding in laboratory conditions were carried out to verify the model. Caterpillars of Aporia crataegi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae were the research subjects. Supply­demand balance, calculated value of the environmental price of consumption and efficiency of food consumption for each individual were determined from experimental data. It was found that the fertility of the female does not depend on the weight of food consumed by it, but is linearly dependent on the food consumption efficiency index. The greater the efficiency of food consumption by an individual, the higher its fertility. The data obtained in the course of experiments on the feeding caterpillars Aporia crataegi were compared with the data presented in the works of other authors and counted in the proposed model of consumption. Calculations allowed estimation of the critical value of food conversion price below which the energy balance is negative and the existence of an individual is not possible.

  4. Developing a Model of the Irish Energy-System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    to be created. This paper focuses on the construction of this reference model, in terms of the data gathered, the assumptions made and the accuracy achieved. In future work, this model will be used to investigate alternative energy-systems for Ireland, with the aim to determine the most effective energy system......The transition from a fossil-fuel to a renewable energy system is a modern and complicated challenge for numerous countries. However, as Ireland is an island that is poorly interconnected to other energy systems, this challenge becomes even more complicated. Identifying how to make this transition...... is a vital step due to the scale of the change required for large-scale renewable penetrations. In this paper, a model of the Irish energy system is created to identify how Ireland can transform from a fossil-fuel to a renewable energy-system. The energy-systems-analysis tool, EnergyPLAN, was chosen...

  5. Comparison of dark energy models after Planck 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yue-Yao [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    We make a comparison for ten typical, popular dark energy models according to their capabilities of fitting the current observational data. The observational data we use in this work include the JLA sample of type Ia supernovae observation, the Planck 2015 distance priors of cosmic microwave background observation, the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, and the direct measurement of the Hubble constant. Since the models have different numbers of parameters, in order to make a fair comparison, we employ the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria to assess the worth of the models. The analysis results show that, according to the capability of explaining observations, the cosmological constant model is still the best one among all the dark energy models. The generalized Chaplygin gas model, the constant w model, and the α dark energy model are worse than the cosmological constant model, but still are good models compared to others. The holographic dark energy model, the new generalized Chaplygin gas model, and the Chevalliear-Polarski-Linder model can still fit the current observations well, but from an economically feasible perspective, they are not so good. The new agegraphic dark energy model, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and the Ricci dark energy model are excluded by the current observations. (orig.)

  6. Energy Resilience Modeling for Smart Houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasemieh, Hamed; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    The use of renewable energy in houses and neighbourhoods is very much governed by national legislation and has recently led to enormous changes in the energy market and poses a serious threat to the stability of the grid at peak production times. One of the approaches towards a more balanced grid

  7. Validation of Hydrodynamic Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    Validation of numerical model is essential in the development of new technologies. Commercial software and codes available simulating wave energy converters (WECs) have not been proved to work for all the available and upcoming technologies yet. The present paper presents the first stages...... of the validation process of a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter. The development of dry tests, wave flume and wave basin experiments are going to be explained, lessons learned shared and results presented....

  8. Discrete kinetic models from funneled energy landscape simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Nicholas P; Hoffman, Ryan M B; Burger, Anat; Craig, Patricio O; Komives, Elizabeth A; Wolynes, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    A general method for facilitating the interpretation of computer simulations of protein folding with minimally frustrated energy landscapes is detailed and applied to a designed ankyrin repeat protein (4ANK). In the method, groups of residues are assigned to foldons and these foldons are used to map the conformational space of the protein onto a set of discrete macrobasins. The free energies of the individual macrobasins are then calculated, informing practical kinetic analysis. Two simple assumptions about the universality of the rate for downhill transitions between macrobasins and the natural local connectivity between macrobasins lead to a scheme for predicting overall folding and unfolding rates, generating chevron plots under varying thermodynamic conditions, and inferring dominant kinetic folding pathways. To illustrate the approach, free energies of macrobasins were calculated from biased simulations of a non-additive structure-based model using two structurally motivated foldon definitions at the full and half ankyrin repeat resolutions. The calculated chevrons have features consistent with those measured in stopped flow chemical denaturation experiments. The dominant inferred folding pathway has an "inside-out", nucleation-propagation like character.

  9. Discrete kinetic models from funneled energy landscape simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Schafer

    Full Text Available A general method for facilitating the interpretation of computer simulations of protein folding with minimally frustrated energy landscapes is detailed and applied to a designed ankyrin repeat protein (4ANK. In the method, groups of residues are assigned to foldons and these foldons are used to map the conformational space of the protein onto a set of discrete macrobasins. The free energies of the individual macrobasins are then calculated, informing practical kinetic analysis. Two simple assumptions about the universality of the rate for downhill transitions between macrobasins and the natural local connectivity between macrobasins lead to a scheme for predicting overall folding and unfolding rates, generating chevron plots under varying thermodynamic conditions, and inferring dominant kinetic folding pathways. To illustrate the approach, free energies of macrobasins were calculated from biased simulations of a non-additive structure-based model using two structurally motivated foldon definitions at the full and half ankyrin repeat resolutions. The calculated chevrons have features consistent with those measured in stopped flow chemical denaturation experiments. The dominant inferred folding pathway has an "inside-out", nucleation-propagation like character.

  10. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-16

    Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

  11. Variable Renewable Energy in Long-Term Planning Models: A Multi-Model Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Blanford, Geoffrey [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Young, David [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Marcy, Cara [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Namovicz, Chris [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Edelman, Risa [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Meroney, Bill [Environmental Protection Agency; Sims, Ryan [Environmental Protection Agency; Stenhouse, Jeb [Environmental Protection Agency; Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy

    2017-11-03

    Long-term capacity expansion models of the U.S. electricity sector have long been used to inform electric sector stakeholders and decision makers. With the recent surge in variable renewable energy (VRE) generators - primarily wind and solar photovoltaics - the need to appropriately represent VRE generators in these long-term models has increased. VRE generators are especially difficult to represent for a variety of reasons, including their variability, uncertainty, and spatial diversity. To assess current best practices, share methods and data, and identify future research needs for VRE representation in capacity expansion models, four capacity expansion modeling teams from the Electric Power Research Institute, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted two workshops of VRE modeling for national-scale capacity expansion models. The workshops covered a wide range of VRE topics, including transmission and VRE resource data, VRE capacity value, dispatch and operational modeling, distributed generation, and temporal and spatial resolution. The objectives of the workshops were both to better understand these topics and to improve the representation of VRE across the suite of models. Given these goals, each team incorporated model updates and performed additional analyses between the first and second workshops. This report summarizes the analyses and model 'experiments' that were conducted as part of these workshops as well as the various methods for treating VRE among the four modeling teams. The report also reviews the findings and learnings from the two workshops. We emphasize the areas where there is still need for additional research and development on analysis tools to incorporate VRE into long-term planning and decision-making.

  12. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  13. Review of Methods for Buildings Energy Performance Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Hrvoje; Teni, Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    Research presented in this paper gives a brief review of methods used for buildings energy performance modelling. This paper gives also a comprehensive review of the advantages and disadvantages of available methods as well as the input parameters used for modelling buildings energy performance. European Directive EPBD obliges the implementation of energy certification procedure which gives an insight on buildings energy performance via exiting energy certificate databases. Some of the methods for buildings energy performance modelling mentioned in this paper are developed by employing data sets of buildings which have already undergone an energy certification procedure. Such database is used in this paper where the majority of buildings in the database have already gone under some form of partial retrofitting – replacement of windows or installation of thermal insulation but still have poor energy performance. The case study presented in this paper utilizes energy certificates database obtained from residential units in Croatia (over 400 buildings) in order to determine the dependence between buildings energy performance and variables from database by using statistical dependencies tests. Building energy performance in database is presented with building energy efficiency rate (from A+ to G) which is based on specific annual energy needs for heating for referential climatic data [kWh/(m2a)]. Independent variables in database are surfaces and volume of the conditioned part of the building, building shape factor, energy used for heating, CO2 emission, building age and year of reconstruction. Research results presented in this paper give an insight in possibilities of methods used for buildings energy performance modelling. Further on it gives an analysis of dependencies between buildings energy performance as a dependent variable and independent variables from the database. Presented results could be used for development of new building energy performance

  14. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  15. Power Systems and Energy Storage Modeling for Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    similar to the lead-acid model and is based on the VL-30 PFe cell by Saft America. Output parameters of the battery that can be measured include...that if the maximum radius is determined by the rotational frequency of the flywheel. The torque is determined by the desired maximum power...eliminated; at this point a new effect was noticed. At the top of each pulse in the new output was a high frequency “fuzz” or “hash.” An investigation of

  16. An Integrated Approach To Offshore Wind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes 3D Wind Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R. J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Pryor, S. C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-09-18

    This grant supported fundamental research into the characterization of flow parameters of relevance to the wind energy industry focused on offshore and the coastal zone. A major focus of the project was application of the latest generation of remote sensing instrumentation and also integration of measurements and numerical modeling to optimize characterization of time-evolving atmospheric flow parameters in 3-D. Our research developed a new data-constrained Wind Atlas for the Great Lakes, and developed new insights into flow parameters in heterogeneous environments. Four experiments were conducted during the project: At a large operating onshore wind farm in May 2012; At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Wind Technology Center (NREL NWTC) during February 2013; At the shoreline of Lake Erie in May 2013; and At the Wind Energy Institute of Canada on Prince Edward Island in May 2015. The experiment we conducted in the coastal zone of Lake Erie indicated very complex flow fields and the frequent presence of upward momentum fluxes and resulting distortion of the wind speed profile at turbine relevant heights due to swells in the Great Lakes. Additionally, our data (and modeling) indicate the frequent presence of low level jets at 600 m height over the Lake and occasions when the wind speed profile across the rotor plane may be impacted by this phenomenon. Experimental data and modeling of the fourth experiment on Prince Edward Island showed that at 10-14 m escarpment adjacent to long-overseas fetch the zone of wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and slightly downwind of) the escarpment is ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. Additionally, our measurements were used to improve methods to compute the uncertainty in lidar-derived flow properties and to optimize lidar-scanning strategies. For example, on the basis of the experimental data we collected plus those from one of our research partners we advanced a new methodology to

  17. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  18. Developing an Energy Performance Modeling Startup Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the NAHB Research Center began the first part of the multi-year effort by assessing the needs and motivations of residential remodelers regarding energy performance remodeling. The scope is multifaceted - all perspectives will be sought related to remodeling firms ranging in size from small-scale, sole proprietor to national. This will allow the Research Center to gain a deeper understanding of the remodeling and energy retrofit business and the needs of contractors when offering energy upgrade services. To determine the gaps and the motivation for energy performance remodeling, the NAHB Research Center conducted (1) an initial series of focus groups with remodelers at the 2011 International Builders' Show, (2) a second series of focus groups with remodelers at the NAHB Research Center in conjunction with the NAHB Spring Board meeting in DC, and (3) quantitative market research with remodelers based on the findings from the focus groups. The goal was threefold, to: Understand the current remodeling industry and the role of energy efficiency; Identify the gaps and barriers to adding energy efficiency into remodeling; and Quantify and prioritize the support needs of professional remodelers to increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency. This report outlines all three of these tasks with remodelers.

  19. Experiments on the WavePiston, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelelli, E.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a new Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the Oscillating Water Column type (OWC), named WavePiston. This near-shore floating device is composed of plates (i.e. energy collectors) sliding around a cylinder, that is placed perpendicular to the shore. Tests...... in the wave basin at Aalborg University allowed to investigate power production in the North Sea typical wave climate, with varying design parameters such as plate dimensions and their mutual distance. The power produced per meter by each collector is about the 5% of the available wave power. Experimental...... results and survivability considerations suggest that the WavePiston would be particularly suited for installations in milder seas. An example application is therefore presented in the Mediterranean Sea, off-shore the island of Sicily. In this case, each collector harvests the 10% of the available wave...

  20. Terascale Physics Opportunities at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    This paper presents the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering on Glass). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain over an order of magnitude higher statistics than presently available for the purely weak processes νμ + e- → νμ + e- and νμ + e- → νe + μ-. A sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples will also be obtained. As a result, NuSOnG will be unique among present and planned experiments for its ability to probe neutrino couplings to Beyond the Standard Model physics. Many Beyond Standard Model theories physics predict a rich hierarchy of TeV-scale new states that can correct neutrino cross-sections, through modifications of Zνν couplings, tree-level exchanges of new particles such as Z‧'s, or through loop-level oblique corrections to gauge boson propagators. These corrections are generic in theories of extra dimensions, extended gauge symmetries, supersymmetry, and more. The sensitivity of NuSOnG to this new physics extends beyond 5 TeV mass scales. This paper reviews these physics opportunities.

  1. Predictive Model of Energy Consumption in Beer Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiecheng Pu; Jing Bai

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the beer production. Using the subtractive clustering on the historical data of energy consumption, the limit of artificial experience is conquered while confirming the number of fuzzy rules...

  2. Dynamics of vortices in complex wakes: Modeling, analysis, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat

    model results with experiments conducted in a owing soap film with an airfoil, which was imparted with forced oscillations, are satisfactory and validate the reduced order modeling framework. The experiments have been performed by a collaborator group at the Department of Physics and Fluid Dynamics at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), led by Dr. Anders Andersen. Similar experiments have also been run at Virginia Tech as part of this dissertation and the preliminary results are included in this treatise. The thesis also employs the same dynamical systems techniques, which have been applied to study the 2P regime dynamics, to develop a mathematical model for the P+S mode vortex wakes, with three vortices present in each shedding cycle. The model results have also been compared favorably with an experiment and the predictions regarding the vortex circulation data match well with the previous results from literature. Finally, the thesis introduces a novel concept of clean and renewable energy extraction from vortex-induced vibrations of bluff bodies. The slow-moving currents in the off-shore marine environments and riverine flows are beyond the operational capabilities of the more established hydrokinetic energy converters and the discussed technology promises to be a significant tool to generate useful power from these copiously available but previously untapped sources.

  3. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  4. Economic Model Predictive Control for Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus

    Model Predictive Control (MPC) can be used to control the energy distribution in a Smart Grid with a high share of stochastic energy production from renewable energy sources like wind. Heat pumps for heating residential buildings can exploit the slow heat dynamics of a building to store heat...

  5. Energy-aware semantic modeling in large scale infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, H.; van der Veldt, K.; Grosso, P.; Zhao, Z.; Liao, X.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    Including the energy profile of the computing infrastructure in the decision process for scheduling computing tasks and allocating resources is essential to improve the system energy efficiency. However, the lack of an effective model of the infrastructure energy information makes it difficult for

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell which converts solar energy directly into electrical energy is one of the feasible alternative sources to fossil fuel. This study aims at predicting the energy recovery from a typical photovoltaic solar cell, BP 3 series 235 W solar panel, by developing a reliable mathematical model of the solar panel ...

  7. Modelling energy expenditure of a brick layer at various postures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy utilisation at work in the labour-intensive building industry is of prime importance to contractors who match people to jobs. This paper provides an insight into modelling energy expenditure in a specific task, namely brick laying in various postures. It therefore takes previous “generic” biomechanical-energy prediction ...

  8. Use of Danish Heat Atlas and energy system models for exploring renewable energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2013-01-01

    networks in relation with significant heat saving measures that are capital intensive infrastructure investments require highly detailed decision - support tools. The Heat Atlas for Denmark provides a highly detailed database and includes heat demand and possible heat savings for about 2.5 million...... buildings with associated costs included. Energy systems modelling tools that incorporate economic, environmental, energy and engineering analysis of future energy systems are considered crucial for quantitative assessment of transitional scenarios towards future milestones, such as (i) EU 2020 goals...... of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing share of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency and (ii) Denmark’s 2050 goals of covering entire energy supply by renewable energy. Optimization and simulation energy system models are currently used in Denmark. The present paper tends to provide...

  9. Optimal boson energy for superconductivity in the Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-06-01

    We examine the superconducting solution in the Holstein model, where the conduction electrons couple to the dispersionless boson fields, using the Migdal-Eliashberg theory and dynamical mean field theory. Although different in numerical values, both methods imply the existence of an optimal boson energy for superconductivity at a given electron-boson coupling. This nonmonotonous behavior can be understood as an interplay between the polaron and superconducting physics, as the electron-boson coupling is the origin of the superconductor, but at the same time traps the conduction electrons making the system more insulating. Our calculation provides a simple explanation of the recent experiment on sulfur hydride, where an optimal pressure for the superconductivity was observed. The validities of both methods are discussed.

  10. Modelling of Graphene Nanoribbon Fermi Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharah Johari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoribbon (GNR is a promising alternative to carbon nanotube (CNT to overcome the chirality challenge as a nanoscale device channel. Due to the one-dimensional behavior of plane GNR, the carrier statistic study is attractive. Research works have been done on carrier statistic study of GNR especially in the parabolic part of the band structure using Boltzmann approximation (nondegenerate regime. Based on the quantum confinement effect, we have improved the fundamental study in degenerate regime for both the parabolic and nonparabolic parts of GNR band energy. Our results demonstrate that the band energy of GNR near to the minimum band energy is parabolic. In this part of the band structure, the Fermi-Dirac integrals are sufficient for the carrier concentration study. The Fermi energy showed the temperature-dependent behavior similar to any other one-dimensional device in nondegenerate regime. However in the degenerate regime, the normalized Fermi energy with respect to the band edge is a function of carrier concentration. The numerical solution of Fermi-Dirac integrals for nonparabolic region, which is away from the minimum energy band structure of GNR, is also presented.

  11. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Tsukuba U.

    1984-01-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower....

  12. Search for new physics in events with opposite-sign dileptons and missing transverse energy with the CMS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprenger Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a search for new physics in events with two opposite-sign isolated electrons or muons, hadronic activity, and missing transverse energy in the final state are presented. The results are based on analysis of a data sample with a corresponding integrated luminosity of 0.98 fb−1 produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. No evidence for an event yield beyond Standard-Model expectations is found, and constraints on supersymmetric models are deduced from these observations.

  13. General business model patterns for Local Energy Management concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eFacchinetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition towards a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed and compared. Through a market review a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  14. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  15. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  16. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  17. Inflation via logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darabi, F.; Felegary, F. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We study the inflation in terms of the logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with future event horizon, particle horizon, and Hubble horizon cut-offs, and we compare the results with those obtained in the study of inflation by the holographic dark energy HDE model. In comparison, the spectrum of primordial scalar power spectrum in the LECHDE model becomes redder than the spectrum in the HDE model. Moreover, the consistency with the observational data in the LECHDE model of inflation constrains the reheating temperature and Hubble parameter by one parameter of holographic dark energy and two new parameters of logarithmic corrections. (orig.)

  18. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fumin Ma; Gregory M. P. O’Hare; Tengfei Zhang; Michael J. O’Grady

    2015-01-01

    Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry en...

  19. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  20. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  1. Promotion of solar thermal energy - guide and comparison of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballot, E. [ALTER Alsace (France)

    2004-01-01

    One of the objectives of the guide is to analyse the methods of the various partners of the project (Germany, Cyprus, Town of Barcelona and France) and to make a list with the most important ones, which could eventually be reproduced and adapted in other regions. Also, try to find out the problems that the various partners encounter (lack of information, technical and financial tools...), look for the best ways for developing the solar thermal energy and try to find out some answers from the stake holders of this domain and from our partners. (author)

  2. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  3. What have we learned from high-energy experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Quigg, C

    1973-01-01

    Results from NAL and the Cern ISR machines are reviewed and interpreted qualitatively in terms of current theoretical models. Topics covered include scaling, correlation functions, total cross- sections, diffraction dissociation and clustering properties. (59 refs).

  4. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  5. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  6. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry energy transfer system is developed based on model property. Firstly, a reconfigurable energy transfer process model, which is independent of energy types and energy-consuming equipment, is presented from the viewpoint of the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow. Thereafter the material balance determination is proposed based on both a dynamic incidence matrix and dynamic balance quantity. Moreover, the model-weighted conservation determination theorem is proved, and the energy efficiency analysis method is also discussed. Results confirmed the efficacy of the proposed methods, confirming its potential for use by process industry in energy efficiency analyses.

  7. Research on potential user identification model for electric energy substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Lin, Haiying; Yang, Shuo; Miao, Bo; Zhu, Xinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of energy substitution plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. Energy service management platform of alternative energy users based on the data in the enterprise production value, product output, coal and other energy consumption as a potential evaluation index, using principal component analysis model to simplify the formation of characteristic index, comprehensive index contains the original variables, and using fuzzy clustering model for the same industry user’s flexible classification. The comprehensive index number and user clustering classification based on constructed particle optimization neural network classification model based on the user, user can replace electric potential prediction. The results of an example show that the model can effectively predict the potential of users’ energy potential.

  8. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  9. Energy demand analytics using coupled technological and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impacts of a range of policy scenarios on end-use energy demand are examined using a coupling of MARKAL, an energy system model with extensive supply and end-use technological detail, with Inforum LIFT, a large-scale model of the us. economy with inter-industry, government, and c...

  10. Model for optimum design of standalone hybrid renewable energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An optimization model for the design of a hybrid renewable energy microgrid supplying an isolated load has been developed. This is achieved in two steps. The first step developed a linear programming model that uses the average pattern of demand, wind, and solar energy to determine the optimal configuration.

  11. Supersonic-jet experiments using a high-energy laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupias, B; Koenig, M; Falize, E; Bouquet, S; Ozaki, N; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Vinci, T; Michaut, C; Rabec le Goahec, M; Nazarov, W; Courtois, C; Aglitskiy, Y; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T

    2007-12-31

    In this Letter, laboratory astrophysical jet experiments performed with the LULI2000 laser facility are presented. High speed plasma jets (150 km.s(-1)) are generated using foam-filled cone targets. Accurate experimental characterization of the plasma jet is performed by measuring its time evolution and exploring various target parameters. Key jet parameters such as propagation and radial velocities, temperature, and density are obtained. For the first time, the required dimensionless quantities are experimentally determined on a single-shot basis. Although the jets evolve in vacuum, most of the scaling parameters are relevant to astrophysical conditions.

  12. Ultrafast Breakdown of dielectrics: Energy absorption mechanisms investigated by double pulse experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizard, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.guizard@cea.fr [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-IRAMIS, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Klimentov, Sergey [General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova St 38, 11991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mouskeftaras, Alexandros [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-IRAMIS, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Fedorov, Nikita; Geoffroy, Ghita [Laboratoire CELIA, CNRS-CEA-Université de Bordeaux, Cours de La Libération, Talence (France); Vilmart, Gautier [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CEA-IRAMIS, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the mechanisms involved in the modification of dielectric materials by ultrashort laser pulses. We show that the use of a double pulse (fundamental and second harmonic of a Ti–Sa laser) excitation allows getting new insight in the fundamental processes that occur during the interaction. We first measure the optical breakdown (OB) threshold map (intensity of first pulse versus intensity of second pulse) in various materials (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, α-SiO{sub 2}). Using a simple model that includes multiphoton excitation followed by carrier heating in the conduction band, and assuming that OB occurs when a critical amount of energy is deposited in the material, we can satisfactorily reproduce this evolution of optical breakdown thresholds. The results demonstrate the dominant role of carrier heating in the energy transfer from the laser pulse to the solid. This important phenomenon is also highlighted by the kinetic energy distribution of photoelectrons observed in a photoemission experiment performed under similar conditions of double pulse excitation. Finally we show, in the case of α-SiO{sub 2}, that the initial electronic excitation plays a key role in the formation of surface ripples and that their characteristics are determined by the first pulse, even at intensities well below OB threshold.

  13. Interacting holographic dark energy models: A general approach

    CERN Document Server

    Som, S

    2014-01-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density $\\rho_d=3(\\alpha H^2+\\beta\\dot{H})$. Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy(RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for $\\beta>0.5$ irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of $\\alpha=1$ and $\\beta=2/3$ leads to a varying $\\Lambda$-like model introducing an IR cutoff length $\\Lambda^{-1/2}$. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form $Q\\propto H\\rho_m$ suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  14. Communication strategies for two models of discrete energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    in a battery and transmissions are interrupted if the battery runs out of energy. We address communication in slot-based energy harvesting systems, where the transmitter communicates with ON-OFF signaling: in each slot it can either choose to transmit (ON) or stay silent (OFF). Two different models...... of harvesting and communication are addressed. In the first model an energy quantum can arrive, with a certain probability, in each slot. The second model is based on a frame of size F: energy arrives periodically over F slots, in batches containing a random number of energy quanta. We devise achievable...... strategies and compare the slot- with the frame-based model in the case of an errorless transmission channel. Additionally, for the slot-based model and channel with errors, we provide a new proof of the capacity achieved by the save-and-transmit scheme....

  15. Unique High Energy Experiment Initiative by ICSP with Weather Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S. K.; Bhowmick, D.; Sarkar, R.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Midya, S.

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of miniaturization of instruments, Indian Centre for Space Physics began exploring high energy Universe using weather balloons about six years ago. Several Payloads of mass within 4 kg have been flown to near space. Along with the main measurement unit which is usually a scintillator detector, attitude measurement unit, GPS tracking unit, video camera and parachute(s) are also flown. Using large duration flights unique to ICSP without using any valve or ballast and any extra cost, this inexpensive initiative brings back very rich scientific data on soft X-ray spectra of Cosmic Rays, Solar flares, Gamma Ray Bursts and Crab Pulsar. Some results are presented. The payloads are reusable, reducing the recurring cost per flight to be less that $500.00.

  16. EMR modelling of a hydrogen-based electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbli, K. S.; Hissel, D.; Péra, M.-C.; Doumbia, I.

    2011-05-01

    This paper deals with multi-physics modelling of the stationary system. This modelling is the first step to reach the fuel cell system dimensioning aim pursued. Besides this modelling approach based on the stationary energetic system, the novelty in this paper is both the new approach of the photovoltaic EMR modelling and the EMR of the hydrogen storage process. The granular modelling approach is used to model each component of the system. Considering a stand alone PEM fuel cell system, hydrogen is expected to be produced and stored on the spot from renewable energy (photovoltaic) in order to satisfy the fuel availability. In fact, to develop a generic and modular model, energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is used as graphical modelling tool. Allowing to be easily grasped by the experts even not necessarily gotten used to the modelling formalism, EMR is helpful to model the multi-domains energetic chain. The solar energy through solar module is converted in electrical energy; part of this energy is transformed in chemical energy (hydrogen) thanks to an electrolyser. Then the hydrogen is compressed into a tank across a storage system. The latter part of the solar module energy is stored as electrical energy within supercapacitor or lead-acid battery. Using the modularity feature of the EMR, the whole system is modelled entity by entity; afterwards by putting them together the overall system has been reconstructed. According to the scale effect of the system entities, some simulation and/or experimental results are given. Given to the different aims which are pursued in the sustainable energy framework like prediction, control and optimisation, EMR modelling approach is a reliable option for the energy management in real time of energetic system in macroscopic point of view.

  17. Assessing the Validity of the Simplified Potential Energy Clock Model for Modeling Glass-Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dai, Steve Xunhu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Glass-ceramic seals may be the future of hermetic connectors at Sandia National Laboratories. They have been shown capable of surviving higher temperatures and pressures than amorphous glass seals. More advanced finite-element material models are required to enable model-based design and provide evidence that the hermetic connectors can meet design requirements. Glass-ceramics are composite materials with both crystalline and amorphous phases. The latter gives rise to (non-linearly) viscoelastic behavior. Given their complex microstructures, glass-ceramics may be thermorheologically complex, a behavior outside the scope of currently implemented constitutive models at Sandia. However, it was desired to assess if the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model is capable of capturing the material response. Available data for SL 16.8 glass-ceramic was used to calibrate the SPEC model. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing model predictions with shear moduli temperature dependence and high temperature 3-point bend creep data. It is shown that the model can predict the temperature dependence of the shear moduli and 3- point bend creep data. Analysis of the results is presented. Suggestions for future experiments and model development are presented. Though further calibration is likely necessary, SPEC has been shown capable of modeling glass-ceramic behavior in the glass transition region but requires further analysis below the transition region.

  18. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  19. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have studied the solutions of plane-symmetric Universe with variable ω in the presence and the absence of magnetic field of energy density ρ B . A special law of variation for Hubble's parameterproposed by Bermann in {\\it Nuovo Cimento} B 74, 182 (1983) has been utilized to solve the field equations.

  20. Modelling the energy balance of an anaerobic digester fed with cattle manure and renewable energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, Manfred; Wichern, Marc; Schlattmann, Markus; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge of the net energy production of anaerobic fermenters is important for reliable modelling of the efficiency of anaerobic digestion processes. By using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) the simulation of biogas production and composition is possible. This paper shows the application and modification of ADM1 to simulate energy production of the digestion of cattle manure and renewable energy crops. The paper additionally presents an energy balance model, which enables the dynamic calculation of the net energy production. The model was applied to a pilot-scale biogas reactor. It was found in a simulation study that a continuous feeding and splitting of the reactor feed into smaller heaps do not generally have a positive effect on the net energy yield. The simulation study showed that the ratio of co-substrate to liquid manure in the inflow determines the net energy production when the inflow load is split into smaller heaps. Mathematical equations are presented to calculate the increase of biogas and methane yield for the digestion of liquid manure and lipids for different feeding intervals. Calculations of different kinds of energy losses for the pilot-scale digester showed high dynamic variations, demonstrating the significance of using a dynamic energy balance model.

  1. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  2. Clean Energy Generation and Dispatch in Reformed Wholesale Electricity Markets: Experience in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Ma [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Fan, Zhang [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Menghua, Fan [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Jing, Li [State Grid Energy Research Institute; Haoyuan, Qu [State Grid Energy Research Institute

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the US electricity market has undergone several stages of reform, and gradually formed the market where the wholesale electricity price is determined by the supply and demand. The US electricity market also changes along with the rapid development of clean energy, forming a number of the market mechanisms that is specifically developed for clean energy power generation characteristics. On the basis of discussing the pricing mechanism of US electricity market, this paper analyzes the experience and practice of encouraging renewable energy development policy and clean energy dispatch from the angle of market mechanism and dispatching decision, and puts forward the reference for clean energy dispatching in China.

  3. Testing SO(10)-inspired leptogenesis with low energy neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    We extend the results of a previous analysis of ours showing that, when both heavy and light flavour effects are taken into account, successful minimal (type I + thermal) leptogenesis with SO(10)-inspired relations is possible. Barring fine tuned choices of the parameters, these relations enforce a hierarchical RH neutrino mass spectrum that results into a final asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest RH neutrino decays (N_2 dominated leptogenesis). We present the constraints on the whole set of low energy neutrino parameters. Allowing a small misalignment between the Dirac basis and the charged lepton basis as in the quark sector, the allowed regions enlarge and the lower bound on the reheating temperature gets relaxed to values as low as ~ 10^10 GeV. It is confirmed that for normal ordering (NO) there are two allowed ranges of values for the lightest neutrino mass: m_1 \\simeq (1-5)\\times 10^-3 eV and m_1\\simeq (0.03-0.1) eV. For m_1\\lesssim 0.01 eV the allowed region in the plane theta_13-thet...

  4. Carbon tax impacts through energy economy linked econometric model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K.; Kim, S.S.; Moon, K.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of carbon tax assessment on the energy and national economy of Korea. For this, in establishing quantitative economic model of energy-economy connection, this model was made possible to grasp the effect of impact in energy sector to economic sectors quantitatively connecting the energy model with adjusted macroeconomics model. This study assumes the flow chart that shrinks production in economic sectors by inducing the introduction of carbon tax assessment due to regulation on carbon emission amount, increasing the energy price and lessening the energy demand. The estimation of the effect of carbon tax assessment on energy and national economy was carried out through the changes of energy price, demand changes and the changes of gross domestic production (GDP). The analysis result can be summed up that in order to enhance the stability of carbon emission amount, a carbon tax should be assessed at very high level, and the impact is very serious in their impact on power price, the increase of energy price as well as major economic factors including gross domestic production (GDP). It is judged to provide a lot of help in the effect analysis of policy and future research in the same field by making it possible to do simulation test on several policy means through the quantitative economic model developed in this study. 6 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Net-Zero-Energy Model for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Qin, Rong-Cong; Guo, Jin-Song; Yu, Qiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang

    2017-01-17

    A large external energy input prevents wastewater treatment from being environmentally sustainable. A net-zero-energy (NZE) wastewater treatment concept based on biomass energy recycling was proposed to avoid wasting resources and to promote energy recycling in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Simultaneously, a theoretical model and boundary condition based on energy balance were established to evaluate the feasibility of achieving NZE in WWTPs; the model and condition were employed to analyze data from 20 conventional WWTPs in China. A total of six WWTPs can currently export excess energy, eight WWTPs can achieve 100% energy self-sufficiency by adjusting the metabolic material allocation, and six municipal WWTPs cannot achieve net-zero energy consumption based on the evaluation of the theoretical model. The NZE model offset 79.5% of the electricity and sludge disposal cost compared with conventional wastewater treatment. The NZE model provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of material regulation for the effective utilization of organic energy from wastewater and promotes engineering applications of the NZE concept in WWTPs.

  6. Energy System Planning Analysis Using the Integrated Energy and Macroeconomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bozic

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the energy planners through setting the desired level of economic growth simply used this figure as a base to which additional increases were made, dependent on changing population and supply conditions. Planning proceeded from the national, macroeconomic position, to the aggregate, sectoral and finally project levels. Such process was a virtual one-way linkage from economic growth rate to the energy sector; it is viewed in isolation from the reminder of the economy. Integration of energy system optimization model MARKAL and the macroeconomic growth model MACRO makes possible the analysis of two-way linkage between energy system and the economy. This paper presents review of relation between energy system and economy, including the basics of technology and economy oriented models and their integration in one model with applications.

  7. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy and they are as saturated with politics as a presidential election, but they sure are fun.

  8. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy, but they sure are fun.

  9. Modelling of the simple pendulum Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palka L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - work focuses on the design of the simulation embedded in remote experiment “Simple pendulum” built on the Internet School Experimental System (ISES. This platform is intended for wide educational purposes at schools and universities in order to provide the suitable measuring environment for students using conventional computing resources Informatics.

  10. Nuclear reaction modeling, verification experiments, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, F.S.

    1995-10-01

    This presentation summarized the recent accomplishments and future promise of the neutron nuclear physics program at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scatter Center (MLNSC) and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility. The unique capabilities of the spallation sources enable a broad range of experiments in weapons-related physics, basic science, nuclear technology, industrial applications, and medical physics.

  11. Study on Chinese model of low carbon economy-energy-electricity-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang

    2010-09-15

    With the successful experience on energy efficiency in the past 30 years in China, it can be summarized as Energy Usage Management(EUM) and Integrated Resource Strategic Planning(IRSP). They will play essential role in Low Carbon Economy. The model of Low Carbon Economy-Energy-Electricity-Environment and an outlook of Chinese economic growth, energy-electricity demand, and renewable energy generation have been studied in this paper. It has been shown that China would save energy 4.38 billion toe and reduce CO2 emission 16.55 billion ton by EUM, and would save energy 1.5 billion toe and reduce CO2 emission 5.7 Btons by IRSP during 2010-2030.

  12. Examples of Small-scale Urban Area. Experiment Energy Leap Built Environment; Voorbeeldenboek Kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. Experiment Energiesprong Gebouwde Omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch government considers the transition process to be necessary and stimulates investments in energy innovations in the built environment. This innovation effort is the programme 'Energy Leap' (Energiesprong), which is being carried out by the Steering Group Experimental Housing (SEV) on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK). The programme is derived from the Innovation Agenda for Energy in the Built Environment. The examples in this book are intended to inspire (potential) participants in the Experiment Energy Leap for Small-scale Urban Areas. The examples focus explicitly on the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas, and thus, in addition to CO2 reduction on a building level, the aspects of energy supply, (local) energy production and the energy infrastructure [Dutch] Het SEV-programma Energiesprong (SEV is Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) beoogt een substantiele bijdrage te leveren aan de condities waaronder de energietransitie effectief tot stand kan komen. In dit basisplan wordt uiteengezet hoe de markt daartoe moet kunnen komen en welke activiteiten daarvoor worden ondersteund, opgezet en/of uitgevoerd vanuit Energiesprong. Het SEV-programma Energiesprong wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) uitgevoerd. Het programma is afgeleid van de Innovatie Agenda energie Gebouwde Omgeving. Dit voorbeeldenboek dient ter inspiratie van (potentiele) deelnemers aan het Experiment Energiesprong kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. De voorbeelden richten zich expliciet op de CO2-reductie van binnenstedelijke gebieden en daarmee, naast de CO2-reductie op woning- en gebouwniveau, op de aspecten energievoorziening, (locale) energieopwekking en energie-infrastructuur.

  13. Roles of dark energy perturbations in dynamical dark energy models: can we ignore them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Hwang, Jai-chan; Lee, Jae-heon; Noh, Hyerim

    2009-10-09

    We show the importance of properly including the perturbations of the dark energy component in the dynamical dark energy models based on a scalar field and modified gravity theories in order to meet with present and future observational precisions. Based on a simple scaling scalar field dark energy model, we show that observationally distinguishable substantial differences appear by ignoring the dark energy perturbation. By ignoring it the perturbed system of equations becomes inconsistent and deviations in (gauge-invariant) power spectra depend on the gauge choice.

  14. Design of experiments an introduction based on linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Max D

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionExample: rainfall and grassland Basic elements of an experimentExperiments and experiment-like studies Models and data analysisLinear Statistical ModelsLinear vector spaces Basic linear model The hat matrix, least-squares estimates, and design information matrixThe partitioned linear model The reduced normal equations Linear and quadratic forms Estimation and information Hypothesis testing and informationBlocking and informationCompletely Randomized DesignsIntroductionModels Matrix formulation Influence of design on estimation Influence of design on hypothesis testingRandomized Com

  15. Vibration mitigation of a bridge cable using a nonlinear energy sink: design and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design and experiment of a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES for horizontal vibration mitigation of a bridge cable. Modal analysis of horizontal linear modes of the cable is experimentally performed using accelerometers and displacement sensors. A theoretical simplified 2-dof model of the coupled cable-NES system is used to analytically design the NES by mean of multi-time scale systems behaviours and detection its invariant manifold, equilibrium and singular points which stand for periodic and strongly modulated regimes, respectively. Numerical integration is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed NES for the system under step release excitation. Then, the prototype system is built using geometrical cubic nonlinearity as the potential of the NES. Efficiency of the prototype system for mitigation of horizontal vibrations of the cable under for step release and forced excitations is experimentally demonstrated.

  16. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: investigating the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    CERN Document Server

    Russotto, P; De Filippo, E; Févre, A Le; Gannon, S; Gašparić, I; Kiš, M; Kupny, S; Leifels, Y; Lemmon, R C; Łukasik, J; Marini, P; Pagano, A; Pawłowski, P; Santoro, S; Trautmann, W; Veselsky, M; Acosta, L; Adamczyk, M; Al-Ajlan, A; Al-Garawi, M; Al-Homaidhi, S; Amorini, F; Auditore, L; Aumann, T; Ayyad, Y; Baran, V; Basrak, Z; Benlliure, J; Boiano, C; Boisjoli, M; Boretzky, K; Brzychczyk, J; Budzanowski, A; Cardella, G; Cammarata, P; Chajecki, Z; Chbihi, A; Colonna, M; Cozma, D; Czech, B; Di Toro, M; Famiano, M; Geraci, E; Greco, V; Grassi, L; Guazzoni, C; Guazzoni, P; Heil, M; Heilborn, L; Introzzi, R; Isobe, T; Kezzar, K; Krasznahorkay, A; Kurz, N; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Lasko, P; Li, Q; Lombardo, I; Lynch, W G; Matthews, Z; May, L; Minniti, T; Mostazo, M; Papa, M; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Porto, F; Reifarth, R; Reisdorf, W; Riccio, F; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Rossi, D; Simon, H; Skwirczynska, I; Sosin, Z; Stuhl, L; Trifiró, A; Trimarchi, M; Tsang, M B; Verde, G; Vigilante, M; Wieloch, A; Wigg, P; Wolter, H H; Wu, P; Yennello, S; Zambon, P; Zetta, L; Zoric, M

    2012-01-01

    The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons in reactions of neutron rich heavy-ions systems at intermediate energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term in the nuclear Equation Of State (EOS) at supra-saturation densities. The recent results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model allowed a first estimate of the symmetry term of the EOS but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration in May 2011.

  17. Mathematical Modeling: Are Prior Experiences Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czocher, Jennifer A.; Moss, Diana L.

    2017-01-01

    Why are math modeling problems the source of such frustration for students and teachers? The conceptual understanding that students have when engaging with a math modeling problem varies greatly. They need opportunities to make their own assumptions and design the mathematics to fit these assumptions (CCSSI 2010). Making these assumptions is part…

  18. Human radiation experiments associated with the US Department of Energy and its predecessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-07-01

    This document contains a listing, description, and selected references for documented human radiation experiments sponsored, supported, or performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Off ice of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). The list represents work completed by DOE`s Off ice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) through June 1995. The experiment list is available on the Internet via a Home Page on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). The Home Page also includes the full text of Human Radiation Experiments. The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records (DOE/EH-0445), published in February 1995, to which this publication is a supplement. This list includes experiments released at Secretary O`Leary`s June 1994 press conference, as well as additional studies identified during the 12 months that followed. Cross-references are provided for experiments originally released at the press conference; for experiments released as part of The DOE Roadmap; and for experiments published in the 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens. An appendix of radiation terms is also provided.

  19. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William W.-W.

    1992-01-01

    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  20. Cohesive mixed mode fracture modelling and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Rasmus; Olesen, John Forbes

    2008-01-01

    . An experimental set-up for the assessment of mixed mode interfacial fracture properties is presented, applying a bi-material specimen, half steel and half concrete, with an inclined interface and under uniaxial load. Loading the inclined steel–concrete interface under different angles produces load–crack opening......A nonlinear mixed mode model originally developed by Wernersson [Wernersson H. Fracture characterization of wood adhesive joints. Report TVSM-1006, Lund University, Division of Structural Mechanics; 1994], based on nonlinear fracture mechanics, is discussed and applied to model interfacial cracking...... in a steel–concrete interface. The model is based on the principles of Hillerborgs fictitious crack model, however, the Mode I softening description is modified taking into account the influence of shear. The model couples normal and shear stresses for a given combination of Mode I and II fracture...

  1. AMORE: Atmospheric Modeling Of Radiation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, J.; Harrison, L.; Gao, W.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this talk is to present a comparison of modeled and measured clear-sky erythemal UV irradiances. Are the various models in reasonable agreement with the various measurements? Measurements were made with the USDA Reference Spectroradiometer, New Zealand's NIWA Spectroradiometer, a USEPA Brewer, and a Yankee UV-RSS. Modeling groups were given a list of clear days between June 5 and August 5, 2001. The average measured morning and afternoon aerosol optical depths at 368 nm and 332 nm were measured with a UV-MFRSR. The estimated wavelength independent aerosol asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo, surface pressure and albedo, total column ozone, extraterrestrial solar spectrum, erythemal weighting function were supplied. Modeling groups submitted erythemally weight irradiances for every half hour. Comparisons of measurements to models showed good ageement to within 10% for SZAs out to 60 degrees. Reasons for discrepancies will be discussed.

  2. Building Information Modelling: empowering energy conscious design

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Neveen; Horne, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The increasing awareness of climate change and carbon dioxide emissions from the built environment is resulting in the need to visualize the environmental performance of buildings. One of the recent drivers in the UK has been the tightening of building regulations relating to energy consumption in buildings, mandating all buildings to be performance evaluated by accredited environmental simulation tools to test their carbon dioxide emission against set targets.\\ud Currently there is major con...

  3. Dual peripheral model up to Serpukhov energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schrempp, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    The high energy behaviour of the s-channel Regge residues is inferred from three plausible requirements. The resulting s-channel helicity amplitudes allow-in a dual sense-the following t-channel interpretation: for -t>or=0.25 GeV/sup 2/ the flip amplitude has the form of a t-channel Regge pole, while the non-flip amplitude looks like a Regge cut. Finally, a quantitative comparison of the predictions with the data available for the set of SU(3) related processes pi N CEX, KN, KN CEX and pi /sup -/p to eta n is performed, covering the energy range 2energies) and the range of momentum transfer 0.25

  4. Expand the Modeling Capabilities of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Shirey

    2008-02-28

    EnergyPlus{trademark} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. Version 1.0 of EnergyPlus was released in April 2001, followed by semiannual updated versions over the ensuing seven-year period. This report summarizes work performed by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC) to expand the modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus. The project tasks involved implementing, testing, and documenting the following new features or enhancement of existing features: (1) A model for packaged terminal heat pumps; (2) A model for gas engine-driven heat pumps with waste heat recovery; (3) Proper modeling of window screens; (4) Integrating and streamlining EnergyPlus air flow modeling capabilities; (5) Comfort-based controls for cooling and heating systems; and (6) An improved model for microturbine power generation with heat recovery. UCF/FSEC located existing mathematical models or generated new model for these features and incorporated them into EnergyPlus. The existing or new models were (re)written using Fortran 90/95 programming language and were integrated within EnergyPlus in accordance with the EnergyPlus Programming Standard and Module Developer's Guide. Each model/feature was thoroughly tested and identified errors were repaired. Upon completion of each model implementation, the existing EnergyPlus documentation (e.g., Input Output Reference and Engineering Document) was updated with information describing the new or enhanced feature. Reference data sets were generated for several of the features to aid program users in selecting proper

  5. Accelerating the connection between experiments and models: The FACE-MDS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R. J.; Medlyn, B. E.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Zaehle, S.; Walker, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mandate is clear for improving communication between models and experiments to better evaluate terrestrial responses to atmospheric and climatic change. Unfortunately, progress in linking experimental and modeling approaches has been slow and sometimes frustrating. Recent successes in linking results from the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments with ecosystem and land surface models - the FACE Model-Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project - came only after a period of slow progress, but the experience points the way to future model-experiment interactions. As the FACE experiments were approaching their termination, the FACE research community made an explicit attempt to work together with the modeling community to synthesize and deliver experimental data to benchmark models and to use models to supply appropriate context for the experimental results. Initial problems that impeded progress were: measurement protocols were not consistent across different experiments; data were not well organized for model input; and parameterizing and spinning up models that were not designed for simulating a specific site was difficult. Once these problems were worked out, the FACE-MDS project has been very successful in using data from the Duke and ORNL FACE experiment to test critical assumptions in the models. The project showed, for example, that the stomatal conductance model most widely used in models was supported by experimental data, but models did not capture important responses such as increased leaf mass per unit area in elevated CO2, and did not appropriately represent foliar nitrogen allocation. We now have an opportunity to learn from this experience. New FACE experiments that have recently been initiated, or are about to be initiated, include a eucalyptus forest in Australia; the AmazonFACE experiment in a primary, tropical forest in Brazil; and a mature oak woodland in England. Cross-site science questions are being developed that will have a

  6. Timonium Elementary School Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Augmentation Experiment. Final Engineering Report. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAI Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    This report covers a two-year and seven-month solar space heating and cooling experiment conducted at the Timonium Elementary School, Timonium, Maryland. The system was designed to provide a minimum of 50 percent of the energy required during the heating season and to determine the feasibility of using solar energy to power absorption-type…

  7. Environmental Tax Reforms and Mitigation for Energy-intensive Industries: Some Lessons from European Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector)....

  8. DGP cosmological model with generalized Ricci dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yeremy; Avelino, Arturo; Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Peña, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    The brane-world model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy for the positive branch . For the negative branch we have investigated the behavior of a model with an holographic Ricci-like dark energy and dark matter, where the IR cutoff takes the form , being the Hubble parameter and , positive constants of the model. We perform an analytical study of the model in the late-time dark energy dominated epoch, where we obtain a solution for , where is the leakage scale of gravity into the bulk, and conditions for the negative branch on the holographic parameters and , in order to hold the conditions of weak energy and accelerated universe. On the other hand, we compare the model versus the late-time cosmological data using the latest type Ia supernova sample of the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA), in order to constrain the holographic parameters in the negative branch, as well as in the positive branch, where is the Hubble constant. We find that the model has a good fit to the data and that the most likely values for lie in the permitted region found from an analytical solution in a dark energy dominated universe. We give a justification to use a holographic cutoff in 4D for the dark energy in the 5-dimensional DGP model. Finally, using the Bayesian Information Criterion we find that this model is disfavored compared with the flat CDM model.

  9. Architectural design of experience based factory model for software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model which is based on experience factory approach has been proposed earlier, called. EBF-SD, to overcome the limitations of experience management in software development domain. An application prototype, which is then called SDeX, is developed based on the proposed model. The study on correlation analysis ...

  10. Large scale experiments as a tool for numerical model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jens; Hansen, Erik Asp; Fuchs, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Experimental modelling is an important tool for study of hydrodynamic phenomena. The applicability of experiments can be expanded by the use of numerical models and experiments are important for documentation of the validity of numerical tools. In other cases numerical tools can be applied for im...... hydrodynamic interaction with structures. The examples also show that numerical model development benefits from international co-operation and sharing of high quality results.......Experimental modelling is an important tool for study of hydrodynamic phenomena. The applicability of experiments can be expanded by the use of numerical models and experiments are important for documentation of the validity of numerical tools. In other cases numerical tools can be applied...... for improvement of the reliability of physical model results. This paper demonstrates by examples that numerical modelling benefits in various ways from experimental studies (in large and small laboratory facilities). The examples range from very general hydrodynamic descriptions of wave phenomena to specific...

  11. A New Model to Simulate Energy Performance of VRF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Pang, Xiufeng; Schetrit, Oren; Wang, Liping; Kasahara, Shinichi; Yura, Yoshinori; Hinokuma, Ryohei

    2014-03-30

    This paper presents a new model to simulate energy performance of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in heat pump operation mode (either cooling or heating is provided but not simultaneously). The main improvement of the new model is the introduction of the evaporating and condensing temperature in the indoor and outdoor unit capacity modifier functions. The independent variables in the capacity modifier functions of the existing VRF model in EnergyPlus are mainly room wet-bulb temperature and outdoor dry-bulb temperature in cooling mode and room dry-bulb temperature and outdoor wet-bulb temperature in heating mode. The new approach allows compliance with different specifications of each indoor unit so that the modeling accuracy is improved. The new VRF model was implemented in a custom version of EnergyPlus 7.2. This paper first describes the algorithm for the new VRF model, which is then used to simulate the energy performance of a VRF system in a Prototype House in California that complies with the requirements of Title 24 ? the California Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The VRF system performance is then compared with three other types of HVAC systems: the Title 24-2005 Baseline system, the traditional High Efficiency system, and the EnergyStar Heat Pump system in three typical California climates: Sunnyvale, Pasadena and Fresno. Calculated energy savings from the VRF systems are significant. The HVAC site energy savings range from 51 to 85percent, while the TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) energy savings range from 31 to 66percent compared to the Title 24 Baseline Systems across the three climates. The largest energy savings are in Fresno climate followed by Sunnyvale and Pasadena. The paper discusses various characteristics of the VRF systems contributing to the energy savings. It should be noted that these savings are calculated using the Title 24 prototype House D under standard operating conditions. Actual performance of the VRF systems for real

  12. MODELING OF THE WIND VELOCITY FIELD – RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY IN KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kiseleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential of wind energy in the Krasnodar region obtained by mapping the wind speed at the height of 50, 80 and 100 meters. The technique of modeling, based on the global experience of assessing the potential of wind energy, including data on the average annual wind speed at the meteorological network and estimates of surface roughness . The algorithm for automated mapping.

  13. Modelling, fabrication, and characterization for improved piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Almuatasim Ali

    of PZT nanocomposite have higher dielectric constants than well-known PVDF film. Finally, the performance of the piezoelectric and pyroelectric PMN-PT single crystal with a (67:33) composition grown in our laboratory using unimorph device structures was evaluated via modeling and experiments. The theoretical study was implemented based on a distributed parameter electromechanical model and the modelling procedure was approximated using the finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the electromechanical behavior of the harvesters. The maximum power density at a resonance frequency of 65 Hz and optimum resistance of 200 kO was 45 nW under a 0.5 g acceleration of vibration. By using pyroelectric effect along with the piezoelectric effect, the output voltage of the energy harvester was found to be enhanced at the optimum resistance and specific frequency values. It was noticed that the output voltage was increased monotonically with temperature-difference (DeltaT) and reaches up to 180% of its original value under difference temperature of 1.7 °C.

  14. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  15. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopko, Joanna [Warsaw University of Technology, The Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Nowowiejska Street 15/19, Warsaw 00-665 (Poland)

    2015-12-31

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  16. Fit of Different Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, Irmgard W.; Saris, Willem E.; Coenders, Germa; van der Veld, William; Aalberts, Chris E.; Kornelis, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Compared different models suggested for the analysis of multitrait multimethod (MTMM) experiments for their fit to 87 data sets collected in the United States. The fit of models based on polychoric correlations is much worse than the fit of models based on product moment correlations, but in both cases a model that assumes additive method effects…

  17. Modeling technological change in energy systems - From optimization to agent-based modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tieju [School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Meilong Road 130, Shanghai 200237 (China); Transition to New Technology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Nakamori, Yoshiteru [School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Operational optimization models are one of the main streams in modeling energy systems. Agent-based modeling and simulation seem to be another approach getting popular in this field. In either optimization or agent-based modeling practices, technological change in energy systems is a very important and inevitable factor that researchers need to deal with. By introducing three stylized models, namely, a traditional optimization model, an optimization model with endogenous technological change, and an agent-based model, all of which were developed based on the same deliberately simplified energy system, this paper compares how technological change is treated differently in different modeling practices for energy systems, the different philosophies underlying them, and the advantages/disadvantages of each modeling practice. Finally, this paper identifies the different contexts suitable for applying optimization models and agent-based models in decision support regarding energy systems. (author)

  18. Does food availability affect energy expenditure rates of nesting seabirds? A supplemental-feeding experiment with Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Roby, DD; Hatch, SA; Gill, VA; Lanctot, RB; Visser, GH

    We used a supplemental-feeding experiment, the doubly labeled water technique, and a model-selection approach based upon the Akaike Information Criterion to examine effects of food availability on energy expenditure rates of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) raising young. Energy

  19. An evolving experience learned for modelling thermal dynamics of buildings from live experiments: the Flexhouse story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xingji; You, Shi; Jiang, Yuewen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper shares an evolving experience learned for modelling the thermal dynamics of buildings from live experiments run in Flexhouse1 at Risø Campus of Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Among different trials, circuit based grey-box models approach have been developed and improved...... from time to time. Although the intension of modelling the thermal dynamics of Flexhouse1 remains unchanged, the details of experiments and applied modelling approach do evolve over time due to the increase of knowledge and the improvement made to the experimental platform. In addition to presenting...

  20. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Batra, P.; /Columbia U.; Bugel, Leonard G.; /Columbia U.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; /Columbia U.; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; /MIT; Jenkins, J.; /Northwestern U.; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; /MIT; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab /Texas U.

    2009-06-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics.

  1. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment:. NuSOnG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, L.; Camilleri, L.; Conrad, J. M.; de Gouvêa, A.; Fisher, P. H.; Formaggio, J. A.; Jenkins, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kobilarcik, T. R.; Kopp, S.; Kyle, G.; Loinaz, W. A.; Mason, D. A.; Milner, R.; Moore, R.; Morfín, J. G.; Nakamura, M.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Olness, F. I.; Owens, J. F.; Pate, S. F.; Pronin, A.; Seligman, W. G.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Schellman, H.; Schienbein, I.; Syphers, M. J.; Tait, T. M. P.; Takeuchi, T.; Tan, C. Y.; van de Water, R. G.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yu, J. Y.

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDF's). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parametrized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of "Beyond the Standard Model" physics.

  2. Magnetic levitation-based electromagnetic energy harvesting: a semi-analytical non-linear model for energy transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P; Ferreira, Jorge A F; Simões, José A O; Pascoal, Ricardo; Torrão, João; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-01-04

    Magnetic levitation has been used to implement low-cost and maintenance-free electromagnetic energy harvesting. The ability of levitation-based harvesting systems to operate autonomously for long periods of time makes them well-suited for self-powering a broad range of technologies. In this paper, a combined theoretical and experimental study is presented of a harvester configuration that utilizes the motion of a levitated hard-magnetic element to generate electrical power. A semi-analytical, non-linear model is introduced that enables accurate and efficient analysis of energy transduction. The model predicts the transient and steady-state response of the harvester a function of its motion (amplitude and frequency) and load impedance. Very good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment with energy errors lower than 14.15% (mean absolute percentage error of 6.02%) and cross-correlations higher than 86%. The model provides unique insight into fundamental mechanisms of energy transduction and enables the geometric optimization of harvesters prior to fabrication and the rational design of intelligent energy harvesters.

  3. Modeling of Energy Demand in the Greenhouse Using PSO-GA Hybrid Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoliao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of energy demand in agricultural greenhouse is very important to maintain optimum inside environment for plant growth and energy consumption decreasing. This paper deals with the identification parameters for physical model of energy demand in the greenhouse using hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithms technique (HPSO-GA. HPSO-GA is developed to estimate the indistinct internal parameters of greenhouse energy model, which is built based on thermal balance. Experiments were conducted to measure environment and energy parameters in a cooling greenhouse with surface water source heat pump system, which is located in mid-east China. System identification experiments identify model parameters using HPSO-GA such as inertias and heat transfer constants. The performance of HPSO-GA on the parameter estimation is better than GA and PSO. This algorithm can improve the classification accuracy while speeding up the convergence process and can avoid premature convergence. System identification results prove that HPSO-GA is reliable in solving parameter estimation problems for modeling the energy demand in the greenhouse.

  4. Energy sources in gamma-ray burst models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of energy sources in models of gamma-ray bursts is examined. Special emphasis is placed on the thermonuclear flash model which has been the most developed model to date. Although there is no generally accepted model, if the site for the gamma-ray burst is on a strongly magnetized neutron star, the thermonuclear model can qualitatively explain the energetics of some, but probably not all burst events. The critical issues that may differentiate between the possible sources of energy for gamma-ray bursts are listed and briefly discussed.

  5. Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling From Experiments (FRAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new methodology is developed for the construction of helicopter source noise models for use in mission planning tools from experimental measurements of helicopter external noise radiation. The models are constructed by employing a parameter identification method to an assumed analytical model of the rotor harmonic noise sources. This new method allows for the identification of individual rotor harmonic noise sources and allows them to be characterized in terms of their individual non-dimensional governing parameters. The method is applied to both wind tunnel measurements and ground noise measurements of two-bladed rotors. The method is shown to match the parametric trends of main rotor harmonic noise, allowing accurate estimates of the dominant rotorcraft noise sources to be made for operating conditions based on a small number of measurements taken at different operating conditions. The ability of this method to estimate changes in noise radiation due to changes in ambient conditions is also demonstrated.

  6. INNOVATIVE MODEL OF INTEGRATED ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Majernik; Martin Bosak; Lenka Stofova; Petra Szaryszova

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and verify an innovative concept model of integrating standardized energy management system according to ISO 50001 management system of enterprises in the network of automobile suppliers. Methodology/Approach: Based on an analysis of previous approaches to innovation and standardization of energy aspects of corporate management with an emphasis on principles and indicators of energy intensity in accordance with ISO 50001 there has been designed and by a case study verified...

  7. Gallium Nitride Direct Energy Conversion Betavoltaic Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Gallium Nitride Direct Energy Conversion Betavoltaic Modeling and Optimization William B. Ray II1, Marc S. Litz2, Johnny A. Russo Jr.2, Stephen B...betavoltaic; wide- bandgap betavoltaic; beta-photovoltaic; betaphotovoltaic; tritium; low power high energy battery; betavoltaic battery; Silvaco ATLAS...semiconductor device simulation; MCNPX Introduction A growing problem in power electronics is high energy density, long lasting power sources where the

  8. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....

  9. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing. Danish experiences with different policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K.; Haunstrup Christensen, T. (Aalborg Univ., Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    This report contains a memo written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy-efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent and relevant instruments concluding both on the results concerning the impact of the instruments especially on owners of single-family houses and on more general experiences with their implementation. Finally the memo concludes on the general lessons that can be learned from the Danish experiences. (Author)

  10. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  11. Virtual reality visualization algorithms for the ALICE high energy physics experiment on the LHC at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrcha, Julian; Trzciński, Tomasz; Rokita, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    Analyzing massive amounts of data gathered during many high energy physics experiments, including but not limited to the LHC ALICE detector experiment, requires efficient and intuitive methods of visualisation. One of the possible approaches to that problem is stereoscopic 3D data visualisation. In this paper, we propose several methods that provide high quality data visualisation and we explain how those methods can be applied in virtual reality headsets. The outcome of this work is easily applicable to many real-life applications needed in high energy physics and can be seen as a first step towards using fully immersive virtual reality technologies within the frames of the ALICE experiment.

  12. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  13. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  14. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the

  15. Evaporation experiments and modelling for glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been developed to measure evaporation rates of different volatile components from commercial and model glass compositions. In the set-up the furnace atmosphere, temperature level, gas velocity and batch composition are controlled. Evaporation rates have been measured

  16. A Sensory Experience Model for Teaching Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Lawrence A.; Tait, Pearl E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for teaching the concept of length to visually impaired students in grades K through 8 is provided, with additional suggestions on teaching children to understand the concepts of area, temperature, capacity, weight, volume, angles, and money or value. (Author/SW)

  17. Experiments with the Danish Eulerian Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Dimov, I.; Georgiev, K.

    1995-01-01

    Contains the materials of the school for young scientists, which were available before the BIOMATH-95 Conference. (International Symposium and Young Scientists School on Mathematical Modelling and Information Systems in Biology, Ecology and Medicine, Sofia, Bulgaria, August 23-27, 1995...

  18. Model Predictive Control for Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus

    pumps, heat tanks, electrical vehicle battery charging/discharging, wind farms, power plants). 2.Embed forecasting methodologies for the weather (e.g. temperature, solar radiation), the electricity consumption, and the electricity price in a predictive control system. 3.Develop optimization algorithms...... 2 provides linear dynamical models of Smart Grid units: Electric Vehicles, buildings with heat pumps, refrigeration systems, solar collectors, heat storage tanks, power plants, and wind farms. The models can be realized as discrete time state space models that fit into a predictive control system...... that determined the flexibility of the units. A predictive control system easily handles constraints, e.g. limitations in power consumption, and predicts the future behavior of a unit by integrating predictions of electricity prices, consumption, and weather variables. The simulations demonstrate the expected...

  19. Validation of a Crystal Plasticity Model Using High Energy Diffraction Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A. J.; Obstalecki, M.; Storer, R.; Tayon, W.; Mach, J.; Kenesei, P.; Lienert, U.

    2012-01-01

    High energy diffraction microscopy is used to measure the crystallographic orientation and evolution of lattice strain in an Al Li alloy. The relative spatial arrangement of the several pancake-shaped grains in a tensile sample is determined through in situ and ex situ techniques. A model for crystal plasticity with continuity of lattice spin is posed, where grains are represented by layers in a finite element mesh following the arrangement indicated by experiment. Comparison is drawn between experiment and simulation.

  20. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  1. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Clayton, Mark J.; Haberl, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process. PMID:25309954

  2. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM and Building Energy Modeling (BEM that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1 the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2 BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1 enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2 enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3 facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  3. Translating building information modeling to building energy modeling using model view definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, WoonSeong; Kim, Jong Bum; Clayton, Mark J; Haberl, Jeff S; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  4. Dynamic energy-balance model predicting gestational weight gain123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diana M; Navarro-Barrientos, Jesus E; Rivera, Daniel E; Heymsfield, Steven B; Bredlau, Carl; Redman, Leanne M; Martin, Corby K; Lederman, Sally A; M Collins, Linda; Butte, Nancy F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gestational weight gains (GWGs) that exceed the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommended ranges increase risk of long-term postpartum weight retention; conversely, GWGs within the recommended ranges are more likely to result in positive maternal and fetal outcomes. Despite this evidence, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that the majority of pregnant women gain outside the target GWG ranges. A mathematical model that predicts GWG and energy intake could provide a clinical tool for setting precise goals during early pregnancy and continuous objective feedback throughout pregnancy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a differential equation model for energy balance during pregnancy that predicts GWG that results from changes in energy intakes. Design: A set of prepregnancy BMI–dependent mathematical models that predict GWG were developed by using data from a longitudinal study that measured gestational-changes in fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water, and total energy expenditure in 63 subjects. Results: Mathematical models developed for women with low, normal, and high prepregnancy BMI were shown to fit the original data. In 2 independent studies used for validation, model predictions of fat-free mass, fat mass, and total body water matched actual measurements within 1 kg. Conclusions: Our energy-balance model provides plausible predictions of GWG that results from changes in energy intakes. Because the model was implemented as a Web-based applet, it can be widely used by pregnant women and their health care providers. PMID:22170365

  5. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen; Nurmi, J.; Takala, J.; Hamalainen, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both

  6. System modeling of waste flow in energy planning | Njoku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of waste flow in energy system planning was investigated by adopting integrated systems enginee-ring approach. The system model was considered at multiple levels of hierarchy. Waste flow in energy plann-ing process was viewed as a system arranged or organized that plans and policies as controlled ...

  7. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  8. A Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Renewable Energy Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public and media interest in alternative energy sources, such as renewable fuels, has rapidly increased in recent years due to higher prices for oil and natural gas. However, the current body of research providing comparative decision making models that either rank these alternative energy sources a...

  9. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jurgen

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon- Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both

  10. Net Balanced Floorplanning Based on Elastic Energy Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    with balanced net delays to increase the safety margins of the design. In this paper, we investigate the properties of floorplanning based on the elastic energy model. The B*-tree, which is based on an ordered binary tree, is used for circuit representation and the elastic energy is used as the cost function...

  11. The Targets/IMage Energy (TIME) 1.0 Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries B de; Wijngaart RA van den; MNV

    1996-01-01

    Betreft een technische documentatie van de vijf deelmodellen van het Targets/IMage Energy (TIME) 1.0 model. Energy Demand, Liquid Fuel (LF), Gaseous Fuel (GF), Solid Fuel (SF) en Electric Power Generation (EPG) worden gedetailleerd beschreven. Tevens zijn enkele resultaten van modelkalibratie

  12. Hybrid Methods and Atomistic Models to Explore Free Energies, Rates and Pathways of Protein Shape Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong

    , for example, accurately quantifying the free energy differences and transition times of protein conformational exchanges and their dependence on sequence modications, we are still at the early stages. In this dissertation, I present a number of new methodological improvements and applications for protein...... folding, conformational exchange and binding with ligands at long time scales. In Chapter 2, we benchmarked how well the current force elds and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations could model changes in structure, dynamics, free energy and kinetics for an extensively studied protein called T4 lysozyme (T4......", and subsequently used to estimate the free energy dierences based on a twostate assumption. To show its practical utility, we applied this approach by taking T4L-benzene system as the model system in which binding free energies from kinetics, free energy perturbation and experiments are all in good agreement...

  13. A radiation belt monitor for the High Energy Transient Experiment Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, D. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prigozhin, G. Y.; Doty, J.; Ricker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A Radiation Belt Monitor (RBM) sensitive to protons and electrons with energy approximately greater than 0.5 MeV has been designed for the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) satellite in order to: first, control the on-off configuration of the experiments (i.e. those susceptible to proton damage); and second, to indicate the presence of proton and/or electron events that could masquerade as legitimate high energy photon events. One of the two RBM channels has an enhanced sensitivity to electrons. Each channel of the RBM, based on a PIN silicon diode, requires a typical power of 6 milliwatts. Tests have been performed with protons with energies from approximately 0.1 to 2.5 MeV (generated by a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator via the d(d,p)t reaction), and with electrons with energies up to 1 MeV (from a 1.0 microcurie Bi-207 source).

  14. Opening the black box of energy modelling: Strategies and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Hirth, Lion; Schlecht, Ingmar

    2018-01-01

    are of particular importance. Here we provide a practical how-to guide based on the collective experience of members of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative (Openmod). We discuss key steps to consider when opening code and data, including determining intellectual property ownership, choosing a licence...

  15. Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Experiments, Experiments at High Energy Hadron Colliders, and String Theor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chang Kee [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Douglas, Michaek [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Hobbs, John [State University of New York at Stony Brook; McGrew, Clark [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Rijssenbeek, Michael [State University of New York at Stony Brook

    2013-07-29

    This is the final report of the DOE grant DEFG0292ER40697 that supported the research activities of the Stony Brook High Energy Physics Group from November 15, 1991 to April 30, 2013. During the grant period, the grant supported the research of three Stony Brook particle physics research groups: The Nucleon Decay and Neutrino group, the Hadron Collider Group, and the Theory Group.

  16. Assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinneck, J.W.

    1984-08-03

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems. The new procedure combines second-law methods of analysis with simple component models that allow all of the plant energy forms to be included in a single model. As an example, the new procedure is used to analyze the steam system for a large Canadian petrochemicals plant. Changes in the system operation resulting in an estimated savings of $600,000 per year are identified. It is concluded that the new procedure can be used in Canadian industry to save energy and money. The recommended course of action is to incorporate the second-law measures into the ENERGY Mark II program that is currently under develpment and to consider funding the development of a version of the optimization model at a later date. 58 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Teaching a Model-based Climatology Using Energy Balance Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, David

    1981-01-01

    After outlining the difficulties of teaching climatology within an undergraduate geography curriculum, the author describes and evaluates the use of a computer assisted simulation to model surface energy balance and the effects of land use changes on local climate. (AM)

  18. INNOVATIVE MODEL OF INTEGRATED ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milan Majernik; Martin Bosak; Lenka Stofova; Petra Szaryszova

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and verify an innovative concept model of integrating standardized energy management system according to ISO 50001 management system of enterprises in the network of automobile suppliers...

  19. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  20. Integration of agricultural and energy system models for biofuel assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a coupled modeling framework to capture the dynamic linkages between agricultural and energy markets that have been enhanced through the expansion of biofuel production, as well as the environmental impacts resulting from this expansion. The framework incorpor...

  1. Energy Modeling Capabilities in ORD's Air, Climate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation to ACE Centers Kick-Off Meeting highlighting energy modeling work, capabilities and tools that are under development in ORD/NRMRL under the ACE Program. Presentation to ACE Centers Kick-Off Meeting

  2. A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis Ferroelectric Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Ralph C; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Seelecke, Stefan; Smith, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    .... In the first step of the model development, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energy relations are constructed at the lattice or domain level to quantify the relation between the field and polarization...

  3. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European contribution to the investigation of the energy and water cycle over a large drainage basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large...... drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple...

  4. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Ormary Barberi; Pesántez Palacios, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  5. Flexible robot control: Modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Irving J.; Shimoyama, Isao

    1989-01-01

    Described here is a model and its use in experimental studies of flexible manipulators. The analytical model uses the equivalent of Rayleigh's method to approximate the displaced shape of a flexible link as the static elastic displacement which would occur under end rotations as applied at the joints. The generalized coordinates are thereby expressly compatible with joint motions and rotations in serial link manipulators, because the amplitude variables are simply the end rotations between the flexible link and the chord connecting the end points. The equations for the system dynamics are quite simple and can readily be formulated for the multi-link, three-dimensional case. When the flexible links possess mass and (polar moment of) inertia which are small compared to the concentrated mass and inertia at the joints, the analytical model is exact and displays the additional advantage of reduction in system dimension for the governing equations. Four series of pilot tests have been completed. Studies on a planar single-link system were conducted at Carnegie-Mellon University, and tests conducted at Toshiba Corporation on a planar two-link system were then incorporated into the study. A single link system under three-dimensional motion, displaying biaxial flexure, was then tested at Carnegie-Mellon.

  6. Hybrid bottom-up/top-down energy and economy outlooks: a survey of the IMACLIM-S experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eGhersi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we survey the research undertaken at the Centre International de Recherche sur l’Environnement et le Développement (CIRED on the combination of the IMACLIM-S macroeconomic model with ‘bottom-up’ energy modeling, with a view to associate the strengths and circumvent the limitations of both approaches to energy-economy-environment (E3 prospective modeling. We start by presenting the two methodological avenues of coupling IMACLIM-S with detailed energy systems models pursued at CIRED since the late 1990s’: (1 the calibration of the behavioral functions of IMACLIM-S that represent the producers’ and consumers’ trade-offs between inputs or consumptions, on a large set of bottom-up modeling results; (2 the coupling of IMACLIM-S to some bottom-up model through the iterative exchange of some of each model’s outputs as the other model’s inputs until convergence of the exchanged data, comprising the main macroeconomic drivers and energy systems variables. In the following section, we turn to numerical application and address the prerequisite of harmonizing national accounts, energy balance and energy price data to produce consistent hybrid input-output matrices as a basis of scenario exploration. We highlight how this data treatment step reveals the discrepancies and biases induced by sticking to the conventional modeling usage of uniform pricing of homogeneous goods. IMACLIM-S rather calibrates agent-specific margins, which we introduce and comment upon. In a further section we sum up the results of 4 IMACLIM-S experiments, insisting upon the value-added of hybrid modeling. These varied experiments regard international climate policy burden sharing; the more general numerical consequences of shifting from a biased standard CGE model perspective to the hybrid IMACLIM approach; the macroeconomic consequences of a strong development of electric mobility in the European Union; and the resilience of public debts to energy shocks

  7. Recirculation System for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, J. E.; Detwiler, R. L.; Serajian, V.; Bruno, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought and have the potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. In particular, hot permeable sedimentary formations provide many advantages over traditional geothermal recovery and enhanced geothermal systems in low permeability crystalline formations. These include: (1) eliminating the need for hydraulic fracturing, (2) significant reduction in risk for induced seismicity, (3) reducing the need for surface wastewater disposal, (4) contributing to decreases in greenhouse gases, and (5) potential use for CO2 sequestration. Advances in horizontal drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock these geothermal resources. Here, we present experimental results from a laboratory scale circulation system and numerical simulations aimed at quantifying the heat transfer capacity of sedimentary rocks. Our experiments consist of fluid flow through a saturated and pressurized sedimentary disc of 23-cm diameter and 3.8-cm thickness heated along its circumference at a constant temperature. Injection and production ports are 7.6-cm apart in the center of the disc. We used DI de-aired water and mineral oil as working fluids and explored temperatures from 20 to 150 oC and flow rates from 2 to 30 ml/min. We performed experiments on sandstone samples (Castlegate and Kirby) with different porosity, permeability and thermal conductivity to evaluate the effect of hydraulic and thermal properties on the heat transfer capacity of sediments. The producing fluid temperature followed an exponential form with time scale transients between 15 and 45 min. Steady state outflow temperatures varied between 60% and 95% of the set boundary temperature, higher percentages were observed for lower temperatures and flow rates. We used the flow and heat transport simulator TOUGH2 to develop a numerical model of our laboratory setting. Given

  8. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Ana; Kustas, William. P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Carrara, Arnaud; Patrocinio Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for his importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). The ecosystem is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with recurrent and severe droughts. Over the last decades the Dehesa has faced multiple environmental threats, derived from intensive agricultural use and socio-economic changes, which have caused environmental degradation of the area, namely reduction in tree density and stocking rates, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al. 2004; Schnabel and Ferreira, 2004; Montoya 1998; Pulido and Díaz, 2005). Understanding the hydrological, atmospheric and physiological processes that affect the functioning of the ecosystem will improve the management and conservation of the Dehesa. One of the key metrics in assessing ecosystem health, particularly in this water-limited environment, is the capability of monitoring evaporation (ET). To make large area assessments requires the use of remote sensing. Thermal-based energy balance techniques that distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in such semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) and Kustas and Norman (1999) has shown to be robust for a wide range of partially-vegetated landscapes. The TSEB formulation is evaluated at a flux tower site located in center Spain (Majadas del Tietar, Caceres). Its application in this environment is

  9. Assessment of Energy Efficient and Model Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    US Army Research Laboratory Autonomous Systems Division Vehicle Technology Directorate (ATTN: RDRL-VTA) Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069...ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy-Efficient and Model- Based Control by Craig Lennon...originator. ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy-Efficient and Model- Based Control by Craig

  10. Sustainable business models for wind and solar energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichifor Maria Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy has become a crucial element for the business environment as the need for new energy resources and the degree of climate change are increasing. As developed economies strive towards greater progress, sustainable business models are of the essence in order to maintain a balance between the triple bottom line: people, planet and profit. In recent years, European Union countries have installed important capacities of renewable energy, especially wind and solar energy to achieve this purpose. The objective of this article is to make a comparative study between the current sustainable business models implemented in companies that are active in the wind and solar energy sector in Romania. Both sectors underwent tremendous changes in the last two years due to changing support schemes which have had a significant influence on the mechanism of the renewable energy market, as well as on its development. Using the classical Delphi method, based on questionnaires and interviews with experts in the fields of wind and solar energy, this paper offers an overview of the sustainable business models of wind and solar energy companies, both sectors opting for the alternative of selling electricity to trading companies as a main source of revenue until 2013 and as the main future trend until 2020. Furthermore, the participating wind energy companies noted a pessimistic outlook of future investments due to legal instability that made them to reduce their projects in comparison to PV investments, which are expected to continue. The subject of the article is of interest to scientific literature because sustainable business models in wind and photovoltaic energy have been scarcely researched in previous articles and are essential in understanding the activity of the companies in these two fields of renewable energy.

  11. Energy siting in Utah: a programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synder, D.L.; Keith, J.E.; Glover, T.F.; Wooldridge, G.L.

    1981-06-01

    A study was conducted to examine the economically efficient allocation of resources between existing and proposed production entities, given resource and environmental constraints. The necessary conditions for an optimal input and output allocation were determined for a region constrained by resource availabilities and/or policy constraints, using a conceptual model of a multiple-product firm. A linear programming model was developed to determine optimal water allocation between agricultural and coal-fired power plants and the trade-offs which could occur if electrical generation were increased. Other potential trade-offs examined included coal source restrictions and air quality regulations. Also included were coal mining, transportation costs, and pollutant (SO2, nitrogen oxides, particulates) emission rates on a coal and plant basis.

  12. A Look at the U.S. Energy System – A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; John W. Collins

    2011-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economical in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This paper discusses the systematic approach used to develop the 2050 Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), which allows the user to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand. It also provides an overall systems understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This paper also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rational for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing 2050 SIM.

  13. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  14. Exacerbating the Cosmological Constant Problem with Interacting Dark Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M C David

    2017-01-06

    Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density. We show that current estimates of the number of flux vacua in string theory, N_{vac}∼O(10^{272 000}), are far too small to realize certain simple models of interacting dark energy and solve the cosmological constant problem anthropically. These models admit distinctive observational signatures that can be targeted by future gamma-ray observatories, hence making it possible to observationally rule out the anthropic solution to the cosmological constant problem in theories with a finite number of vacua.

  15. Information for energy-related environmental policy: the role of disaggregated dynamic energy demand modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, R.

    1997-01-01

    Public concern about energy-related environmental damage has put pressure on governments to enhance abatement policies. This has in turn led to increasing demands for information about and analysis of expected and optimal levels of environmental quality, and the means of influencing these levels. Energy demand modelling can act as a valuable tool in the production of this information, particularly where it relates to future levels of environmental quality and to how policy intervention can alter constraints facing consumers in order to achieve desired levels. The thesis focuses on two features of energy demand analysis. First, major developments in dynamic econometrics, and in particular the cointegration approach, have enabled energy demand modellers to incorporate long run equilibrating relationships between energy use and its main determinants, such as economic activity and relative prices, within a dynamic framework. Second, the existence of a diverse market for energy both in terms of the fuels used and the users suggests that energy demand should be analysed at a disaggregated level. The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether disaggregated dynamic energy demand modelling can provide additional valuable information for the formulation of environmental policy. (author)

  16. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  17. Mesoscopic Model for Free Energy Landscape Analysis of DNA sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia-Rojo, R; Mazo, J J; Falo, F; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021908

    2012-01-01

    A mesoscopic model which allows us to identify and quantify the strength of binding sites in DNA sequences is proposed. The model is based on the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model for the DNA chain coupled to a Brownian particle which explores the sequence interacting more importantly with open base pairs of the DNA chain. We apply the model to promoter sequences of different organisms. The free energy landscape obtained for these promoters shows a complex structure that is strongly connected to their biological behavior. The analysis method used is able to quantify free energy differences of sites within genome sequences.

  18. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  19. MULTIFACTOR ECONOMETRIC MODELS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is approaching the energy efficiency topic from the viewpoint of its trends and influence factors, in the context of requirements, criteria and principles of sustainable development. Energy efficiency is measured as ratio of GDP and energy use and its multiple factors of influence are considered. With a view to deducing some conclusions of theoretical-methodological but also of practical-applicative character, we are researching the variation in energy efficiency in European Union, but also in the case of new candidates and other countries, by means of multifactor econometric modeling.

  20. Low-energy universality in three-body models

    CERN Document Server

    Delfino, A; Tomio, L

    2000-01-01

    We study the low-energy universality observed in three-body models through a scale-independent approach. From the already estimated infinite number of three-body excited energy states, which happen in the limit when the energy of the subsystem goes to zero, we are able to identify the lower energies of the helium trimers as possible examples of Thomas-Efimov states. By considering this example, we illustrate the usefulness of a scaling function, which we have defined. The approach is applied to bosonic systems of three identical particles, and also to the case where two kinds of particles are present. (author)

  1. Status Update: Modeling Energy Balance in NIF Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    We have developed a standardized methodology to model hohlraum drive in NIF experiments. We compare simulation results to experiments by 1) comparing hohlraum xray fluxes and 2) comparing capsule metrics, such as bang times. Long-pulse, high gas-fill hohlraums require a 20-28% reduction in simulated drive and inclusion of ~15% backscatter to match experiment through (1) and (2). Short-pulse, low fill or near-vacuum hohlraums require a 10% reduction in simulated drive to match experiment through (2); no reduction through (1). Ongoing work focuses on physical model modifications to improve these matches.

  2. A utility piezoelectric energy harvester with low frequency and high-output voltage: Theoretical model, experimental verification and energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a utility piezoelectric energy harvester with low frequency and high-output voltage is presented. Firstly, the harvester’s three theoretical models are presented, namely the static model, the quasi static model and the dynamic vibration model. By analyzing the influence of the mass ratio of the mass block to the beam on output characteristics of the harvester, we compare the quasi static model and the dynamic vibration model and then define their applicable ranges. Secondly, simulation and experiments are done to verify the models, using the harvester with PZT-5H piezoelectric material, which are proved to be consistent with each other. The experimental results show that the output open-circuit voltage and the output power can reach up to 86.36V and 27.5mW respectively. The experiments are conducted when this harvester system is excited by the first modal frequency (58.90Hz with the acceleration 10m/s2. In this low frequency vibration case, it is easy to capture the energy in the daily environment. In addition, LTC 3588-1 chip (Linear Technology Corporation is used as the medium energy circuit to transfer charges from the PZT-5H electrode to the 0.22F 5V super capacitor and ML621 rechargeable button battery. For this super-capacitor, it takes about 100min for the capacitor voltage to rise from 0V to 3.6V. For this button battery, it takes about 200min to increase the battery voltage from 2.5V to 3.48V.

  3. Experiments and Valve Modelling in Thermoacoustic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthil, P.; Baltean Carlès, D.; Bétrancourt, A.; François, M. X.; Yu, Z. B.; Thermeau, J. P.

    2006-04-01

    In a so called heat driven thermoacoustic refrigerator, using either a pulse tube or a lumped boost configuration, heat pumping is induced by Stirling type thermodynamic cycles within the regenerator. The time phase between acoustic pressure and flow rate throughout must then be close to that met for a purely progressive wave. The study presented here relates the experimental characterization of passive elements such as valves, tubes and tanks which are likely to act on this phase relationship when included in the propagation line of the wave resonator. In order to carry out a characterization — from the acoustic point of view — of these elements, systematic measurements of the acoustic field are performed varying various parameters: mean pressure, oscillations frequency, supplied heat power. Acoustic waves are indeed generated by use of a thermoacoustic prime mover driving a pulse tube refrigerator. The experimental results are then compared with the solutions obtained with various one-dimensional linear models including non linear correction factors. It turns out that when using a non symmetrical valve, and for large dissipative effects, the measurements disagree with the linear modelling and non linear behaviour of this particular element is shown.

  4. Indian Consortia Models: FORSA Libraries' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Y. M.; Birdie, C.; Bawdekar, N.; Barve, S.; Anilkumar, N.

    2007-10-01

    With increases in prices of journals, shrinking library budgets and cuts in subscriptions to journals over the years, there has been a big challenge facing Indian library professionals to cope with the proliferation of electronic information resources. There have been sporadic efforts by different groups of libraries in forming consortia at different levels. The types of consortia identified are generally based on various models evolved in India in a variety of forms depending upon the participants' affiliations and funding sources. Indian astronomy library professionals have formed a group called Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy and Astrophysics (FORSA), which falls under `Open Consortia', wherein participants are affiliated to different government departments. This is a model where professionals willingly come forward and actively support consortia formation; thereby everyone benefits. As such, FORSA has realized four consortia, viz. Nature Online Consortium; Indian Astrophysics Consortium for physics/astronomy journals of Springer/Kluwer; Consortium for Scientific American Online Archive (EBSCO); and Open Consortium for Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer), which are discussed briefly.

  5. A unified modeling approach for physical experiment design and optimization in laser driven inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haiyan [Mechatronics Engineering School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: Huangyblhy@gmail.com [Mechatronics Engineering School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: Jiangshn@vip.sina.com [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Jing, Longfei, E-mail: scmyking_2008@163.com [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tianxuan, Huang; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A unified modeling approach for physical experiment design is presented. • Any laser facility can be flexibly defined and included with two scripts. • Complex targets and laser beams can be parametrically modeled for optimization. • Automatically mapping of laser beam energy facilitates targets shape optimization. - Abstract: Physical experiment design and optimization is very essential for laser driven inertial confinement fusion due to the high cost of each shot. However, only limited experiments with simple structure or shape on several laser facilities can be designed and evaluated in available codes, and targets are usually defined by programming, which may lead to it difficult for complex shape target design and optimization on arbitrary laser facilities. A unified modeling approach for physical experiment design and optimization on any laser facilities is presented in this paper. Its core idea includes: (1) any laser facility can be flexibly defined and included with two scripts, (2) complex shape targets and laser beams can be parametrically modeled based on features, (3) an automatically mapping scheme of laser beam energy onto discrete mesh elements of targets enable targets or laser beams be optimized without any additional interactive modeling or programming, and (4) significant computation algorithms are additionally presented to efficiently evaluate radiation symmetry on the target. Finally, examples are demonstrated to validate the significance of such unified modeling approach for physical experiments design and optimization in laser driven inertial confinement fusion.

  6. Management of Financing the Energy Saving in Terms of Construction Enterprises: International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchuk Marina N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the experience of financing the energy saving projects by leading countries of the world from the perspective of adapting the contemporary management-regulatory conditions of technology in terms of enterprises of the construction complex of Ukraine. On the basis of a content analysis of the existing practices of implementation of energy saving and enhancing energy efficiency, the following classification has been suggested: depending on the institutional socio-economic and environmental development, in accordance with the course of sustainable development, depending on the structure of economic system, depending on both time interval and subsectoral characteristic. Based on a scientific approach to the five levels in the structure of economic systems, barriers and recommendations for their prevention in the management of energy saving in construction at each of these levels have been identified. The article proposes strategic priorities of the State policy of energy saving in the construction industry, in particular holding of energy audits and energy performance certification of buildings, increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the energy balance of country; implementation of contemporary concepts of energy saving ("Green Lease", "Passive House", "Triple Zero"; establishing consulting-information centers for promoting energy saving measures.

  7. Multifragmentation-evaporation model for intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, X.; Desbois, J.; Lipparini, E.

    1984-07-12

    The processes of production of nuclear fragments are discussed in the framework of a two stage - two regime model. In the first stage a piece of excited nuclear matter is created. Its excitation energy depends on the number of target- projectile nucleon-nucleon collisions. In a second stage it decays following two possible mechanisms, depending on the initial excitation energy. The number of fragments produced is correlated with the number of primary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The observed dependence of the mass yield distributions on the target, projectile and bombarding energy are well accounted by the model.

  8. Energy deposition model for I-125 photon radiation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M.C.; Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Williart, A.; Garcia, G. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, an electron-tracking Monte Carlo algorithm developed by us is combined with established photon transport models in order to simulate all primary and secondary particle interactions in water for incident photon radiation. As input parameters for secondary electron interactions, electron scattering cross sections by water molecules and experimental energy loss spectra are used. With this simulation, the resulting energy deposition can be modelled at the molecular level, yielding detailed information about localization and type of single collision events. The experimental emission spectrum of I-125 seeds, as used for radiotherapy of different tumours, was used for studying the energy deposition in water when irradiating with this radionuclide. (authors)

  9. Generalized holographic dark energy model described at the Hubble length

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the holographic dark energy model described in Hubble length IR cutoff by assuming a slowly time varying function for holographic parameter $c^2$. We calculate the evolution of EoS parameter and the deceleration parameter as well as the evolution of dark energy density in this generalized model. We show that the phantom line is crossed from quintessence regime to phantom regime which is in agreement with observation. The evolution of deceleration parameter indicates the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion. Eventually, we show that the GHDE with HIR cutoff can interpret the pressureless dark matter era at the early time and dark energy dominated phase later.

  10. Wind Tunnel Experiments with Active Control of Bridge Section Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section model where movable flaps are integrated in the bridge girder so each flap is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. This active control flap system is patented by COWIconsult and may be used to increase...... the flutter wind velocity for future ultra-long span suspension bridges. The purpose of the wind tunnel experiments is to investigate the principle to use this active flap control system. The bridge section model used in the experiments is therefore not a model of a specific bridge but it is realistic...

  11. Modeling of plucking piezoelectric energy harvesters with contact theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinlei; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-04-01

    Non-harmonic excitations are widely available in the environment of our daily life. We could make use of these excitations to pluck piezoelectric energy harvesters. Plucking piezoelectric energy harvesting could overcome the frequency gap and achieve frequency-up effect. However, there has not been a thorough analysis on plucking piezoelectric energy harvesting, especially with good understanding on the plucking mechanism. This paper is aimed to develop a model to investigate the plucking mechanism and predict the responses of plucking piezoelectric energy harvesters under different kinds of excitations. In the electromechanical model, Hertzian contact theory is applied to account for the interaction between the plectrum and piezoelectric beam. The plucking mechanism is clarified as a cantilever beam impacted by an infinitely heavy mass, in which the multi-impact process prematurely terminates at separation time. We numerically predict the plucking force, which depends on piezoelectric beam, Hertzian contact stiffness, overlap area and plucking velocity. The energy distribution is investigated with connected resistor.

  12. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F. [INFN/Laboratori Nazionali Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Di Matteo, A. [INFN and Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Salamida, F., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: armando.dimatteo@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.petrera@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  13. Modeling of dimensionally graded magnetoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, R.V., E-mail: Roman.Petrov@novsu.ru [Department of Design and Technology of Radio equipment, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.M.; Bichurin, M.I. [Department of Design and Technology of Radio equipment, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zhou, Y.; Priya, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory, Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The magnetoelectric behavior of a dual-phase dimensionally graded magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composite is modeled in this article. The cantilever is formed by piezoelectric macro-fiber composite bonded to a Ni cantilever. Theoretical estimates show a large magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 100 V/(cm Oe) at electromechanical resonance frequency. An additive effect was realized when an acceleration and magnetic field was applied to the structure simultaneously. Applied magnetic field of 10 Oe and shaker acceleration of 0.02 g induce the approximately equal output voltage of 20–35 V.

  14. Model building experiences using Garp3: problems, patterns and debugging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, J.; Linnebank, F.E.; Bredeweg, B.; Žabkar, J.; Bratko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Capturing conceptual knowledge in QR models is becoming of interest to a larger audience of domain experts. Consequently, we have been training several groups to effectively create QR models during the last few years. In this paper we describe our teaching experiences, the issues the modellers

  15. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  16. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.

  17. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K

    2005-01-01

    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  18. Modeling Smart Energy Systems for Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    as it is produced requires a very exible and controllable power consumption. Examples of controllable electric loads are heat pumps in buildings and Electric Vehicles (EVs) that are expected to play a large role in the future danish energy system. These units in a smart energy system can potentially oer exibility...... on a time scale ranging from seconds to several days by moving power consumption, exploiting thermal inertia or battery storage capacity, respectively. Using advanced control algorithms these systems are able to reduce their own electricity costs by planning ahead and moving consumption to periods...... with green and cheap electricity. This situation occurs when there is a lot of excess wind power in the system which is re ected in the electricity price and in turn creates an incentive to absorb the energy. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is investigated where prices indirectly in uence...

  19. "ABC's Earthquake" (Experiments and models in seismology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Ana Almeida, Portugal Almeida, Ana Escola Básica e Secundária Dr. Vieira de Carvalho Moreira da Maia, Portugal The purpose of this presentation, in poster format, is to disclose an activity which was planned and made by me, in a school on the north of Portugal, using a kit of materials simple and easy to use - the sismo-box. The activity "ABC's Earthquake" was developed under the discipline of Natural Sciences, with students from 7th grade, geosciences teachers and other areas. The possibility of work with the sismo-box was seen as an exciting and promising opportunity to promote science, seismology more specifically, to do science, when using the existing models in the box and with them implement the scientific method, to work and consolidate content and skills in the area of Natural Sciences, to have a time of sharing these materials with classmates, and also with other teachers from the different areas. Throughout the development of the activity, either with students or teachers, it was possible to see the admiration by the models presented in the earthquake-box, as well as, the interest and the enthusiasm in wanting to move and understand what the results after the proposed procedure in the script. With this activity, we managed to promote: - educational success in this subject; a "school culture" with active participation, with quality, rules, discipline and citizenship values; fully integration of students with special educational needs; strengthen the performance of the school as a cultural, informational and formation institution; provide activities to date and innovative; foment knowledge "to be, being and doing" and contribute to a moment of joy and discovery.Learn by doing!

  20. Unconditionally energy stable numerical schemes for phase-field vesicle membrane model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-González, F.; Tierra, G.

    2018-02-01

    Numerical schemes to simulate the deformation of vesicles membranes via minimizing the bending energy have been widely studied in recent times due to its connection with many biological motivated problems. In this work we propose a new unconditionally energy stable numerical scheme for a vesicle membrane model that satisfies exactly the conservation of volume constraint and penalizes the surface area constraint. Moreover, we extend these ideas to present an unconditionally energy stable splitting scheme decoupling the interaction of the vesicle with a surrounding fluid. Finally, the well behavior of the proposed schemes are illustrated through several computational experiments.