WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy market scenarios

  1. 2009 reference case scenario : Canadian energy demand and supply to 2020 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Board regulates the construction and operation of interprovincial and international oil and gas pipelines and power lines as well as the tolls and tariffs for the pipelines under its jurisdictions. The import and export of natural gas is also regulated by the NEB. The NEB examined the possible energy futures that might unfold for Canadians up to the year 2020. The factors that affect the supply of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, electricity and coal in the short term were examined to determine the outlook for deliverability through 2020. The growing demand for energy was reviewed along with the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. This assessment provided separate production outlooks for hydrocarbons, electricity and coal and outlined the key uncertainties to the supply outlook. The likely impact of recent economic, energy and policy trends on energy demand and supply were considered. It was concluded that energy markets in Canada will continue to function well. Energy prices will provide appropriate market signals for the development of energy resources to meet Canadian and export demand. A significant portion of Canadian demand for energy will be met by fossil fuels. However, the demand to move towards greener energy fuels should result in fewer greenhouse gas emissions. 1 tab., 27 figs.

  2. Interpreting energy scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative scenarios from energy-economic models inform decision-making about uncertain futures. Now, research shows the different ways these scenarios are subsequently used by users not involved in their initial development. In the absence of clear guidance from modellers, users may place too much or too little confidence in scenario assumptions and results.

  3. About the Need of Combining Power Market and Power Grid Model Results for Future Energy System Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Denis; Böttger, Diana; Löwer, Lothar; Becker, Holger; Akbulut, Alev; Stock, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The European power grid infrastructure faces various challenges due to the expansion of renewable energy sources (RES). To conduct investigations on interactions between power generation and the power grid, models for the power market as well as for the power grid are necessary. This paper describes the basic functionalities and working principles of both types of models as well as steps to couple power market results and the power grid model. The combination of these models is beneficial in terms of gaining realistic power flow scenarios in the grid model and of being able to pass back results of the power flow and restrictions to the market model. Focus is laid on the power grid model and possible application examples like algorithms in grid analysis, operation and dynamic equipment modelling.

  4. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  5. Scenarios of future energy intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors present scenarios of potential change in energy intensities in the OECD countries and in the Soviet Union. These scenarios are meant to illustrate how intensities might evolve over the next 20 years given different conditions with respect to energy prices, energy-efficiency policies, and other key factors. Changes in intensity will also be affected by the rates of growth and stock turnover in each sector. They have not tried to forecast how activity levels and structure will evolve. However, the OECD scenarios assume a world in which GDP averages growth in the 2-3%/year range, with some differences among countries. For the Soviet Union, the degree and pace of intensity decline will be highly dependent on the success of the transition to a market economy; each scenario explicitly envisions a different degree of success. They have not constructed comparable scenarios for the developing countries. The scenarios presented in this chapter do not predict what will happen in the future. They believe, however, that they illustrate a plausible set of outcomes if energy prices, policies, programs, and other factors evolve as described in each case. With higher energy prices and vigorous policies and programs, intensities in the OECD countries in 2010 could be nearly 50% less on average than the level where trends seem to be point. In the former Soviet Union, a combination of rapid, successful economic reform and extra effort to improve energy efficiency might result in average intensity being nearly 40% less than in a slow reform case. And in the LDCs, a mixture of sound policies, programs, and energy pricing reform could also lead to intensities being far lower than they would be otherwise. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  6. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 2: Results for future energy market scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Johanna; Svensson, Inger-Lise; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the system's energy efficiency by utilization of the mill's excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO 2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases

  7. Energy scenarios for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerman, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has adopted a scenario approach in developing its energy outlook to 2025. These scenarios can be used in developing strategies to optimize opportunities and avoid the dangers that often accompany the more deterministic approach to forecasting. The scenarios are not predictions, but are instead feasible outcomes for the future. They encompass 5 major areas of uncertainty for the world energy market through 2025 that impact energy demand and fuel mix. These include the economy, technology, energy policy, resource availability, and market structure. The drivers for the energy scenarios are the environment, demography, economics, culture geopolitics and technology. The paper referred to the world energy market, the OECD energy markets, the non-OECD energy markets and the FSU energy markets under 3 energy scenarios including: (1) the material world in which the new economy drives the global economy, (2) a very dark Orwellian world in which there is a rise in terrorism and a breakdown in international cooperation, and (3) a utopia in which the major powers become increasingly serious about achieving sustainable development. 22 refs., 48 figs

  8. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  9. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  10. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed [it

  12. Italian energy scenarios: Markal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Energy scenarios carried out through formal models comply with scientific criteria such as internal coherence and transparency. Besides, Markal methodology allows a good understanding of the complex nature of the energy system. The business-as-usual scenario carried out through the Markal-Italy model shows that structural changes occurring in end-use sectors will continue to drive up energy consumption, in spite of the slow economic growth and the quite high energy prices [it

  13. Future nuclear energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Van Heek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide. In order to prepare for the next decades and to set priorities in nuclear R and D and investment, market share scenarios are evaluated. This allows to identify the triggers which influence the market penetration of future nuclear reactor technologies. To this purpose, scenarios for a future nuclear reactor park in Europe have been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options taken, e.g. introduction date of Gen-III (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, level of reprocessing, and so forth. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code which allows to provide a complete picture of mass-flow and economics of the various nuclear energy system scenarios. The analyses show that the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. Furthermore, the analyses highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. In addition, a dynamic assessment is made with regard to manpower requirements for the construction of a future nuclear fleet in the different scenarios. (authors)

  14. Elaborating SRES scenarios for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Alan; Riahi, Keywan; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is identifying mid-century economic targets for nuclear energy. The first step is to describe what the mid-century energy market might look like: the major competitors for nuclear energy, what products are in demand, how much of each, where is growth greatest, and so forth. The mechanism for systematically describing the future market is scenario building. The starting point is the scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. SRES developed four narrative story lines, each representing a different coherent set of demographic, social, economic, technological, and environmental developments. For each story line several different scenarios were developed by six international modelling teams, resulting in 40 scenarios grouped in the 4 story lines. For three of the story lines this paper uses a single marker scenario representative of central tendencies within the scenario family. For the fourth story line the authors chose the scenario that assumes that advances in non-fossil technologies - renewable, nuclear, and high-efficiency conservation technologies - make them most cost-competitive. (BA)

  15. Energy scenarios for New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. S.; Ellis, M. J.; Scott, G. C.; Wood, J. R.

    1977-10-15

    Three energy scenarios have been formulated for New Zealand. They concentrate on those aspects of society which have a direct bearing on energy, emphasizing three important issues: major shifts in society's values in relation to material wealth, pollution, and resources. The scenarios make assumptions that certain overall social conditions would prevail so that all decisions of government, the private sector, and individuals would be governed by the requirement to conform to the scenario theme in a way not possible under existing social and political conditions. The 3 scenarios are known as Continuation, Low New Zealand Pollution, and Limited Growth.

  16. Energy Choices. Energy markets; Vaegval Energi. Energimarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsgaard, Niclas (Econ Poeyry AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    Each of the major energy markets for oil, coal, natural gas, biofuels and electricity has its own character. But markets are dependent on each other in an often complicated way. This interconnection has become even more complex since the market for emissions trading began in Europe in 2005. This report describes the current situation of the different energy markets but also the relationships between them, and some possible future scenarios. The oil market is global, but is dominated by a few producing countries. Coal is traded on the international market with good competition and over time probably a stable price. Other markets are more regional or even local. One example is the natural gas market. In the current situation of natural gas is not particularly important for Sweden's energy supply, but very much so in a European perspective. There may be repercussions also in Sweden. The gas price ups and downs are important for the price of emission rights and electricity. Biofuel markets ranging from global markets, such as ethanol, to regional or local markets, depending on processing. Only with the creation of a single trading venue, Nordpool was a common pricing of electricity possible in the Nordic region. In the near future we will have a common electricity market covering at least the Nordic region and northwestern Europe. This does not mean that prices will become equalized, for that further expansion of the transmission capacity is needed. It is possible to imagine several scenarios for future energy markets, but the interaction between the different markets will persist. To develop appropriate instruments is of great importance to achieve the political objectives in the energy field the next decade

  17. Energy scenarios: a prospective outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, Thierry; Claustre, Raphael; Charru, Madeleine; Sukov, Stephane; Marignac, Yves; Fink, Meike; Bibas, Ruben; Le Saux, Gildas

    2011-01-01

    A set of articles discusses the use of energy scenarios: how useful they can be to describe a possible future and even to gather the involved actors, how they have been used in France in the past (for planning or prediction purposes, with sometimes some over-assessed or contradictory results, without considering any decline of nuclear energy, or by setting an impossible equation in the case of the Grenelle de l'Environnement), how the scenario framework impacts its content (depending on the approach type: standard, optimization, bottom-up, top-down, or hybrid). It also discusses the issue of choice of hypotheses on growth-based and de-growth-based scenarios, outlines how energy saving is a key for a sustainable evolution. Two German scenarios regarding electricity production (centralisation or decentralisation) and French regional scenarios for Nord-Pas-de-Calais are then briefly discussed

  18. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  20. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.

    2015-03-23

    This presentation provides an overview of the Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) model, describes the methodology for developing scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure development, outlines an example "Hydrogen Success" scenario, and discusses detailed scenario metrics for a particular case study region, the Northeast Corridor.

  1. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  2. Scenario-based roadmapping assessing nuclear technology development paths for future nuclear energy system scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Roelofs, Ferry; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy may play a significant role in a future sustainable energy mix. The transition from today's nuclear energy system towards a future more sustainable nuclear energy system will be dictated by technology availability, energy market competitiveness and capability to achieve sustainability through the nuclear fuel cycle. Various scenarios have been investigated worldwide each with a diverse set of assumptions on the timing and characteristics of new nuclear energy systems. Scenario-based roadmapping combines the dynamic scenario-analysis of nuclear energy systems' futures with the technology roadmap information published and analysed in various technology assessment reports though integrated within the nuclear technology roadmap Nuclear-Roadmap.net. The advantages of this combination is to allow mutual improvement of scenario analysis and nuclear technology roadmapping providing a higher degree of confidence in the assessment of nuclear energy system futures. This paper provides a description of scenario-based roadmapping based on DANESS and Nuclear-Roadmap.net. (author)

  3. Hydrogen energy network start-up scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingartner, S.; Ellerbrock, H.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogen is widely discussed as future fuel and energy storage medium either to replace conventional fuels for automobiles, aircrafts and ships or to avoid the necessity of bulky battery systems for electricity storage, especially in connection with solar power systems. These discussions however started more than 25 years ago and up to now hydrogen has failed to achieve a major break-through towards wider application as energy storage medium in civil markets. The main reason is that other fuels are cheaper and very well implemented in our daily life. A study has been performed at Deutsche Aerospace in order to evaluate the boundary conditions, either political or economical, which would give hydrogen the necessary push, i.e. advantage over conventional fuels. The main goal of this study was to identify critical influence factors and specific start-up scenarios which would allow an economical and practically realistic use of hydrogen as fuel and energy medium in certain niche markets outside the space industry. Method and major results of this study are presented in detail in the paper. Certain niche markets could be identified, where with little initial governmental support, either by funding, tax laws or legislation, hydrogen can compete with conventional fuels. This however requires a scenario where a lot of small actions have to be taken by a high variety of institutions and industries which today are not interconnected with each other, i.e. it requires a new cooperative and proactive network between e.g. energy utilities, car industries, those who have a sound experience with hydrogen (space industry, chemical industry) and last, but certainly not the least, the government. Based on the developed scenario precise recommendations are drawn as conclusions

  4. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  5. Energy scenarios for Colombia: process and content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ricardo A. [National Univ. of Colombia, Escuela de Geosciencias y Medio Ambiente, Medellin (Colombia); Vesga, Daniel R.A. [Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, Bogota (Colombia); Cadena, Angela I. [Los Andes Univ., School of Engineering, Bogota (Colombia); Boman, Ulf [Kairos Future AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsen, Erik [Cass Business School, London (United Kingdom); Dyner, Isaac [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Energy Inst., Medellin (Colombia)

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the approach undertaken, and the four energy scenarios that have been developed, to support long term energy policy in Colombia. The scenarios were constructed with emphasis on maximum interaction between stakeholders in the Colombian energy sector. The process directly involved over 120 people. The scenarios were developed as strategic support tools for the Energy and Mining Planning Unit (UPME), which is the Colombian institution in charge of developing the country's energy strategies and National Energy Policy. The methodology employed is presented, followed by a detailed description of each of the four scenarios. (Author)

  6. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...

  7. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  8. The Energy Market 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  9. The Greenpeace 2013 scenario for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Cyrille; Teske, Sven

    2013-01-01

    After a synthesis of the Greenpeace scenario for energy transition, this report presents the French current energy landscape: structure of the energy system, greenhouse gas emissions and nuclear risks, main social and economic challenges, and search for a political ambition (from the Grenelle de l'Environnement to the current debate on energy). Then, after having outlined that energy transition must be decided now, the report presents the scenario hypotheses: studies used to develop the scenario, macro-economic and technical-economic hypotheses. The scenario is then presented in terms of possible trajectory, of energy demand (global evolution per sector), of energy production (electricity, heat, mobility), and of CO 2 assessment and nuclear wastes. Scenarios are compared in social and economic terms, more particularly in terms of investments in electricity and heat production systems, of electricity production costs and electricity bill, of energy independence, and of jobs in the electricity and heat sectors

  10. ANCRE scenarios for energy transition. Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, Nathalie; Des Courtils, Nicolas; Hache, Emmanuel; Liegeard, Alban; Lorne, Daphne; Duplan, Jean-Luc; Kalaydjian, Francois; Heintze, Eric; Tilagone, Richard; Henriot, Stephane; Forti, Laurent; Barthelemy, Pascal; Merlen, Elisabeth; Criqui, Patrick; Mathy, Sandrine; Menanteau, Philippe; Devezeaux De Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Avril, Sophie; Cavata, Christian; Le Duigou, Alain; Le Net, Elisabeth; Marcucci-Demeure, Jeanne; Safa, Henri; Topper, Benjamin; Touboul, Francoise; Carre, Franck; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Charbit, Francoise; Mermilliod, Nicole; Mermilliod, Nicole; Le Net, Elisabeth; Teissier, Olivier; Charrue, Herve; Colonna, Paul; Legrand, Jack; Vidal, Olivier; Goffe, Bruno; Mueller, Alex; Flamant, Gilles; Allard, Francis; Most, Jean-Michel; Matarasso, Pierre; Brault, Pascal; Lemoine, Lionel; Achard, Jean-Luc; Uster, Guillaume; Delsey, Jean; Lucchese, Paul; Tadrist, Lounes; Hadjsaid, Nouredine

    2014-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the energy system by presenting the determining factors of energy demand and of CO 2 emissions per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and biomass), by analysing energy systems and CO 2 emissions (energy sources, energy vectors, networks and storage, energy and CO 2 assessment for France), and by describing the guidelines of the scenarios proposed by ANCRE. The three main scenarios are characterized by a stronger sobriety, an electricity-based de-carbonation (with a variant based on nuclear and renewable energies), and diversified vectors. They are notably compared to a trend-based reference scenario. Results are discussed in terms of energy consumption (primary and final energy, consumption by the different sectors), of energy production and CO 2 emissions. Scenarios are assessed in terms of economic, environmental and societal, political and strategic criteria. Some consequences for research topics and funding are identified

  11. Energy utilities and environment-related energy services in the year 2008. Scenario study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Insight is given into of the developments in the sector energy distribution companies and the consequences for the demand for energy services. Next, an overview is given of which energy services should be developed to meet the changed needs of the market. Three scenarios have been set up and are discussed in this brochure: (1) a Steady State scenario (unchanged policy of energy distribution companies); (2) Alliance scenario (strategic cooperation between energy distribution companies and retailers and installation businesses); and (3) Autonomous Development scenario (energy distribution companies develop and offer new services)

  12. Energy scenarios for Colombia - Environmental Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ricardo A; Vesga A, Daniel R; Boman, Ulf

    2000-01-01

    The planning unit of the Colombian ministry of energy -UPME -has done an energy scenario project for Colombia with a 20-year horizon (vision year 2020) in this project the scenario methodology was used in a systemic way involving a great number of local and international energy experts. As a result four energy scenarios were designed and in all of them the possible evolution of all energy was analyzed. In this article a description of the used methodology is presented with the developed scenarios. Also a discussion of the long-range future environmental considerations in the energy sector, taking into account the developed scenarios, is presented. Finally some conclusions and recommendations are presented

  13. World Energy Scenarios to 2050: the Europe Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, E.

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this paper is an overview of the Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 study objectives, with emphasis on The Report for the Europe Region. The study is focused on achievement of the 3A's global energy goal (Accessibility, Availability, and Acceptability) by using various policy scenarios. The heart of the study will therefore be Policy Scenarios postulated within the context of two dimensions of government policy uncertainty. One with the dimension indicating whether the world is heading towards increased globalism and co-operation between governments and/or business and industry, or more towards bilateralism and nationalism outside global governance institutions. As outcomes, there is particularly described each of the four predicted scenarios: L'Europe des Patries, Fortress Europe, Confident Europe and Trailer Europe considering five main common indicators: political context, energy security, market forces/competition, environment/climate change, and energy mix/energy technology.(author)

  14. German energy market 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Weltenergierat, Berlin

    2017-01-01

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [de

  15. Emission trading scheme: market analysis and forecasting scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    This article offers an economic analysis of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and its institutional framework; we introduce an economic model able to simulate some possible market price's scenarios. The aim of this article is to offer a better market fundamentals' comprehension and to help economic agents building their expectations about market's development [it

  16. Energy and commodities market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO 2 emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [de

  17. International bioenergy trade. Scenario study on international biomass market in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinimoe, J.; Pakarinen, V.; Ojanen, V.; Kaessi, T.

    2007-07-01

    The markets of biomass for energy are developing rapidly and becoming more international. A remarkable increase in the use of biomass for energy needs parallel and positive development in several areas, and there will be plenty of challenges to overcome. The main objective of the study was to clarify the alternative future scenarios for the international biomass market until the year 2020, and based on the scenario process, to identify underlying steps needed towards the vital working and sustainable biomass market for energy purposes. Two scenario processes were conducted for this study. The first was carried out with a group of Finnish experts and the second involved an international group. A heuristic, semi structured approach, including the use of preliminary questionnaires as well as manual and computerised group support systems (GSS), was applied in the scenario processes. The scenario processes reinforced the picture of the future of international biomass and bioenergy markets as a complex and multi layer subject. The scenarios estimated that the biomass market will develop and grow rapidly as well as diversify in the future. The results of the scenario process also opened up new discussion and provided new information and collective views of experts for the purposes of policy makers. An overall view resulting from this scenario analysis are the enormous opportunities relating to the utilisation of biomass as a resource for global energy use in the coming decades. The scenario analysis shows the key issues in the field: global economic growth including the growing need for energy, environmental forces in the global evolution, possibilities of technological development to solve global problems, capabilities of the international community to find solutions for global issues and the complex interdependencies of all these driving forces. The results of the scenario processes provide a starting point for further research analysing the technological and commercial

  18. International bioenergy trade. Scenario study on international biomass market in 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.; Pakarinen, V.; Ojanen, V.; Kaessi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The markets of biomass for energy are developing rapidly and becoming more international. A remarkable increase in the use of biomass for energy needs parallel and positive development in several areas, and there will be plenty of challenges to overcome. The main objective of the study was to clarify the alternative future scenarios for the international biomass market until the year 2020, and based on the scenario process, to identify underlying steps needed towards the vital working and sustainable biomass market for energy purposes. Two scenario processes were conducted for this study. The first was carried out with a group of Finnish experts and the second involved an international group. A heuristic, semi structured approach, including the use of preliminary questionnaires as well as manual and computerised group support systems (GSS), was applied in the scenario processes. The scenario processes reinforced the picture of the future of international biomass and bioenergy markets as a complex and multi layer subject. The scenarios estimated that the biomass market will develop and grow rapidly as well as diversify in the future. The results of the scenario process also opened up new discussion and provided new information and collective views of experts for the purposes of policy makers. An overall view resulting from this scenario analysis are the enormous opportunities relating to the utilisation of biomass as a resource for global energy use in the coming decades. The scenario analysis shows the key issues in the field: global economic growth including the growing need for energy, environmental forces in the global evolution, possibilities of technological development to solve global problems, capabilities of the international community to find solutions for global issues and the complex interdependencies of all these driving forces. The results of the scenario processes provide a starting point for further research analysing the technological and commercial

  19. The UFE Prospective scenarios for energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the French energy consumption in 2011 (final energy consumption, distribution of CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption), this Power Point presentation proposes graphs and figures illustrating UFE's prospective scenarios for energy demand. The objective is to foresee energy demand in 2050, to study the impact of possible actions on energy demand, and to assess the impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses relate to demographic evolution, economic growth, energy intensity evolution, energy efficiency, and use transfers. Factors of evolution of energy demand are discussed: relationship between demography and energy consumption, new uses of electricity (notably with TICs), relationship between energy intensity and economic growth. Actions on demand are discussed. The results of different scenarios of technical evolution are presented

  20. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  2. The role of fusion power in energy scenarios. Proposed method and review of existing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P; Ybema, J.R.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1998-04-01

    The European Commission wishes more insight in the potential role of fusion energy in the second half of the 21st century. Therefore, several scenario studies are carried out in the so-called macro-task Long Term Scenarios to investigate the potential role of fusion power in the energy system. The main contribution of ECN to the macro-task is to perform a long term energy scenario study for Western Europe with special focus on the role of fusion power. This interim report gives some methodological considerations for such an analysis. A discussion is given on the problems related to the long time horizon of the scenario study such as the forecast of technological innovations, the selection of appropriate discount rates and the links with climate change. Key parameters which are expected to have large effects on the role and cost-effectiveness are discussed in general terms. The key parameters to be varied include level and structure of energy demand, availability and prices of fossil energy, CO2 reduction policy, discount rates, cost and potential of renewable energy sources, availability of fission power and CO2 capture and disposal and the cost and the maximum rate of market growth of fusion power. The scenario calculations are to be performed later in the project with the help of an existing cost minimisation model of the Western European energy system. This MARKAL model is briefly introduced. The results of the model calculations are expected to make clear under which combinations of scenario parameters fusion power is needed and how large the expected financial benefits will be. The present interim report also gives an evaluation of existing energy scenarios with respect to the role of fusion power. 18 refs

  3. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  4. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  5. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  6. Challenges and opportunities of international biomass market: Findings from a scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinimoe, J. (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland)); Ojanen, V.; Koessi, T. (Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    The markets of biomass are developing rapidly and becoming more international. Although biomass has potential to become a more important source of energy, the remarkable increase in biomass use for energy needs parallel and positive development in several sectors and there will be plenty of challenges to overcome. To support the positive development of market and to make the most of the development it is needed to have understanding about the market dynamics. The objective of the study was to clarify the alternative future scenarios for the international biomass market until the year 2020 and based on the scenario process to identify underlying steps needed towards the vital working and sustainable biomass market for energy purposes. A heuristic semi structured approach was applied in the scenario processes. The scenarios estimated that the biomass market will develop and grow rapidly as well as diversify in the future. The scenario analysis shows the key issues on the field: global economic growth including the growing need of energy, environmental forces in the global evolution, possibilities of the technological development to solve the global problems, capabilities of the international community to find solutions for the global issues and the complex interdependencies of all these driving forces. (orig.)

  7. Using energy scenarios to explore alternative energy pathways in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca; Koomey, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes four energy scenarios for California that are both exploratory and quantitative. The business-as-usual scenario represents a pathway guided by outcomes and expectations emerging from California's energy crisis. Three alternative scenarios represent contexts where clean energy plays a greater role in California's energy system: Split Public is driven by local and individual activities; Golden State gives importance to integrated state planning; Patriotic Energy represents a national drive to increase energy independence. Future energy consumption, composition of electricity generation, energy diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions are analyzed for each scenario through 2035. Energy savings, renewable energy, and transportation activities are identified as promising opportunities for achieving alternative energy pathways in California. A combined approach that brings together individual and community activities with state and national policies leads to the largest energy savings, increases in energy diversity, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Critical challenges in California's energy pathway over the next decades identified by the scenario analysis include dominance of the transportation sector, dependence on fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for electricity imports, and diversity of the electricity sector. The paper concludes with a set of policy lessons revealed from the California energy scenarios

  8. Energy scenarios for hydrogen production in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    The hydrogen is a clean and very efficient fuel, its combustion does not produce gases of greenhouse effect, ozone precursors and residual acids. Also the hydrogen produced by friendly energy sources with the environment like nuclear energy could help to solve the global problems that it confronts the energy at present time. Presently work fuel cycles of hydrogen production technologies in Mexico are judged, by means of a structured methodology in the concept of sustainable development in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. The methodology is divided in three scenarios: base, Outlook 2030 and capture of CO 2 . The first scenario makes reference to cycles analysis in a current context for Mexico, the second taking in account the demand projections reported by the IAEA in its report Outlook and the third scenario, capture of CO 2 , the technologies are analyzed supposing a reduction in capture costs of 75%. Each scenario also has four cases (base, social, environmental and economic) by means of which the cycles are analyzed in the dimensions of sustainable development. For scenarios base and capture, results show that combination nuclear energy- reformed of gas it is the best alternative for cases base and economic. For social case, the evaluated better technology is the hydraulics, and for environmental case, the best option is represented by the regenerative thermochemistry cycles. The scenario Outlook 2030 show a favorable tendency of growth of renewable sources, being the aeolian energy the best technology evaluated in the cases base and environmental, the hydraulics technology in the social case and in the economic case the reformed of natural gas that uses nuclear heat. (Author)

  9. Geothermal energy in the world energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the world energy consumption between 1960 and 1984 from primary energy sources (coal, natural gas, oil, hydropower, nuclear energy) and the same in percentages from 1925. This highlights the diminishing role of coal and the increased consumption of gas and oil. The latter has stabilized around 42% of the total after the drop in demand resulting from the oil crisis of 1973. The world energy consumption has then been divided into industrialized and developing countries. It appears that the latter, with a population equal to 68% of the total world population, consumed 23% of the world energy in 1982. Furthermore, the consumption figures show that the demand for domestic energy is much smaller in developing countries, and it is well-known that domestic energy consumed is one of the parameters used to assess standard of living. The total installed electric capacity throughout the world is then reported, divided between developed and developing countries, showing that the latter consumed 11% of all the electricity generated in the world in 1981. The world installed electric power of geothermal origin at the end of 1985 is shown, along with estimates for 1990. Geothermal energy represents 0.2% of the world electric power. This is obviously a small figure and indicates that geothermal energy plays a minor role on the world energy scene. However, if we distinguish between industrialized and developing countries, we can observe that, with their currently limited electrical consumption but good geothermal prospects, the developing countries could achieve quite a significant contribution to their total electric energy from that of geothermal origin, increasing at the moment from 3 to 19%. Finally, a comparison is made between electricity generating costs of different sources, showing that geothermal energy is competitive. A table illustrates the world evolution in installed geothermal capacity from 1950 to 1985. The non-electric uses of geothermal energy

  10. RESGen: Renewable Energy Scenario Generation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    studies remains. Consequently, our aim here is to propose an open-source platform for space-time probabilistic forecasting of renewable energy generation (wind and solar power). This document covers both methodological and implementation aspects, to be seen as a companion document for the open......-source scenario generation platform. It can generate predictive densities, trajectories and space-time interdependencies for renewable energy generation. The underlying model works as a post-processing of point forecasts. For illustration, two setups are considered: the case of day-ahead forecasts to be issued......Space-time scenarios of renewable power generation are increasingly used as input to decision-making in operational problems. They may also be used in planning studies to account for the inherent uncertainty in operations. Similarly using scenarios to derive chance-constraints or robust...

  11. EnerFuture: Long Term Energy Scenarios 'Understanding our energy future'. Key graphs and analysis, Enerdata - Global Energy Forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata analyses 4 future energy scenarios accounting for 2 economic growth assumptions combined with 2 alternative carbon emission mitigation policies. In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the energy consumption and intensity forecasts in emerging and developed markets. In particular, one analysis is dedicated to energies competition, including gas, coal and renewable energies. (authors)

  12. International energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Westrus, I.

    2001-01-01

    The industry, and later on households as well, are free to choose which company will be their energy supplier. The chances that it is going to be a foreign company are high. Many Dutch production companies were taken over by a foreign company. American companies, e.g. Reliant, Enron and TXU, Electrabel from Belgium and E.On from Germany all want a part of the Dutch industrial market. It is going to be a crowded market place and each company has it's own strategy to survive

  13. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  14. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.; Bijlsma, M.; Zwart, G.; Van Tilburg, X.; Ozdemir, O.

    2009-08-01

    A renewable obligation (RO) combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies. A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate market. If the current developments in Dutch renewable energy production continue, market power on a future renewable certificate market in the Netherlands will probably not be an issue, even if the RO should only rest on the retail market instead of on the whole electricity market. A renewable obligation will raise the retail price for consumers, thereby reducing consumer surplus. Simulations show that the retail electricity price increases with 30 euro per MWh to a level of 104 euro per MWh in case of a 30% renewable target. Consumer surplus is reduced with 19% compared to the baseline scenario. In contrast, a subsidy such as the Dutch SDE (Promoting Renewable Energy scheme or 'Stimulering Duurzame Energie') which is financed from the state budget has the effect to (slightly) lower the retail electricity price, thereby increasing consumer surplus. It should however be realised that the costs of the subsidy will indirectly affect electricity consumers through their tax payments.

  16. Energy markets and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Innovations mechanisms on energy markets are discussed, in particular valorization of energy products which invokes decarbonization of energy recourses. The valorization, meaning higher value of energy products, is expressed as electrification and entry of modern renewable energy based on

  17. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  18. World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph; Whitney, Rob; Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; Rose, Karl; Rieser, Dan A.; Al-Qahtani, Ayed; Thomas, Philip; Turton, Hal; Densing, Martin; Panos, Evangelos; Volkart, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The World Energy Scenarios: Composing energy futures to 2050 is the result of a three-year study conducted by over 60 experts from nearly 30 countries, with modelling provided by the Paul Scherrer Institute. The report assesses two contrasting policy scenarios, the more consumer driven Jazz scenario and the more voter-driven Symphony scenario with a key differentiator being the ability of countries to pass through the Doha Climate Gateway. The WEC scenarios use an explorative approach to assess what is actually happening in the world now, to help gauge what will happen in the future and the real impact of today's choices on tomorrow's energy landscape. Rather than telling policy-makers and senior energy leaders what to do in order to achieve a specific policy goal, the WEC's World Energy Scenarios allow them to test the key assumptions that decision-makers decide to better shape the energy of tomorrow This document includes the French and English versions of the executive summary and the English version of the full report

  19. The IIASA'83 scenario of energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for natural gas as a major source of energy supply are good. Spurred by the energy crises of the 'seventies, recent exploration for gas resources as well as technological advances in deep drilling have enhanced the picture of gas as a plentiful fossil resource. Technological improvements in transporting gas over large distances, as piped gas and as a liquid, suggest the strong possibility of gas as an important commodity in energy trade. In addition, gas is a high quality and relatively clean fuel, which is especially attractive in today's world of environmental concern for pollution emissions from energy combustion. Such developments led to the design of the IIASA'83 Scenario of Energy Development, which explored the techno-economic feasibility of the expanded use of gas in energy systems. The work drew on the findings of the IIASA global energy analysis, documented in 'Energy in a Finite World'. All countries of the world were covered in the quantitative analysis, grouped regionally by similarity in energy resources and economic structure and not necessarily on the basis of geographic proximity. The period studied was necessarily the next half century, from 1980 to 2030, in view of the inertia in technological and economic systems and this constraint on the development of energy infrastructures. Global primary energy consumption increases some twofold from 10 TW.a/a to 21.9 TW.a/a over the next 50 years, while economic output globally grows some threefold. The breakdown of global primary energy consumption indicates an absolute increase in the use of all primary energy sources over the study period, with fossil fuels continuing to supply the lion's share of primary energy. The buildup of non-fossil energy sources to global supply levels by 2030 is likely to be constrained by the high capital investments required at a period of modest economic growth and by the sociopolitical controversy surrounding the use of some of these technologies. (author)

  20. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: praroberta@uol.com.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  2. Impacts of high energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, V.; Markewitz, P. [Research Center Juelich, Inst. of Energy Res., Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, Juelich (Germany); Horn, M. [DIW Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, C.; Graichen, V.; Harthan, R.O.; Repenning, J. [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Prices of oil and other fossil fuels on global markets have reached a high level in recent years. These levels were not able to be reproduced on the basis of scenarios and prognoses that were published in the past. New scenarios, based on higher energy price trajectories, have appeared only recently. The future role of various energy carriers and technologies in energy-economic scenarios will greatly depend on the level of energy prices. Therefore, an analysis of the impact of high energy prices on long-term scenarios for Germany was undertaken. Based on a reference scenario with moderate prices, a series of consistent high price scenarios for primary and secondary energy carriers were developed. Two scenarios with (i) continuously rising price trajectories and (ii) a price shock with a price peak during the period 2010-15 and a subsequent decline to the reference level are analysed. Two types of models have been applied in the analysis. The IKARUS energy systems optimisation model covers the whole of the German energy system from primary energy supply down to the end-use sectors. Key results in both high price scenarios include a replacement of natural gas by hard coal and renewable energy sources in electricity and heat generation. Backstop technologies like coal liquefaction begin to play a role under such conditions. Up to 10% of final energy consumption is saved in the end-use sectors, with the residential and transport sector being the greatest contributors. Even without additional restrictions, CO{sub 2} emissions significantly drop in comparison to the reference scenario. The ELIAS electricity investment analysis model focuses on the power sector. In the reference scenario with current allocation rules in the emissions trading scheme, the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease relatively steadily. The development is characterised by the phaseout of nuclear energy which is counterweighted by the increase of renewable. In the high price scenario, the CO{sub 2

  3. Energy at what price? Energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, J.P.; Amic, E.; Darmois, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the whole world had to stand a real energy shock due to the rise of oil, gas and electricity prices. The perspective of a possible shortage, even at the prospect of several decades, has led to a deep change of the world energy market. In this context, this book supplies a clear and didactical presentation of the mechanisms of petroleum, gas and electricity markets, with their advantages and limitations. At the time of a globalization of economy, the book analyzes the consequences of markets deregulation on the energy prices and tries to answer several main questions: why such a price volatility? Who will take the risk of investing now? Will the energy actors of the present day concentration be in a dominating position? Content: 1 - energy, markets and energy markets; 2 - crude oil and petroleum product markets; 3 - gas markets; 4 - electric power markets; 5 - perspectives. Glossary. Index. (J.S.)

  4. Stochastic congestion management in power markets using efficient scenario approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Amjady, Nima; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali

    2010-01-01

    Congestion management in electricity markets is traditionally performed using deterministic values of system parameters assuming a fixed network configuration. In this paper, a stochastic programming framework is proposed for congestion management considering the power system uncertainties comprising outage of generating units and transmission branches. The Forced Outage Rate of equipment is employed in the stochastic programming. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, possible scenarios of power system operating states are generated and a probability is assigned to each scenario. The performance of the ordinary as well as Lattice rank-1 and rank-2 Monte Carlo simulations is evaluated in the proposed congestion management framework. As a tradeoff between computation time and accuracy, scenario reduction based on the standard deviation of accepted scenarios is adopted. The stochastic congestion management solution is obtained by aggregating individual solutions of accepted scenarios. Congestion management using the proposed stochastic framework provides a more realistic solution compared with traditional deterministic solutions. Results of testing the proposed stochastic congestion management on the 24-bus reliability test system indicate the efficiency of the proposed framework.

  5. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringoni, S.; Pontoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes recent market trends in the oil and natural gas sector. For the latter, a focus on the European gas market is then presented, whose consumption has grown considerably in these last ten years. As for the oil sector this paper investigates the key elements that have shaped its market in these years. As for oil consumption, we show that in these last 15 years China, India and the Middle East are the main responsible for the increase in World consumption. On the other hand, European OECD Countries have consistently reduced (almost 9%) their oil demand. This is due both to the dematerialization of their economy and their significant improvements in energy efficiency. As for energy intensity, in fact, Europe by far is the most efficient region in the World. On the other hand, OPEC has drastically raised its share of total production: at present the cartel accounts for more than 40% of overall production. OPEC members were the only producers to meet World's needs as oil demand expanded. The difficulties of other producers to keep up with the demand originated in the nineties, when no investment in new production capacity was brought about due to low oil prices. In the end of 2008, anyway, recession has eased the situation: for the first time in fifteen years, demand has not grown, compared to 2007 consumption. Recession has also shrunk prices, which, as soon as the demand started decreasing, have collapsed by almost 70%. As for the gas sector, the paper focuses on the European market where, after ten years from the beginning of the liberalization process, competition is still missing. In particular, the paper discusses whether LNG can bring about the competition so desperately needed. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity, since the importer is not physically tied with the producer; moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of the plant capacity is made available for spot

  6. Scenario sketches for Nordic H{sub 2} Energy introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E.A. [FOI Defence Analysis, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    This report departs from a set of external scenarios setting the context for a Nordic H2 energy introduction, and a set of H2 related socio-technical visions, amended and assessed by an expert workshop (Stockholm, August 2003). Based on this it attempts to outline a Nordic policy strategy aiming at as internationally leading a position in H2 energy as reasonable under different external conditions. Then this putative policy commitment is set against the nine context scenarios (three alternative stage-setting developments in the 2003-15 time frame and for each of these three alternative, more specifically energy-relevant developments for 2015-30). The result is that the prospects for H2 energy introduction differ widely across future developments. However, a policy strategy that combines RTD centres of excellence and large-scale socio-technical experimentation (e.g., demos and pilots) with polices that stimulate entrepreneurs to exploit niche markets and technology foresight and the like, not least to achieve bottom-up coordination. While strong policy interventions for H2 energy are conceivable under certain sets of external conditions, more typically it will have to win out in some type of competition. Therefore it is important that energy innovation policies be reasonably unbiased with respect to different energy forms rather than trying to prematurely pick winners. (au)

  7. Electronic market places in the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2001-12-01

    Electronic market places in the energy domain occurred at the end of the 90's in the US and have started to develop in Europe in the year 2000. About 60 platforms are registered today and this development can be explained by the advantages raised by such an infrastructure: simplification of purchase procedures, reduction of delays in the purchase decision, reduction of administrative costs etc.. However, today none of these electronic market places is profitable and several have closed down. On the other hand, this tool will certainly become necessary in the future and all energy actors are developing projects in this way. This study analyzes the electronic market places phenomenon in the energy domain using 10 market places examples with their key-factors of success. It draws out a complete status of the initiatives developed today and presents some scenarios of evolution. (J.S.)

  8. Present market for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present market for nuclear energy is present since nuclear production and electric power generation to the utilization of radioisotopes in medicine and biology. Some data about the main world suppliers to this market are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Energy-environment scenarios for Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Boston, MA (United States); Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y. [Environment and Development in the Third World, Dakar (Senegal)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explores the energy and environmental dimensions of proposed energy strategies for Senegal. We do so using a quantitative analytical framework, and begin to explore how useful such numerical methods can be in an African context. Based on past studies and the environmental database system, we develop a set of emission factors for use in Senegal. Finally, we address ways to integrate the often unquantifiable environmental and economics cost and benefits for environmentally informed decision making. In summary, we find that polices intended to promote the substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal in households can actually reduce greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to the improvement of more important near-term environmental problems. At the same time, the impacts of LPG substitution on increasing the oil import bill is relatively small when compared to other petroleum product usage.Improving end-use energy efficiency also shows promise, suggesting that new demand-side initiatives are needed. Overall, the integrated energy-environment scenario approach can reveal combined policy impacts that might otherwise be missed in a single project or policy approach. 13 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Liberalization of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, the supply of electricity has been liberalized in the Nordic countries - first in Norway in 1991 and most recently in Iceland in 2003. After the liberalization process the consumers can freely choose the end-use supplier that offers the most attractive prices and conditions of supply. This development has opened up new opportunities for the consumer, but has also created new problems. The amount of kWh consumed and the composition of the electricity price determines the extent to which a consumer can influence annual expenses by being active on the market. After liberalization the consumer price is composed of: The market price for electricity; Transmission tariffs; Consumer and energy taxes. Only the market price can be influenced by an active consumer. Most consumer problems are a result of the system with indirect metering that was introduced to make it costless for small consumers to change supplier. An individual consumer's consumption is calculated according to the average consumption profile for all small consumers in the local distribution area and not according to her actual consumption. As metering is only taking place with intervals of one to several years many consumers have received invoices with large additional payments. Complaints are also common against distribution companies that have taken too long time to transfer the necessary information to the suppliers or have done it wrongly. The right solution would be to introduce intelligent meters that, in addition, could provide the consumers with new opportunities to monitor their electricity consumption. Such initiatives are now taking place in all four countries but it will take some years to provide intelligent meters to all consumers. Liberalization has caused an increasing number of consumer complaints. However, it has become less transparent to whom the complaint should be directed. When is it the distribution company and when the end-use supplier? This problem continues

  11. 'Normal' markets, market imperfections and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Howarth, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The conventional distinction between 'economic' and 'engineering' approaches to energy analysis obscures key methodological issues concerning the measurement of the costs and benefits of policies to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The engineering approach is in fact based upon firm economic foundations: the principle of lifecycle cost minimization that arises directly from the theory of rational investment. Thus, evidence that so-called 'market barriers' impede the adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies implies the existence of market failures as defined in the context of microeconomic theory. A widely held view that the engineering view lacks economic justification, is based on the fallacy that markets are 'normally' efficient. (author)

  12. Forward projections of energy market competitiveness rankings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    By July 2007, the provisions of the second Internal Market Directives for Electricity and Gas had been implemented in the majority of EU Member States. These fundamental changes in market opening, ownership structures and network access conditions, together with the increasing maturity of liberalised trading and retail markets, can be expected to affect the behaviour of existing and potential market participants, consequently affecting the energy market competitiveness of alternative countries. While the UK was the most competitive of the EU and G7 energy markets in 2006, the dynamic effect of the liberalisation programme across Continental Europe may challenge that position in the future. This report assesses how competitiveness rankings may evolve in the future, identifying changes that could take place in the UK and the rest of the EU from 2007 to 201 1. It goes on to explore the potential risk that the competitiveness of the UK's energy markets will decline relative to those of other countries in the EU and G7, to the extent that the PSA target will not be met. A detailed analysis of the potential changes in the UK markets is undertaken, including the development of upside and downside scenarios showing the positive and negative effects of changes in market structure and behaviour on the UK's competitiveness score. Changes in market structures required for energy markets in both the 2006 comparator group and the rest of the EU to become as competitive as the UK are then assessed, along with the plausibility of these changes given the current and future market, legislative and regulatory environments

  13. Canadian wind energy technical and market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templin, R.J.; Rangli, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of wind energy technology in Canada is reviewed, the technical potential of wind energy in Canada is estimated, and the economic market potential is assessed under several scenarios over about the next 25 years. The technical potential is seen to be large, with applications to water pumping on farms, the coupling of wind turbines to diesel-electric systems in remote communities where fuel costs are high, and the supply of electricity to main power grids. The main-grid application has greatest technical potential, but it cannot be economically exploited under the present utility buyback rate structure for intermittent power sources. A change in government policy toward market development of renewable energy sources, such as is already taking place in several European countries, would greatly increase market potential, decrease emissions of CO 2 and SO 2 , and benefit the Canadian wind energy industry. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Biomass Scenario Model | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Scenario Model Biomass Scenario Model The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique range of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into biofuels. Over the past 25 years, the corn ethanol plant matter (lignocellulosic biomass) to fermentable sugars for the production of fuel ethanol

  15. The European market of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-09-01

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO 2 emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  16. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  17. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  18. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  19. Learnings from liberalised energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper presents a number of overlooked problems in liberalised electricity markets, including supply security, environmental concerns and establishment of a sustainable energy development.......The paper presents a number of overlooked problems in liberalised electricity markets, including supply security, environmental concerns and establishment of a sustainable energy development....

  20. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  1. Market potential of nanoremediation in Europe - Market drivers and interventions identified in a deliberative scenario approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Hagemann, Nina; Harries, Nicola; Hauck, Jennifer; Bardos, Paul

    2018-04-01

    A deliberate expert-based scenario approach is applied to better understand the likely determinants of the evolution of the market for nanoparticles use in remediation in Europe until 2025. An initial set of factors had been obtained from a literature review and was complemented by a workshop and key-informant interviews. In further expert engaging formats - focus groups, workshops, conferences, surveys - this initial set of factors was condensed and engaged experts scored the factors regarding their importance for being likely to influence the market development. An interaction matrix was obtained identifying the factors being most active in shaping the market development in Europe by 2025, namely "Science-Policy-Interface" and "Validated information on nanoparticle application potential". Based on these, potential scenarios were determined and development of factors discussed. Conclusions are offered on achievable interventions to enhance nanoremediation deployment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  3. The Ontario Energy Marketers Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.F.C.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the role of the Ontario Energy Marketers Association (OEMA) and its future orientation was presented. Participants in the OEMA include agents, brokers, marketers, local distribution companies, public interest representatives, associations and government representatives. The role of the OEMA is to encourage open competition for the benefit and protection of all energy consumer and market participants. As well, the OEMA serves as a forum for key industry stakeholders to resolve market issues outside the regulatory arena, set standards and codes of practice, establish customer education programs, and develop industry input into public policy making

  4. Global energy scenarios, climate change and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Energy scenarios provide a framework for exploring future energy perspectives, including various combinations of technology options and their implications. Many scenarios in the literature illustrate how energy system developments may affect global change. Examples are the new emissions scenarios by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the energy scenarios by the World Energy Assessment (WEA). Some of these scenarios describe energy futures that are compatible with sustainable development goals; such as improved energy efficiencies and the adoption of advanced energy supply technologies. Sustainable development scenarios are also characterized by low environmental impacts (at local, regional and global scales) and equitable allocation of resources and wealth. They can help explore different transitions toward sustainable development paths and alternative energy perspectives in general. The considerable differences in expected total energy requirements among the scenarios reflect the varying approaches used to address the need for energy services in the future and demonstrate effects of different policy frameworks, changes in human behavior and investments in the future, as well as alternative unfolding of the main scenario driving forces such as demographic transitions, economic development and technological change. Increases in research, development and deployment efforts for new energy technologies are a prerequisite for achieving further social and economic development in the world. Significant technological advances will be required, as well as incremental improvements in conventional energy technologies. In general, significant policy and behavioral changes will be needed during the next few decades to achieve more sustainable development paths and mitigate climate change toward the end of the century. (au)

  5. Energy independence versus world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy economics and financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsman, Andre [Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Finance; Simpson, John L. [Curtin Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Economics and Finance; Westerman, Wim (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Economics and Business Economics, Econometrics and Finance

    2013-10-01

    Deals with the upcoming theme of energy issues. Links energy issues with economics and financial markets. Combines global focus with specific regional and local examples. Unites theoretical insights with timely data and practical insights. Specialized author team from all over the world. Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. Specific examples of topical energy issues come from around the globe and often concern economics and finance. The importance of energy production, consumption and trade raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. This volume presents research on energy economics and financial markets related to the themes of supply and demand, environmental impact and renewables, energy derivatives trading, and finance and energy. The contributions by experts in their fields take a global perspective, as well as presenting cases from various countries and continents.

  7. Development of Optimal Stressor Scenarios for New Operational Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    OPTIMAL STRESSOR SCENARIOS FOR NEW OPERATIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS by Geoffrey E. Fastabend December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Alejandro S... ENERGY SYSTEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey E. Fastabend 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School...developed and tested simulation model for operational energy related systems in order to develop better stressor scenarios for acceptance testing

  8. Comparing long term energy scenarios; Scenari energetici di lungo termine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems. [Italian] Viene presentato un confronto degli scenari energetici di lungo termine formulati dalle agenzie internazionali e dai maggiori analisti del settore con particolare riferimento alla evoluzione di specifici parametri quali sviluppo demografico, domanda e offerta di energia, risorse energetiche, sviluppo tecnologico, emissioni e relativi cambiamenti climatici. L'evoluzione e l'interdipendenza dei singoli aspetti vengono analizzate al fine di individuare la possibile evenienza di crisi o turbolenze dei mercati energetici indotte da carenza di risorse o da problemi ambientali.

  9. Structural change in Europe's gas markets: three scenarios for the development of the European gas market to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, A.; Bowitz, E.; Roland, K.

    2000-01-01

    Against the background of the European Union's Gas Directive, and the emergence of new players and markets in Europe's gas sector, this paper explores how company actions could shape the future for the gas industry. Starting with an examination of company strategies this paper develops three scenarios for the future: a 'Gradual Transformation' scenario where a single European gas market develops that is essentially oligopolistic in nature; a 'Vertical Integration' scenario, where upstream and downstream gas companies merge to form a vertically integrated gas supplier; and a 'Pull the Plug' scenario, where the current market structure decomposes into a competitive market. These scenarios are examined in terms of their impact on gas prices, demand and the distribution of gas rent along the supply chain. The paper highlights the fact that the EU's gas Directive is not sufficient for the introduction of competition into Europe's gas markets, but that company actions will be the key determinant, and they may favour alternative market structures. (Author)

  10. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  11. Developing markets for renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although renewable energy resources are now being utilised more on a global scale than ever before, there is no doubt their contribution to the energy economy can still be greatly increased. Recently international support for developing these relatively new sources of energy has been driven by their benefits as assessed by reduced environmental impact, particularly reduced greenhouse gas emissions. After several decades of continuous but somewhat erratic funding for research and development of renewables, it is time to take stock of the key issues to be addressed in terms of implementation of major renewable energy programmes on a large scale worldwide. One of the first steps in this process is the identification and encouragement of reliable continuous markets both in developed and developing nations. Future energy policy and planning scenarios should take into account the factors necessary to integrate renewables in all their diverse forms into the normal energy economy of the country. Other critical factors in market development will include the mass production of high quality, reliable and reasonable cost technical products and the provision of adequate finance for demonstrating market ready and near market renewables equipment. Government agencies need to aid in the removal of legislative and institutional barriers hindering the widespread introduction of non-conventional energy sources and to encourage the implementation of government purchasing schemes. Recent moves by companies in Australia to market 'green energy' to customers should also aid in the public awareness of the ultimate potential of renewables leading to greater use in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors. (author)

  12. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  13. Integration of liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2004-03-01

    The markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating are inter-linked both with respect to the energy flows and with respect to ownership of supply sources and infrastructure. The extent and the possible consequences of these linkages are examined in this report. The options for public interventions in these markets are analysed to compare instruments with respect to their ability to provide the necessary incentives for an efficient functioning of the liberalised markets. Aspects of retail markets with households facing multi-product distribution companies and aspects of the production of combined heat and power based on natural gas has been covered. This project identifies some important aspects related to final consumers and the interaction of markets with different types of regulation and scope for liberalisation. From a Danish perspective the district heat market and the dependence on market conditions for natural gas is a specific concern. Consumer concerns also relate to the creation of multi-product energy distribution companies that are privately owned and possibly controlled by foreign interests. Such companies might use bundled sales of energy products to extent their dominant position in one market e.g. a regulated heat market to a market with considerable competition (electricity). Bundled sales would not necessarily result in a loss for the consumer due to economies of scope in supplying energy products. However, the regulatory authorities responsible for district heat prices will have a more complicated job in surveying the bundled price setting. Integration of activities within natural gas distribution and CHP production has been analysed with respect to incentives and welfare implications. Results of the project point to critical market conditions and identify areas of concern for regulatory policies. The analysis shows that there is a large welfare loss associated with having monopolies in both natural gas supplies and the CHP production

  14. Energy Revolution. A Sustainable Pathway to a Clean Energy Future for Europe. A European Energy Scenario for EU-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, S.; Baker, C.

    2005-09-01

    Greenpeace and the Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment of the German Aerospace Center (DLR),have developed a blueprint for the EU energy supply that shows how Europe can lead the way to a sustainable pathway to a clean energy future. The Greenpeace energy revolution scenario demonstrates that phasing out nuclear power and massively reducing CO2-emissions is possible. The scenario comes close to a fossil fuels phase-out by aiming for a 80% CO2 emissions reduction by 2050.The pathway in this scenario achieves this phase-out in a relatively short time-frame without using technological options (such as 'clean coal') that are ultimately dead ends, deflecting resources from the real solutions offered by renewable energy. Whilst there are many technical options that will allow us to meet short-term EU Kyoto targets (-8% GHG by 2010), these may have limited long-term potential. The Greenpeace Energy Revolution Scenario shows that in the long run, renewable energy will be cheaper than conventional energy sources and reduce EU's dependence from world market prices from imported fossil and nuclear fuels.The rapid growth of renewable energy technologies will lead to a large investment in new technologies.This dynamic market growth will result in a shift of employment opportunities from conventional energy-related industries to new occupational fields in the renewable energy industry. Renewable energy is expected to provide about 700,000 jobs in the field of electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2010

  15. Portfolio diversification in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvani, Valentina; Plourde, Andre

    2010-01-01

    This paper's results indicate that futures for crude oil, natural gas and unleaded gasoline fail to enhance the performance of representative energy stocks in terms of return to risk, but do decrease the overall level of risk exposure borne by passive equity investors. Our findings suggest that futures contracts on energy commodities are valuable to market participants with an interest in hedging against price fluctuations in energy markets by buy-and-hold strategies. However, this conclusion is reversed when one takes the perspective of traders whose core interests can be better approximated through the return to risk-bearing. In fact, this paper documents that return-to-risk maximizing agents are unlikely to profit from trading energy futures in addition to energy stocks. Moreover, futures for energy commodities fail to offer significant diversification gains with respect to energy stocks once investors adopt simple dynamic trading strategies that rely on readily available pricing information. (author)

  16. Portfolio diversification in energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvani, Valentina; Plourde, Andre [Department of Economics at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This paper's results indicate that futures for crude oil, natural gas and unleaded gasoline fail to enhance the performance of representative energy stocks in terms of return to risk, but do decrease the overall level of risk exposure borne by passive equity investors. Our findings suggest that futures contracts on energy commodities are valuable to market participants with an interest in hedging against price fluctuations in energy markets by buy-and-hold strategies. However, this conclusion is reversed when one takes the perspective of traders whose core interests can be better approximated through the return to risk-bearing. In fact, this paper documents that return-to-risk maximizing agents are unlikely to profit from trading energy futures in addition to energy stocks. Moreover, futures for energy commodities fail to offer significant diversification gains with respect to energy stocks once investors adopt simple dynamic trading strategies that rely on readily available pricing information. (author)

  17. Impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market: A scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneses, Javier; Centeno, Efraim

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Iberian Electricity Market during two periods: the first phase (2005-2007) and the second phase (2008-2012). A market-equilibrium model is used in order to analyze different conditions faced by generation companies. Scenarios involving CO 2 -emission prices, hydro conditions, demand, fuel prices and renewable generation are considered. This valuation will show the significance of CO 2 -emission prices as regards Spanish and Portuguese electricity prices, generation mix, utilities profits and the total CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the results will illustrate how energy policies implemented by regulators are critical for Spain and Portugal in order to mitigate the negative impact of the Kyoto Protocol. In conclusion, the Iberian electricity system will not be able to reach the Kyoto targets, except in very favorable conditions (CO 2 -emission prices over Euro 15/ton and the implementation of very efficient energy policies)

  18. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  19. Analysis of Long-term Energy and Carbon Emission Scenarios for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, N.; Kapshe, M.; Shukla, P.R.; Garg, A.; Rana, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the coming years India faces great challenges in energy and environment. The path of development chosen by India, upon which lies the future growth of energy and emission trajectories, would be greatly influenced by technological developments both within and outside the country, economic cooperation between countries, and global cooperation in limiting greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the integrated modeling system used for developing and analyzing the long-term trajectories and presents results for the scenarios developed. In the context of ongoing market reforms two scenarios - accelerated and decelerated reforms - are developed depicting fast and slow progress in energy sector reforms compared to expectations in the baseline scenario. Accelerated market reforms would spur improvements in technological efficiencies. Reforms would lower investment risks in India, thereby stimulating increased levels of foreign direct investment. On the other hand in decelerated reform scenario economic growth is lower than that in the base case, there is low access to capital, and technological improvements lag behind those in the base case. In another scenario we assume specific policy interventions for penetration of renewable technologies over the baseline scenario, for promotion and accelerated deployment of renewable energy technologies over and above the baseline assumptions. A scenario with carbon (c) constraints has also been developed and the results discussed

  20. Proceedings of 15th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2006-01-01

    Energy perspectives are in the focus of the whole energy community. Facing te growing needs for energy, limits to reserves, terrorist of war threats, and climate changes is the main driver in searching for long-term solutions which would make energy development less uncertain and less risky. Technological development is one of the answers to energy problems, but it is not the only one. Enhancing energy efficiency is a social challenge that goes beyond technology problem. Equally, accepting locations for construction of energy facilities is also a social challenge, because, together with other social challenges, may give am answer how to develop stable energy industry. Energy security is synergy of various factors: energy market, infrastructure which facilitates good connectivity, diversification of resources, enhanced use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, and it is important to stress that the only secure energy systems are well-balanced ones. World Energy Council initiated the global study Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 with the aim to overview the future energy at global and regional levels

  1. Proceedings of 15th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, G; Jelavic, B

    2006-07-01

    Energy perspectives are in the focus of the whole energy community. Facing te growing needs for energy, limits to reserves, terrorist of war threats, and climate changes is the main driver in searching for long-term solutions which would make energy development less uncertain and less risky. Technological development is one of the answers to energy problems, but it is not the only one. Enhancing energy efficiency is a social challenge that goes beyond technology problem. Equally, accepting locations for construction of energy facilities is also a social challenge, because, together with other social challenges, may give am answer how to develop stable energy industry. Energy security is synergy of various factors: energy market, infrastructure which facilitates good connectivity, diversification of resources, enhanced use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, and it is important to stress that the only secure energy systems are well-balanced ones. World Energy Council initiated the global study Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 with the aim to overview the future energy at global and regional levels.

  2. Energy transition: from national scenarios to European policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims at seeing how an analysis of national scenarios of energy transition may contribute to the elaboration of European energy and climate policies. The author first identifies the characteristics of energy scenarios, and the relationship between a scenario considered as an object on the one hand, and a vision for the long term on the other hand. She proposes an analysis framework which enables a comparative analysis of scenarios in order to identify stakes and challenges for the future European policy. In the second part, the author presents three examples (Germany, United Kingdom and France) and discusses their political context and adopted scenarios. After an overview of existing European energy and climate policies, the results of the analysis are given for two specific sectors: transports and electricity

  3. Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Ruether, R.; Pereira, E.B.; Abreu, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV-Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban areas of the interconnected Brazilian electricity system. The potential for using PV is huge, and can be estimated in tens to hundreds of MWp in the Amazon region alone, even if only a fraction of the existing Diesel-fired plants with a total installed capacity of over 620 MVA would fit to run in an optimum Diesel/PV mix. Most of the major cities in Brazil present greater electricity demand in summertime with the demand peak happening in the daytime period. This energy profile match the actual solar resource assessment provided by SWERA Data Archive, enabling grid-connected PV systems to provide an important contribution to the utility's capacity

  4. Competing in changing energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannell, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two perspectives: first, that of a successful exporter of energy products into world markets and second, that of a producer and seller of energy to consumers in South Australia and New South Wales - a large proportion of whom are privately and publicly owned trading organisations. It looks at Santos' experience in winning export markets for its liquid products; provides an overview of the changes - occurring and prospective to the Australian energy sector; and finally, discusses the outlook for Santos' South Australian gas business. The Australian energy-supply sectors have entered a period of unprecedented change. With energy being a contributor, and in many cases accounting for a large share of a traded good's cost, the impact of the emerging developments in the energy sector are of considerable significance

  5. Solar energy enters the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    Everybody agrees that there is a bright future for solar energy. After two decades of research and development, the market introduction of solar hot water systems is now taking off. In several countries, including the Netherlands, preparations are also underway for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic systems. Although the share of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy in the energy supply sector in the Netherlands is very small (0.1 PJ) there are signs of imminent change. According to the Follow-up Policy Document on Energy Conservation, the share of solar energy should increase to 7 PJ by the year 2010. After years of concentrating on research and development, it is now generally recognised that it is time to introduce these technologies onto the market in order to realize the long-term objectives. In this respect, thermal solar energy is ahead of photovoltaics. 4 ills

  6. Geothermal power production in future electricity markets-A scenario analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkus, Alexandra; Barth, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Development and diffusion of new renewable energy technologies play a central role in mitigating climate change. In this context, small-scale deep geothermal power has seen growing interest in recent years as an environmentally friendly, non-intermittent energy source with large technical potential. Following the first successful demonstration projects, the German geothermal industry is currently experiencing an internationally unparalleled growth. In this study we explore the factors driving this development, and the role geothermal power production could play in the future of the German electricity market. For this, we apply the scenario technique, based on literature analysis and interviews with companies operating actively in the field. Our findings highlight the importance of political support and framework conditions in the electricity market, with the best prospects in a decentralised energy system based on renewable energy sources, where high investment costs and the risk of discovery failure are balanced by the benefits of low-carbon base load power. - Research highlights: → Small scale geothermal plants could provide base load for RES based power systems. → New technologies allow its use even in geologically inactive regions like Germany. → Key factors for growth are political support and power market framework conditions. → Main investment barriers are comparatively high investment costs and discovery risks. → Scale of use depends on technological evolution and energy system structure.

  7. Adapting for uncertainty : a scenario analysis of U.S. technology energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitner, J.A.; Hanson, D.A.; Mintzner, I.; Leonard, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of future evolution for United States (US) energy markets is highly uncertain at this time. This article provided details of a study using a scenario analysis technique to investigate key energy issues affecting decision-making processes in the United States. Four scenarios were used to examine the driving forces and critical uncertainties that may shape United States energy markets and the economy for the next 50 years: (1) a reference scenario benchmarked to the 2002 annual energy outlook forecast, (2) abundant and inexpensive supplies of oil and gas, (3) a chaotic future beset with international conflict, faltering new technologies, environmental policy difficulties and slowed economic growth, and (4) a technology-driven market in which a variety of forces converge to reshape the energy sector. Each of the scenarios was quantified using a computable general equilibrium model known as the All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) model. Results suggested that the range of different outcomes for the US is broad. However, energy use is expected to increase in all 4 scenarios. It was observed that the introduction of policies to encourage capital stock turnover and accelerate the commercialization of high efficiency, low-emissions technologies may reduce future primary energy demand. The analysis also showed that lower energy prices may lead to higher economic growth. Policies introduced to improve energy efficiency and accelerate the introduction of new technologies did not appreciably reduce the prospects for economic growth. Results also suggested that lower fossil fuel prices discourage investments in energy efficiency or new technologies and may mask the task of responding to future surprises. It was concluded that an investment path that emphasizes both energy efficiency improvements and advanced energy supply technologies will provide economic growth conditions similar to the implementation of lower energy prices. 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. A Risk Metric Assessment of Scenario-Based Market Risk Measures for Volatility and Risk Estimation: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitima Innocent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the sensitivity of the Value- at- Risk (VaR and Expected Shortfalls (ES with respect to portfolio allocation in emerging markets with an index portfolio of a developed market. This study utilised different models for VaR and ES techniques using various scenario-based models such as Covariance Methods, Historical Simulation and the GARCH (1, 1 for the predictive ability of these models in both relatively stable market conditions and extreme market conditions. The results showed that Expected Shortfall has less risk tolerance than VaR based on the same scenario-based market risk measures

  9. Deciding the Future: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This WEC study is bottom-up regional view of our energy future focusing on policies to ensure energy sustainability. Experts from five regions and all energy domains worked together to produce four different scenarios to predict how differing levels of cooperation and government involvement would affect the energy future of the world.

  10. Canada's energy future : reference case and scenarios to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Energy is essential to the comfort and economic prosperity of Canadians. This report highlighted some of the issues that Canada faces with respect to its energy future. The report focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand, and examined various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030. Three different scenarios were presented: (1) a continuing trends scenario; (2) a triple E scenario in which economic, environmental and energy objectives are balanced; and (3) a fortified islands scenario in which security concerns were coupled with international unrest and protectionist governments. The report determined that energy demand will remain a function of population and economic growth. Automobiles will continue to rely on fossil fuels. Energy efficiency will improve in relation to the effectiveness of government policies, and a move towards natural gas alternatives will occur. However, fossil fuels will remain a dominant source of energy supply. Oil sands production grew in all 3 of the evaluated scenarios. It is expected that total natural gas production will decline and imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) will increase. In all 3 scenarios greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased or only slightly declined. A full spectrum of GHG mitigation strategies will need to be implemented so that Canada can meet its target of a 20 per cent reduction in GHGs by 2020. It was concluded that effective policies are needed to optimize Canada's multiple objectives of economic growth, environment sustainability, and development of energy resources. 6 tabs., 118 figs

  11. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  12. Risk premia in energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut E.D.; Veraart, Luitgard A.M.

    Risk premia between spot and forward prices play a key role in energy markets. This paper derives analytic expressions for such risk premia when spot prices are modelled by Lévy semistationary processes. While the relation between spot and forward prices can be derived using classical no......-arbitrage arguments as long as the underlying commodities are storable, the situation changes in the case of electricity. Hence, in an empirical study based on electricity spot prices and futures from the European Energy Exchange market, we investigate the empirical behaviour of electricity risk premia from...

  13. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  14. NSON-DK energy system scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Traber, Thure

    with a strong recovering of coal and crude oil prices, and a pronounced increase of CO2 prices from 2020. For the countries around the North Sea that are considered, the evolution of electricity demand is projected to be strongly impacted by aggressive energy efficiency policies that lead in total to stagnating...... of the century and replacing these capacities essentially with natural gas power plants. In Belgium, and Germany nuclear power plants are expected to be phased-out by 2035, with Sweden following this policy by 2050. Moreover, the economic outlook for nuclear in the other countries is also weak mainly due...... to pronounced competition from fluctuating renewable energies. In regard to wind energy, for Denmark it is suggested that onshore installations are not increased significantly after 2030. By contrast, a major increase in offshore wind energy is assumed. Corresponding with these offshore and onshore wind power...

  15. Energy and environment scenarios for Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the energy and environmental dimensions of several proposed energy strategies for Senegal are explored. An analytical framework to compare the energy and measurable environmental impacts of a set of scenarious is developed, and the limitations of the quantitative approach are discussed. It is found that policies to promote substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal use in households may actually reduce greenhouse gas emission, while also improving more important near-term environmental problems. Substitution of LPG for charcoal would not necessarily lead to a significant increase in Senegal's oil import bill, since other petroleum product usage will continue to dominate. Despite past industrial sector initiatives, considerable potential for energy efficiency investment remains, and presents additional opportunities for minimizing environmental impacts. (author). 33 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  16. DGEMP-OE (2008) Energy Baseline Scenario. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A 'Business as usual' or 'Baseline' scenario of energy trends to 2020-2030 is produced by France every four years, as requested by the International Energy Agency in order to update the global scenarios published in its World Energy Outlook. Since the most recent scenario of this type was drawn up in 2003-2004, the time has come to renew the effort for the IEA's next in-depth review of French energy policy. Specifically, the DGEMP seeks to predict the future of France's energy situation assuming that no policies or new measures are taken affecting (i.e. improving or deteriorating) the situation other than those already in place or adopted as of 1 January 2008 (in other words, before measures such as those stemming from the Grenelle Environment Forum). On the other hand, it is assumed that change in the energy system is guided by 'conventional wisdom' according to which political options and behaviours by economic units are expected to be 'reasonable'. As a result, even should its projections prove inappropriate, this cannot be considered a 'worst-case' scenario. Indeed, beyond the IEA, this scenario can be used to establish an MEA (Multilateral Environment Agreement) scenario (based on existing measures) for national communications submitted under the U.N. Climate Convention. The scenarios by the 'Energy' Commission, part of the Centre d'Analyse Strategique (CAS), could have been used, particularly since the consultant who worked with the CAS to develop its scenarios was also commissioned by the DGEMP. However, several considerations argued in favour of proceeding separately: - The CAS scenarios drew on the DGEMP's 2004 baseline scenario, even though certain parameters were updated (in particular energy prices). - Moreover, the concept underpinning the DGEMP baseline scenario is that it should to every extent possible remain constant over time to secure continued consensus on this 'reference' at national level. - Finally, the MEDEE energy demand model applied in

  17. Phasing out nuclear in Germany: scenarios of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Brigitte; Pahle, Michael; Kondziella, Hendrik; Goetz, Mario; Bruckner, Thomas; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Stark, Hans; Rittelmeyer, Yann-Sven; Wissmann, Nele; Vitasse, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    After the German decision taken in 2011 to phase out nuclear, the authors analyse different scenarios of energy transition, and study the consequences of this phasing out in terms of energy needs provided by fossil fuel plants, of electricity price for households and for industries, and of CO 2 emissions. Independently from the development of renewable energies, the different effects of gas and coal plants replacing nuclear energy have been calculated and compared, and other possible scenarios have been explored. The author also discuss requirements in terms of governance for grid development, for a coordinated European policy of energy and climate, and for transparency and scientific follow-up

  18. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  19. Market share scenarios for Gen-DIII and gen-IV reactors in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Heek, A. V.; Durpel, L. V. D.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide in order to meet growing energy demand and especially the growth in electricity demand. Many objectives direct to an increased use of nuclear energy, i.e. minimising energy costs, reducing climate change effects and others. In the light of the potential renewed growth of nuclear energy, the public demands a clear view on what nuclear energy may contribute towards meeting these objectives and especially how nuclear energy may address some socio-political obstructions with respect to economics, radioactive waste, safety and proliferation of fissile materials. To address these questions, the future nuclear reactor park mix in Europe has been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options. In the analyses, it is assumed that different types of new reactors may be built, taking into account the introduction date of considered Gen-Ill (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, and the economic evaluation of the complete fuel cycle. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies). The analyses show that given the considered realistic nuclear energy demand and given a limited number of available Gen-III and Gen-IV reactor types, the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. The analyses also highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. (authors)

  20. Technology versus demand regulation - strategic modelling of transport, land use and energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenbichler, Paul C.; Shepherd, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Scarcity of oil supply is seen as one of the biggest future threats to our society. The recently finished EU-funded research project STEPs (Scenarios for the Transport System and Energy Supply and their Potential Effects) had the objective to develop, compare and assess possible scenarios for the transport system and the energy supply of the future taking into account the effects on the environment as well as economic and social viability. Two energy supply scenarios, one with and one without scarcity of oil supply, form the basis of STEPs. Furthermore two different policies are suggested to tackle the problem of scarcity of oil: a technology driven strategy and a demand regulation based strategy. This paper presents the application of these scenarios and strategies to the strategic Systems Dynamics model MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator) covering the metropolitan area of Edinburgh. Scenario indicators like car ownership, fleet composition and fuel resource costs were provided by the European model ASTRA and the world energy market model POLES. The first part of the paper summarises the scenarios and strategies in detail. The second part describes briefly some basics of Systems Dynamics as well as the main mechanisms underlying the model MARS. Finally the results of the scenario simulations are presented. The main outcome is that a demand regulation policy is more effective in reducing the consumption of non-renewable energy resources than a technology driven policy

  1. Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    part of the climate change is due to emission of CO2 from the use of fossil fuels. For simplicity, this paper focuses on CO2 emission from fossil fuels, but CO2 from deforestation as well as methane (CH4), laughing gas (N2O) and a number of industrial greenhouse gases should be included in a more......, 2009) lacked sufficient concrete commitments for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) after 2012 when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Human activities in their present form are strongly dependent on the supply of energy. A dominant part of the global energy supply is based on fossil fuels and a dominant...

  2. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power

  3. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may

  4. Carbon auctions, energy markets and market power: An experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental analysis of a simultaneous energy-emissions market under conditions of market power. The experimental design employs real-world institutional features; including stochastic demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. The results suggest that dominant firms can utilize energy-emissions market linkages to simultaneously inflate the price of energy and suppress the price of emissions allowances. Whereas under prior market designs, regulators were concerned with dominant firms exercising their market power over the emissions market to exclude rivals and manipulate the permit market by hoarding permits; the results of this paper suggest that this strategy is less profitable to dominant firms in contemporary auction-based markets than strategic capacity withholding in the energy market and associated demand reduction in the emissions market. - Highlights: • Laboratory simulation of joint energy-emissions market. • Evaluates market power under collusion and real-world institutional features. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to inflate energy prices. • Dominant firms can exercise market power to suppress emissions prices. • Supply withholding is an implicit demand reduction in the emissions market

  5. Nuclear power for energy security - Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    India has been witnessing an impressive growth in GDP in the face of several challenges including the fact that India has a population of over 1.2 billion. In order to provide and maintain a comfortable standard of living to our large population, as well as to sustain the national economic growth, it is essential to have a matching growth in the availability of energy. One such indicator is per capita electricity consumption, and for India, it is about 700 kWh which is far below that of the OECD countries (∼8000 kWh). Furthermore, India's population is expected to rise to about 1.5 billion by 2050. A per capita use of about 5000 kWh energy in the form of electricity every year would be needed for achieving a state of reasonably high development. This will require an installed electricity generation capacity exceeding 1300 GWe, which is slightly more than six times the existing installed electricity generation capacity of 210 GWe in India. Despite the fact that at present India is the fifth largest electricity generating country, India has to increase total electricity generation to almost 10 times the present generation level (about 875 billion kWh). It is against this backdrop, that we cannot afford to ignore any source of energy production including the nuclear option, since no single source alone, or not even a combination of only a couple of sources, can ever meet the entire energy needs of our country in a reliable and sustainable manner. (author)

  6. Renewable energy market overview 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the findings of a recent survey on the renewable energy market carried out in 164 countries and across a wide range of sectors of industry. The survey found almost unanimous optimism regarding the growth of the renewable energy market over the coming year. Tables show (i) the survey sample (in terms of continents, database population and responses); (ii) subsidiaries and locations of parent companies; (iii) expectations of sales next year (by continent) and (iv) expectations of sales in the coming year by sector. Figures show (a) regional distribution of companies (by continent); (b) companies' activities and (c) index of expectations of sales, by continent. The survey is intended for inclusion in the World Directory of Renewable Energy Suppliers and Services

  7. Renewable energy market overview 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Nicholas

    2001-02-01

    The article discusses the findings of a recent survey on the renewable energy market carried out in 164 countries and across a wide range of sectors of industry. The survey found almost unanimous optimism regarding the growth of the renewable energy market over the coming year. Tables show (i) the survey sample (in terms of continents, database population and responses); (ii) subsidiaries and locations of parent companies; (iii) expectations of sales next year (by continent) and (iv) expectations of sales in the coming year by sector. Figures show (a) regional distribution of companies (by continent); (b) companies' activities and (c) index of expectations of sales, by continent. The survey is intended for inclusion in the World Directory of Renewable Energy Suppliers and Services.

  8. Nuclear power in future energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that even when the renewable energy sources like solar, biogas and biomass are developed to the maximum feasible extent, they will only be able to sustain a marginal level of economic activity. In India demand for coal is expected to rise at some 6% per annum and that for oil at about 4% per annum. It is doubtful whether the coal production can be raised to meet the demand of 2000 million tonnes of coal by the turn of century. Steadily increasing cost of oil will make it difficult to procure the necessary quota of oil. The only way, therefore, for large-scale increase in electricity generation is to use nuclear energy. At present, it accounts for only 3% of the electricity produced in the country. It is shown that with implementation of a proper nuclear programme, 10,000 MW of nuclear power representing 15% of electricity produced by the year 2000 can be produced. Safety aspect of nuclear power is discussed and it is mentioned that scare on these grounds is not justifiable. Need for a national consensus on this issue is emphasised. (M.G.B.)

  9. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  10. Scenarios for an energy policy concept of the German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagl, Stephan; Fuersch, Michaela; Paulus, Moritz; Richter, Jan; Trueby, Johannes; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate how challenging greenhouse gas reduction targets of up to 95% until 2050 can be achieved in the German electricity sector. In the analysis, we focus on the main requirements to reach such challenging targets. To account for interdependencies between the electricity market and the rest of the economy, different models were used to account for feedback loops with all other sectors. We include scenarios with different runtimes and retrofit costs for existing nuclear plants to determine the effects of a prolongation of nuclear power plants in Germany. Key findings for the electricity sector include the importance of a European-wide coordinated electricity grid extension and the exploitation of regional comparative cost effects for renewable sites. Due to political restrictions, nuclear energy will not be available in Germany in 2050. However, the nuclear life time extension has a positive impact on end consumer electricity prices as well as economic growth in the medium term, if retrofit costs do not exceed certain limits. (orig.)

  11. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  12. Sustainable energy prices and growth. Comparing macroeconomic and backcasting scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Hoejer, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    How do results from the sustainability research world of backcasting relate to the macroeconomic scenarios used for policy evaluation and planning? The answer is that they do not, mostly - they come from different scientific traditions and are not used in the same contexts. Yet they often deal with the same issues. We believe that much can be gained by bringing the two systems of thinking together. This paper is a first attempt to do so, by making qualitative comparisons between different scenarios and highlighting benefits and limitations to each of them. Why are the pictures we get of the energy future so different if we use a macroeconomic model from when using a backcasting approach based on sustainable energy use? It is evident that the methods for producing those two kinds of scenarios differ a lot, but the main reason behind the different results are found in the starting points rather than in the methods. Baseline assumptions are quite different, as well as the interpretations and importance attached to signals about the future. In this paper, it is discussed how those two types of scenarios differ and how they approach issues such as energy prices and growth. The discussion is based on a comparison between Swedish economic and sustainability scenarios. The economic scenarios aim at being forecasts of the future and are used as decision support for long-term policies. But are the assumptions in the economic scenarios reasonable? The sustainability scenarios are explicitly normative backcasting scenarios. They do not take the issue of growth and consumption fully into account. Could they be developed in this respect? The comparison between the scenarios is also used to look closer at the issue of energy prices in a society with sustainable energy use. One of the questions raised is if a low energy society calls for high energy prices. Moreover, the effects of tradable permits versus energy taxes is analysed in the context of how energy use could be kept low

  13. Energy technology perspectives - scenarios and strategies to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-03

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  14. Energy technology perspectives: scenarios and strategies to 2050 [Russian version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G8 leaders confronted questions of energy security and supply and lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions and decided to act with resolve and urgency. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. Energy Technology Perspectives is a response to the G8 request. This work demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO{sub 2} emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies. Major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power. 110 figs., 4 annexes.

  15. Market introduction of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On 11 and 12 November 1997 the VDI Society for Energy Technology (VDI-GET) held a congress in Neuss on the ''Market introduction of renewable energy technologies'' The focal topics of the congress were as follows: market analyses for renewable energy technologies, the development of markets at home and abroad, and the framework conditions governing market introduction. Specifically it dealt with the market effects of national and international introduction measures, promotion programmes and their efficiency, the legal framework conditions governing market introduction, advanced and supplementary training, market-oriented research (e.g., for cost reduction), and improved marketing [de

  16. Global Energy Scenarios to 2040. Understanding our energy future - 2016 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The energy world is in rapid evolution, driven in particular by policy developments (like the INDCs agreed at COP-21) but also economic, geopolitical, technological as well as social considerations. Enerdata regularly produces scenario based energy outlooks to analyze and forecast the supply and demand of energy commodities, energy prices, as well as the impact of climate change and energy policies on energy markets and their consequences for the energy industry. After the COP-21 in Paris, Enerdata has again done such an exercise. The Ener-Blue scenario provides an outlook of energy systems up to 2040 based on the achievement of the 2030 targets defined in the INDCs as announced at the COP-21. Ener-Green explores the implications of more stringent energy and climate policies to limit the global temperature increase at around 1.5-2 deg. C by the end of the century. Finally, Ener-Brown describes a world with abundant fossil fuel resource and durably low energy prices, affecting the entire energy system over a long period. These different scenarios explore the consequences on energy supply and demand, energy mix, energy prices by fuel and region, as well as the implications on climate issues. In the Ener-Blue scenario, the future energy mix remains dominated by fossil fuels, but INDCs planned policies regarding climate mitigation, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources lead to a diversification towards other sources of energy. Among others, the EU successfully achieves its triple objective of its climate and energy package, while China and India expand their renewable capacities to achieve their renewable targets. Within this international context of climate coordinated policies, CO_2 emission growth slows down. However, the efforts defined in INDCs are not ambitious enough to limit the increase of the average global temperature to 2 deg. C in 2050, but these efforts are compatible with 3-4 deg. C objective. In the Ener-Green scenario, there is a clear

  17. The marketing of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    After two decades of research and development the market introduction of solar water heaters finally is developing rapidly. In a number of progressive countries, amongst which the Netherlands, preparations are made for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. A brief overview is given of market introduction activities with regard to solar energy applications in several countries. Also attention is paid to new technological developments for the improvement of solar boilers: the Integrated Collector Storage system, the integration of the storage tank in the solar water heater (combi-boiler), and the new principle for a combined system for the production of hot tap water and space heating, the so-called solar-gas-combi. The Dutch-developed boilers, however, must compete with the the foreign thermosyphon boilers, although these boilers probably require more maintenance than the Dutch boilers. The market for PV-systems is still in its infancy. The marketing efforts and research activities in Japan, USA and European countries for PV-systems are briefly discussed. Although financial incentives from the national governments are still necessary contributions from other market parties for the development of PV-systems are expected. 4 ills

  18. Development and sustainability issues - energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil

    2000-01-01

    The 20th century has seen an unprecedented rise in the rate of consumption of material and energy resources. These patterns of growth and consumption have caused enormous strains on the available natural resources and the environment. Further, the benefits of available natural resources have been shared in a highly inequitable manner with a small fraction of mankind using up a large fraction of resources to a level that environmental concerns have become a global matter and are threatening to jeopardize the development of the larger fraction of humanity on grounds of global sustainability. While it has been seen that major achievements in almost all areas of human endeavour in recent times, enabling improvements in quality of life and better control over environmental degradation, there is a new challenge now of sustainability of the development process for the majority of human population. The environment with its large inertia, flexibility and stabilising mechanisms has so far some how copped up at least on a global scale with the unprecedented consumption. However, the recent trends indicate that most of the environment related cycles may not be able to take the continued abuse without disastrous global consequences. Piloting and sustaining the legitimate development of societies particularly those which are left far behind in the march towards better quality of life has, therefore, become a matter which needs very urgent consideration and action. There is thus a strong need for charting of a well deliberated goal oriented action plan with a vision that ensures due attention to the interests of all sections of society on the basis of their justifiable needs

  19. Exploring nuclear energy scenarios - implications of technology and fuel cycle choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayment, Fiona; Mathers, Dan; Gregg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Energy is recognised globally as a mature, reliable low carbon technology with a secure and abundant fuel source. Within the UK, Nuclear Energy is an essential contributor to the energy mix and as such a decision has been made to refresh the current nuclear energy plants to at least replacement of the existing nuclear fleet. This will mean the building of new nuclear power plant to ensure energy production of 16 GWe per annum. However it is also recognised that this may not be enough and as such expansion scenarios ranging from replacement of the existing fleet to 75 GWe nuclear energy capacity are being considered (see appendix). Within these energy scenarios, a variety of options are being evaluated including electricity generation only, electricity generation plus heat, open versus closed fuel cycles, Generation III versus Generation IV systems and combinations of the above. What is clear is that the deciding factor on the type and mix of any energy programme will not be on technology choice alone. Instead a complex mix of Government policy, relative cost of nuclear power, market decisions and public opinion will influence the rate and direction of growth of any future energy programme. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory has supported this work through the use and development of a variety of assessment and modelling techniques. When assessing nuclear energy scenarios, the technology chosen will impact on a number of parameters within each scenario which includes but is not limited to: - Economics, - Nuclear energy demand, - Fuel Supply, - Spent fuel storage / recycle, - Geological repository volumetric and radiological capacity, - Sustainability - effective resource utilisation, - Technology viability and readiness level. A number of assessment and modelling techniques have been developed and are described further. In particular, they examine fuel cycle options for a number of nuclear energy scenarios, whilst exploring key implications for a particular

  20. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 2, scenarios I to IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, A.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy. The four complex scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. These scenarios deal with the development of energy demand and electricity offerings in Switzerland for the period 1990 to 2035. They are reviewed in the light of various sensitivity factors. These sensitivity factors include a high GDP, oil prices of 50 US-dollars per barrel and a warmer climate. The report presents the results of the model calculations made. First of all, the report takes a look at the motivation and aims behind the work and discusses the modelling methods, system limits and conventions used and the possibilities offered by the perspectives as well as the limits encountered. The four scenarios are then presented and discussed in detail. Implementation variants in the private, services, industrial and traffic sectors are discussed and various electricity supply variants are presented, as are the associated environmental issues involved. The scenarios are compared with each other and pricing and security of supply issues are discussed. Finally, a short synopsis of the scenarios is presented and decision criteria are discussed as are implementation instruments. Ethical dilemmas and the risks involved are noted

  1. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  2. Model of Nordic energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, E.; Johnsen, T.; Mysen, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation results are given of the consumption of electricity and oil in Denmark, Norway and Sweden based on the demand section of a Nordic energy market model which is in the process of being developed in Oslo under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The model incorporates supply, and trade between countries so that it can be analyzed how trading can contribute to goals within energy and environmental policies and to cost effective activities aimed at reducing pollution. The article deals in some detail with the subject of how taxation on carbon dioxide emission can influence pollution abatement and with energy consumption development within individual sectors in individual Northern countries. The model of energy demand is described with emphasis on the individual sectors of industry, transport, service and private households. Simulation results giving the effects of energy consumption and increased taxation on fossil fuels are given. On this background the consequences of the adaption of power plants is discussed and a sketch is given of a Nordic electric power market incorporating trading. (AB) (15 refs.)

  3. Measurement in Marketing: Current Scenario, Recommendations and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zambaldi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss about construct measurement in Marketing by summarizing the main considerations about the subject. First, it discusses the origins of the debates about the theme since the 1970s and describes its main consolidated models (the classical Churchill’s model, the COARSE model and the formative measurement model. Then it presents current concerns about the classical approach with relevant recommendations (particularly regarding multi-item measurement, single-item measurement, rating scales and cross-cultural aspects. At the end, it presents considerations about measurement trends in Marketing with emphasis on the Item Response Theory (IRT, Bayesian estimators and Partial Least Squares (PLS. The article updates the debate on the theme and contributes to Marketing experts and researchers who demand a current view about measurement and recommendations for research development. 

  4. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debizet, Gilles; Blanco, Sylvie; Buclet, Nicolas; Forest, Fabrice; Gauthier, Caroline; La Branche, Stephane; Menanteau, Philippe; Schneuwly, Patrice; Tabourdeau, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  5. The implications of future building scenarios for long-term building energy research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, W.T.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents a discussion of alternative future scenarios of the building environment to the year 2010 and assesses the implications these scenarios present for long-term building energy R and D. The scenarios and energy R and D implications derived from them are intended to serve as the basis from which a strategic plan can be developed for the management of R and D programs conducted by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy. The scenarios and analysis presented here have relevance not only for government R and D programs; on the contrary, it is hoped that the results of this effort will be of interest and useful to researchers in both private and public sector organizations that deal with building energy R and D. Making R and D decisions today based on an analysis that attempts to delineate the nexus of events 25 years in the future are clearly decisions made in the face of uncertainty. Yet, the effective management of R and D programs requires a future-directed understanding of markets, technological developments, and environmental factors, as well as their interactions. The analysis presented in this report is designed to serve that need. Although the probability of any particular scenario actually occurring is uncertain, the scenarios to be presented are sufficiently robust to set bounds within which to examine the interaction of forces that will shape the future building environment.

  6. Bundling and mergers in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Laurent; Podesta, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Does bundling trigger mergers in energy industries? We observe mergers between firms belonging to various energy markets, for instance between gas and electricity providers. These mergers enable firms to bundle. We consider two horizontally differentiated markets. In this framework, we show that bundling strategies in energy markets create incentives to form multi-market firms in order to supply bi-energy packages. Moreover, we find that this type of merger is detrimental to social welfare. (author)

  7. Energy and commodities market; Energie- und Rohstoffmaerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus [Vattenfall Markets, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO{sub 2} emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [German] Die Strommaerkte in Mittel- und Westeuropa sowie in den nordischen Laendern haben sich auch im Jahr 2014 weiterhin schwach bei fallenden Preisen gezeigt. Die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren waren die sinkenden Notierungen fuer Steinkohle und Erdgas sowie das warme Wetter. Ein weiterer Treiber war das Wachstum der erneuerbaren Energien. Auf den Strommaerkten herrschte weiterhin ueberwiegend ein Ueberangebot. Die aufwaerts tendierenden Preise auf dem CO{sub 2}-Emissionsmarkt waren nicht praegend genug, um die Marktstimmung zu drehen. Sie sorgten lediglich fuer Volatilitaet im Jahresverlauf.

  8. The use of physical indicators for industrial energy demand scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific information on the size and nature of the threat of climate change is needed by politicians in order to weight their decisions. Computerised models are extremely useful tools to quantify the long-term effects of current policies. This paper describes a new modelling approach that allows formulation of industrial energy demand projections consistent with the assumptions for scenario drivers such as GDP and population. In the model, a level of industrial production is used as a key variable, and we define it in physical units, rather than in monetary units. The aim of this research is to increase insights that come with long-term energy demand scenarios. This research clearly shows that physical indicators provide additional insights in scenario analysis. The use of physical indicators instead of monetary indicators seems to affect the energy scenarios significantly. The differences with monetary indicators are larger in developing regions than in OECD regions. We conclude that an integrated energy and materials approach reveals developments that are hardly visible using a monetary approach. Moreover, this research shows the potential and benefits of the use of physical indicators for scenario development. (author)

  9. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  10. Vision document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Giesbertz, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.; Te Velthuis, M.; Drahos, M.

    2006-11-01

    June 2006 the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002) was published. The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects. In this vision document all the relevant parties and stakeholders are informed about the development of energy markets in the Netherlands and abroad. Also an overview is given of the reactions from many stakeholders, involved and interested parties. [nl

  11. The Scenario Approach in the State Regulation of Addictive Goods Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Yuryevich Skokov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents alternative scenarios of the state regulation of the markets for addictive goods and services which include alcohol and alcohol-containing products, tobacco products, energy drinks, drugs, gambling games. The author reveals the content of inertial, modernizational, monopolistic and prohibitionist scenarios, and systematizes the effective measures which are used in the international practice of state regulation for reducing the number of challenges connected with the consumption of addictive goods and for adequate use of industrial capacities. The analysis conducted in the article touched upon the traditional practical measures on reducing shadow economic activity, realizing home-made products and substitutes, regulating the economic and physical availability, restricting advertising, sponsorship and sales promotion, as well as the measures aimed at the change of consumer behavior in the conditions associated with increased risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. It is determined that none of these measures is not implemented to the full extent in Russia because they are used under the conditions of informal and shadow offers, corruption in government bodies, lobbying, administrative barriers and low-level administrative and business ethics. The author composed a rating of measures effectiveness under alternative scenarios. On the basis of this analysis and the assessment of the development and status of modern society, the theory and practice of regulating addictive goods markets, the conclusion was made about the socio-economic advantages of the state monopoly which allows to minimize the private interest in increasing sales and gaining over-profits, adequately reflects the public interest, standardizes and unifies physical and economic accessibility of these goods and services, proves its efficiency in domestic practice and the experience of Scandinavian countries.

  12. The influence of distributed generation penetration levels on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahl, Fabrício Peter; Rüther, Ricardo; Casarotto Filho, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Planning of national energy policies brings new dilemmas with the introduction of distributed generators (DG). Economic theory suggests that a perfectly competitive market would lead to efficient pricing. In the absence of competition, regulators play a fundamental role in attracting reasonably priced finance in order to maintain, refurbish and increase the infrastructure and provide services at a reasonable cost. Energy market price equilibrium is mainly dependent on suppliers, generators, energy sources and demand, represented by conventional utility grid users. Its behavior is similar to that of other commodities. As generation becomes less centralized with the increasing economic viability of renewable energy sources, new suppliers are being connected to the grid. Such evolution means the transition from a monopolistic market to a broader and more open environment, with an increasing number of competitors. We make use of variational inequalities to model a hypothetical DG market in different scenarios, from monopoly, to oligopoly, to open market. Such an approach enables different equilibrium outcomes due to different DG penetration levels. Based on these findings, we argue that energy policies for such markets must be developed according to each specific stage of the grid's lifecycle. We show how energy policies and market regulations may affect such a transition, which may be catastrophic if not managed properly, and which is dependent on the energy mix. -- Highlights: •DG affects energy markets depending on technologies, penetration and infrastructure. •Energy prices vary when the market moves from centralized to several suppliers. •Variational inequalities are presented to simulate a market under such transitions. •The increase of DG penetration level may present different energy prices variation. •If technical and political issues of smart grids are not improved, markets may crash

  13. Energy scenarios for the nordic region towards 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidje, Audun

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes the assumptions, methodology and main results of the MARKAL analysis of options for a sustainable energy future in the Nordic region. The work is based on the Nordic MARKAL model, which has been modified such that it may be used to analyse a large number of scenarios, typically 500 to 5000. The scenarios are developed by analysis a set of strategies and uncertainties. All these strategies and uncertainties are combined such that we generate in total 1 152 scenarios. The main purpose of generating a large number of scenarios was to facilitate for multi-criteria trade-off analysis. Overall results from this analysis show that large reductions of CO{sub 2} emissions are possible at CO{sub 2} cost below 50 EUR/t CO{sub 2} (author)

  14. Consultation document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Karel, A.; La Bastide, G.; Giesbertz, P.; Buijs, F.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.

    2006-06-01

    This the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002). The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects [nl

  15. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, etc. The model built is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  16. International energy market dynamics: a modelling approach. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachet, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work is an attempt to model international energy market and reproduce the behaviour of both energy demand and supply. Energy demand was represented using sector versus source approach. For developing countries, existing link between economic and energy sectors were analysed. Energy supply is exogenous for energy sources other than oil and natural gas. For hydrocarbons, exploration-production process was modelled and produced figures as production yield, exploration effort index, ect. The model build is econometric and is solved using a software that was constructed for this purpose. We explore the energy market future using three scenarios and obtain projections by 2010 for energy demand per source and oil and natural gas supply per region. Economic variables are used to produce different indicators as energy intensity, energy per capita, etc. (author). 378 refs., 26 figs., 35 tabs., 11 appends

  17. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, V.; Markandya, A.; Vicini, G.

    2007-01-01

    This policy compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level. (author)

  18. Security of energy supply: Comparing scenarios from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Valeria; Gracceva, Francesco; Markandya, Anil; Vicini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different results from a set of energy scenarios produced by international energy experts, in order to analyse projections on increasing European external energy dependence and vulnerability. Comparison among different scenarios constitutes the basis of a critical review of existing energy security policies, suggesting alternative or complementary future actions. According to the analysis, the main risks and negative impacts in the long term could be the increasing risk of collusion among exporters due to growing dependence of industrialized countries and insufficient diversification; and a risk of demand/supply imbalance, with consequent instability for exporting regions due to insufficient demand, and lack of infrastructures due to insufficient supply. Cooperation with exporting countries enhancing investments in production capacity, and with developing countries in order to reinforce negotiation capacity of energy-importing countries seem to be the most effective policies at international level

  19. Energy scenario analysis Enova-IFE; Energiscenarioanalyser Enova-IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2009-11-15

    Institute for Energy Technology has made a projection of energy use in stationary sector of Norway up to 2050 and by the use of the Norwegian MARKAL model analyzed various scenarios. Total increase demand in stationary sectors by 6 TWh, or 4% to 2020 and by 29 TWh or 16% for 2050, which increase primarily comes in the buildings. Scenarios are analyzed to show the long-term potential given the various operating parameters. An important scenario that is analyzed, the fulfillment of renewable directive. In 2005, the renewable share in Norway about 61%. In the analysis it is assumed that the renewable share to be 75% as of 2020. Implementation of energy efficiency will have a crucial role to increase the renewable share, and efficiency contributes with 26 TWh in the base scenario. What percentage of energy efficiency measures are really implemented will have a great impact on how much renewable electricity to be produced, or how much more bio-energy that must be used, in order to achieve the goal of renewable directive. (AG)

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  1. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  2. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-11-13

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  3. The market share of non-US uranium producers under different US embargo scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The imposition of US restrictions on the use of foreign uranium has a potentially far reaching impact. This analysis examines various US import restriction scenarios and their impact on the market both inside and outside the USA. Specifically, the market share that the non-US producers would lose is estimated for a 50% embargo, a 62.5% embargo, and a 100% embargo, with and without the grandfathering of US utilities' foreign contracts. These results are then compared to what the market share would have been in a free market. The increase in the US market share is also briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Italian energy scenarios comparative evaluations; Scenari energetici italiani a confronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, Mario [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici-APAT, Roma (Italy)

    2005-09-15

    This paper reviews some representative scenarios of the evolution of the Italian primary energy consumption, updated recently. After an overview of the main macroeconomics assumptions the scenario results are cross checked at sectorial level, with a brief discussion of the underlining data and energy intensity trends. The emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the considered scenarios are also reported and discussed. [Italian] Questo articolo riporta alcuni dei piu rappresentativi ed aggiornati scenari di evoluzione dei consumi energetici primari italiani. Dopo un esame delle principali variabili macroeconomiche i risultati degli scenari sono esaminati a livello di settore, con una breve discussione delle principali variabili utilizzate. Infine sono state anche esaminate le emissioni di CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} e NO{sub x} risultanti dai diversi scenari e le possibili conseguenze sul piano normativo.

  5. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [de

  6. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO 2 prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review

  7. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a

  8. Pakistan energy consumption scenario and some alternate energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Pakistan with its energy-deficient resources is highly dependent on import-oriented energy affected the economy because of repeated energy price hike on international horizon. The energy consumption pattern in Pakistan comprises about two-third in commercial energy and one-third in non-commercial forms. Most of the country's energy requirements are met by oil, gas hydro power, coal, nuclear energy and thermal power. Pakistan meets it's commercial energy requirements indigenously up to 64%. The balance of deficit of 35-40% is met through import. The consumption of various agro-residues and wood as fuel also plays a vital role. The analysis shows that emphasis needs to be placed on new and renewable resources of energy besides adopting technologies for energy conservation. Renewable energy depends on energy income and constitutes the development process. The are several renewable energy options such as biogas technology, micro-hydro power generation, direct solar energy and biomass energy conservation etc. By improving the conservation techniques as designs of solar converters, pre treating the biomass fuel, increasing the effectiveness of carbonization and pyrolysis increases the energy production. (A.B.)

  9. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  10. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  11. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; McCarthy, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  12. Scenario analysis of energy-based low-carbon development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Hao, Fanghua; Meng, Wei; Fu, Jiafeng

    2014-08-01

    China's increasing energy consumption and coal-dominant energy structure have contributed not only to severe environmental pollution, but also to global climate change. This article begins with a brief review of China's primary energy use and associated environmental problems and health risks. To analyze the potential of China's transition to low-carbon development, three scenarios are constructed to simulate energy demand and CO₂ emission trends in China up to 2050 by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model. Simulation results show that with the assumption of an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 6.45%, total primary energy demand is expected to increase by 63.4%, 48.8% and 12.2% under the Business as Usual (BaU), Carbon Reduction (CR) and Integrated Low Carbon Economy (ILCE) scenarios in 2050 from the 2009 levels. Total energy-related CO₂ emissions will increase from 6.7 billiontons in 2009 to 9.5, 11, 11.6 and 11.2 billiontons; 8.2, 9.2, 9.6 and 9 billiontons; 7.1, 7.4, 7.2 and 6.4 billiontons in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 under the BaU, CR and ILCE scenarios, respectively. Total CO₂ emission will drop by 19.6% and 42.9% under the CR and ILCE scenarios in 2050, compared with the BaU scenario. To realize a substantial cut in energy consumption and carbon emissions, China needs to make a long-term low-carbon development strategy targeting further improvement of energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure, deployment of clean coal technology and use of market-based economic instruments like energy/carbon taxation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of stochastic energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Martinsen, Dag; Wagner, Hermann-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In view of the currently observed energy prices, recent price scenarios, which have been very moderate until 2004, also tend to favor high future energy prices. Having a large impact on energy-economic scenarios, we incorporate uncertain energy prices into an energy systems model by including a stochastic risk function. Energy systems models are frequently used to aid scenario analysis in energy-related studies. The impact of uncertain energy prices on the supply structures and the interaction with measures in the demand sectors is the focus of the present paper. For the illustration of the methodological approach, scenarios for four EU countries are presented. Including the stochastic risk function, elements of high energy price scenarios can be found in scenarios with a moderate future development of energy prices. In contrast to scenarios with stochastic investment costs for a limited number of technologies, the inclusion of stochastic energy prices directly affects all parts of the energy system. Robust elements of hedging strategies include increasing utilization of domestic energy carriers, the use of CHP and district heat and the application of additional energy-saving measures in the end-use sectors. Region-specific technology portfolios, i.e., different hedging options, can cause growing energy exchange between the regions in comparison with the deterministic case. (author)

  14. Kyoto Protocol Objectives in Croatia Energy Planning: Nuclear Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.; Juretic, F.; Zeljko, M.

    2002-01-01

    Croatia as an Annex I country of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and a country that has pledged in the Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce its greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 5% from the pre-transition level by the budget period 2008-12, will have to envisage a new energy strategy. Compared to the energy consumption collapse in some transitional countries like Russia and Ukraine, Croatia has passed through a relatively limited long term reduction of GHG emissions since 1990 because of higher efficiency of its pre-transition economy. It is expected that in case of business as usual scenario it will breach the Kyoto target in 2003 since the demand for energy will be high, especially as the income continues to rise, particularly in domestic use for heating, for transport and for electricity generation. Several scenarios of developing energy system are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions. The energy sector that will most probably be the most influenced by the UNFCCC objectives is electricity generation. Several scenarios are compared. The cost-effective scenario expects a mixture of coal and gas fired power plants to be built to satisfy the new demand and to replace the old power plants that are being decommissioned. More Kyoto friendly scenario envisages the construction of mostly nuclear power plants in the future, while decommissioning the old ones as planned, and is compared to the others from the GHG emissions point of view. The conclusion is that by measures tackling only electricity generation it will not be possible to keep GHG emission under the Kyoto target level, but that choosing the nuclear option might reduce significantly the cost of compliance. (author)

  15. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolás; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO_2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010–2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO_2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO_2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO_2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts an 11.3% reduction. The main reasons for this difference include varying assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO_2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. In terms of technology

  16. Scenario Analysis With Economic-Energy Systems Models Coupled to Simple Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Foster, I. T.; Franklin, M.; Zhu, E.; Patel, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Here, we compare two scenarios based on Stanford University's Energy Modeling Forum Study 22 on global cooperative and non-cooperative climate policies. In the former, efficient transition paths are implemented including technology Research and Development effort, energy conservation programs, and price signals for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the non-cooperative case, some countries try to relax their regulations and be free riders. Total emissions and costs are higher in the non-cooperative scenario. The simulations, including climate impacts, run to the year 2100. We use the Argonne AMIGA-MARS economic-energy systems model, the Texas AM University's Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM), and the University of Illinois's Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), with offline coupling between the FASOM and AMIGA-MARS and an online coupling between AMIGA-MARS and ISAM. This set of models captures the interaction of terrestrial systems, land use, crops and forests, climate change, human activity, and energy systems. Our scenario simulations represent dynamic paths over which all the climate, terrestrial, economic, and energy technology equations are solved simultaneously Special attention is paid to biofuels and how they interact with conventional gasoline/diesel fuel markets. Possible low-carbon penetration paths are based on estimated costs for new technologies, including cellulosic biomass, coal-to-liquids, plug-in electric vehicles, solar and nuclear energy. We explicitly explore key uncertainties that affect mitigation and adaptation scenarios.

  17. A Stochastic Market Design With Revenue Adequacy and Cost Recovery by Scenario: Benefits and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2018-01-01

    Two desirable properties of electricity market mechanisms include: i) revenue adequacy for the market, and ii) cost recovery for all generators. Previously proposed stochastic market-clearing mechanisms satisfy both properties in expectation only, or satisfy one property by scenario and another...... scheme that ensures both properties by scenario. However, this approach is cost-inefficient in general and may sacrifice other desirable market attributes. Undesirable consequences include: one group of participants will have to pay more to ensure that all other participants have their costs covered......, and thus their prices will not be equilibrium supporting; and day-ahead and real-time prices are not arbitraged in expectation, although this can be fixed by allowing virtual bidders to arbitrage but at the potential cost of increased market inefficiency. Considering these pros and cons, we propose our...

  18. A renewable energy and hydrogen scenario for northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    renewable energy supply system is demonstrated with the use of the seasonal reservoir-based hydrocomponents in the northern parts of the region. The outcome of the competition between biofuels and hydrogen in the transportation sector is dependent on the development of viable fuel cells and on efficient......A scenario based entirely on renewable energy with possible use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is constructed for a group of North European countries. Temporal simulation of the demand-supply matching is carried out for various system configurations. The role of hydrogen technologies for energy...... of energy trade between the countries, due to the different endowments of different countries with particular renewable energy sources, and to the particular benefit that intermittent energy sources, such as wind and solar, can derive from exchange of power. The establishment of a smoothly functioning...

  19. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  20. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030: scenarios et pistes d'action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  1. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  2. Electricity and heat system development scenarios integrated in the energy system sustainable development in Romania in the period 2005 - 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Otilia; Leca, Aureliu

    2004-01-01

    After 50 years of centralized economy, since 1989, Romania faces many challenges related to the internal conditions and to the new trends in energy markets over the world as: the existing low efficiency and availability, fast structural changes; the decentralization and privatization of the energy sector with new structures and entities; integration in EU and NATO structures. At present, with transition from the national vertical integrated monopolies to an open market, the determination of the global optimum development scenario of the power and heat sector becomes more important in order to find the policy which can lead the own strategies of different companies involved on market to a sustainable development of the society. The paper presents four long term development scenarios of the electricity and heat sector quantified from different points of view: technical, economical, environmental, social criteria, security of supply, risk diminishing etc and it continues by determining the long term global optimum development scenario integrated in the sustainable energy system. (authors)

  3. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  4. Experience 2030. Four scenarios for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, P.; Breunesse, L.; Duijm, K.; Van Empel, F.; Van Erp, J.; Van Huffelen, A.; Veenstra, J.; Visser, H.; Sicking, C.; Bloemendaal, R.

    2003-01-01

    In four days several experts in the field of energy participated in a brainstorm session to discuss the future and the consequences for our energy supply and demand, energy sources and technology. In this book four scenarios are presented: (1) Voluntary Simplicity, characterized by austerity and solidarity; (2) Hyper Individualism, characterized by competitive activities for as much prosperity as possible; (3) Haves and Have-nots, based on geopolitical instability and a strong technological development, resulting even beyond a wider gap between rich and poor; and (4) Tribal Society, dominated by fear, distrust and less prosperity [nl

  5. Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic

  6. End user prices in liberalised energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijesen, M.G. [Afdeling Energie en Grondstoffen, Centraal Planbureau CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    As European energy markets move towards deregulation, energy prices shift from classic 'cost plus' prices towards market prices. We develop a model for the retail and wholesale energy markets in Europe, based on Bertrand competition in a two part pricing structure with switching costs. We use the model to forecast end user electricity and natural gas prices and find that the introduction of competition in energy retail and wholesale markets will decrease standing charges, lowering total costs for energy users. A larger number of entrants, a cost advantage for one of the suppliers, or lower switching costs reduces standing charges further.

  7. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  8. Strategic bidding in electricity markets: An agent-based simulator with game theory for scenario analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Praca, Isabel; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    the behavior that better fits their objectives. This model includes forecasts of competitor players’ actions, to build models of their behavior, in order to define the most probable expected scenarios. Once the scenarios are defined, game theory is applied to support the choice of the ac-tion to be performed......Electricity markets are complex environments, involving a large number of different entities, with specific charac-teristics and objectives, making their decisions and interacting in a dynamic scene. Game-theory has been widely used to sup-port decisions in competitive environments; therefore its...... application in electricity markets can prove to be a high potential tool. This paper proposes a new scenario analysis algorithm, which includes the application of game-theory, to evaluate and preview different scenarios and provide players with the ability to strategically react in order to exhibit...

  9. Scenarios for energy forecasting: papers of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Energy planning is important for every developed country and therefore also for South Africa. However, during 1984 it was felt by interested parties that the work in this field should be coordinated through mutual discussion. With this in mind a 'Task Team for Energy Forecasting' was formed with the task to generate acceptable forecasts of the energy set-up in South Africa. Knowledge of the relationship between energy and variables such as the economy and the population is necessary to the Task Team. However, the Task Team also needs some insight into the future paths of such variables if it has to generate energy forecasts. It is the purpose of this symposium to improve this insight through having experts in all relevant fields to set out and develop their possible future scenarios independently of energy forecasting

  10. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  11. Using Scenario-based Business Modelling to Explore the 5G Telecommunication Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moqaddamerad, Sara; Ahokangas, Petri; Matinmikko, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Innovative technologies often alter established value chains and make traditional strategic planning methods inadequate. In this paper, we present the use of scenario-based business modelling to explore the market for the fifth generation mobile communication networks (5G). We discuss four...... scenarios that have been developed in a collaborative effort among different actors in the market. We then describe the approach to build business models and discuss lessons learned and benefits from the novel approach. This approach complements traditional techniques through providing a powerful platform...

  12. Integration of energy markets with neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.; Vermeulen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch wholesale markets for energy are still hindered by the various bottlenecks, which lead to higher costs for energy consumers than in well operating markets. A more efficient utilization of the import infrastructure could result in savings for energy consumers up to several tens of millions of euros. The managers of the transport infrastructure must take on a more active approach to eliminate these market obstacles. [mk] [nl

  13. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  14. Energy and the Presidential elections: deciphering reports and scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Yves; Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Ruedinger, Andreas; Marquet, Andre; Zerbib, Jean-Claude; Quetel, Ghislain; Guillemette, Andre

    2012-03-01

    After a comment of the Fukushima accident and its implications for nuclear energy, this issue proposes a critical review of various reports and scenarios on energy perspectives: a report by the ASN on 'Complementary safety assessments' (critical analysis of these assessments, weaknesses of the ASN analysis), a report by the French Court of Audit or 'Cour des Comptes' (past, current and future expenses, assets), the Commission Energies 2050 study (on the Europeans and world energy context, on the future on the French energy mix), a study by the French Union of Electricity (Electricity 2030: which choices for France?), a note by the CEA on the assessment of phasing out nuclear. Additional contributions propose a discussion of costs and conditions of phasing out nuclear, and a presentation of La Hague pools (their design, their management, their ability to withstand earthquakes, their other safety criteria)

  15. Energy scenario - environmental concerns and some options for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saradhi, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    There is a strong link between energy consumption, particularly in the form of electricity, and economic well being. The substantial increase in energy consumption in the coming decades is expected to be driven principally by the developing world. However it is also well recognized that care should be taken to ensure that the increased energy consumption should not be at the cost of the environment. Of particular concern is the Green House Gas emissions. Reduction of GHGs will call for careful planning and appropriate choice of the energy mix. The expected Global/Indian energy scenario in the coming decades, the associated GHG emissions and some possible options to limit them are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  16. Transportation energy scenario analysis technical report No. 1: examination of four existing scenarios. [Projections for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. J.; LaBelle, S. J.; Millar, M.; Walbridge, E. W.

    1978-03-01

    This project aims to provide the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) with a long-range forecasting framework in which to evaluate potential changes to the U.S. Transportation system. This initial report examines four existing, but diverse, 50-year scenarios of the future. It describes the scenarios and summarizes the changes in the major transportation system variables that would occur through the year 2025 in each scenario. Projections of variables of interest to TEC are explored, including passenger or ton miles and energy consumption. Each is reported for 1985, 1995, 2010, and 2025 under four scenarios: success, moderate economic growth, energy crisis, and transformation. The philosophy of this project is that the transportation system must support future lifestyles; by examining potential future lifestyles the required transportation system changes can be deduced. The project: (a) develops a set of scenarios that span likely futures; (b) describes the lifestyles in each scenario in order; (c) determines the characteristics of the transportation system supporting those lifestyles; (d) indicates transportation technologies and policies necessary in that system; and (e) derives the energy characteristics of that system. The implications of the four existing scenarios are examined with emphasis on current TEC electric-vehicle development. This preliminary investigation will be followed by detailed-scenario building (modifying existing scenarios or developing new ones) and generation of lifestyles and transportation system demands under each of the scenarios. This work will be reported in October 1978.

  17. A scenario approach to the energy-mix in the Netherlands. An outlook for the year 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraanje, I.M.M.

    1996-08-01

    The research in this thesis gives an answer to the question: What are the options for the energy mix for the Netherlands in 2025. The energy mix, however, depends on the total energy demand. A scenario approach is used to determine the total demand. The scenarios have been developed by identifying the most important and uncertain driving forces: Dutch economic development, Dutch government policy and the international political situation. Assigning different values to these driving forces have resulted in three scenarios: Market-forces-drive-on, Europe-rules, and Crusade-against-destruction. To quantify the energy demand for each of these scenarios, growth rates of the energy demand have been used of the European Union scenarios that match with our scenarios. Once the energy demand is known, the determination of the energy mix has been performed by answering three questions. First, what is the relative contribution of the different energy carriers (electricity, heat, fuel) in the demand of the end-user. Next, what kind of conversion technologies will be required. Finally, what type of energy sources can be the input for those conversion technologies. The scenarios developed in this study are instrumental in answering these questions. The sources construct the energy mix. The different options for the energy mix in 2025 show the following principal characteristics: The share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix stays limited (Market-forces-drive-on 7%, Europe-rules 13%, Crusade-against-destruction 4%); The share of fossil fuels remains large in all scenarios. Especially the dependence on natural gas stays large: Market-forces-drive-on 63%, Europe-rules 63%, Crusade-against-destruction 68%; The CO2-emissions will stabilize and amount with respect to 1994 (156 Mton) to: Market-forces-drive-on: + 11 Mton Europe-rules: 18 Mton Crusade-against-destruction: + 4 Mton. Finally, some comments are given on the current energy policy of the Dutch government. It is

  18. Renewable Energy Generation in India: Present Scenario and Future Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Singh, Bharat; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is necessary for the sustainable development of any country due to depleting fossil fuel level, climbing fossil fuel prices across the world and more recently pressure for reduction emission level. In India, several schemes and policies are launched...... by the government to support the use of RES to achieve energy security and self-sufficiency. This paper discusses the present scenario and future prospects of RES in India. Various schemes such as financial assistance, tax holiday etc for promoting RESs development and utilization are also discussed. The present...

  19. Does wind energy mitigate market power in deregulated electricity markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Moshe, Ori; Rubin, Ofir D.

    2015-01-01

    A rich body of literature suggests that there is an inverse relationship between wind power penetration rate into the electricity market and electricity prices, but it is unclear whether these observations can be generalized. Therefore, in this paper we seek to analytically characterize market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. For this purpose, we expand a recently developed theoretical framework to facilitate flexibility in modeling the structure of the electric industry with respect to the degree of market concentration and diversification in the ownership of wind power capacity. The analytical results and their attendant numerical illustrations indicate that the introduction of wind energy into the market does not always depress electricity prices. Such a drop in electricity prices is likely to occur when the number of firms is large enough or the ownership of wind energy is sufficiently diversified, or most often a combination of the two. Importantly, our study defines the circumstances in which the question of which type of firm invests in wind power capacity is crucial for market prices. - Highlights: • Studies show that electricity prices decrease with increased wind power capacity. • We investigate market conditions that give rise to this inverse relationship. • Average prices for wind energy are systematically lower than average market prices. • Conventional generation firms may increase market power by investing in wind farms. • Energy policy should seek to diversify the ownership of wind power capacity

  20. Energy price forecast by market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongepier, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    A power trader benefits from accurate price predictions. Based on market analyses, KEMA Connect has developed - in cooperation with Essent Energy Trading - a market model, enhancing the insight into market operation and one's own actions and thus resulting in accurate price predictions

  1. Large scale scenario analysis of future low carbon energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleye, Olaitan; Baker, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use a multi-model framework to examine a set of possible future energy scenarios resulting from R&D investments in Solar, Nuclear, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Bio-fuels, Bio-electricity, and Batteries for Electric Transportation. Based on a global scenario analysis, we examine the impact on the economy of advancement in energy technologies, considering both individual technologies and the interactions between pairs of technologies, with a focus on the role of uncertainty. Nuclear and CCS have the most impact on abatement costs, with CCS mostly important at high levels of abatement. We show that CCS and Bio-electricity are complements, while most of the other energy technology pairs are substitutes. We also examine for stochastic dominance between R&D portfolios: given the uncertainty in R&D outcomes, we examine which portfolios would be preferred by all decision-makers, regardless of their attitude toward risk. We observe that portfolios with CCS tend to stochastically dominate those without CCS; and portfolios lacking CCS and Nuclear tend to be stochastically dominated by others. We find that the dominance of CCS becomes even stronger as uncertainty in climate damages increases. Finally, we show that there is significant value in carefully choosing a portfolio, as relatively small portfolios can dominate large portfolios. - Highlights: • We examine future energy scenarios in the face of R&D and climate uncertainty. • We examine the impact of advancement in energy technologies and pairs of technologies. • CCS complements Bio-electricity while most technology pairs are substitutes. • R&D portfolios without CCS are stochastically dominated by portfolios with CCS. • Higher damage uncertainty favors R&D development of CCS and Bio-electricity

  2. Environmental Externalities of Geological Carbon Sequestration Effects on Energy Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-03-01

    Geological carbon sequestration seems one of the promising options to address, in the near term, the global problem of climate change, since carbon sequestration technologies are in principle available today and their costs are expected to be affordable. Whereas extensive technological and economic feasibility studies rightly point out the large potential of this 'clean fossil fuel' option, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the detrimental environmental externalities that the sequestering of CO2 underground could entail. This paper assesses what the relevance might be of including these external effects in long-term energy planning and scenario analyses. Our main conclusion is that, while these effects are generally likely to be relatively small, carbon sequestration externalities do matter and influence the nature of future world energy supply and consumption. More importantly, since geological carbon storage (depending on the method employed) may in some cases have substantial external impacts, in terms of both environmental damage and health risks, it is recommended that extensive studies are performed to quantify these effects. This article addresses three main questions: (1) What may energy supply look like if one accounts for large-scale CO2 sequestration in the construction of long-term energy and climate change scenarios; (2) Suppose one hypothesizes a quantification of the external environmental costs of CO2 sequestration, how do then these supposed costs affect the evolution of the energy system during the 21st century; (3) Does it matter for these scenarios whether carbon sequestration damage costs are charged directly to consumers or, instead, to electricity producers?

  3. The blessings of energy efficiency in an enhanced EU sustainability scenario. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenboehmer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Although the anticipated 'end of cheap oil' has boosted the interest in energy efficiency as a cornerstone of energy and climate strategies, it is usually taken into account on the basis of rather narrowly defined cost-benefit considerations. As a consequence, substantial ancillary benefits are usually barely considered.In a recent study for the European Parliament (EP), the authors assessed two enhanced climate strategies compared to a more conventional strategy. One enhanced climate policy scenario relies, in particular, on raising the annual pace of energy efficiency improvement. The other aims at a radical boost of the market share of renewable energy forms, which, however, presupposes an equally radical improvement of energy efficiency.The present article presents the scenario results and places them in the context of risk characterisation of the considered climate policy scenarios. Risks of international turmoil and energy price hikes could be reduced if dependency rates for fossil fuel imports went down. A more ambitious climate policy can also strengthen the EU position in post-Kyoto global climate agreements and a moderated need for emission trading can, for example, reduce conflicting pressures on clean technology transfer. On the other hand, the implementation of the efficiency strategy will entail increased domestic risks because it will involve a re-prioritisation of resource allocation and will thus affect the current distribution of wealth in both the energy sector and some other closely related sectors.The article outlines the main drivers behind the ambitious energy efficiency scenario and it attaches tentative price tags to the ancillary effects, with special emphasis on the above sketched swapping of risks. It will, therefore, strongly argue for a more holistic view, which underscores the need for political action and the benefits of such proactive policies in favour of energy efficiency

  4. Integrated marketing communications at solar energy equipment market

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Litovchenko; I.A. Shkurupskaya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the development of the concept of «integrated marketing communications», as well as its adaptation to a specific market of solar energy equipment. The theoretical development of foreign and domestic scholars in the field of IMC is considered. The aim of the article is to define the concept of «integrated marketing communications» and use them in the market of solar еnergy equipment in an information economy. The author's definition of the c...

  5. Wind energy in China. Current scenario and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changliang, Xia; Zhanfeng, Song

    2009-01-01

    Wind power in China registered a record level of expansion recently, and has doubled its total capacity every year since 2004. Many experts believe that China will be central to the future of the global wind energy market. Consequently, the growth pattern of wind power in China may be crucial to the further development of the global wind market. This paper firstly presented an overview of wind energy potential in China and reviewed the national wind power development course in detail. Based on the installed wind capacity in China over the past 18 years and the technical potential of wind energy resources, the growth pattern was modeled in this study for the purpose of prospect analysis, in order to obtain projections concerning the development potential. The future perspectives of wind energy development in China are predicted and analyzed. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of wind power in China and some insights into the prospects of China's wind power market, which is emerging as a new superpower in the global wind industry. (author)

  6. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  7. Energy Choices. The energy markets and the energy policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Lindh, Hampus

    2009-03-01

    Well-functioning energy markets are in society's interests whatever the circumstances. Furthermore, supply, demand and the competitive situation in the various energy markets influence the effect of energy and climate change policy measures. There are therefore good reasons to examine and evaluate how the energy markets operate. In this report we specifically focus on the energy markets. The analysis has been carried out against the background of the overall objectives for energy and climate change policy in Sweden and the EU. However, for these goals to be attainable a number of concrete energy and climate change policy decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. Some of these are key issues that will prove decisive for the formulation of energy and climate change policy, and we therefore also discuss these. The first of these concerns which policy instruments should be chosen to influence the energy markets. The second key issue concerns the power companies' prospects for using nuclear power even in the future. We will also focus on the extent to which energy and climate change policy chooses to prioritise measures which mean that climate change policy objectives can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. We can briefly summarize our results in the following conclusions: The cost of achieving the climate change policy objectives set by Sweden and the EU will probably be very high. It is therefore important that the choices made ensure that climate change policy objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost. Focusing on keeping costs to a minimum may in actual fact be the very thing that makes it at all possible to achieve these goals. The best solution then is as far as possible to base energy and climate change policy on so-called market-based instruments, such as emission charges and tradable emission permits. Emissions of carbon dioxide are easy to measure and the siting of emission sources is irrelevant in terms of the effect of the emissions

  8. Power marketing and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences

  9. Scenarios for solar thermal energy applications in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Abreu, S.L.; Pereira, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) database is used to prepare and discuss scenarios for solar thermal applications in Brazil. The paper discusses low temperature applications (small and large scale water heating) and solar power plants for electricity production (concentrated solar power plants and solar chimney plants) in Brazil. The results demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale application of solar energy for water heating and electricity generation in Brazil. Payback periods for water heating systems are typically below 4 years if they were used to replace residential electric showerheads in low-income families. Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility and many commercial companies are adopting this technology to reduce operational costs. The best sites to set up CSP plants are in the Brazilian semi-arid region where the annual energy achieves 2.2 MW h/m 2 and averages of daily solar irradiation are larger than 5.0 kW h/m 2 /day. The western area of Brazilian Northeastern region meets all technical requirements to exploit solar thermal energy for electricity generation based on solar chimney technology. Highlights: ► Scenarios for solar thermal applications are presented. ► Payback is typically below 4 years for small scale water heating systems. ► Large-scale water heating systems also present high feasibility. ► The Brazilian semi-arid region is the best sites for CSP and chimney tower plants.

  10. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Based on this information, expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are provided, and estimations of the future energy system are given. Then, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are calculated and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that a large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but that each option will cause many problems because drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 4 figs., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

  11. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  12. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO 2 -eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO 2 -eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO 2 -eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  13. MARKETING MIX IN OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation in Romania it’s realized in percentage 30 % in OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX. This is the biggest producer of energy, end coal in the country. Therefore Marketing mix is very important to ensure that the company grows. The final objective is that the volume of sales, market share and growth.

  14. Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Nitsch, Joachim; Naegler, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of the energy supply in Germany (the “Energiewende”) as described in the German Federal government’s ‘Energy Concept’ (Energiekonzept, 2010) is based on a political consensus about long-term targets for energy efficiency and renewable energies. The aim of this article is to present a consistent scenario for this transformation process reflecting the long-term implementation of renewable energies and the possible future structure of the German energy system as a whole. Structural and economic effects of this development are derived and discussed. It summarizes results of scenario analyses done by the department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment of the German Aerospace Center as part of a three-year research project for the German Federal Ministry for the Environment. The underlying study provides a detailed data base reflecting a long-term roadmap for the energy system transformation in Germany. The scenarios show that the policy targets are consistent and can be achieved, if appropriate policy measures are to be implemented. The economic analysis shows the amount of investments and the strong market dynamics required for new generation technologies but also the huge economic benefits that can result from this development path in terms of fuel cost savings and lower fuel imports. - Highlights: • Long-term scenario for the German energy system according to the political targets. • Comparison of three variants with differing developments of the fleets of vehicles. • Analysis of economic effects: investments, generation and differential costs. • Importance of strategies in the sectors electricity, heat, and transportation. • Recommended measures for the successful implementation of the CO 2 reductions

  15. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  16. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  17. Energy challenges of the Single Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Single Market Initiatives promise to reshape many areas of western Europe's energy markets. They will entail a number of changes for the Continent's oil, gas, electricity, and coal businesses. Some of those changes promise to improve market efficiency, others threaten to restrict it. Current negotiations could have a particularly far-reaching impact on western Europe's gas markets, which according to some reports, do not require any alternations. While western Europe's energy industry makes ready for the single market, eastern Europe's energy sector awaits the European Energy Charger, a multilateral agreement that could completely renovate the rules of this region's energy game. The rule changes could prove to be especially important for businesses from the United States. This paper examines this reshaping of Europe. It considers the ways in which old arrangements might be transformed into a new, but not necessarily improved, European order

  18. The modelling of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok

    2014-01-01

    within a time frame of two hours and approx. 7% of the electricity demand can be moved within a time frame of 24 hours. The system benefit at the assessed amount of flexible demand is limited however. Results from the other analysis indicate that in order to have a significant impact on the energy system...... performance, more than a quarter of the classic electricity demand would need to be flexible within a month, which is highly unlikely to happen. For the investigation of the energy system model, EnergyPLAN, which is used for two scenario analyses, two questions are asked; “what is the value of future...... for the important but uncertain areas biomass and flexible demand are performed. Thirdly, modelling-related issues are investigated with a focus on the effect of future forecasting assumption and differences between a predefined priority order and order determined by given efficiencies and constraints...

  19. Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

  20. Liberalisation of the Dutch energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.; Zijlstra, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalisation of the Dutch energy market started in 1998 and will be completed in 2004 by opening the energy market to households and small enterprises. The fundaments of the open market are determined by the Electricity Law from 1998 and the Gas Law from 2000. The green electricity market was opened in July 2001 as a part of the environment protection package. A number of additional legal regulations, codes, procedures and agreements were developed in order to guarantee equal opportunities for all participants, create the market transparency, guarantee the continuity of supply and protect the consumer. These documents were developed by the 'Platform Versnelling Energieliberalisering', PVE (Platform for the acceleration of the liberalisation process). All relevant players from the energy market, including the major consumers, are represented in this advisory body. In the new market situation, the grid operators carry the essential responsibilities within the energy supply system. They are providing the technical security, registering the energy exchange through their grid and are generating the billing and the balance control information for suppliers and transport system operators respectively. The suppliers are the primary contact for the consumers. The complexity of the energy market liberalisation is aggravated by the difference in fundamental choices for the electricity and gas market. Electricity market is based on regulated third party access (TPA) and gas market is based on negotiated TPA. A lack of awareness of the necessity of an adequate information system appeared to be the most the most significant hurdle in establishing the open energy market. (author)

  1. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others

    2012-07-01

    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  2. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  3. Evaluating Uncertainty in GHG Emission Scenarios: Mapping IAM Outlooks With an Energy System Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, W. J.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change modeling relies on projections of future greenhouse gas emissions and other phenomena leading to changes in planetary radiative forcing (RF). Pathways for long-run fossil energy use that map to total forcing outcomes are commonly depicted with integrated assessment models (IAMs). IAMs structure outlooks for 21st-century emissions with various theories for developments in demographics, economics, land-use, energy markets and energy service demands. These concepts are applied to understand global changes in two key factors relevant for scenarios of carbon emissions: total energy use (E) this century and the carbon intensity of that energy (F/E). A simple analytical and graphical approach can also illustrate the full range of outcomes for these variables to determine if IAMs provide sufficient coverage of the uncertainty space for future energy use. In this talk, we present a method for understanding uncertainties relevant to RF scenario components in a phase space. The phase space of a dynamic system represents significant factors as axes to capture the full range of physically possible states. A two-dimensional phase space of E and F/E presents the possible system states that can lead to various levels of total 21st-century carbon emissions. Once defined in this way, a phase space of these energy system coordinates allows for rapid characterization of large IAM scenario sets with machine learning techniques. This phase space method is applied to the levels of RF described by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The resulting RCP phase space identifies characteristics of the baseline energy system outlooks provided by IAMs for IPCC Working Group III. We conduct a k-means cluster analysis to distinguish the major features of IAM scenarios for each RCP range. Cluster analysis finds the IAM scenarios in AR5 illustrate RCPs with consistent combinations of energy resources. This suggests IAM scenarios understate uncertainty ranges for future

  4. The energy services market in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This study aims to answer the following questions: what is the french market value? What are its development perspectives? What services range is necessary? How increase the added value of proposed services? Which choice between the competence internalization and the subcontracting? What threat represent the providers on a market usually dominated by the energy suppliers and services providers? How will the french and european market combine? The following operators are studied (key data, energy services policy) by Eurostaf: Amec Spie, Cegelec, Dalkia, EDF, Elyo, Endesa Energia, Energie Rhone, GDF, RWE Solutions, Vinci Energies. (A.L.B.)

  5. Global climate-oriented building energy use scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D. Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which global fuel use in buildings could be reduced, and the growth in global electricity use in buildings limited, by applying stringent (factor of 3–4) improvements to recent building codes for new buildings worldwide and large (factor of 2–3) reductions in the energy use of existing buildings through renovations. The analysis is carried out for 10 different socio-economic regions of the world, taking into account existing building stock and energy intensities in each region and projected changes in population and income, which in most parts of the world will drive large increases in building floor area. A stock turnover model is applied to project changes in heating, cooling, service hot water (SHW) and non-thermal electricity demand with various rates of improvement in standards for new and renovated buildings, and various rates of renovation and demolition of existing buildings. For a scenario in which population peaks at about 9 billion and global average per capita GDP increases to twice the 2010 value by 2100, the global fuel demand could be reduced by a factor of four while limiting maximum annual electricity demand to twice the 2010 value. - Highlights: • A detailed model for generating global scenarios of building energy use is presented. • Drivers of increasing energy use are population and per capita GDP in 10 regions. • Heating, cooling and ventilation energy uses are projected using a stock turnover model. • Global building fuel demand could decrease by 60–80% by 2100 relative to 2010. • Global building electricity demand could be limited to a 100–200% increase

  6. Energy Technology and Market Risk Reduction | Integrated Energy Solutions |

    Science.gov (United States)

    renewable energy projects, including: Debt financing and structures that use cash flows generated by your ; project costs; and evolving regulatory, permitting, and retail markets through activities such as

  7. Securing energy efficiency as a high priority. Scenarios for common appliance electricity consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foran, T. [Unit for Social and Environmental Research USER, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, P.O. Box 144, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Du Pont, P.T. [International Resources Group and Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Bangkok (Thailand); Parinya, P. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Phumaraphand, N. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Between 1995 and 2008, Thailand's energy efficiency programs produced an estimated total of 8,369 GWh/year energy savings and 1,471 MW avoided peak power. Despite these impressive saving figures, relatively little future scenario analysis is available to policy makers. Before the 2008 global financial crisis, electricity planners forecasted 5-6% long-term increases in demand. We explored options for efficiency improvements in Thailand's residential sector, which consumes more than 20% of Thailand's total electricity consumption of 150 TWh/year. We constructed baseline and efficient scenarios for the period 2006-2026, for air conditioners, refrigerators, fans, rice cookers, and compact fluorescent light bulbs. We drew on an appliance database maintained by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand's voluntary labeling program. For the five appliances modeled, the efficiency scenario results in total savings of 12% of baseline consumption after 10 years and 29% of baseline after 20 years. Approximately 80% of savings come from more stringent standards for air conditioners, including phasing out unregulated air conditioner sales within 6 years. Shifting appliance efficiency standards to current best-in-market levels within 6 years produces additional savings. We discuss institutional aspects of energy planning in Thailand that thus far have limited the consideration of energy efficiency as a high-priority resource.

  8. Modeling the Greek energy system: Scenarios of clean energy use and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roinioti, Argiro; Koroneos, Christopher; Wangensteen, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The Greek energy system is one of the most carbon intensive energy systems in Europe. Hydrocarbons and solid fuels (lignite) cover over 80% of the final energy demand. The main objective of this work is to build energy scenarios for the future – with a focus on the electricity production system – and explore how these scenarios are reflected in economic, environmental terms and in terms of energy efficiency. The main tool which is used in the scenario analysis is LEAP (Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System). The scenarios are essentially the result of developing “storylines” driven by the uncertainties which cannot be controlled by the analysts or decision makers, and technical and non-technical options the analyst or decision maker may choose from. A set of uncertainties is considered as a possible future or storyline, and one or more options can be selected as a possible strategy. The combination of a storyline and a specific strategy gives a scenario. The main uncertainties for the Greek energy system are identified and various technical options are explored. Rather than using a model which leads to optimum strategies from a set of alternatives, the model in use will apply different strategies. - Highlights: ► A demand-driven approach was used to build energy scenarios for the Greek interconnected system. ► Each Scenario consists of a possible future and a strategy. ► High RES penetration will decrease CO 2 emissions but it will also increase capital cost. ► Carbon intensity is reduced in all the scenarios.

  9. Regulation of Danish energy markets with imperfect competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, M.; Hansen, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we use a new CGE model of the Danish economy with the acronym ECOSMEC (Economic COuncil Simulation Model with Energy markets and Carbon taxation). The model is a hybrid of two existing static models developed by respectively the Secretariat of the Danish Economic Council and by the MobiDK project in the Ministry of Business and Industry. Distinct features of the ECOSMEC model are a rather disaggregated modelling of energy demand and supply, introduction of various market structures in the energy sector, and a consistent specification of different household types. The simulations presented in the paper have the following implications: First, a uniform CO 2 tax of approximately 300 DKK per ton CO 2 could reduce emissions by 20 per cent in a scenario with perfect competition in the energy sector. However, assuming different market structures in the energy sector influences the uniform CO 2 tax needed to reach a given emission target. In the paper we assume that the Danish energy sector is a natural monopoly regulated to comply with average cost pricing, but we also discuss alternative descriptions of imperfect competition. Second, the empirical arguments for differentiated CO 2 taxes motivated by imperfect energy markets are weak. This is in line with earlier international studies on environmental taxes and imperfect competition. Third, the Danish economy could benefit from a deregulation of the electricity and district heating sector with respect to welfare and economic activity. This result holds also if CO 2 emissions are kept constant. (au)

  10. Evaluation of scenarios for energy systems. Potentials, limits and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Daniel Kurt Josef

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to previous approaches in connection with the energy transition, the dissertation leads to a change of perspective towards social consideration. Previous scenario studies focused on technical feasibility as well as individual cost and environmental aspects, as shown in the pre-analysis. Society plays a secondary role in this case. Instead of being taken into account in the prior decision-making process, time and effort are often invested in the downstream conviction of the population only after that. The approach pursued in the work consistently focuses on incorporating social preferences and barriers into the decision-making process in advance, so that decisions themselves have lasting validity. Representative telephone surveys are used to determine the preferences of the population on the one hand and the limits of acceptance in the form of willingness to pay on the other hand. Only then are scenario calculations carried out in order to be able to quantitatively evaluate energy policy options for action. In the subsequent comparison of social barriers and model results, however, the limits of this approach are also made clear: a desired action option from the perspective of the population (here the brown coal exit) can also fail because of political and legal barriers. [de

  11. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  12. Heat Energy Markets: Trends of Spatial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews competing forms of heat supply. It is shown that in Finland, Denmark, China and Russia the dominant form of heat supply is district heating system; in the United States and Canada the dominant form of heat supply is individual one. Using the countries’ data the author allocates 4 models of heat energy markets. The analysis is based on combinations of the following characteristics: the type of market, the orientation of market, the stage of market development, forms of state support of district heating systems and the approach to pricing. The results identified the failure of the current model of heat energy market in Russia (noncompetitive, manufacturer-oriented and evolved market with massive state support of its district heating system. The ‘target’ model of heat energy market in Russia is a model of noncompetitive, customer-oriented and evolved market with no state support of its district heating system. However, the ‘target’ model takes into account spatial heterogeneity of local heat energy markets in Russia only technically

  13. Energy market for energy. Natural gas and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scherpenzeel, H.; De Boer, I.

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the title market study is to provide insight into the energy market in Argentina for the Dutch industry and business sector, focusing on the structure of the natural gas and electricity sector and the market for equipment for the production and processing of natural gas and equipment for electricity generation

  14. Long-term scenarios for sustainable energy use in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischedick, M.; Nitsch, J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Hanke, T.; Barthel, C.; Jungbluth, C.; Assmann, D.; Brueggen, T. vor der; Trieb, F.; Nast, M.; Langniss, O.; Brischke, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The study was able to show, and explain vividly through scenarios describing change processes, that a sustainable use of energy (aimed, among other things, at reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by 2050 compared with 1990 levels) is technically feasible, economically viable, compatible with farther-reaching objectives of energy policy (e.g. supply security), and does not, in spite of the substantial need for change, present the players involved with any insurmountable problems but, rather, constitutes both a challenge and an opportunity. Such a development is possible only if the efforts launched to give momentum to the increased use of renewable energy sources are continued consistently, the impending need for replacement and renewal within the generation system is consistently utilised for increasing efficiency and a reorientation mainly towards combined heat and power production, and energy saving is made a new focal point of energy policy. Furthermore, with regard to long-term infrastructure requirements (decentralisation, new fuels), the necessary decisions must be prepared at an early stage and sufficiently robust lines of development must be identified and followed. (orig.) [de

  15. Energy security: between markets and sovereign politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudau Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is a constant presence in the energy-related political discourse all over the world. States strive to secure steady inflows of needed energy supplies, as well as the price affordability of those supplies. However, what are deemed to be the best means to meet such goals depends on one’s theoretical vantage point. On the one hand, economically-minded theorists maintain that energy security is only a matter of market rules and interactions. Thus, they call upon energy markets to deliver both steady supplies and competitive prices. On the other hand, politically-minded scholars emphasize the political and hard-power nature of international energy trades, especially in a global context market by the emergence of state-centered, authoritarian regimes that use large national energy companies as foreign policy instruments. These two positions delineate competing approaches to how energy security risks ought to be managed. The former approaches energy security risks by means similar to portfolio management, requiring diversification of investments in order to insulate them from market shocks. The latter approaches energy security as a matter of foreign policy, by which states envisage interest coordination and favorable alignments within countervailing alliances against the agent of energy security risk. The present paper goes beyond the uncontentious point that these two dimensions are complementary. It argues that, depending on the international context, a more market-driven or a more-politically driven behavior may be adequate.

  16. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  17. South Korean energy scenarios show how nuclear power can reduce future energy and environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is an important case study for understanding the future role of nuclear power in countries with on-going economic growth, and limited renewable energy resources. We compared quantitatively the sustainability of two ‘future-mapping’ exercises (the ‘Governmental’ scenario, which relies on fossil fuels, and the Greenpeace scenario, which emphasises renewable energy and excludes nuclear power). The comparison was based on a range of environmental and technological perspectives, and contrasted against two additional nuclear scenarios that instead envisage a dominant role for nuclear energy. Sustainability metrics included energy costs, external costs (greenhouse-gas emissions, air pollutants, land transformation, water consumption and discharge, and safety) and additional costs. The nuclear-centred scenarios yielded the lowest total cost per unit of final energy consumption by 2050 ($14.37 GJ −1 ), whereas the Greenpeace scenario has the highest ($25.36 GJ −1 ). We used probabilistic simulations based on multi-factor distributional sampling of impact and cost metrics to estimate the overlapping likelihoods among scenarios to understand the effect of parameter uncertainty on the integrated recommendations. Our simulation modelling implies that, despite inherent uncertainties, pursuing a large-scale expansion of nuclear-power capacity offers the most sustainable pathway for South Korea, and that adopting a nuclear-free pathway will be more costly and produce more greenhouse-gas emissions. - Highlights: • Nuclear power has a key role to play in mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions. • The Greenpeace scenario has higher total external cost than the nuclear scenarios. • The nuclear-centred scenarios offer the most sustainable option for South Korea. • The similar conclusions are likely to apply to other Asian countries

  18. Eleventh CERI [Canadian Energy Research Inst.] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    At a conference on international oil and gas markets, papers were presented on world oil and gas markets; energy policies; regulatory policies; supply and demand scenarios; environmental issues; the markets and industries in individual countries such as the former Soviet Union, USA, Canada, and the United Kingdom; business strategies; geopolitics of energy; and coalbed methane supplies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 22 papers from this conference

  19. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.; Meibom, P.; Kuemmel, B.

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  20. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B; Meibom, P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Kuemmel, B [Royal Agricultural and Veterinary Univ., Tastrup (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  1. Promoting healthy competition across the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    As of August 1 last year, Finland's Electricity Market Authority became the Energy Market Authority. The timing of the change coincided with the introduction of Finland's new Natural Gas Market Act and reflected the extension of the Authority's responsibility to cover promoting healthy and efficient competition on both the electricity and natural gas market and to secure reasonable and equitable service principles in the operations of both networks. The Electricity Market Authority began operations in mid-1995 as an expert body subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and industry when Finland's Electricity Market Act came into force, bringing with it a phased opening-up of the Finnish electricity market. The principle task of the Authority was, and remains, to supervise the pricing of transmission, distribution, and other network services, and to ensure a healthy level of competition

  2. Rogeaulito: a world energy scenario modeling tool for transparent energy system thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo eBenichou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  3. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, Léo; Mayr, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  4. Rogeaulito: A World Energy Scenario Modeling Tool for Transparent Energy System Thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benichou, Léo, E-mail: leo.benichou@theshiftproject.org [The Shift Project, Paris (France); Mayr, Sebastian, E-mail: communication@theshiftproject.org [Paris School of International Affairs, Sciences Po., Paris (France)

    2014-01-13

    Rogeaulito is a world energy model for scenario building developed by the European think tank The Shift Project. It’s a tool to explore world energy choices from a very long-term and systematic perspective. As a key feature and novelty it computes energy supply and demand independently from each other revealing potentially missing energy supply by 2100. It is further simple to use, didactic, and open source. As such, it targets a broad user group and advocates for reproducibility and transparency in scenario modeling as well as model-based learning. Rogeaulito applies an engineering approach using disaggregated data in a spreadsheet model.

  5. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  6. Dynamics of Aviation Biofuel Investment, Incentives, and Market Growth: An Exploration Using the Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Newes, Emily

    2016-10-25

    The Federal Aviation Administration promotes the development of an aviation biofuel market, and has pursued a goal of 1 billion gallons of production annually by 2018. Although this goal is unlikely to be met, this analysis applies the Biomass Scenario Model to explore conditions affecting market growth, and identifies policy incentive and oil price conditions under which this level of production might occur, and by what year. Numerous combinations of conditions that are more favorable than current conditions can reach the goal before 2030.

  7. Introduction of Renewable Energy Certificate in the Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Mohit; Jha, Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    Generation deficit in India is in the range of 9% and the scenario is expected to get grimmer in the context of high growth rate of the country. With peak power shortage as high as 15.2% (Source: Annual report FY08, MoP) the nation needs to harness all forms of generation including renewables, which currently has a meager share of 8% of the total generation in the country at present. Shooting price of crude oil reaching up to $135 (May 2008) per barrel along with increasing awareness and concerns about environment, the stage seems to be set for an increased mix of Renewable Energy (RE) into the overall energy requirement in the country. Keeping the concern for environment and energy security for the country in mind, government of India has been putting emphasis on promotion of renewable energy sources. Central and state government policies have always been instrumental in the propagation of capacity additions in renewable energy power. One of the main aims of these policies has been on increasing the private sector participation in this sector. In the pre-reform period, the state governments took policy decisions regarding financial incentives, buy-back tariff and other measures targeting investment in renewable energy. However, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) are now responsible for many of these tasks. SERCs have come up with a host of initiatives, inline with their functions laid down in the Electricity Act 2003, to increase the share of renewable energy inside their respective States. Despite the efforts of SERCs, large potential of renewable energy generation remains untapped. There is lack of clarity on how to promote renewable energy generation inside states which are not having significant renewable energy generation potential. This paper explores the way in which SERCs can introduce measures to further promote renewable energy generation inside the country. We discuss in detail the framework to promote renewable energy through a

  8. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  9. Z-burst scenario for the highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-10-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV ≤ m ν ≤ 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in the near future by experiments such as AMANDA, RICE or the Pierre Auger Observatory. (orig.)

  10. UK market for waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper four key questions relating to the UK market for waste-to-energy have been addressed. (1) What has happened in the market place over the last 20 years? (2) What are the driving forces behind the recent upsurge of interest? (3) What are the problems currently facing us? (4) What is the outlook likely to be for the future? (author)

  11. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  12. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  13. Characteristics of the Romanian energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stet, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper highlights the main characteristics of the energy market in Romania. Starting from the mode of organization and operation of the electricity market, there are revealed prices and tariffs for electricity for different categories of customers and their evolution in time. There are pointed also ways of setting electricity prices and tariffs, taking into account the expenditures actually recorded by economic operators.

  14. Wood energy markets, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Christopher Gaston; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2011-01-01

    Global wood energy markets continue to grow, driven primarily by demand in the EU and its commitment to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Large investments in industrial pellet-production capacity have been made under expectations of a continuously growing demand, mainly from the EU. Concern about how energy and climate-change policies may...

  15. Introduction : Energy economics and financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, John L.; Westerman, Wim; Dorsman, André

    2015-01-01

    Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. It is argued that the importance of energy production, consumption and trade and raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. Specific examples of daily energy issues stem from various

  16. Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, D.; Klessmann, C.; Stricker, E.; Winkel, T.; De Visser, E.; Koper, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Held, A. [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Busch, S.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Gazzo, A.; Roulleau, T.; Gousseland, P.; Henriet, M.; Bouille, A. [Ernst and Young, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RES) sets the overall target to reach 20% renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2020. This target is broken down into binding individual Member State targets. Reaching these targets will require a huge mobilization of investments in renewable energies in the coming decade. In order to improve financing and coordination with a view to the achievement of the 20 % target, Article 23 (7) of the Directive requires the Commission to present an analysis and action plan with a view to: (a) The better use of structural funds and framework programmes; (b) The better and increased use of funds from the European Investment Bank and other public finance institutions; (c) Better access to risk capital; (d) The better coordination of Community and national funding and other forms of support; (e) The better coordination in support of renewable energy initiatives whose success depends on action by actors in several Member States. This report presents the results of the title project. The study provides an up to date and thorough assessment of the costs of renewable energy and the support and financing instruments available for renewable energy R and D, demonstration projects and large-scale deployment. This includes details of each Member State's expenditure (via grants, support schemes, loans etc.) and use of Community funds, including loans of the EIB (European Investment Bank) and the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development). It also explores the possible instruments for use in the future and constraints in the capital market, which hinder the development of renewable energy. Finally, it develops recommendations for improving financing and support instruments, improving the sector's access to capital, and closing the financing gap for reaching the 2020 targets. The chapters of the report represent separate tasks: (1) Costs of renewable energy

  17. Energy policy and the market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.; Miegel, M.

    1980-01-01

    The consistent supply of the people with cheap energy is one of the biggest challenges of our time. There is hardly any other sphere where the opinions on the correct means and ways are as different as in energy policy. While some people see only the market as a suitable instrument to solve the energy problems, others are of the opinion that the problems can only be solved by planning by the government, quantitative restrictions, and other directive measures. The answer to this question involves long-term results, not only for our future energy policy. Planned economy in the energy section and marketing in all other sections cannot be continued for ever. The clarification of this question is the goal of these lectures and discussions held on the experts' meeting 'energy policy in marketing'. (orig.) [de

  18. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  19. Energy in transition. Between regulation and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzetzky, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Actually, the energy industry is affected in a changing market environment. The expansion of the renewables led to a share of about 30 % of the German electricity production and is always rising. The renewables energy levy has reached a level of 6.35 Euro Cents per kWh, which is actually a high level. Investments in new power plants are stopped due to low market electricity prices. The market pressure on the utilities is high and their business models have to be scrutinised. The NRW state government supports the magic political triangle of a secure, affordable and environmentally friendly energy supply. Instead of further interventions we have to develop our existing energy system cautiously. Anything else would not meet the requirements for invests in the energy supply and the magic triangle of energy politics.

  20. Integrating the views and perceptions of UK energy professionals in future energy scenarios to inform policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Gareth; Spataru, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Institute (EI) developed its first Energy Barometer survey in 2015 which aims to understand professionals’ views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. Following the survey, 79% of UK energy professionals believe their sector is not effectively communicating with the public. This suggests there is an urgent need to better understand how to use surveys in a more methodological way. Developed in conjunction with the EI, this paper presents the Energy Barometer survey methodology and results to achieve a better understanding of UK energy professionals’ current perceptions and future priorities. The paper makes two contributions to enhance the UK's energy debate. First, it provides the first results in a longitudinal assessment of energy professionals’ views of energy policy issues and discusses the implications for future policymaking. Second, it identifies opportunities for Energy Barometer findings to feed into scenarios development. A comparison with other studies was undertaken. It has been shown that the views of professionals working across the sector are aligned with decentralised approaches to decarbonisation. In particular, professionals expect action from policymakers to coordinate, engage with and encourage investment in energy efficiency. - Highlights: • 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. • Aiming to better understand views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. • A comparison of the methodology and results with other studies was undertaken. • Considers contributions of results to energy system scenario development. • Identifies particular need for increased energy efficiency investment.

  1. Renewable energy technologies: costs and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, J.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    A prominent feature of renewable energy utilisation is the magnitude of renewable energy that is physically available worldwide. The present paper attempts an economic valuation of development strategies for renewable energy sources (RES) on the basis of the past development of RES markets. It comes to the conclusion that if current energy prices remain largely unchanged, it will be necessary to promote RES technologies differentially according to the technique and type of energy employed or to provide start-up funding. The more probable a long-term increase in energy prices becomes, the greater will be the proportion of successfully promoted technologies. Energy taxes on exhaustible or environmentally harmful energy carriers and other instruments to this end would contribute greatly to the attractivity of RES investment both in terms of national economy and from the viewpoint of the private investor. Renewable energies will play an important role in the hardware and services sectors of the energy market in the decades to come. Long-term promotion of market introduction programmes and unequivocal energy-political aims on the part of the government are needed if the German industry is to have a share in this growing market and be able to offer internationally competitive products [de

  2. Promotion of Renewable Energy in a Liberalised Energy Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1998-01-01

    government promotion of energy conservation and of systems based on renewable energy sources. This type of policy may in some instanes conflict with the principles of the unregulated commercial market. The official Danish target is that 35% of energy demand should be covered by renewables by year 2030......Liberalisation of energy markets has been progressing among OECD countries since the early nineties. In Europe this trend was accelerated by the decision in December 1996 by the EU Council of Ministers to adopt a new EU directive on liberalisation of the electricity market. This decision would lead...

  3. Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides compelling evidence that large-scale market failures and barriers prevent consumers in the United States from obtaining energy services at least cost. Assessments of numerous energy policies and programs suggest that public interventions can overcome many of these market obstacles. By articulating these barriers and reviewing the literature on ways of addressing them, this paper provides a strong justification for the policy portfolios that define the ''Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future'', a study conducted by five National Laboratories. These scenarios are described in other papers published in this special issue of Energy Policy. (author)

  4. Least cost 100% renewable electricity scenarios in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; MacGill, Iain; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Least cost options are presented for supplying the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) with 100% renewable electricity using wind, photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal (CST) with storage, hydroelectricity and biofuelled gas turbines. We use a genetic algorithm and an existing simulation tool to identify the lowest cost (investment and operating) scenarios of renewable technologies and locations for NEM regional hourly demand and observed weather in 2010 using projected technology costs for 2030. These scenarios maintain the NEM reliability standard, limit hydroelectricity generation to available rainfall, and limit bioenergy consumption. The lowest cost scenarios are dominated by wind power, with smaller contributions from photovoltaics and dispatchable generation: CST, hydro and gas turbines. The annual cost of a simplified transmission network to balance supply and demand across NEM regions is a small proportion of the annual cost of the generating system. Annual costs are compared with a scenario where fossil fuelled power stations in the NEM today are replaced with modern fossil substitutes at projected 2030 costs, and a carbon price is paid on all emissions. At moderate carbon prices, which appear required to address climate change, 100% renewable electricity would be cheaper on an annual basis than the replacement scenario

  5. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  6. Spillover effects in energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.X.; Tamvakis, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Price discovery in crude oil and refined oil products has been extensively undertaken in organised futures markets for over a decade now. There are two dominant such markets today: the first one in the New York Mercantile Exchange; and the second in London's International Petroleum Exchange. With the demise of OPEC as the leading price setter for crude and products, NYMEX light sweet crude and Brent crude have usurped the role of benchmark grades for price setting. To date considerable work has been done to scrutinise the degree to which these two markets price efficiently, but little with regard to the way the two markets interact. Participants in these markets move with relative ease from one market to the other and usually take positions in both of them. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the information transmission mechanism by looking at spillover effects and, perhaps, identify which market is the true price leader. This paper is a first attempt to look at such a problem in the energy market, although similar studies have been done on stock market indices. It is found that substantial spillover effects do exist when both markets are trading simultaneously, although IPE morning prices seem to be considerably affected by the close of the previous day on NYMEX

  7. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  8. Energy subsidies in California's electricity market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschel, Alexander; Smestad, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation and re-regulation of California's electricity market not only failed in terms of anticipated cost reductions, improved customer service and higher competition, it also led to the introduction of various additional energy subsidies. This paper analyzes California's electricity market deregulation process from a subsidy viewpoint. Under deregulation in California, investor-owned utilities were not allowed to pass their energy procurement costs fully on to their customers, and therefore subsequently, and inevitably, ran into severe financial problems. Such retail price regulation is an energy subsidy that is both economically and environmentally unfavorable, because it veils true price signals to electricity consumers and, in this way, discourages energy conservation. Other policies implemented in California that represent perverse energy subsidies are the purchase of power by the state of California, the suspension of retail competition, and the potential misuse of money from the recovery of stranded costs. Many interventions implemented by the state to smooth out the impacts of the energy crisis insulated electricity consumers from market realities, supported the existing structure of California's electricity market, which is predominantly based on fossil fuels, and suppressed market incentives to improve energy conservation

  9. Advanced reactors and future energy market needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, Henri; )

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of a very well-attended international workshop on 'Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs' that took place in April 2017, the NEA has embarked on a two-year study with the objective of analysing evolving energy market needs and requirements, as well as examining how well reactor technologies under development today will fit into tomorrow's low-carbon world. The NEA Expert Group on Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs (ARFEM) held its first meeting on 5-6 July 2017 with experts from Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia and the United Kingdom. The outcome of the study will provide much needed insight into how well nuclear can fulfil its role as a key low-carbon technology, and help identify challenges related to new operational, regulatory or market requirements

  10. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  11. Scenarios of socio-economic and energy development of the country up to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    The scenarios description is given as the first stage of a procedure of an energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the formulation and the analysis of the development variants. The scenarios reflect quantitatively the policies and the international conditions for the socio-economic, energy demand and energy supply developments of the country. Two economic development scenarios ('high' - official macroeconomic views and 'low' - economic restructuring and decrease of energy intensity) hierarchically preside over the two corresponding energy demand scenarios of different technological evolutions ('traditional' and 'energy efficiency' oriented one) in the industry, the transport and the domestic and services sectors. Four energy supply system scenarios follow, corresponding to different approaches in the development of the energy conversion technologies and energy carriers, thus constituting a scenario tree of the studies. 16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tab., 1 ann. (R.Ts.)

  12. The European market of renewable energies; Le marche europeen des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-09-15

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO{sub 2} emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  13. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  14. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  15. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  16. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneralp, Burak; Zhou, Yuyu; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Gupta, Mukesh; Yu, Sha; Patel, Pralit L; Fragkias, Michail; Li, Xiaoma; Seto, Karen C

    2017-08-22

    Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use for heating and cooling by the middle of the century will be between 45 and 59 exajoules per year (corresponding to an increase of 7-40% since 2010). Most of this variability is due to the uncertainty in future urban densities of rapidly growing cities in Asia and particularly China. Dense urban development leads to less urban energy use overall. Waiting to retrofit the existing built environment until markets are ready in about 5 years to widely deploy the most advanced renovation technologies leads to more savings in building energy use. Potential for savings in energy use is greatest in China when coupled with efficiency gains. Advanced efficiency makes the least difference compared with the business-as-usual scenario in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa but significantly contributes to energy savings in North America and Europe. Systemic efforts that focus on both urban form, of which urban density is an indicator, and energy-efficient technologies, but that also account for potential co-benefits and trade-offs with human well-being can contribute to both local and global sustainability. Particularly in growing cities in the developing world, such efforts can improve the well-being of billions of urban residents and contribute to mitigating climate change by reducing energy use in urban areas.

  17. A world of differences, the normative EOS-scenarios. Final report of a study to found the normative scenarios of the project Energy research scenarios of the Energy Study Centre (ECN, Petten, Netherlands). Een wereld van verschil, de normatieve EOS-scenario's. Eindrapport van een studie ter onderbouwing van de normatieve scenario's van het project Energie Onderzoek Scenario's van het Energie Studie Centrum (ECN, Petten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelman, G.

    1987-11-01

    Three competing political and economical 'concepts of control' which underlie three normative energy-scenarios are described. The aim of the literature-research carried out for this report was to make the original scenarios more recognizable, and to find out which groups could be expected to support them. The concepts of control bear the names 'Dynamic and growth', 'Dirigation and blockbuilding' and 'Shared development'. They can be seen, so is argued, as competing perspectives on a so-called 'post-Fordist' world. The three concepts of control differ on what they see as common interests and the way they should be looked after. Topics in the description are: the desired rate of European political and economical integration, the borders of Europe, Europe's position in the world, the acceptance of new technologies, the goals they should be used for, and perceived relationships between energy, environment and economy. The scenarios show what happens if these three concepts of control become hegemonic without being forced to compromises. For all three scenarios a short sketch is given of the corresponding dominating energy- and environmental policy and of future relationships within OECD and between OECD on the one hand and NIC's/LDC's on the other. The conclusion of the report is that the ideological differences between the neoliberalism of 'Dynamic and growth' and the green, direct-democracy-politics of 'Shared development' are not as big as they were in the seventies. Especially on the new policy-areas like technology, energy and environment they get closer. But this does not mean that the concept of 'Dirigation and blockbuilding' can be put completely aside. Its goal of economic equality and its emphasis on government dirigation may become more attractive again if it comes out that market regulation leads to a dual society and that it was state-intervention (by

  18. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  19. Energy, environment and the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letta, E.

    2000-01-01

    Policy choices regarding energy and sustainable development need to be geared to the instruments that science and the economy make available in each country, partly because competitiveness restrictions be sustainable for the economy [it

  20. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-07-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-01-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs

  2. Energy market barometer report 1 - Fall 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2014-01-01

    The Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer Report aims to track the key trends and challenges of the energy market, on a regular basis, in collaboration with the 'ZEW', the Center for European Economic Research. This edition analyses the expectations of the energy market experts on the role of shale gas, the future electricity mix in France, and the development of energy prices. Key findings: - Two out of three experts believe that exploring shale gas will be authorized in France in the future; - It will take France approximately 30 years to meet the government's goal of reducing the share of nuclear power in the electricity mix from 76% (current) to 50%; - Most experts believe the prices for electricity, gas, oil, coal and CO_2 certificates will remain relatively stable over the next 6 months, but they will increase over the next 5 years

  3. Closing the gap between short- and long-term scenarios for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, F. L.; Rogner, H.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Many scenarios published in recent years explore the driving forces and assess plausible ranges of global energy use and the resources they draw on. Some scenarios (e.g., OECD IEA, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development International Energy Agency, 2004) focus on the next decade or two and project the evolution of world energy demand, supply as well as the resources, technologies, and prices to match them. Other scenarios (e.g., the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, SRES, prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2000) explore the long term with a view to resource availability and depletion, technological transformations, and environmental concerns, predominantly climate change. A persistent gap (see Figure 1) can be observed in the projections for nuclear energy: near-term scenarios typically project a flat or slightly declining contribution of nuclear energy to the world energy supply whereas medium- and long-term scenarios anticipate significant increases. The magnitude of the gap between the OECD IEA (2002) projections and the median of the 40 IPCC SRES scenarios for the year 2020 amounts to almost 300 GWe installed capacity. Reasons for the gap originate in the differences between the analytical frameworks (including projection techniques) adopted by the short- and long-term studies. Another, closely related reason is the difference in the underlying assumptions, particularly their relations to recent trends and the current situation. In addition, near-term projections are heavily influenced by the social context (perceived unpopularity or outright rejection of nuclear power after Chernobyl), political factors (government pronouncements and policies at the national level, diplomacy and balancing of national positions at international organizations), economic aspects (energy market deregulation and liberalization unveiling excess capacities; financial risks), technology matters (the role of learning, definition of

  4. Atmospheric and geological CO2 damage costs in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.E.L.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2006-05-01

    Geological carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is currently seriously considered for addressing, in the near term, the problem of climate change. CCS technology is available today and is expected to become an increasingly affordable CO2 abatement alternative. Whereas the rapidly growing scientific literature on CCS as well as experimental and commercial practice demonstrate the technological and economic feasibility of implementing this clean fossil fuel option on a large scale, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the risks and environmental externalities of geological storage of CO2. This paper assesses the effects of including CCS damage costs in a long-term energy scenario analysis for Europe. An external cost sensitivity analysis is performed with a bottom-up energy technology model that accounts not only for CCS technologies but also for their external costs. Our main conclusion is that in a business-as-usual scenario (i.e. without climate change intervention or externality internalisation), CCS technologies are likely to be deployed at least to some extent, mainly in the power generation sector, given the economic benefits of opportunities such as enhanced coal bed methane, oil and gas recovery. Under a strict climate (CO2 emissions) constraint, CCS technologies are deployed massively. With the simultaneous introduction of both CO2 and CCS taxation in the power sector, designed to internalise the external atmospheric and geological effects of CO2 emissions and storage, respectively, we find that CCS will only be developed if the climate change damage costs are at least of the order of 100 euro/t CO2 or the CO2 storage damage costs not more than a few euro/t CO2. When the internalised climate change damage costs are as high as 67 euro/t CO2, the expensive application of CCS to biomass-fuelled power plants (with negative net CO2 emissions) proves the most effective CCS alternative to reduce CO2 emissions, rather than CCS applied to fossil

  5. German energy market 2017; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2018-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply as specified in the energy concept of the Federal Government towards the increased use of renewable energies with simultaneous increase of energy efficiency still determines the market development. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market 2017 is given, which provides a concentrated compilation of the key figures of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also deals in detail with the development of the individual energy sources oil, natural gas, brown and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are explained on the international markets and inland. An overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2017 concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt nach wie vor die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt 2017 gegeben, der eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen von 1990 bis 2017 schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  6. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  7. Renewable energies enter the stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the new context created by the obligation for renewable energy installations to sell their electricity directly on the market. Thus, new practices and new actors appear like aggregators which belong to three categories: trading departments or subsidiary companies of national operators, trading departments or subsidiary companies of developers and producers of renewable energy, or independent market operators. The author describes the different cases in which renewable electricity producers will need aggregators (the mandatory purchase contract reaches its end, an additional income in the case of bidding or outside this case). The author also describes the role and responsibilities of aggregators, notably with respect to RTE. Such a market operation of course results in the taking of the electricity price on the stock market into account, and in the associated risks for aggregators

  8. Optimal combination of energy crops under different policy scenarios; The case of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafeiriou, Eleni; Petridis, Konstantinos; Karelakis, Christos; Arabatzis, Garyfallos

    2016-01-01

    Energy crops production is considered as environmentally benign and socially acceptable, offering ecological benefits over fossil fuels through their contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and acidifying emissions. Energy crops are subjected to persistent policy support by the EU, despite their limited or even marginally negative impact on the greenhouse effect. The present study endeavors to optimize the agricultural income generated by energy crops in a remote and disadvantageous region, with the assistance of linear programming. The optimization concerns the income created from soybean, sunflower (proxy for energy crop), and corn. Different policy scenarios imposed restrictions on the value of the subsidies as a proxy for EU policy tools, the value of inputs (costs of capital and labor) and different irrigation conditions. The results indicate that the area and the imports per energy crop remain unchanged, independently of the policy scenario enacted. Furthermore, corn cultivation contributes the most to iFncome maximization, whereas the implemented CAP policy plays an incremental role in uptaking an energy crop. A key implication is that alternative forms of motivation should be provided to the farmers beyond the financial ones in order the extensive use of energy crops to be achieved. - Highlights: •A stochastic and a deterministic LP model is formulated. •The role of CAP is vital in generated income. •Imports and cultivated areas are subsidy neutral. •The regime of free market results in lower income acquired from the potential crop mix. •Non – financial motivation is a key determinant of the farmers’ attitude towards energy crops.

  9. Breezing ahead: the Spanish wind energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, Felix; Cruz, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the rapid increase in Spain's wind generating capacity, and examines Spain's wind strategy, the assessment of wind power potential at regional level, and the guaranteeing of the market price for power generators using wind energy with yearly reviews of the price of electricity from wind power. Prices payable for electricity generated from renewable sources are listed, and the regional distribution of wind energy production is illustrated. Recent wind power installations in Spain, target levels for wind energy installations, wind farms larger than 1MW installed in 1999, and the impact of the growth of the wind energy market on the manufacturing industry and the manufacturers are discussed. Details of the wind energy capacity in the provinces of Navarra and Galicia are given, and plans for wind energy projects in the New National Plan for Scientific research, Development and Technological innovation (2000-2003) are considered

  10. MODELLING OF SCENARIOS OF THE CRISIS PHENOMENA TRANSFER AMONG FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Strelchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of crisis transference among financial markets in different countries is especially evident during the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. Abnormal imbalances emerged in the market of secondary financial instruments in the United States in the second half of 2006 and quickly spread to the financial markets of most countries of the world. However, the rate of fall of the main macroeconomic indicators, the duration of the latent period (the time between the date of the beginning of the financial crisis in the source country and date of the recorded fall in GDP of the country that is subjected to “contagion” (Strelchenko, 2016, and recovery period are substantially different. To generate an effective economic policy actually, there is a task of determining the possible scenarios of transferring crisis. The research subject is a process of transfer of the crisis phenomena among the financial markets of countries with different levels of economic development. Methodology. The paper presents the results of a study on the differentiation of the financial markets reactions to the crisis transfer. To build the corresponding classification model, self-organization Kohonen neural networks are used. The purpose of this work is to build a neural network model for clustering economies according to the response to external financial shocks. This model allows predicting the scenarios of transferring crisis among financial markets. Conclusion. As a result of the study, there is built a neural network with the architecture of the Kohonen map. The neural network has one hidden layer consisting of six neurons and has a hexagonal structure. Six clusters describe six possible scenarios of the economy dynamics under the impact of the transfer of crises. Cluster number one and two unite countries characterized by a short period of economic recovery and return of the main macroeconomic indicators to the precrisis levels. A longer recovery period and

  11. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system....

  12. Law project relative to the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  13. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  14. Marketing of fuels - energy from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedale, A W

    1986-03-01

    Ways of utilising low grade materials, achieving market acceptance and proving their technical and financial viability are discussed. Alternative ways in which wastes can be used to produce energy are outlined covering the incineration process whereby heat normally lost in the waste gases after the combustion of waste materials is recovered to produce heat and sometimes electricity, waste shredding and use in fluidised bed boilers, and combustion of waste pellets. Employment of utilities company and innovative and energetic approach to marketing are considered.

  15. Energy market opportunities post-Maui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.

    1995-01-01

    As supply from the Maui and other existing producing fields decline, petroleum explorers and developers need to address the question who will be the indigenous oil and gas customers post Maui? This paper discusses major macro- and micro-environmental trends which will influence likely market opportunities. Two sub-markets are examined. First, what trends impact on current oil and gas customers. Second, what other new customers might arise. The macro-environment trends cover important economic, political, legislation, socio-economic and technical parameters. The micro-environment trends cover energy market structures and pricing parameters. (Author)

  16. Energy markets and price relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, P.A.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of the report is to elucidate the way and extent of the dependence of the price of different energy species of one another and particularly of crude oil prices. Oil, coal and natural gas can substitute each other at many applications. The prices are dependent on mining, processing and transporting. Forecasting of prices and future trends are discussed

  17. Photovoltaic energy in power market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, D.T.; Frunt, J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) penetration in the grid connected power system has been growing. Currently, PV electricity is usually directly sold back to the energy supplier at a fixed price and subsidy. However, subsidies should always be a temporary policy, and will eventually be terminated. A question is

  18. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  19. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Klugman, Sofia; Henning, Dag; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO 2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO 2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO 2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios

  20. Liberalization of electricity markets and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Liberalization of electricity markets begun in England in 1990 and became the trends of the times. Its effects on the energy security and atomic power generation are discussed. On the effects on energy security, change of construction of fuel of power generation, decrease of fuel feed by high efficiency of power generation, decrease of fuel stock by pressure of cost-cutting, increase of import rate of electricity, increase of power consumption with decrease of power cost, flexibility of supply contract, diversification of service, international cooperation on energy security and mutual dependence relation by international investment are discussed. On the effects of liberalization on the electricity markets, characteristics of nuclear power generation, risk of investment, effects of introduction of competition on development of the existing and new nuclear power generation, relation between development of nuclear power generation and market failure and what the government should do for development of nuclear power generation are discussed. (S.Y.)

  1. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  2. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  3. The India market for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavatsalam, V.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable and qualitative growth of developing economics and habitats require increased energy input from renewable sources. To mainstream these innovative options, we need to continue to develop cost-effective renewable energy technologies, to focus our efforts on replicable innovative institutional and financial models which are based on cost recovery principles and fostering private partnerships to enable the developing countries to use these technologies. In response to these challenges the points energy policy, energy conservation, marketing, promoting energy conservation and efficient management are discussed

  4. Market potential of utility-purpose energy storage in Japan up to the year 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kurihara, I.

    1998-01-01

    The market potential of future energy storage in power network systems in Japan is estimated by using the linear programming method under two main scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050. One is a base scenario in which the power demand and associated performances are simply extrapolated from the present to the future year of interest. The other is a modified scenario under which they are influenced by foreseeable changes in social structure and introduction of demand-side energy storage. This estimation indicates that the optimum capacity of energy storage will be about 10 to 15% of the total generation capacity. (author)

  5. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  6. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; RWTH Aachen Univ.; World Energy Council, London

    2014-01-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  7. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  8. The market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, David

    2002-01-01

    As states seek to foster the development of renewable energy resources, some have introduced renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) which require retailers of electricity to derive a specified amount of their energy supply from renewable energy resources. RPSs in Texas, Arizona, Wisconsin and Nevada allow for or require the use of tradable renewable energy credits. The price of such credits is expected to reflect the cost premium for generating electricity from renewable resources relative to the market price of conventionally generated electricity. Using the market to trade renewable energy credits exposes buyers and sellers to risks of imperfect information, poor performance, and opportunism. These risks can be managed through contractual arrangements and regulatory requirements pertaining to property rights in credits, pricing, term of the contract, and assurance of performance

  9. DGEMP-OE (2008) Energy Baseline Scenario. Synthesis report; Scenario energetique de reference DGEMP-OE(2008). Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    A 'Business as usual' or 'Baseline' scenario of energy trends to 2020-2030 is produced by France every four years, as requested by the International Energy Agency in order to update the global scenarios published in its World Energy Outlook. Since the most recent scenario of this type was drawn up in 2003-2004, the time has come to renew the effort for the IEA's next in-depth review of French energy policy. Specifically, the DGEMP seeks to predict the future of France's energy situation assuming that no policies or new measures are taken affecting (i.e. improving or deteriorating) the situation other than those already in place or adopted as of 1 January 2008 (in other words, before measures such as those stemming from the Grenelle Environment Forum). On the other hand, it is assumed that change in the energy system is guided by 'conventional wisdom' according to which political options and behaviours by economic units are expected to be 'reasonable'. As a result, even should its projections prove inappropriate, this cannot be considered a 'worst-case' scenario. Indeed, beyond the IEA, this scenario can be used to establish an MEA (Multilateral Environment Agreement) scenario (based on existing measures) for national communications submitted under the U.N. Climate Convention. The scenarios by the 'Energy' Commission, part of the Centre d'Analyse Strategique (CAS), could have been used, particularly since the consultant who worked with the CAS to develop its scenarios was also commissioned by the DGEMP. However, several considerations argued in favour of proceeding separately: - The CAS scenarios drew on the DGEMP's 2004 baseline scenario, even though certain parameters were updated (in particular energy prices). - Moreover, the concept underpinning the DGEMP baseline scenario is that it should to every extent possible remain constant over time to secure continued consensus on this &apos

  10. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Münster, M.; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Approach for use of scenarios dealing with both waste management and energy issues. • Overall scenarios for the common project and sub-scenarios in parts of the project. • Combining different types of scenarios to the tools of different disciplines. • Use of explorative external scenarios based on marginals for consequential LCA. - Abstract: Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future background systems determine the outcomes of consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs), it is considered advisable to develop and use explorative external scenarios based on possible marginals as a framework for consequential LCAs. This approach is illustrated using an on-going Danish research project

  11. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  12. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Signer, B.; Kaufmann, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  13. Modern Energy Markets Real-Time Pricing, Renewable Resources and Efficient Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy has moved to the forefront in terms of societal and economic development. Modern Energy Markets is a comprehensive, economically oriented, exploration of modern electricity networks from production and distribution to deregulation and liberalization processes. Updating previous work by the authors, different aspects are considered resulting in a complete and detailed picture of  the systems and characteristics of modern electricity markets. Modern Energy Markets provides clear detail whilst encompassing a broad scope of topics and includes: •A method to model energy production systems including the main characteristics of future demand side management, •Different applications of this model in nuclear and renewable energy scenarios, •An analysis of Real-Time Pricing of electricity and its potential effects across the market, and, •A discussion of the need for regulation in an easily monopolized industry. Engineering and Economics students alike will find that Modern Energy Markets is a succinct...

  14. European energy market in 1980. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, G; Robinson, C

    1975-01-01

    Three important general influences now affecting energy markets are: (1) exploitation of bargaining power by exporters of raw materials (especially oil); (2) changing attitudes in the developed world towards economic growth; and (3) the unprecedented combination of rapid inflation and serious recession. Fears of energy shortages helped precipitate the world crisis, but there is no energy famine imminent. The rise in energy prices resulted from use of OPEC's quasi-monopoly power rather than from real energy shortages. It is projected that European fuel markets in the next few years will be influenced by: poorer economic growth prospects, the increase in energy prices, oil-saving measures caused by consumers' adjustments over some years to the past huge oil price increases, and attempts by European governments to reduce dependence on OPEC oil. Possible substitutes for OPEC oil are their own various sources of crude oil, European natural gas, and electricity from nuclear fission. EEC's latest energy strategy calls for adequate supplies of cheap energy with minimum damage to the environment. Energy forecasts up to 1980 are given for the nine EEC countries and for Norway and Sweden. Data on energy demand, fuel consumption, and production are summarized. It is felt that, by 1980, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Norway should be producing more energy than they consume. (MCW)

  15. Use of Danish Heat Atlas and energy system models for exploring renewable energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2013-01-01

    networks in relation with significant heat saving measures that are capital intensive infrastructure investments require highly detailed decision - support tools. The Heat Atlas for Denmark provides a highly detailed database and includes heat demand and possible heat savings for about 2.5 million...... buildings with associated costs included. Energy systems modelling tools that incorporate economic, environmental, energy and engineering analysis of future energy systems are considered crucial for quantitative assessment of transitional scenarios towards future milestones, such as (i) EU 2020 goals...... of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing share of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency and (ii) Denmark’s 2050 goals of covering entire energy supply by renewable energy. Optimization and simulation energy system models are currently used in Denmark. The present paper tends to provide...

  16. Scenario analysis of the new energy policy for Taiwan's electricity sector until 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fung-Fei; Chou, Seng-Cho; Lu, Tai-Ken

    2013-01-01

    For this study, we constructed the following three case scenarios based on the Taiwanese government's energy policy: a normal scenario, the 2008 “Sustainable Energy Policy Convention” scenario, and the 2011 “New Energy Policy” scenario. We then employed a long-term Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) optimization model to compare the three case scenarios' energy mix for power generation for the next å15 years to further explore their possible impact on the electricity sector. The results provide a reference for forming future energy policies and developing strategic responses. - Highlights: • We constructed three case scenarios based on the Taiwan government's energy policy. • We employed a long-term Generation Expansion Planning optimization model. • A significant gap exists between the carbon reduction target and baseline. • The carbon reduction target requires a holistic resolution needed taking seriously

  17. A 'business-as-usual' energy scenario for France at the 2020 vista

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.

    2000-01-01

    A 'business-as-usual' energy scenario is the most probable scenario where the energy demand follows the trends of the past and where no new energy policy is implemented. This work is a complement to the three contrasted energy scenarios built in 1998 by the 'Energy 2010-2020' prospective group of the French general commission of national development. The scenario built in this study is only a reference which allows the measure the efforts made to reach political goals. The main conclusion of this scenario is the increase of the CO 2 emissions under the double effect of the economic growth and of the cessation of the nuclear program which becomes non-competitive with respect to the gas prices and actualization rates retained in the scenario. The main constraint of the energy future is incontestably the necessary fight against the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  18. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis: Quantitative Estimates Used to Facilitate Working Group Discussions (2008-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.; Frazier, R.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides details on the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis to identify potential policy options and evaluate their impact on reaching the 70% HECI goal, present possible pathways to attain the goal based on currently available technology, with an eye to initiatives under way in Hawaii, and provide an 'order-of-magnitude' cost estimate and a jump-start to action that would be adjusted with a better understanding of the technologies and market.

  19. Liberalization turns energy market upside down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousberg, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of free energy trade are discussed, i.e. the changes caused by liberalization of the energy market. The ability to purchase energy freely, thus creating competition between sources of energy, is changing the relationships between gas and electricity prices. The implications are very significant for building services contractors and energy companies and also for the selection of technical concepts. It also, of course, has implications for the environment. liberalization also gives certain customers the opportunity to consider their energy supply on an integrated basis. Who is going to supply me with energy, rather than who supplies electricity and who supplies gas? For example, the customer wants heating, cooling and electricity, and the conversion methods are not immediately relevant. This creates the possibility of offering, or outsourcing, a total 'energy' package [nl

  20. Municipal energy and climate policy in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the ongoing process of liberalisation, Dutch municipal energy policy is undergoing significant changes. The probable privatisation of energy companies, the change from what used to be 'their' local energy company to what will become an energy company, results in a need for local administrations to build up energy knowledge, end-use information and financial resources that 'their' energy companies used to share but, because of operating in a competitive market, are now more reluctant to do so. On the other hand offers privatisation and the selling of shares the possibility for some local governments to collect a significant sum of money which can be addressed to energy policy. This process of growing responsibility of local administrations for their own energy policy coincides with the structural change of the nature of the energy supply in the Netherlands. The change towards a more decentralised energy supply results in more energy systems (e.g. PV and wind) coming under the influence of local regulations. Municipal governments will have to act more like actors in a complex policy network, playing different roles at different times in different situations, often stimulating and regulating at the same time. The growing popularity of platforms like energy agencies, bringing together parties like the local government, energy companies and commercial- and housing associations are examples hereof. In this report, another new role for local governments resulting from the liberalisation process is highlighted: the role of energy consumer. It is estimated that the aggregated electricity demand resulting from activities under direct municipal responsibility (e.g. municipal dwellings, traffic lights, public lighting) amounts to a fairly large share of the market. Due to the public interests vested in the local administrations, it is expected that an important part of this demand is demand for green electricity. Also, local governments can use the energy markets to act

  1. Trends in the development of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, P.; Donchev, A.; Stefanova, E.

    2000-01-01

    The 20th annual energy symposium (7-8 Dec., 1999, Houston) has been organized by 'Arthur Andersen' company. The main subjects presented are: research, monitoring and assessment of the market risk by BUMP system; electro-energy systems development; energy markets transformation including their liberalization and convergence; necessity of investment capital and possibilities for its effective increasing; structural reform in electric energy sector, in accordance with the European requirements. A review on the achievements and problems in the energy field in the Central and Eastern European countries during the years after the democratic changes is presented at the round table discussion. It is outlined the significance of the operating energy laws in this countries and increasing productivity, and efficiency of the former government electricity companies for the development of corporations. The process of transformation and privatization in some countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania is analyzed. As a result of the reports delivered at the 20th yearly symposium, conclusions are made that even in the developed countries the production competition gets into trouble. The right field of market competition in electric-energy field isn't a struggle for production but it is a struggle for investments

  2. Roadmap towards a competitive European energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    With the financial crisis evolving into a severe, global economic recession, there have been growing doubts over whether energy markets can continue to operate efficiently under present conditions or whether the shift to non-market mechanisms would be a better choice. This question remains an ongoing source of debate in the recently liberalised electricity sector. Textbook wisdom says that the market is the most efficient place to allocate financial means for investments. Therefore, during a period of a crisis, it should follow that we actually need more market mechanisms, not fewer, if we want to stimulate investments in an economically efficient way. Regulated electricity prices and nationalistic thinking will not help to solve Europe's electricity challenges with regards to either the generation or the transportation of electricity.

  3. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  4. Wind energy. Market prospects to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckle, R.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly significant source in the energy portfolio of most countries. Several sources of renewable energy are now being pursued commercially and wind energy is the most advanced in terms of installed electricity generation capacity. Of all types of renewable energy wind energy is the one with which there is the greatest experience - wind wheels and windmills have been used in various forms for hundreds of years. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the market study. Chapter 2 begins with a review of the wind energy industry. Topics included here are the case for wind energy (sustainability, security, non-polluting etc), market structure (the relationship between developers, operators, manufacturers, consortia etc) and environmental issues. This is followed by a discussion of the wind energy market for major countries in terms of installed wind power capacity. Within each country market there is an account of government policy, major wind energy programmes, major projects with information on developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A market analysis is given which includes an economic review, wind energy targets (where they exist) and forecasts to 2006. Chapter 3 is a review of wind turbine applications covering electricity generation for public supply networks, stand alone/community applications, water pumping and water desalination. Chapter 4 provides the basic principles of wind turbine operation and associated technologies. A brief account is given of the development of wind turbines and the main components such as the tower, rotor blades, gearbox, generator and electrical controls. Electricity generation and control are outlined and the challenge of electricity storage is also discussed. Meteorological factors (wind speed etc) and the move towards off-shore wind farms are also covered. Chapter 5 contains profiles of leading wind project developers and wind turbine manufacturers. A selection of existing and proposed wind farms

  5. Report 2 Energy Market Barometer - Summer 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2014-09-01

    This Summer's edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' expectations of the impact of the Ukraine crisis on energy supply, the focus of energy policy in France, the economic implications of the energy transition, and the development of energy prices. The findings on the Ukraine crisis are also compared to a parallel survey in Germany, which was carried out by the Center for European Economic Research (ZEW). Key findings: - Half the French experts believe that the Ukraine crisis has worsened the security of natural gas supply in France; - Appropriate responses to the Ukraine crisis include strengthening the EU energy market integration, and investing in pipelines and in liquefied natural gas infrastructure; - The high perceived emphasis on energy efficiency in the current French energy policy is justified, but the focus on affordability for households and security of supply appears somewhat overrated; - The French energy transition is expected to hurt utilities, but to benefit technology providers and the economy as a whole; - Most experts believe the prices for electricity, gas, oil, and coal will remain relatively stable over the next 6 months, but they will increase over the next 5 years (except coal); - Expected prices of CO_2 certificates have slightly increased since the previous barometer report, in particular for the medium term

  6. Energy sector in conditions of market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schervashidze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The main dilemma of energy sector in market conditions is: regulation of the monopole producer and/or competition. There is no simple answer and the arguments for and against should be based on the macro economical determination of what kind of market is available for particular energy goods (perfect, monopolistic, oligopolistic, competition of monopolists) and what is the final purpose (improvement in efficiency, service, energy independence, regional development, etc.). Two polar models of economic management in energy sector are distinguished: 1) Free access to transfer net or competition between producers. 2) State regulation of the local monopolist. The experience of Great Britain and US are described as examples of both models. A special attention is paid to pricing methods at regulated monopole. 7 refs. (author)

  7. Renewable energy promotion in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)

  8. Tweak, adapt, or transform: Policy scenarios in response to emerging bioenergy markets in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan. C. Atwell; Lisa. A. Schulte; Lynne M. Westphal

    2011-01-01

    Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios....

  9. Feasibility study on the potential of development of renewable energies for the ZAC de l'Horloge in Romainville. Study of opportunities in renewable energies and definition of energy supply scenarios. Analysis and comparison of energy supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    A first report proposes an overview of available renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar, and wind energy, green electricity, methanization, wood energy, waste water valorisation, connection to an existing heat network). For each of them, it presents a resource assessment, a discussion of constraints, or, should the occasion occur an overview of local providers (for wood), or an assessment of different options (small and large wind energy installations). It also presents demands made by existing sites on the studied area and at its neighbourhood. Energy supply scenarios are briefly defined. The second report proposes an analysis and a comparison of these scenarios. After a presentation of hypotheses and methodology, scenarios are presented in terms of energy needs, energy production and its relationship with the performance of positive energy buildings, adequacy with resource. Beside a reference scenario, these scenarios are named Dogger, Biomass, Wood, Clustered sectors. Comparison is performed in terms of energetic, economic and environmental assessments

  10. Hydrogen energy in changing environmental scenario: Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Hudson, M. Sterlin; Dubey, P.K.; Pukazhselvan, D.; Pandey, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Raghubanshi, Himanshu; Shahi, Rohit R.; Srivastava, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with how the Hydrogen Energy may play a crucial role in taking care of the environmental scenario/climate change. The R and D efforts, at the Hydrogen Energy Center, Banaras Hindu University have been described and discussed to elucidate that hydrogen is the best option for taking care of the environmental/climate changes. All three important ingredients for hydrogen economy, i.e., production, storage and application of hydrogen have been dealt with. As regards hydrogen production, solar routes consisting of photoelectrochemical electrolysis of water have been described and discussed. Nanostructured TiO 2 films used as photoanodes have been synthesized through hydrolysis of Ti[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 ] 4 . Modular designs of TiO 2 photoelectrode-based PEC cells have been fabricated to get high hydrogen production rate (∝10.35 lh -1 m -2 ). However, hydrogen storage is a key issue in the success and realization of hydrogen technology and economy. Metal hydrides are the promising candidates due to their safety advantage with high volume efficient storage capacity for on-board applications. As regards storage, we have discussed the storage of hydrogen in intermetallics as well as lightweight complex hydride systems. For intermetallic systems, we have dealt with material tailoring of LaNi 5 through Fe substitution. The La(Ni l-x Fe x ) 5 (x = 0.16) has been found to yield a high storage capacity of ∝2.40 wt%. We have also discussed how CNT admixing helps to improve the hydrogen desorption rate of NaAlH 4 . CNT (8 mol%) admixed NaAlH 4 is found to be optimum for faster desorption (∝3.3 wt% H 2 within 2 h). From an applications point of view, we have focused on the use of hydrogen (stored in intermetallic La-Ni-Fe system) as fuel for Internal Combustion (IC) engine-based vehicular transport, particularly two and three-wheelers. It is shown that hydrogen used as a fuel is the most effective alternative fuel for circumventing climate change. (author)

  11. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. Energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the working group was to realize quantitative approaches of the french energy system by 2020-2050 supporting the reflexions of the Energy Commission. The presented scenario are not prevision of the future. They just allow, in function of the hypothesis and the models used, to establish an approach of the consequences in term of the final energy demand. Two simulation tools were used and described in the chapter 3: Medpro-Poles and Markal-Times. The scenario are analyzed in the chapters 4 and 5. Results allow to see how the proposed measures are sufficient to reach in France the main objectives proposed by the european union. (A.L.B.)

  12. Scenarios of energy sobriety and societal transformations. When lifestyle and society changes mean energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    By using prospective energy scenarios, the objective of this study performed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region is to quantify energy savings induced by possible public policies or by lifestyle changes, and then to use the obtained results as tools of support to public decision, and means to make people aware of the end of an abundant and cheap oil, of the potential of solar energy, and of the benefits of energy sobriety. Four scenarios are thus defined. The first one concerns food habits, and corresponds to a more biological production, seasonal and less transformed foodstuffs, more vegetal plates, and reduced distances between producers and consumers. The second one concerns material goods: evolution towards more mutualization, re-use, and durability of products, and a reduced usage of equipment. The third one concerns buildings: the end of individual equipment and of always increasing surfaces, a modulated comfort depending on the room, and more collective organisations. The last scenario concerns displacements: less frequent displacements, shorter distances, use of soft modes, smaller vehicles, and energy saving in the use of vehicles

  13. Requirements for success in competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, E.

    1997-01-01

    A summary of a lecture delivered to the Institute of Energy on a power generator's experience of the UK competitive electricity market is given. It is concluded that privatization has met the public interest better than nationalisation and that the future lies in international growth and globalisation. (UK)

  14. Macro-economic and energy scenarios for Japan through the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi

    1986-03-01

    As one of studies and systems analyses on the role of VHTR and process heat utilization in future energy systems, long-term macro economic and energy scenarios of Japan until the year 2030 have been generated. This paper presents,; 1) the outline of the long-term macro econometric model and the energy system dynamics model by which these scenarios were generated, 2) back grounds and prospects on future societies of Japan and exogeneous assumptions for calculations, and 3) macro energy and economic scenarios generated. Reflecting the present economic prospects, these scenarios are seemed to be of extremely low-growth type, however, the role of VHTR and its energy systems could be prospected clealy to play a large and important role within these scenario regions. Basic philosophies of scenario generations are also mentioned in this paper. (author)

  15. Estimating bounds on the macroeconomic effects of the Clean Energy Future policy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A. H.; DeCanio, S. J.; Boyd, G. A.

    2000-04-04

    The Clean Energy Future (CEF) is a partial equilibrium study in that it focuses specifically on markets for energy services. It is also important, however, to consider potential effects of the CEF policies on overall economic performance. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to provide a framework for interpreting the macroeconomic (or second-order) effects that might occur under the types of scenarios analyzed in the CEF, and (2) to obtain a range of estimates of these effects associated with the Moderate and Advanced scenarios as described in the CEF study. In this paper the authors consider results from both types of model in the context of the CEF study. The primary framework and calculations focus on the second meaning given above of the term macroeconomic and the associated CGE models, because these are appropriate for analysis on the time scales of the CEF, through 2010 or 2020. Because the Keynesian-style macroeconomic models are designed and suited for short-term forecasting, they also discuss the application of one such model to the analysis of the shorter-horizon effects of certain policies to reduce carbon emissions.

  16. Recent developments in European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The industrial development in Europe which has created a remarkable prosperity was originally based on the availability of indigenous energy. At a later stage Europe accepted the offer of low cost crude from the world market. Since a few years we have lost our influence to moderately adjust prises to the changing circumstances in the world market for primary energies since - the multinationally operating companies have lost their balancing power and - the direct dialogue between producing and consuming countries has so far not resulted in any success. The use of the flowery expression energy crisis pretends that we are suffering from a lack of available primary energy. But the actual situation is more to the contrary. At the privailing energy price level there is a manifold offer. Considerable efforts, however, are necessary to create the prerequisits for an utilization of the options among different primary energies. Infrastructures have to be changed requiring impulse on the part of the state. There is no reason to assume a limited availability of crude oil and petroleum products for the use in such sectors in which an early substitution would cause an excessive economic burden. Besides lignite only nuclear energy does offer for the time beeing a remarkable contribution for a reduction of the energy bill in Europe. Starting with the power plants of the first generation which are sufficiently tested and via the breeder technology nuclear power production will most probably approach the aime of the utilization of renewable energies at reasonable costs over the long term. (orig.) [de

  17. Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A corporate profile of Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. was presented for the benefit of shareholders. Direct Energy is responsible for marketing and distributing natural gas to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The company owns physical natural gas reserves that serve as a supply hedge to its growing customer base. The highlights for the natural gas distribution income fund (OPTUS) for 1998 were described. OPTUS acquired WestCastle Energy, adding 38 mmcf/d of natural gas supply. It also amalgamated Channel Lake Petroleum and WestCastle Energy into Direct Energy and created the production division, Direct Energy Resources. It also formed Energy America with Sempra Energy, adding over 160,000 retail customers in Michigan and Ohio. Direct Energy's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, and statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  18. Future waste treatment and energy systems – examples of joint scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Finnveden, G.; Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    of scenarios is recommended, too, in order to adapt to the methods and tools of different disciplines, such as developing predictive scenarios with general equilibrium tools and analysing explorative scenarios with energy system analysis tools. Furthermore, as marginals identified in differing future......Development and use of scenarios for large interdisciplinary projects is a complicated task. This article provides practical examples of how it has been carried out in two projects addressing waste management and energy issues respectively. Based on experiences from the two projects......, recommendations are made for an approach concerning development of scenarios in projects dealing with both waste management and energy issues. Recommendations are given to develop and use overall scenarios for the project and leave room for sub-scenarios in parts of the project. Combining different types...

  19. Energy market opening and the national energy programme in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, M. G.; Urbancic, A.

    2000-01-01

    Slovenia is now moving fast toward market opening, at least in the electricity sector, due to the new Energy Law adopted in 1999. The Energy Law defines the main energy policy directions, including the sustainable development criterion. It also calls for the preparation of a National Energy Programme (NEP) to be adopted by the Parliament. According to the Law, local governments are expected to prepare local energy concepts, in line with the NEP and space planning decisions. Two most difficult challenges for national energy policies are: opening of the electricity market and meeting the Kyoto Protocol targets in the reduction of greenhouse gasses. The success of the energy sector reform depends on the fine-tuning of various instruments: market structuring and state interventions. The immediate concern for the sector in the secondary legislation, the fifty regulations that the Energy Law calls for. These regulations have to be prepared well before the date of internal electricity market opening on April 15th, 2001. The institutional structure to be established should be adapted for international competition that will start in electricity and gas no later than January 1st, 2003. It is expected that the NEP, to be prepared by spring of the year 2001, will propose complementary development strategies to cope with partially conflicting targets. Four groups of criteria shall be applied to compare the alternatives: security of supply, competitiveness of the society, preserving the space and environment quality and social cohesion. It is expected that energy market opening, not a final goal by itself, can be instrumental for the improvement of the energy sector performance on all accounts. (author)

  20. Nuclear energy in the increasingly deregulated brazilian energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Sergio G

    2003-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Energy Market is presently undergoing an institutional transition from a strictly regulated to a commercially competitive market, due to be completed by January, 2006. The operation and maintenance costs of the two presently existing Brazilian nuclear power plants allow them to be economically competitive with other types of plants for meeting the load demand in the country. The commercialization of the energy produced by the two existing nuclear power plants must cope with the impact of the new market rules, which establish that power purchase contracts must be freely negotiated between generating and distributing companies. The projected costs for the construction and operation of a third NPP also indicate that it may be economically feasible under the new market rules (author)

  1. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysa, H.

    1994-01-01

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  2. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO{sub 2} emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050

  3. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-01

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO 2 emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050 from

  4. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  5. The energy in Colombia: A wholesale market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    One year ago, the national government's energy politics, gave beginning to a novel strategy for the restructuring of the sector: The setting in march of the wholesale energy market -WEM - and the opening of the energy bag under the administration of interconnection electric S.A. E. P. S., ISA. After a year of works, the positive balance of the market and their permanent growth, are the best letter in presentation of this sector of the national economy. The wholesale energy market is conformed by generating companies. The generating ones are the companies with capacity of superior generation to the 20 MW that they are connected to the national interconnected system; it doesn't care if the origin of this energy is hydraulic, gas, coal or liquid fuel. The generators participate in the WEM with energy offers for price and with their long-term contracts. In the bag they can also offer or to buy energy the generators with capacity between 1 and 20 MW, registered in the National Center of Office CO of ISA, as WEM participants. These can be associated to a generator, to a distributor, to be conformed by one or several groups of big consumers or for organized companies for this purpose, as Mamonal in Cartagena. These users with more demand to 2 MW assisted in oneself place, receive the name of Not Regulated Clients -NRC - and they can hire their energy in free form. The commission of energy regulation and gas ERG modified the tops for these clients starting from January of 1997, the not regulated clients will be this way those that have a same demand or superior to 1 MW; and in January of 1998, bigger than 0.5 MW

  6. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  7. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  8. Nuclear energy and fuel mix. Impacts of new nuclear power plants after 2020 in the nuclear energy scenarios of the Energy Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Snoep, H.J.M.; Van Deurzen, J.; Lako, P.; Poley, A.D.

    2010-03-01

    This report presents facts and figures on new nuclear energy in the Netherlands, in the period after 2020. The information is meant to support a stakeholder discussion process on the role of new nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The report covers a number of issues relevant to the subject. Facts and figures on the following issues are presented: Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits, impact on end user electricity prices); The role of nuclear power with respect to security of supply; Sustainability aspects, including environmental aspects; The impact of nuclear power in three 'nuclear energy scenarios' for the Netherlands, within the context of a Northwest European energy market. The scenarios are: (1a) No new nuclear power in the Netherlands ('Base case'); (1b) After closure of the existing Borssele nuclear power plant by the end of 2033, the construction of new nuclear power plant that will operate in 2040. That plant is assumed to be designed not to have a serious core melt down accident (e.g. PBMR) (200 to 500 MWe); (2) New nuclear power shortly after closure the Borssele nuclear power plant in 2033 (1000 to 1600 MWe, 3rd Generation); (3) New nuclear power plants shortly after 2020 (2000 to 5000 MWe, 3rd Generation). Two electricity demand scenario background scenario variants have been constructed based on an average GDP growth of about 2% per year up to 2040. The first variant is based on a steadily growing electricity demand and on currently established NL and EU policies and instruments. It is expected to be largely consistent with a new and forthcoming reference projection 'Energy and Emissions 2010-2020' for the Netherlands (published by ECN and PBL in 2010). A lower demand variant is based on additional energy savings and on higher shares of renewable

  9. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  10. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... power outputs of three wave energy technologies in the Danish North Sea are examined. The simultaneous and co-located forecast and buoy-measured wave parameters at Hanstholm, Denmark, during a non-consecutive autumn and winter 3-month period form the basis of the investigation. The objective...

  11. Energy consumption in industry, 1990 - 2035 - Scenarios I to IV for various sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, W.; Ebert, O.; Weber, F.

    2006-12-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study with respect to industrial energy consumption which provided scenarios for future Swiss energy consumption. Four scenarios were elaborated: Continuation of present policy, increased co-operation between state and industry, more ambitious energy policy priorities and a scenario with even more ambitious goals - the so-called '2000 Watt Society'. For each of these scenarios several variants and a selection of sub-variants were defined, including increased prices, higher gross domestic product GDP, warmer climate and various carbon levies. The specific energy consumption of 16 different industrial sectors is examined and the effects of the various scenarios on several factors are considered. Data and results are presented in tabular and graphical form. Various measures that could influence energy consumption are listed and discussed, as are the modelling methods employed and the plausibility of the results obtained

  12. Nuclear communications and deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1998-01-01

    The electricity market a over the world is facing the most profound change ever. The market is to be deregulated, competition will be increased and companies privatised. The boom started from the UK but today the Nordic market is the most liberalised in the world. Nordic market consists of annual power sales around 350 TWh and only a modest growth potential of 12 percent per year. All fuels and all technologies meet in the marketplace. Nuclear has its good one fourth share of the production there. Nuclear is clearly for base-load with low marginal costs next to hydro electric power. There are four major players in the Nordic market. Swedish Vattenfall, IVO Group and Swedish Sydkraft are the three biggest in that order, and all of them have nuclear assets. The market is characterised by lowest power prices in Europe, two electricity exchanges and continuous power trade across the borders. The described market change from national and less open utility driven sector has clear impacts to companies strategies and consequently also to communications. All these circumstances demand, New target groups from corporate communications' point of view; new communications language to change to more business-like; new insider rules and new information practices; new business orientated journalists against a new reference group. This all opens new challenges and possibilities to re-build nuclear image. Market economy in electricity will also ease governmental nationally oriented energy policies and let market forces to decide whether investments are viable or not. This is positive for nuclear - again if and only if the power plants are managed in an economically viable way. Deregulation may open the market from political deadlock to new nuclear investments in case the above mentioned requirements are correct. All in all, market change comes sooner or later to regions not yet liberalised. It will challenge nuclear companies and their communications. The change always creates

  13. The Social, Educational, and Market Scenario for nZEB in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Topriska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB are a significant part of the energy efficiency strategy of the European Union. As buildings represent approximately 40% of the final energy use in Europe, the reduction of their energy demand is key for a sustainable future. This paper takes a qualitative approach and presents data about professional and market barriers, as well as the educational market in relation to the implementation of nZEB policies for new and retrofit buildings in 11 European countries. Different levels of policy enactments and market penetration are reported and are generally found to be more advanced in western and central European countries. Furthermore, gender equality is examined in the building sector in relation to nZEB and presents significant gaps, with a more balanced situation reported in southern Europe. The accreditation and targeted education of nZEB experts is still almost non-existent in the examined countries, and the need for training of building professionals is highlighted as a critical missing component of current policy. This research aims to be the first step towards the creation of educational material and programmes as a mean to accelerate the transition to nZEB.

  14. A comparison of the newest scenarios for energy supply in Switzerland and their results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucan, T.H.

    1984-09-01

    The author defines an energy scenario and considers several such scenarios for Switzerland. A presentation of perspectives is given, followed by an analysis of the scenario. Remarks are made on the energy economy and on the environmental loading (specific emissions for heat pumps and block heat power stations, total emission for the year 2020 and radiation loading for people and plants in Switzerland). (A.N.K.)

  15. On market integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  16. On market integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  17. Energy: An endless story. The history of the energy issue and changing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two oil crises and the reactor accident at Chernobyl have had a profound effect on the population in the USSR and its awareness of environmental issues and hazards. The contribution explains the energy policy and scenarios and the changes undergone in the USSR, the COMECON countries, in the Middle East and in the Persian Gulf, in the Pacific Ocean area, in the North Sea area, and in the USA, also pointing out consequences for the current situation. (DG) [de

  18. Managing companies in an open energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of management methods in the electricity supply industry in Germany and Switzerland and of the measures that can be taken in order to meet the new regulatory demands resulting from the opening of the electricity market. The development of legislation on the opening of the electricity market in Switzerland is briefly looked at and the situation to be found in many Swiss companies in the energy sector is looked at. The equivalent situation to be found in Germany is also reviewed as well as various prerequisites for the unbundling of the market, including the so-called 'revenue-cap' method. Quality-assurance in this area is also looked at, as are performance management and other controlling aspects. Also, transport lines and mains-usage are discussed, along with their appropriate regulation. An example is given of a system that allows computer access to the relevant data

  19. The economics of energy market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.; Kammen, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates three energy-sector market transformation programs: the US Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program to promote on-grid efficient lighting; the World Bank Group's new Photovoltaic Market Transformation Initiative; and the federal grain ethanol subsidy. The authors develop a benefit-cost model that uses experience curves to estimate unit cost reductions as a function of cumulative production. Accounting for dynamic feedback between the demand response and price reductions from production experience raises the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of the first two programs substantially. The BCR of the ethanol program, however, is approximately zero, illustrating a technology for which subsidization was not justified. Their results support a broader role for market transformation programs to commercialize new environmentally attractive technologies, but the ethanol experience suggests moderately funding a broad portfolio composed of technologies that meet strict selection criteria

  20. Quintessential inflation: A unified scenario of inflation and dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Wali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quintessential inflation unifies inflation and late time acceleration by a single scalar field. Such a scenario, with canonical and non-canonical scalar fields, has been discussed. The scalar field behaves as an inflaton field during inflation and as a quintessence field during late time. Also the predictions of the models has been compared with the recent Planck data.

  1. Automatic generation control of TCPS based hydrothermal system under open market scenario: A fuzzy logic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C. Srinivasa [EEE Department, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh (India); Nagaraju, S. Siva [EEE Department, J.N.T.U College of Engg., Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Raju, P. Sangameswara [EEE Department, S.V. University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents the analysis of automatic generation control of a two-area interconnected thyristor controlled phase shifter based hydrothermal system in the continuous mode using fuzzy logic controller under open market scenario. Open transmission access and the evolving of more socialized companies for generation, transmission and distribution affects the formulation of AGC problem. So the traditional AGC two-area system is modified to take into account the effect of bilateral contracts on the dynamics. It is possible to stabilize the system frequency and tie-power oscillations by controlling the phase angle of TCPS which is expected to provide a new ancillary service for the future power systems. A control strategy using TCPS is proposed to provide active control of system frequency. Further dynamic responses for small perturbation considering fuzzy logic controller and PI controller (dual mode controller) have been observed and the superior performance of fuzzy logic controller has been reported analytically and also through simulation. (author)

  2. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  3. Nuclear energy: what scenarios for the future?; Nucleaire: quels scenarios pour le futur?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelier, Michel; Criqui, Patrick; Heuer, Daniel; Huet, Sylvestre

    2012-01-20

    Because of its energetic, environmental, economical, social, safety, political, and even ideological aspects, the nuclear energy is a major society stake. It is a technical and complex topic as well which merits a democratic, well argued and transparent debate. This book supplies to the reader all the necessary information for a thorough analysis of this much disputed energy source without any bias: why France is one of the most nuclearized country in the world? Can we get out of nuclear energy? How and at what price? Wastes and safety: what can we expect (or not) from the next generations of reactors? Should we have a referendum? In this book, two researchers of the nuclear domain, an economist and a journalist invite us to consider the problem from all angles. (J.S.)

  4. Economic scenarios for the real estate market: Incorporating uncertainty and risk in real estate appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Lausberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Real estate appraisal is usually regarded as both a science and an art: “science” because the appraiser uses mathematical calculations and other objective elements, “art” because he also uses his experience and other subjective elements. This dual character requires—among others—that new insights from other disciplines and current trends are taken into account. The central proposition of the article is that this requirement is not met. The author provides evidence that real estate risk management has made tremendous progress since the mid-1990s which has not found its way into appraisal practice, thereby creating a situation where appraisals by risk analysts differ greatly from appraisals by real estate appraisers. According to the author the gap between real estate appraisal and risk analysis should be closed from both sides. The article begins with an overview of the most important trends which will impact real estate values in the future. From these trends, an exemplary economic scenario for European real estate markets is derived in order to demonstrate that scenario writing is a powerful tool for risk management. After that the author discusses some other methods of risk management and their potential benefits for real estate appraisal.

  5. Energy forecasts for France. A scenario having a particular tendency; Perspectives energetiques pour la France. Un scenario tendanciel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document presents in a synthetic form a description of the energy tendency ( supplies and demands) for 2010-2020. This description has been requested by the Direction of the Energy and the raw materials (DGEMP), from may to december 1999. The proposed scenario is based on a simulation and hypothesis which don't take into account the future policy and regulations as for example the decisions of the fight program against the climatic change. Tables and graphs are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Strategic sizing of energy storage facilities in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to determine the optimasize of an energy storage facility from a strategic investor’s perspective. This investor seeks to maximize its profit through making strategic planning, i.e., storage sizing, and strategic operational, i.e., offering and bidding, decisions. We...... consider the uncertainties associated with rival generators’ offering strategies and future load levels in the proposed model. The strategic investment decisions include the sizes of charging device, discharging device and energy reservoir. The proposed model is a stochastic bi-level optimization problem......; the planning and operation decisions are made in the upper-level, and market clearing is modeled in the lower-level under different operating scenarios. To make the proposed model computationally tractable, an iterative solution technique based on Benders’ decomposition is implemented. This provides a master...

  7. A 'business-as-usual' energy scenario for France at the 2020 vista; Un scenario energetique tendanciel pour la France a l'horizon 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.N

    2000-01-01

    A 'business-as-usual' energy scenario is the most probable scenario where the energy demand follows the trends of the past and where no new energy policy is implemented. This work is a complement to the three contrasted energy scenarios built in 1998 by the 'Energy 2010-2020' prospective group of the French general commission of national development. The scenario built in this study is only a reference which allows the measure the efforts made to reach political goals. The main conclusion of this scenario is the increase of the CO{sub 2} emissions under the double effect of the economic growth and of the cessation of the nuclear program which becomes non-competitive with respect to the gas prices and actualization rates retained in the scenario. The main constraint of the energy future is incontestably the necessary fight against the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  8. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  9. Sustainable resource planning in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalinia, Saeed; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainable resource planning with the consideration of expected transmission network expansion. • Incomplete information non-cooperative game-theoretic method for GEP. • Maximizing utility value whiling considering merits of having various generation portfolios. • Minimizing risk of investment using renewable generation options. • Application of the stochastic approach for evaluating the unpredictability of opponent payoffs and commodity values. - Abstract: This study investigates the role of sustainable energy volatility in a market participant’s competitive expansion planning problem. The incomplete information non-cooperative game-theoretic method is utilized in which each generation company (GENCO) perceives strategies of other market participants in order to make a decision on its strategic generation capacity expansion. Sustainable generation incentives, carbon emission penalties, and fuel price forecast errors are considered in the strategic decisions. The market clearing process for energy and reserves is simulated by each GENCO for deriving generation expansion decisions. A merit criterion (i.e., the utility value) is proposed for a more realistic calculation of the expected payoff of a GENCO with sustainable energy resources. Finally, the impact of transmission constraints is investigated on the GENCO’s expansion planning decision. The case studies illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method

  10. How does market power affect the impact of large scale wind investment in 'energy only' wholesale electricity markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, Oliver; Poletti, Stephen; Young, David

    2015-01-01

    In the short run, it is well known that increasing wind penetration is likely to reduce spot market electricity prices due to the merit order effect. The long run effect is less clear because there will be a change in new capacity investment in response to the wind penetration. In this paper we examine the interaction between capacity investment, wind penetration and market power by first using a least-cost generation expansion model to simulate capacity investment with increasing amounts of wind generation, and then using a computer agent-based model to predict electricity prices in the presence of market power. We find the degree to which firms are able to exercise market power depends critically on the ratio of capacity to peak demand. For our preferred long run generation scenario we show market power increases for some periods as wind penetration increases however the merit order counteracts this with the results that prices overall remain flat. Returns to peakers increase significantly as wind penetration increases. The market power in turn leads to inefficient dispatch which is exacerbated with large amounts of wind generation. - Highlights: • Increasing investment in wind generation is analyzed using an agent based model. • In an energy only market, increased total capacity reduces market power. • Increasing wind penetration results in more market power in some periods. • Market power causes dispatch inefficiencies, which grow as wind capacity increases.

  11. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. of Energy Engineering; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G. [Univ. Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M.; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G.

    2009-01-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  13. Stakes and consequences of the opening of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This colloquium on the European energy market was organized by the group of energy studies of the commission of economic affairs of the French Senate. The aim of the colloquium was to debate the industrial organization of France in the context of opened energy markets. This article summarizes the point of view of the different participants concerning: the security of energy supplies, the situation of the opening of energy markets in the different European countries, the role of market regulation authorities, the necessary evolutions, the legal risks linked with open markets, and the examples of the German and US markets. (J.S.)

  14. A GLANCE AT THE EUROPEAN ENERGY MARKET LIBERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica Rotaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a presentation on the liberalization process on the energy markets that started two decades ago and takes place across Europe in the attempt to create a single European energy market. Several benefits are expected following the deregulation process such as higher competition, market transparency, lower prices, increased efficiency and product development in the clients favour. Three very different energy markets are analyzed before and after the liberalization process – UK, Germany and France – a short insight on the current Romanian energy market is also offered. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding on liberalizing European energy markets.

  15. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  16. Essays on U.S. energy markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, David A.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation examines three facets of U.S. energy use and policy. First, I examine the Gulf Coast petroleum refining industry to determine the structure of the industry. Using the duality between cost-minimization and production functions, I estimate the demand for labor to determine the underlying production function. The results indicate that refineries have become more capital intensive due to the relative price increase of labor. The industry has consolidated in response to higher labor costs and costs of environmental compliance. Next, I examine oil production in the United States. An empirical model based on the theoretical framework of Pindyck is used to estimate production. This model differs from previous research by using state level data rather than national level data. The results indicate that the production elasticity with respect to reserves and the price elasticity of supply are both inelastic in the long run. The implication of these findings is that policies designed to increase domestic production through subsidies, tax breaks, or royalty reductions will likely provide little additional oil. We simulate production under three scenarios. In the most extreme scenario, prices double between 2005 and 2030 while reserves increase by 50%. Under this scenario, oil production in 2030 is approximately the same as the 2005 level. The third essay estimates demand for fossil fuels in the U.S. and uses these estimates to forecast CO2 emissions. The results indicate that there is almost no substitution from one fossil fuel to another and that all three fossil fuels are inelastic in the long run. Additionally, all three fuels respond differently to changes in GDP. The result of the differing elasticities with respect to GDP is that the energy mix has changed over time. The implication for forecasting CO2 emissions is that models that cannot distinguish changes in the energy mix are not effective in forecasting CO2 emissions.

  17. Scenarios for Benefits Analysis of Energy Research, Development,Demonstration and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-09-07

    For at least the last decade, evaluation of the benefits of research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) by the U.S. Department of Energy has been conducted using deterministic forecasts that unrealistically presume we can precisely foresee our future 10, 25,or even 50 years hence. This effort tries, in a modest way, to begin a process of recognition that the reality of our energy future is rather one rife with uncertainty. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) and Fossil Energy (FE) for their RD3 benefits evaluation. In order to begin scoping out the uncertainty in these deterministic forecasts, EE and FE designed two futures that differ significantly from the basic NEMS forecast. A High Fuel Price Scenario and a Carbon Cap Scenario were envisioned to forecast alternative futures and the associated benefits. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) implemented these scenarios into its version of NEMS,NEMS-LBNL, in late 2004, and the Energy Information Agency created six scenarios for FE in early 2005. The creation and implementation of the EE-FE scenarios are explained in this report. Both a Carbon Cap Scenario and a High Fuel Price Scenarios were implemented into the NEMS-LBNL. EIA subsequently modeled similar scenarios using NEMS. While the EIA and LBNL implementations were in some ways rather different, their forecasts do not significantly diverge. Compared to the Reference Scenario, the High Fuel Price Scenario reduces energy consumption by 4 percent in 2025, while in the EIA fuel price scenario (known as Scenario 4) reduction from its corresponding reference scenario (known as Scenario 0) in 2025 is marginal. Nonetheless, the 4 percent demand reduction does not lead to other cascading effects that would significantly differentiate the two scenarios. The LBNL and EIA carbon scenarios were mostly identical. The only major

  18. Cost and CO2 aspects of future vehicle options in Europe under new energy policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Christian; Perujo, Adolfo; Mercier, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    New electrified vehicle concepts are about to enter the market in Europe. The expected gains in environmental performance for these new vehicle types are associated with higher technology costs. In parallel, the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrids is continuously improved, which in turn advances their environmental performance but also leads to additional technology costs versus today's vehicles. The present study compares the well-to-wheel CO 2 emissions, costs and CO 2 abatement costs of generic European cars, including a gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, gasoline hybrid, diesel hybrid, plug in hybrid and battery electric vehicle. The predictive comparison is done for the snapshots 2010, 2020 and 2030 under a new energy policy scenario for Europe. The results of the study show clearly that the electrification of vehicles offer significant possibilities to reduce specific CO 2 emissions in road transport, when supported by adequate policies to decarbonise the electricity generation. Additional technology costs for electrified vehicle types are an issue in the beginning, but can go down to enable payback periods of less than 5 years and very competitive CO 2 abatement costs, provided that market barriers can be overcome through targeted policy support that mainly addresses their initial cost penalty. (author)

  19. Energy saving and CO2 mitigation through restructuring Jordan's transportation sector: The diesel passenger cars scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Akash, B.; Abu-Nada, E.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for 37% of the total final energy consumption in Jordan, with passenger cars taking a share of 57% in this sector. Improvement of the energy efficiency of the transportation sector can help in alleviating socio-economic pressures resulting from the inflating fuel bill and in lowering the relatively high CO 2 emission intensity. Current legislations mandate that all passenger cars operating in Jordan are to be powered with spark ignition engines using gasoline fuel. This paper examines potential benefits that can be achieved through the introduction of diesel cars to the passenger cars market in Jordan. Three scenarios are suggested for implementation and investigated with a forecasting model on the basis of local and global trends over the period 2007-2027. It is demonstrated that introducing diesel passenger cars can slow down the growth of energy consumption in the transportation sector resulting in significant savings in the national fuel bill. It is also shown that this is an effective and feasible option for cutting down CO 2 emissions

  20. Optimal planning and operation of aggregated distributed energy resources with market participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvillo, C.F.; Sánchez-Miralles, A.; Villar, J.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Price-maker optimization model for planning and operation of aggregated DER. • 3 Case studies are proposed, considering different electricity pricing scenarios. • Analysis of benefits and effect on electricity prices produced by DER aggregation. • Results showed considerable benefits even for relatively small aggregations. • Results suggest that the impact on prices should not be overlooked. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the optimal planning and operation of aggregated distributed energy resources (DER) with participation in the electricity market. Aggregators manage their portfolio of resources in order to obtain the maximum benefit from the grid, while participating in the day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The goal of this paper is to propose a model for aggregated DER systems planning, considering its participation in the electricity market and its impact on the market price. The results are the optimal planning and management of DER systems, and the appropriate energy transactions for the aggregator in the wholesale day-ahead market according to the size of its aggregated resources. A price-maker approach based on representing the market competitors with residual demand curves is followed, and the impact on the price is assessed to help in the decision of using price-maker or price-taker approaches depending on the size of the aggregated resources. A deterministic programming problem with two case studies (the average scenario and the most likely scenario from the stochastic ones), and a stochastic one with a case study to account for the market uncertainty are described. For both models, market scenarios have been built from historical data of the Spanish system. The results suggest that when the aggregated resources have enough size to follow a price-maker approach and the uncertainty of the markets is considered in the planning process, the DER systems can achieve up to 50% extra economic benefits, depending on the market

  1. A Bilevel Model for Participation of a Storage System in Energy and Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    We develop a decision-making tool based on a bilevel complementarity model for a merchant price-maker energy storage system to determine the most beneficial trading actions in pool-based markets, including day-ahead (as joint energy and reserve markets) and balancing settlements. The uncertainty...... of net load deviation in real-time is incorporated into the model using a set of scenarios generated from the available forecast in the day-ahead. The objective of this energy storage system is to maximize its expected profit. The day-ahead products of energy storage system include energy as well...... system into clearing process of multiple markets and enables such a facility to possibly affect the outcomes of those markets to its own benefit through strategic price and quantity offers. The validity of the proposed approach is evaluated using a numerical study....

  2. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO_2-certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO_2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  3. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  4. Scenario-based analyses of energy system development and its environmental implications in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Malla, Sunil; Liyanage, Migara H.

    2007-01-01

    Thailand is one of the fastest growing energy-intensive economies in Southeast Asia. To formulate sound energy policies in the country, it is important to understand the impact of energy use on the environment over the long-period. This study examines energy system development and its associated greenhouse gas and local air pollutant emissions under four scenarios in Thailand through the year 2050. The four scenarios involve different growth paths for economy, population, energy efficiency and penetration of renewable energy technologies. The paper assesses the changes in primary energy supply mix, sector-wise final energy demand, energy import dependency and CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions under four scenarios using end-use based Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment Model (AIM/Enduse) of Thailand. (author)

  5. Perspectives of energy technologies: scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista; Perspectives des technologies de l'energie: scenarios et strategies a l'horizon 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every two years, the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes the 'Energy Technology Perspectives' (ETP) report which analyses the foreseeable energy scenarios and strategies at the 2050 vista and stresses on the best available technologies. For the first time, the IEA describes in this study a scenario allowing to divide by two the CO{sub 2} emissions at the world scale, i.e. compatible with the 'factor 4' scenario of industrialized countries. The study estimates the R and D needs and the necessary additional investments to meet the different tendentious and voluntaristic scenarios proposed by the IEA. This 15. session of the cycle of energy-climate conferences aimed at presenting, from the ETP 2008 study, a thorough examination of the present day situation and perspectives of existing or future 'clean' energy technologies through the analysis of several scenarios. An examination of the interpretation of these scenarios at the France and European levels is made in order to define what should be the trends of public policies and international cooperation. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given during this conference. The first presentation by Pieter Boot, Director of the Office of Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology of IEA, makes a synthesis of the ETP study and presents the recommendations of the agency. The second presentation by Olivier Appert, President of the French institute of petroleum (IFP), gives a counterpoint of the first presentation by considering the financing and acceptance aspects, in particular from the French point of view. Finally a debate with the audience completes the presentations. (J.S.)

  6. Energy scenario in India and strategy for sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.; Bhagat, S.K.; Thakur, T.

    1998-01-01

    Although India has a fairly large interconnected power system among the developing countries, it accounts for tremendously high losses occurring in the system, and hence resulting in an inefficient operation. With the ever increasing cost of inflation and several other financial constraints, it is of paramount importance to maximise/optimise the continuity and quality of electric power supply at minimum investment. Also, this calls upon planning for optimum generating capacity and maintaining adequate spinning reserves. This article discusses the Indian scenario and deals with some strategic issues keeping in mind the problems concerning the future growth of the power industry. (author)

  7. Evaluation of alternative future energy scenarios for Brazil using an energy mix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Maysa Joppert

    The purpose of this study is to model and assess the performance and the emissions impacts of electric energy technologies in Brazil, based on selected economic scenarios, for a time frame of 40 years, taking the year of 1995 as a base year. A Base scenario has been developed, for each of three economic development projections, based upon a sectoral analysis. Data regarding the characteristics of over 300 end-use technologies and 400 energy conversion technologies have been collected. The stand-alone MARKAL technology-based energy-mix model, first developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, was applied to a base case study and five alternative case studies, for each economic scenario. The alternative case studies are: (1) minimum increase in the thermoelectric contribution to the power production system of 20 percent after 2010; (2) extreme values for crude oil price; (3) minimum increase in the renewable technologies contribution to the power production system of 20 percent after 2010; (4) uncertainty on the cost of future renewable conversion technologies; and (5) model is forced to use the natural gas plants committed to be built in the country. Results such as the distribution of fuel used for power generation, electricity demand across economy sectors, total CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels for power generation, shadow price (marginal cost) of technologies, and others, are evaluated and compared to the Base scenarios previous established. Among some key findings regarding the Brazilian energy system it may be inferred that: (1) diesel technologies are estimated to be the most cost-effective thermal technology in the country; (2) wind technology is estimated to be the most cost-effective technology to be used when a minimum share of renewables is imposed to the system; and (3) hydroelectric technologies present the highest cost/benefit relation among all conversion technologies considered. These results are subject to the limitations of key input

  8. Renewable energy and energy efficiency in liberalized European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Given the projected growth in global energy demand, renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) play a crucial role in the attainment of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Policy mechanisms to promote RE and EE have been justified on the rationale of market failure, which prevents price signals alone from being sufficient to induce consumers to implement the socially optimal level. The paper shows driving forces for increasing competition in the electricity supply industry and discusses the implication of electricity industry liberalisation on RE/EE activities. Policies of the European Commission to promote RE/EE are presented, including a more detailed description of the experience made in the United Kingdom. Conclusions are that the new market structure may be too short sighted to stimulate RE and EE activities and that the design of policies should be compatible with the new market-orientated structure of the electricity industry. If implemented properly, and compatible with the competitive market organisation, electricity supply liberalisation could pave the way for 'sustainable electricity' in the European Union. (Author)

  9. Renewable energy: past trends and future growth in 2 degrees scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores past growth rates of renewable energy sources (1971-2012) and required future ones in 2 degrees scenarios. Results show that in spite of comparatively high growth of renewable energy in the period 2000-2012, the share of renewable energy in total energy use stayed the same (13%).

  10. Integration of the North American energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  11. Market survey of the state of affairs in the Dutch energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this market survey: to get insight in the knowledge, perception and behavior of consumers in relation to the energy market; to offer insight in developments in aforementioned aspects; to get insight in the effectiveness of the actions of the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation. Derived purposes/functions of the research include: an own measuring instrument for the Office of Energy Regulation, which makes them less dependent on other parties for obtaining data on the energy market; enabling periodical contact with the consumer and sounding out the mood on the energy market. The target can be translated into the following research questions: To what extent are consumers informed about the energy market, or to what extent do they know how to access relevant information?; To what extent is the energy market transparent in the eyes of the consumer?; How much confidence do consumers have in the energy market?; How do people judge the service provision of the energy companies?. [nl

  12. Energy market barometer report - Summer 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Grover, David; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Summer 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explored the expectations of French Energy experts regarding the Climate Summit (COP21) in Paris next December, and the future evolution of CO_2 certificate prices. The experts were also asked about the development of energy prices. Key findings: - 62 % of the French energy experts do not expect a legally binding agreement to emerge from the Paris Climate Summit - this share was 77 % among the German experts; - A majority of the French energy experts think that failing to reach a legally binding agreement at the Paris Climate Summit would not change the French climate policy targets; - A legally binding agreement would have positive effects on investment in the energy sector and, in particular, the electrical industry; - Two-thirds of the French energy experts believe that an agreement in Paris would generate a momentum for climate innovation in OECD countries, but less so in non-OECD countries; - CO_2 certificate prices rise only in the medium to long term but levels remain rather low. The announced intention of the G7 to phase out all fossil fuels by the end of this century did not affect the experts' expectations about CO_2 certificate prices or medium-term fuel prices; - Electricity and coal prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months. The majority of the experts consider the current low oil and gas prices to be a rather temporary phenomenon

  13. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables and is intended to complement the main publication. This information paper provides an in-depth account of the regional markets and policy trends in all six focus regions; 56 countries in total. Each region is discussed with regards to: recent market developments in the electricity, heat and transport sector; policy developments; IEA projections; an analysis of the mid-term (2030) potential of renewable energy technologies in these regions; and an analysis of the strategic drivers underpinning the deployment of RE in each region.

  14. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  15. Rural energy survey and scenario analysis of village energy consumption: A case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, providing all citizens an access to modern forms of energy is among the central energy policy objectives, as the linkages between modern energy services and human development are widely recognized. This paper presents in a scenario analysis of rural energy consumption, how energy services in different sectors of a village economy contribute to the achievement of the UNDP Millennium Development Goals. In a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic, household energy demand and energy uses were surveyed immediately prior to the electrification of the village. Based on the situation preceding electrification of the village, the development of village electrification was studied by simulating the village energy system, accounting for all village energy uses but transportation. To study the potential development of electricity demand in the village, three scenarios were constructed using the LEAP model: 'residential demand', 'income generation' and 'public services'. Energy demand in each scenario was analyzed with reference to the Millennium Development Goals.

  16. The opening of energy markets in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    After the last 2002 change of government in France, the new changes in the energy policy have started to be implemented. These changes will have some consequences on the energy markets, on the rate of development of competition, and on the institutional modifications of the historical electricity and gas utilities and of their respective regulation authority. During the colloquium on energy, organized at the Senate on June 2002, F. Mer, minister of economy, and N. Fontaine, delegate minister of industry, have expressed their will in this way. This article reworks the highlights of the most significant talks given at this colloquium and makes a selection of some key information, opinions and proposals published in the press during summer. (J.S.)

  17. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  18. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  19. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of the nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Huffer, E.; David, S.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Martin, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that CO 2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GWe pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GWe pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (authors)

  20. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; David, S.; Martin, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that Co2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GW pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GW pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (author)

  1. Energy subsidies reform in Jordan : welfare implications of different scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Atamanov,Aziz; Jellema,Jon Robbert; Serajuddin,Umar

    2015-01-01

    As the Arab Spring unfolded and political unrest spread across the Arab world, Jordan faced an adverse economy as well. Fundamental to the economic challenge was high and rising energy prices, already heavily subsidized for consumers. With the government intent on staving off emerging political unrest through a series of measures, buffering consumers from increased energy prices being a ke...

  2. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Winter 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer gauged the expectations of French energy experts regarding the low oil price and its consequences on alternative energy technologies. The experts were also asked about the investment climate for energy technologies in France. Key findings: - The energy experts consider the current low oil price a temporary phenomenon. The price of a barrel of crude oil (Brent) to reach US$ 55 at the end of the year (2016). About three quarters of respondents expect the price of oil to increase in 5 years and to exceed US$ 100 per barrel within 10 years. - The current weak price of crude oil is thought to have an adverse impact on the amount of investment in renewables for heat generation, in biofuels, and in energy efficiency technologies. - The experts view the current regulatory environment in France for investments in renewables, e-mobility, smart grids and energy efficiency favorably. They expect it to continue to improve over the next 5 years. However, nuclear energy and natural gas will not see their investment climate improved. - The recent developments on the global and national political stage have not moved most energy and CO_2 price expectations. The experts chart a progressive yet under-whelming raise in the price of CO_2 certificates in the medium to long term, from currently 8.5 euro/ton to euro 10-15 euro/ton in 5 years and 20-25 euro/ton in 10 years. - Prices of electricity, oil and natural gas are expected to rise in the medium term but remain stable over the next six months temporary phenomenon. Coal is the only energy carrier for which experts expect a decrease in price over the next five years

  3. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  4. Energy market and investment - political economy of supply security in the market of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leban, R.

    2005-01-01

    A market structure that appears to be adapted to achieving a supply security purpose in the sectors of oil power and gas, is an organisation where upstream energy markets include industrial players of adequate sizes involved downstream and where futures exchanges prevail at prices translating anticipations on 'basics' since spot markets are more of adjustment markets. Policy weighs hugely on those markets. The extra competition lately instilled in the electrical and gas markets in developed countries results in no decrease, as complicated exchange rules need to be thought up and the market power needs to be monitored. Political intervention is also carried out in the name of environmental policies, in a strong interaction with the operation of the said markets and therefore with a not insignificant risk of disruption. The oil market is a highly political one, since the key to exchanges, i.e. access to primary resources, is played between producing countries and huge oil and gas companies close to consuming countries. There is a strong temptation in the electrical sector, to add security policies in order to prevail over the market. Gas, which is oil upstream and electrical downstream, requires, in consuming countries, a delicate balance of policies to support operators as buyers and to control the same operators as players of the gas- gas competition. The prognosis on the market's ability to provide safe supply efficiently to citizens if security policies are implemented is rather good in areas where demand is moderately growing and networks are developed. It is however not as good in areas where there are high needs for production and transport investments, i.e. in countries that are developing now, and will be...in Europe soon. (author)

  5. Some scenarios of CO2 emission from the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liik, O.; Landsberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    After Estonia regained its independence, planning of energy policy became topical. Since 1989, several expert groups have worked on the urgent problems and developments of Estonia's power engineering. Comprehensive energy system planning by mathematical modeling was accomplished in 1994. Then Tallinn Technical University acquired the MARKAL model from the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). The influence of air pollution constraints on energy system development was first investigated in 1995. At the end of 1995, under the U.S. Country Studies Program, a detailed analysis of future CO 2 emissions and their reduction options began. During 1990-1993, energy demand lowered due to economic decline and sharp rise in the fuel and energy prices as well as a decrease in electricity exports, has resulting in 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions. For the same reasons, Estonia has been able to meet the requirements set in the agreements on SO 2 and NO x emissions with no special measures or costs. To meet the rigid ing SO 2 restrictions and growing energy consumption in the future, Estonia must invest in abatement and in new clean and efficient oil-shale combustion technology. Along with the old oil-shale plants closing and electricity consumption growing, other fuels will be used. The increase in energy demand then should not be fast due to constantly rising prices and efficient energy use. Measures to reduce SO 2 , and NO x emissions will also reduce CO 2 . In MARKAL runs the 1990 level of CO 2 emissions will be exceeded only along with high demand growth and absence of emissions control. Restricted availability of imported fuels and nuclear power or enabling electricity import can change the results significantly. The results discussed here can also change because the data base is being improved (such as detailed description of energy networks, description of demand-side technologies, accounting of energy conservation measures, addition of

  6. 2050 pathway to an active renewable energy scenario for Jiangsu province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    emphasis on improving its energy efficiency and utilizing its renewable resources in the future. This paper presents the integrated energy pathway for Jiangsu during its social and economic transformation until 2050. EnergyPLAN is the chosen energy system analysis tool, since it accounts for all sectors...... of the energy system that needs to be considered when integrating large-scale renewable energy. A Current Policy Scenario (CPS) based on current energy policies and an Ambitious Policy Scenario (APS) based on large-scale integration of renewable energy and ambitious measures of energy efficiency improvement......In 2009, Jiangsu province of China supplied 99.6 percent of its total energy consumption with fossil fuels, of which 82 percent was imported from other provinces and countries. With rising energy demand, frequent energy shortages, and increasing pollution, it is essential for Jiangsu to put more...

  7. Simulations of scenarios with 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark; MacGill, Iain

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a program to explore technological options for the transition to a renewable energy future, we present simulations for 100% renewable energy systems to meet actual hourly electricity demand in the five states and one territory spanned by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) in 2010. The system is based on commercially available technologies: concentrating solar thermal (CST) power with thermal storage, wind, photovoltaic (PV), existing hydro and biofuelled gas turbines. Hourly solar and wind generation data are derived from satellite observations, weather stations, and actual wind farm outputs. Together CST and PV contribute about half of total annual electrical energy supply. A range of 100% renewable energy systems for the NEM are found to be technically feasible and meet the NEM reliability standard. The principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings following overcast days when CST storage is partially charged and sometimes wind speeds are low. The model handles these circumstances by combinations of an increased number of gas turbines and reductions in winter peak demand. There is no need for conventional base-load power plants. The important parameter is the reliability of the whole supply-demand system, not the reliability of particular types of power plants. - Highlights: ► We simulate 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market. ► The energy system comprises commercially available technologies. ► A range of 100% renewable electricity systems meet the reliability standard. ► Principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings. ► The concept of ‘base-load’ power plants is found to be redundant.

  8. Shell energy scenarios to 2050. Signals and Signposts. An era of volatile transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    For 40 years, Shell has drawn on its scenarios to enhance business decisions and its ability to respond to change. Our most recent scenarios also contributed positively to the global public debate on energy and the environment. But the financial crash, the deepest economic slump in 70 years, and a patchy and fragile recovery have changed the world dramatically. We must consider how these events may or may not have altered our energy outlooks. Signals and Signposts offers our best understanding about the changes brought by the global financial and economic crisis. Internally, we have been using Recession and Recovery scenarios since September 2008. The two outlooks (Severe-yet-Sharp and Deeper-and-Longer) have, so far, bracketed actual developments. We have also drawn on a supplementary but unlikely scenario, Depression 2.0. These scenarios continue to provide useful insights and we draw on them in this booklet. Despite the economic turbulence, the fundamental drivers and uncertainties explored in our Shell Energy Scenarios to 2050 remain fully relevant. Signals and Signposts highlights significant additional factors and should be read as a companion to our Scramble and Blueprints energy scenarios, which can be downloaded from www.shell.com/scenarios. An overview is in the Appendix.

  9. Investment in the Western Hemisphere energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillam, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the main characteristics of Western Hemisphere energy markets are well known to those in the energy industry. The United States sits in the northern half of the hemisphere, importing more and more oil from the rest of the world. Brazil, with a market one-tenth of the size of the United Sates, sits in the southern half of the hemisphere, importing less and less oil from the rest of the world. Venezuela sits in the center with an eye to the future as a long-term player in the world petroleum industry. Venezuela has 6 or 7 percent of the world's known conventional petroleum reserves, plus an uncountable bitumen resource which is now being commercialized as Orimulsion, a low-emission substitute for coal. The United States is circled by major producing countries with smaller exports, such as Mexico and Canada, and there are smaller producing or consuming countries of which Colombia is the largest exporter and Argentian the largest importer. The United States dominates the numbers. Half of British Petroleum's (BP) investments have been in the energy industry of the Western Hemisphere. We are maintaining that proportion, but opportunities are becoming more difficult to find

  10. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  11. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  12. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Nese, Gjermund

    2017-01-01

    electricity and TGC markets, and focus on the role of market power (i.e., Stackelberg leadership). One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per-unit subsidies. Also, the model shows that TGCs may be an imprecise instrument for regulating the generation......A market for tradable green certificates (TGCs) is strongly interwoven in the electricity market in that the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of TGCs. Therefore, strategic interaction may result. We formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning...

  13. Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magwood, W.; Keppler, J.H.; Paillere, Henri; ); Gogan, K.; Ben Naceur, K.; Baritaud, M.; ); Shropshire, D.; ); Wilmshurst, N.; Janssens, A.; Janes, J.; Urdal, H.; Finan, A.; Cubbage, A.; Stoltz, M.; Toni, J. de; Wasylyk, A.; Ivens, R.; Paramonov, D.; Franceschini, F.; Mundy, Th.; Kuran, S.; Edwards, L.; Kamide, H.; Hwang, I.; Hittner, D.; ); Levesque, C.; LeBlanc, D.; Redmond, E.; Rayment, F.; Faudon, V.; Finan, A.; Gauche, F.

    2017-04-01

    It is clear that future nuclear systems will operate in an environment that will be very different from the electricity systems that accompanied the fast deployment of nuclear power plants in the 1970's and 1980's. As countries fulfil their commitment to de-carbonise their energy systems, low-carbon sources of electricity and in particular variable renewables, will take large shares of the overall generation capacities. This is challenging since in most cases, the timescale for nuclear technology development is far greater than the speed at which markets and policy/regulation frameworks can change. Nuclear energy, which in OECD countries is still the largest source of low-carbon electricity, has a major role to play as a low-carbon dispatchable technology. In its 2 degree scenarios, the International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that nuclear capacity globally could reach over 900 GW by 2050, with a share of electricity generation rising from less than 11% today to about 16%. Nuclear energy could also play a role in the decarbonization of the heat sector, by targeting non-electric applications. The workshop discussed how energy systems are evolving towards low-carbon systems, what the future of energy market needs are, the changing regulatory framework from both the point of view of safety requirements and environmental constraints, and how reactor developers are taking these into account in their designs. In terms of technology, the scope covered all advanced reactor systems under development today, including evolutionary light water reactors (LWRs), small modular reactors (SMRs) - whether LWR technology-based or not, and Generation IV (Gen IV) systems. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) of the workshop

  14. Energy Efficiency Market Report 2013: Market Trends and Medium-Term Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy efficiency has been referred to as a ''hidden fuel'', one that extends energy supplies, increases energy security, lowers carbon emissions and generally supports sustainable economic growth. Yet it is hiding in plain sight: in 2011, investments in the energy efficiency market globally were at a similar scale to those in renewable energy or fossil-fuel power generation. The Energy Efficiency Market Report provides a practical basis for understanding energy efficiency market activities, a review of the methodological and practical challenges associated with measuring the market and its components, and statistical analysis of energy efficiency and its impact on energy demand. It also highlights a specific technology sector in which there is significant energy efficiency market activity, in this instance appliances and ICT. The report presents a selection of country case studies that illustrate current energy efficiency markets in specific sectors, and how they may evolve in the medium term. The energy efficiency market is diffuse, varied and involves all energy-consuming sectors of the economy. A comprehensive overview of market activity is complicated by the challenges associated with quantifying the components of the market and the paucity of comparable reported data. This report underscores how vital high-quality and timely energy efficiency data is to understanding this market.

  15. Environmental impact tool to assess national energy scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) in terms of environmental impacts. The system quantifies the national energy demand for the domestic, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture sectors, the supply of electricity and liquid fuels, and the resulting emissions. The South African...

  16. Backwardation in energy futures markets: Metalgesellschaft revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charupat, N.; Deaves, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy supply contracts negotiated by the US Subsidiary of Metalgesellschaft Refining and Marketing (MGRM), which were the subject of much subsequent debate, are re-examined. The contracts were hedged by the US Subsidiary barrel-for-barrel using short-dated energy derivatives. When the hedge program experienced difficulties, the derivatives positions were promptly liquidated by the parent company. Revisiting the MGRM contracts also provides the opportunity to explore the latest evidence on backwardation in energy markets. Accordingly, the paper discusses first the theoretical reasons for backwardation, followed by an empirical examination using the MGRM data available at the time of the hedge program in 1992 and a second set of data that became available in 2000. By using a more up-to-date data set covering a longer time period and by controlling the time series properties of the data, the authors expect to provide more reliable empirical evidence on the behaviour of energy futures prices. Results based on the 1992 data suggest that the strategy employed by MGRM could be expected to be profitable while the risks are relatively low. However, analysis based on the 2000 data shows lower, although still significant profits, but higher risks. The final conclusion was that the likelihood of problems similar to those faced by MGRM in 1992 are twice as high with the updated 2000 data, suggesting that the risk-return pattern of the stack-and-roll hedging strategy using short-dated energy future contracts to hedge long-tem contracts is less appealing now than when MGRM implemented its hedging program in 1992. 24 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  18. Investigating 100% renewable energy supply at regional level using scenario analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annicka Waenn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy modelling work in Ireland to date has mainly taken place at a national level. A regional modelling approach is necessary however, for Ireland to reach the ambitious targets for renewable energy and emissions reduction. This paper explores the usefulness of the energy modelling tool EnergyPLAN in investigating the energy system of the South West Region of Ireland. This paper estimates a 10.5% current renewable energy share of energy use, with 40% renewable electricity. We build and assess a reference scenario and three renewable energy scenarios from a technological and resources perspective. The results show that sufficient resources are available for the South West Region energy system to become 100% renewable and quantifies the land-use implications. Moreover, EnergyPLAN can be a useful tool in exploring different technical solutions. However, thorough investigations of as many alternatives as possible, is necessary before major investments are made in a future energy system.

  19. The energy consumption of traffic 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the traffic sector for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various energy levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. The areas examined include road, rail and air traffic as well as 'off-road' traffic. Infrastructure developments are commented on. The four scenarios are examined for various sensitivities including high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. Alternative fuels are looked at, as are further factors such as fuel tourism, pollutant emissions and costs. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report is completed with a comprehensive appendix

  20. Panorama 2014 - The energy scenarios put forward by the Ancre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The Alliance nationale de coordination de la recherche pour l'energie (Ancre), France's National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination which is made up of all of the country's public bodies involved in energy, wanted to contribute to the discussions that began within the framework of the debate initiated in autumn 2012 and as part of preparations for the law on energy transition. It wanted to do this by shedding some light (sharing its own expertise in research, technological development and innovation) on the various barriers (mainly of a technological nature) that will need to be overcome in order to reach the ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One of the aims was to assess the conditions required and the impacts of the various possible pathways for reaching this target. This approach sets out to shed light on options on the basis of efficiency criteria, both in terms of the energy policy and in terms of France's current economic and industrial situation. (author)

  1. Developing business in emerging biomass energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyszewski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Global market trends for forest products were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. The status of biomass energy products in relation to climate change and renewable energy portfolio standards was also examined. It was noted that China has increased investment in processing capacity and has increased imports of raw logs. India has doubled its imports of raw logs. Details of major tropical log producers and consumers were presented. Details of the biomass industry in the United States were presented, as well as data on fuel use at biomass energy plants and biomass energy capacity. An overview of biomass energy in the Russian far east and Siberia was presented, as well as details of activities and opportunities in Brazil and Indonesia. An economic analysis for small dry kilns was presented. Issues concerning boiler capacity in Russian companies for 2001-2005 were discussed. A case study of a biomass project from Congo was presented. It was noted that projects that replace fossil fuels can obtain revenues from the sale of carbon benefits, and that biomass energy offers the most attractive current option for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere. Details of a district heating project in Siberia were presented, and it was noted that in remote regions, costs for heat and power from biomass can be lower than costs from diesel and coal. It was concluded that there will be significant growth for biomass energy systems in the developing world, and that climate change will be an increasingly important element in advancing biomass energy. tabs., figs

  2. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark: IDA 2050, CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis), and Climate Commission 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy sectors. The methodologies used in two academic scenarios, IDA 2050 and CEESA, are compared. The main differences in the methodologies of IDA 2050 and CEESA are found in the estimation of future biomass potential, transport demand assessment, and a trial to examine future power grid in an electrical engineering perspective. The above-mentioned methodologies are compared in an evolutionary perspective to determine if the methodologies reflect the complex reality well. The results of the scenarios are also assessed within the framework of “radical technological change” in order to show which future scenario assumes more radical change within five dimensions of technology; technique, knowledge, organization, product, and profit. -- Highlights: ► Three future scenarios for Danish future in 2050 are compared. ► All of these scenarios suggest the same solutions for the future with minor differences. ► There are differences in methodologies for IDA 2050 and CEESA such as biomass, transport, and power grid. ► The contents of scenarios are assessed which scenario assume more radical technological change in the future.

  3. 2050 pathway to an active renewable energy scenario for Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, Jiangsu province of China supplied 99.6 percent of its total energy consumption with fossil fuels, of which 82 percent was imported from other provinces and countries. With rising energy demand, frequent energy shortages, and increasing pollution, it is essential for Jiangsu to put more emphasis on improving its energy efficiency and utilizing its renewable resources in the future. This paper presents the integrated energy pathway for Jiangsu during its social and economic transformation until 2050. EnergyPLAN is the chosen energy system analysis tool, since it accounts for all sectors of the energy system that needs to be considered when integrating large-scale renewable energy. A current policy scenario (CPS) based on current energy policies and an ambitious policy scenario (APS) based on large-scale integration of renewable energy and ambitious measures of energy efficiency improvement are proposed. The two energy pathways are modeled and compared in terms of technology combination, non-fossil fuel shares of primary energy supply, socioeconomic costs, and CO 2 emissions. The insights from these pathways can provide valuable input for Jiangsu's future energy policies. - Highlights: ► An integrated energy pathway is designed for Jiangsu province by 2050. ► A current policy scenario and an ambitious policy scenario are modeled and assessed. ► The ambitious policy scenario can help stabilize CO 2 emissions and achieve better economy. ► The next 5–10 years would be a key period for Jiangsu's energy system transition. ► Several policy suggestions have been proposed.

  4. Four essays on market power in energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Petter Vegard

    2008-07-01

    Market power in energy markets is discussed intensively in both academic and public arenas. There has been an intense energy debate on market power at least since the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) exercised its market power and caused the 'oil crisis' of the 1970s, and again following the deregulation of electricity markets at the beginning of the 1990s. However, this debate is not new. In 1911, for example, the US Supreme Court divided Standard Oil into 34 separate companies using antitrust law. With increasing energy prices and the ongoing process of liberalization of electricity markets throughout the world, the topic is still relevant for future markets. The four essays in this dissertation discuss specific aspects of market power in energy markets. The first essay concerns the crude oil market, and the remaining three essays relate to market power in the Nordic and Norwegian electricity markets. In the first essay, a multi-equation dynamic econometric model tests whether the behaviour of OPEC, as a whole or as different subgroups, is consistent with the behaviour of dominant producers in the world crude oil market. The second essay is a theoretical work that introduces uncertainty in inflow to the discussion of market power in hydropower markets by analysing the effects of uncertainty in inflow on market performance under alternative assumptions about market structure. In the third essay, high-frequency data are used to analyse how price signals from the spot market affect end-user demand in the Norwegian and Swedish electricity markets. Finally, in the fourth essay, retailer and household behaviour in the Norwegian electricity market are analysed using detailed information on prices and other market characteristics. In the following section, I provide highlights from a general discussion of market power in order to set the essays included in this dissertation in context. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Energy market review releases draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Market Review Releases draft report has made recommendations consistent with the Australian Gas Association (AGA)'s submissions in a number of areas. In particular, it has endorsed: 1. the need for an independent review of the gas access regime, to address the deficiencies with current access regulation identified by the Productivity Commission's Review of the National Access Regime; 2. the need for greater upstream gas market competition; 3. the principle that significant regulatory decisions should be subject to clear merits and judicial review; and 4. the need to avoid restrictions on retail energy prices. The report also endorses the need for a 'technology neutral' approach to greenhouse emissions abatement policy. It states that 'many of the current measures employed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are poorly targeted', and that they 'target technologies or fuel types rather than greenhouse gas abatement.' Additionally, it explicitly recognises the key conclusions of the AGA's recently-released Research Paper, Reducing Greenhouse Emissions from Water Heating: Natural Gas as a Cost-effective Option. The draft report recommends the development of an economy-wide emissions trading system, to achieve a more cost-effective approach to greenhouse abatement

  6. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  7. vNet Zero Energy for Radio Base Stations- Balearic Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabater, Pere; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Pol, Andreu Moia

    2016-01-01

    The Balearic Islands have one of the best telecommunications infrastructures in Spain, with more than 1500 Radio Base Stations (RBS) covering a total surface of 4.991,66 km². This archipelago has high energy consumption, with high CO2 emissions, due to an electrical energy production system mainly...... based on coal and fossil fuels which is not an environmentally sustainable scenario. The aim of this study is to identify the processes that would reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, designing a target scenario featuring "zero CO2 emissions" and "100% renewable energies" in RBS....... The energy costs, CO2 emissions and data traffic data used for the study are generated by a sample of RBS from the Balearic Islands. The results are shown in terms of energy performance for a normal and net zero emissions scenarios....

  8. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    . This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios...... for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than...

  9. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  10. Using scenarios of North Slope energy and resource development to assess research and monitoring needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Significant Arctic environmental and socio-economic change has been observed on the North Slope of Alaska, presenting challenges for resident communities and management agencies that need to adapt to future changes that are difficult to model or predict. Continued climate change coupled with new or modified energy development could substantially alter the landscape and ecosystem in the future. The North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) recognized the value of using a participatory scenarios process to consider plausible future energy and resource development scenarios through the year 2040 to help identify and prioritize research and monitoring needs on the North Slope. The scenarios process engaged diverse stakeholders, including subject matter experts and local knowledge holders. Through identification and ranking of key drivers and uncertainties relevant to the focus of the study, a series of spatially explicit scenarios was developed, analyzed in terms of low, medium and high development activities. Climate change and economic factors were key drivers affecting plausible energy development scenarios. The implications from each of the scenarios were then used to identify important research and monitoring activities and their relevant spatial scales. The scenarios project identified over 40 research and monitoring needs. The top five research needs addressed data gaps and key concerns related to how the scenarios could affect: hunting and trapping on land, health and community well-being, permafrost and hydrology, marine mammal subsistence and potential marine oil spills. The use of a participatory scenarios process was essential for identifying a range of plausible energy and resource development scenarios using a framework that involved a systematic assessment of complex interacting drivers of change, consideration of key uncertainties, and transparency throughout the project.

  11. The competitive environment of the North American energy marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkin, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Various issues regarding U.S. wholesale energy marketing were discussed with particular emphasis on how energy marketing is changing industries in North America. In 1998, the energy industry reported a growth in revenue of 26 per cent despite declining natural gas prices. It was emphasized that several major competitive issues need to be addressed by industry competitors in order to operate in this unpredictable market. These issues include profitability, market volatility and mergers and acquisitions. This paper presented a list of the top 10 North American Energy marketers in 1998. Although the number of marketers in the energy sector continues to grow, it is expected that the numbers will decline significantly within three years. This will be due mostly to the continuation of major mergers and acquisitions. It was concluded that in general, energy marketing may become an even more attractive industry because of increasing operating margins. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H

    2014-04-18

    We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14  eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant β>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of λ=20  μm (95% C.L.).

  13. Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Lombardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts.

  14. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Rainbow to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a two-year... is a power marketer authorized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to sell energy, capacity...

  15. An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Björn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  16. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  17. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  18. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. Energy scenario; Perspectives energetiques de la France a l'horizon 2020-2050. Scenarios energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The aim of the working group was to realize quantitative approaches of the french energy system by 2020-2050 supporting the reflexions of the Energy Commission. The presented scenario are not prevision of the future. They just allow, in function of the hypothesis and the models used, to establish an approach of the consequences in term of the final energy demand. Two simulation tools were used and described in the chapter 3: Medpro-Poles and Markal-Times. The scenario are analyzed in the chapters 4 and 5. Results allow to see how the proposed measures are sufficient to reach in France the main objectives proposed by the european union. (A.L.B.)

  19. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  20. The energy consumption of the services and farming sectors 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebischer, B.; Catenazzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the services sector and for farming for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, CO 2 levy, high prices and warmer climate. The models and methods used are examined and examples of their use are quoted. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  1. Multi-criteria ranking of energy generation scenarios with Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baležentis, Tomas; Streimikiene, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two advanced optimization models were applied for EU energy policy scenarios development. • Several advanced MCDA were applied for energy policy scenarios ranking: WASPAS, ARAS, TOPSIS. • A Monte Carlo simulation was applied for sensitivity analysis of scenarios ranking. • New policy insights in terms of energy scenarios forecasting were provided based on research conducted. - Abstract: Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are omnipresent in energy policy analysis. Even though IAMs can successfully handle uncertainty pertinent to energy planning problems, they render multiple variables as outputs of the modelling. Therefore, policy makers are faced with multiple energy development scenarios and goals. Specifically, technical, environmental, and economic aspects are represented by multiple criteria, which, in turn, are related to conflicting objectives. Preferences of decision makers need to be taken into account in order to facilitate effective energy planning. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools are relevant in aggregating diverse information and thus comparing alternative energy planning options. The paper aims at ranking European Union (EU) energy development scenarios based on several IAMs with respect to multiple criteria. By doing so, we account for uncertainty surrounding policy priorities outside the IAM. In order to follow a sustainable approach, the ranking of policy options is based on EU energy policy priorities: energy efficiency improvements, increased use of renewables, reduction in and low mitigations costs of GHG emission. The ranking of scenarios is based on the estimates rendered by the two advanced IAMs relying on different approaches, namely TIAM and WITCH. The data are fed into the three MCDM techniques: the method of weighted aggregated sum/product assessment (WASPAS), the Additive Ratio Assessment (ARAS) method, and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). As MCDM techniques allow

  2. Scenarios of application of energy certification procedure for residential buildings in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, R.; Mourtada, A.; Guarracino, G.; Adra, N.; Nasser, M.; Maamari, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a French-Lebanese scientific cooperation, between 2001 and 2005, about 'Rational use of energy in the residential buildings in Lebanon and adaptation of an energy certification procedure'. The aim of this project is to promote the energy efficiency in the existing residential buildings in Lebanon, using an energy certification procedure, and to evaluate the energy certification foresight with prospective methods. The paper first describes an energy investigation in Lebanese residential buildings, and the energy certification procedure. It presents the foresight methodology implemented to identify the key variables and the actors. Finally, the paper exposes the morphological method which allows to elaborate three scenarios of energy performance certification. These scenarios are presented in order to provide a decision making for the actors of the Lebanese energy policy

  3. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  4. Security of supply in the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffa, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The incentive schemes in the liberalized energy markets do not ensure short-term security of supply. The paper analyzes the regulatory measures suitable to tackle the issue, and evaluates their effects on market power [it

  5. CEESA 100% Renewable Energy Transport Scenarios towards 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik

    the availability of sustainable resources. The results indicate that electricity should be prioritised as much as is economically possible in the transport sector, which is primarily for cars and rail. Other modes, such as trucks, ships, and aeroplanes will require fuels with a high energy density. Replacing oil...... in these modes with existing biofuels is likely to result in an over-consumption of biomass, thus resulting in an unsustainable solution. In this study, new electrofuel pathways are created outlining how electricity can be combined with biomass to create new fuels for these modes. The amount of electrofuel...

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  7. Uranium resources, scenarios, nuclear and energy dynamics - 5200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidaud, A.; Mima, S.; Criqui, P.; Gabriel, S.; Monnet, A.; Mathonniere, G.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new model of the impact of uranium scarcity on the development of nuclear reactors. A dynamic simulation of coupled supply and demand of energy, resources and nuclear reactors is done with the global model Prospective Outlook for Long Term Energy Supply (POLES) over this century. In this model, both electricity demand and uranium supply are not independent of the cost of all base load electricity suppliers. Only two nuclear reactor types are modeled in POLES. Globally one has the characteristics of a Thermal Neutron Reactor (TR) and the other one has the ones of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). The results show that If both generations of nuclear reactors can be competitive with other sources, we see that in many countries their development would probably be limited by the availability of natural and recycled materials. Depending on the locally available alternative (hydro, coal) and local regulatory framework (safety and waste management for nuclear reactors but also environmental constraints such as CO 2 targets), both nuclear technologies could be developed. The advantage of the new model is that it avoids the difficult question of defining 'ultimate resources'. The drawback is that it needs a description of the volume of uranium resources but also of the link between the cost and the potential production capacities of these resources

  8. Preparing Europe for a single market in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    By the end of 1992 a ''single market'' in the European Community should be in place. While the energy sector was not included in the ''White Paper'' which planned the single market, it soon became obvious that it could not be excluded. The single market in energy is intended to integrate energy supply in the member states and remove barriers to trade. It has been calculated that these barriers cost the Community 20-30 billion ecus ($15-20 billion) every year. Removing the barriers will result in much greater competition within the energy market. The Commission published a working document, the internal energy market, in May 1988. This report described the real and potential obstacles to the single energy market for each of the principal energy sources and suggested priorities which should be addressed. The strategy suggested in the report is outlined here, and recent developments briefly reviewed. (author)

  9. The 2 oC scenario-A sustainable world energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Simon, Sonja; Graus, Wina; Teske, Sven; Zervos, Arthouros; Schaefer, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    A target-oriented scenario of future energy demand and supply is developed in a backcasting process. The main target is to reduce global CO 2 emissions to around 10 Gt/a in 2050, thus limiting global average temperature increase to 2 o C and preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. A 10-region energy system model is used for simulating global energy supply strategies. A review of sector and region-specific energy efficiency measures resulted in the specification of a global energy demand scenario incorporating strong energy efficiency measures. The corresponding supply scenario has been developed in an iterative process in close cooperation with stakeholders and regional counterparts from academia, NGOs and the renewable energy industry. The 2 o C scenario shows that renewable energy could provide as much as half of the world's energy needs by 2050. Developing countries can virtually stabilise their CO 2 emissions, while at the same time increasing energy consumption through economic growth. OECD countries will be able to reduce their emissions by up to 80%

  10. Transport energy demand in Andorra. Assessing private car futures through sensitivity and scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Gallachóir, Brian P.Ó.; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model which estimates current car fleet energy consumption in Andorra and forecasts such consumption as a reference scenario. The base-year model is built through a bottom-up methodology using vehicle registration and technical inspection data. The model forecasts energy consumption up to 2050, taking into account the fleet structure, the car survival profile, trends in activity of the various car categories, and the fuel price and income elasticities that affect car stock and total fleet activity. It provides an initial estimate of private car energy demand in Andorra and charts a baseline scenario that describes a hypothetical future based on historical trends. A local sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most sensitive input parameters and study the effect of its variability. In addition, the scenario analysis explores the most uncertain future aspects which can cause important variability in the results with respect to the Reference scenario and provides a broad estimate of potential energy savings related to different policy strategies. - Highlights: •A private car energy model is built using aggregated available data. •Andorra's current car fleet energy consumption is estimated and forecasted to 2050. •Potential energy savings have been estimated using sensitivity and scenario analysis.

  11. Assessment of the potential future market in Sweden for hydrogen as an energy carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleson, G.

    Future hydrogen markets for the period 1980-2025 are projected, the probable range of hydrogen production costs for various manufacturing methods is estimated, and expected market shares in competition with alternative energy carriers are evaluated. A general scenario for economic and industrial development in Sweden for the given period was evaluated, showing the average increase in gross national product to become 1.6% per year. Three different energy scenarios were then developed: alternatives were based on nuclear energy, renewable indigenous energy sources, and the present energy situation with free access to imported natural or synthetic fuels. An analysis was made within each scenario of the competitiveness of hydrogen on both the demand and the supply of the following sectors: chemical industry, steel industry, peak power production, residential and commercial heating, and transportation. Costs were calculated for the production, storage and transmission of hydrogen according to technically feasible methods and were compared to those of alternative energy carriers. Health, environmental and societal implications were also considered. The market penetration of hydrogen in each sector was estimated, and the required investment capital was shown to be less than 4% of the national gross investment sum.

  12. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may

  13. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  14. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, a technological change towards cleaner energy technologies has been developed and implemented since around 1975. This development has had two phases: The first from 1975 until around 1996, when wind power was a niche production that supplied only 3.5% of the electricity consumption and was brought close to cost competitiveness, and the present second phase, in which wind power supplies an increasing share (in 2004 18.6%) of electricity consumption along with combined heat and power plants, which supply around 50% of consumption. Denmark succeeded in overcoming the first phase, and a large green energy technology cluster was established. During the second phase, new difficulties and challenges have arisen, both with regard to local public acceptance and the need for integrating an increasing percentage of fluctuating energy sources into the energy system. In this Phase 2, a new offensive green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system

  15. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  16. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  17. Using energy storage for strategic advantage in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Symons, P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy storage products are emerging for use in power quality, electric transmission and distribution, and renewable energy applications. Despite this emergence into high-value markets, widespread market penetration will only occur when the value of the services that energy storage products can deliver are clearly delineated. The emergence of competitive electricity markets will more clearly define the flexible benefits of energy storage devices. This paper presents a summary of the ESA's position of the status of energy storage technologies, the market barriers, and steps the ESA is undertaking to reduce these barriers. (author)

  18. Benefits for whom? Energy efficiency within the efficient market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chello, Dario

    2015-01-01

    How should the lack of an efficient energy market affect the design of energy efficiency policies and their implementation? What the consequences of an inefficient energy market on end users’ behaviour? This article tries to give an answer to such questions, by considering the decision making of domestic users following a few fundamental concepts of behavioural economics. The mechanism of price formation in the market, with particular reference to the internal energy market in Europe, will be examined and we will show that price remains the inflexible attribute in making an energy choice. Then, some conclusions will be addressed to policy makers on how to overcome the barriers illustrated.

  19. The challenges of energy markets in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, D.

    1999-01-01

    The transition period includes the processes as follows: liberalization, deregulation, privatization and restructuring. Liberalization consists of multiple changes: 1. Ownership - from public to private; 2. Industry structure - from vertically integrated to unbundled; 3. Market competition - from monopoly to competitive; 4. Product-mix - from single to multi-products; 5. Market approach - from service to product (wholesale); 6. System management - from self-managed to decentralized; 7. Planning horizon - from long to short term and 8. Participants - from national to trans-national. The energy sector is to ensure a reliable, long-term supply of energy in sufficient quantities at affordable prices from processes that are compatible with prudent environmental standards. The evolutionary model of an energy utility foresees a transition from traditional utility (integrated monopoly utility) through local wholesale trading and partial competition (competition for large customers) to competition for all customers and to redefined utilities (bundling multi-product services). Substantial liberalization of electricity have taken place as follows: in 6 countries in Western Europe and 12 plan to do it; in 4 countries in Eastern Europe and 8 - plan to do it; in 2 countries in Asia and Australasia and 12 plan to do it; in 4 countries in South America and 3 plan to do it. There is no liberalization of electricity in Central and North America till now but 6 in Central and 3 in North America plan to do it in future. Substantial liberalization of downstream gas have taken place: only in one country in Western Europe but 6 plan to do it in future; also in one country in Asia and Australasia and 3 plan to do it; in one country in South America and 2 plan to do it and in two countries in North America and only one plan to do it in future. The goals of liberalization include: reducing the cost of energy; improving economic efficiency; attracting capitals and paying off government debt

  20. Interactions between the German Electricity Spot Market and the Reserve Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Bernhardt

    2005-01-01

    Eight years after market opening, Germany has well established spot and future markets for electricity. Besides OTC and Internet broker platforms the main market place is the European Energy Exchange in Leipzig (EEX) with its spot and future market. Less known is the reserve energy market in Germany. The four German transmission system operators (TSOs) EnBW, EON, RWE and Vattenfall purchase network services on the reserve energy market. Products with specific technical requirements are primary, secondary and tertiary reserve. (Details about the technical requirements and typical means for providing the required services will be presented.) Each TSO organises a separate auction for these products - for primary and secondary reserve half-yearly, for tertiary reserve daily. Due to the technical requirements the liquidity on these markets is limited, but especially on the tertiary reserve market it is recently growing significantly due to new participants marketing several smaller municipal and industrial reserve power plants as combined bids which meet the 30 MW min. capacity requirement. Every power plant or interruptible load could not only be offered as capacity on the reserve market but could also be dispatched for the spot market. Therefore the developments of prices on these markets are not independent and opportunity costs against the spot market can be estimated for different type of plants bidding in the reserve market. Another interaction between reserve and spot market is caused by the balancing price system in Germany. Prices for balancing energy meeting deviations between load, trading balance and production of a market participant are based on quarter-hourly reserve energy costs encountered by the TSO. As unbiased load and production forecasts are not strictly enforced by the TSOs so far, part of the planned demand could be met with balancing energy if EEX spot market prices rise above expected balancing energy prices. This interrelationship has a

  1. CMB lensing constraints on dark energy and modified gravity scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Cooray, Asantha; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Slosar, Anze; Smoot, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing leaves a characteristic imprint on the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization angular power spectra. Here, we investigate the possible constraints on the integrated lensing potential from future cosmic microwave background angular spectra measurements expected from Planck and EPIC. We find that Planck and EPIC will constrain the amplitude of the integrated projected potential responsible for lensing at 6% and 1% level, respectively, with very little sensitivity to the shape of the lensing potential. We discuss the implications of such a measurement in constraining dark energy and modified gravity scalar-tensor theories. We then discuss the impact of a wrong assumption on the weak lensing potential amplitude on cosmological parameter inference.

  2. Energy Data Management (EDM) in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbricht, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the role of Energy Data Management (EDM) in a liberalised Swiss energy market in the light of increasing international dynamics in this area. The requirements placed on such EDM systems are reviewed and the changes necessary in the structures and processes of electricity supply organisations are discussed. A possible design for future software systems is presented. Such systems have to be flexible enough to cover various structural possibilities as Swiss legislation on the subject has not yet been passed. The handling of data on energy-flow balances when third-party power is transferred in shared mains systems is discussed and scheduling aspects of power generation and transmission are looked at. The billing of power to customers with a free choice of supplier is looked at, as is the situation involving utilities that supply not only electricity but gas, district heating and water too

  3. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  4. Capacity adequacy in power markets facing energy transition: A comparison of scarcity pricing and capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how a capacity mechanism can address security of supply objectives in a power market undergoing an energy transition that combines energy efficiency efforts to stabilise demand and a rapid increase in the proportion of renewables. To analyse this situation, power markets are simulated over the long term with a System Dynamics model integrating new investment and closure decisions. This last trait is relevant to studying investment in power generation in mature markets undergoing policy shocks. The energy-only market design with a price cap, with and without a capacity mechanism, is compared to scarcity pricing in two investment behaviour scenarios with and without risk aversion. The results show that the three market designs lead to different levels of risk for peaking unit investment and results thus differ according to which risk aversion hypothesis is adopted. Assuming a risk-neutral investor, the results indicate that compared to an energy-only market with a price cap at 3 000 €/MWh, an energy-only market with scarcity pricing and the market design with a capacity mechanism are two efficient options to reach similar levels of load loss. But under the hypothesis of risk aversion, the results highlight the advantage of the capacity mechanism over scarcity pricing. - Highlights: • Investment decisions in electricity markets are simulated by a System Dynamics model. • Capacity mechanism enhances capacity adequacy compared to the energy-only market. • With no risk aversion, capacity mechanism or scarcity pricing provide similar results. • With risk aversion, capacity mechanism appears to be the preferable market design.

  5. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  6. New ways for the integrated appraisal of national energy scenarios: The case of renewable energy use in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Kowalski, Katharina; Stagl, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources in heat and electricity production is a nationally and internationally acknowledged aim for sustainable development. In this context, the participatory development and appraisal of energy scenarios can be useful for enabling stakeholders to explore future energy options and for supporting the national policy discourse. The five renewable energy scenarios considered refer to Austria in the year 2020. The innovative methodology applied, which was developed as part of the ARTEMIS project, examines possible energy futures paths by combining (1) scenario development; (2) multi-criteria evaluation; and (3) a participatory process with stakeholders and energy experts on the national level. Economic, social, environmental and technological impacts as well as revealed social preferences are used for the ranking of the scenarios. Due to the paramount importance of bioenergy in Austria, special emphasis in the scenario development is put on the contribution of biomass. Two main bioenergy issues and their consideration in the ARTEMIS project are explicitly addressed in this paper: the cascadic utilisation of biomass resources and the demand for land area and land area conflicts. Overall, we demonstrate how the methodology can be applied in practice and what insights policy-makers can gain from it. We also explore the methodology's limitations, especially regarding the effort required for participatory scenario building and the availability of stakeholders

  7. A nonparametric approach for evaluating long-term energy policy scenarios: An application to the Greek energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos; Tzeremes, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This paper by using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) constructs four different renewable energy scenarios for the Greek transport, energy, and industry sectors. By projecting the demand for renewable energy and the associated resulting carbon dioxide emissions up to the years 2020 and 2030, the paper applies in a second stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) evaluating the Greek renewable energy policy. As a result, it provides a quantitative measure for future renewable e...

  8. A novel method for energy harvesting simulation based on scenario generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Taoshen; Xiao, Nan; Ye, Jin; Wu, Min

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting network (EHN) is a new form of computer networks. It converts ambient energy into usable electric energy and supply the electrical energy as a primary or secondary power source to the communication devices. However, most of the EHN uses the analytical probability distribution function to describe the energy harvesting process, which cannot accurately identify the actual situation for the lack of authenticity. We propose an EHN simulation method based on scenario generation in this paper. Firstly, instead of setting a probability distribution in advance, it uses optimal scenario reduction technology to generate representative scenarios in single period based on the historical data of the harvested energy. Secondly, it uses homogeneous simulated annealing algorithm to generate optimal daily energy harvesting scenario sequences to get a more accurate simulation of the random characteristics of the energy harvesting network. Then taking the actual wind power data as an example, the accuracy and stability of the method are verified by comparing with the real data. Finally, we cite an instance to optimize the network throughput, which indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method we proposed from the optimal solution and data analysis in energy harvesting simulation.

  9. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Electricity Generation Scenarios for Sustainable Energy Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Hussain Mirjat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The now over a decade-long electricity crisis in Pakistan has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country. This situation is mainly due to a lack of sustainable energy planning and policy formulation. In this context, energy models can be of great help but only a handful of such efforts have been undertaken in Pakistan. Two key shortcomings pertaining to energy models lead to their low utilization in developing countries. First, the models do not effectively make decisions, but rather provide a set of alternatives based on modeling parameters; and secondly, the complexity of these models is often poorly understood by the decision makers. As such, in this study, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP methodology of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM has been used for the sustainability assessment of energy modeling results for long-term electricity planning. The four scenario alternatives developed in the energy modeling effort, Reference (REF, Renewable Energy Technologies (RET, Clean Coal Maximum (CCM and Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EEC, have been ranked using the Expert Choice® tool based on the AHP methodology. The AHP decision support framework of this study revealed the EEC scenario as the most favorable electricity generation scenario followed by the REF, RET and CCM scenarios. Besides that, this study proposes policy recommendations to undertake integrated energy modeling and decision analysis for sustainable energy planning in Pakistan.

  10. Scenario for Precision Beam Energy Calibration in FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Koop, I A

    2015-01-01

    The resonance depolarization method was very successfully used in the experiments at LEP, where the mass of the Z-boson was determined with the relative uncertainty [1, 2]. In the future FCC-ee circular electron-positron collider the luminosity at Z-peak (beam energy 45.5 GeV) is expected be 4-5 orders of magnitude higher and one goal is to perform the same experiments as at LEP, but with much greater accuracy, approaching the level of [3]. Obviously this can be done only by measuring the spin precession frequency. But there are many problems which still need to be solved on the way towards a complete design. The first one: the self-polarization takes too long a time. The Sokolov-Ternov polarization time is about 250 hours at Z-peak. One approach is to install the special field-asymmetric polarizing wigglers to make the self-polarization time much shorter [4, 5] and to utilize only few percent of the polarization degree to measure the resonance spin precession frequency. But these very strong wigglers substan...

  11. Emerging Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the attributes of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. These attributes are unbundled from the physical electricity, and the two products-the attributes embodied in the certificates and the commodity electricity-may be sold or traded separately. RECs are quickly becoming the currency of renewable energy markets because of their flexibility and the fact that they are not subject to the geographic and physical limitations of commodity electricity. RECs are currently used by utilities and marketers to supply renewable energy products to end-use customers as well as to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, such as renewable energy mandates. The purpose of this report is to describe and analyze the emerging market for renewable energy certificates. It describes how RECs are marketed, examines RECs markets including scope and prices, and identifies and describes the key challenges facing the growth and success of RECs markets.

  12. Market survey Austria. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Austria has a well developed bioenergy infrastructure as regards solid biomass and a strong growth in the biogas and biofuel sector. The results of a SWOT analysis show the major issues for the development in each of these sectors now and in the short to medium-term future. Based on the SWOT analyses the following conclusions are formulated: (1)The development of the wood biomass sector in Austria is successful. This can be seen from the point of view of the end user, biomass for heating in single houses as well in district heating systems is very widely spread. This created opportunities for Austrian firms producing biomass technology, now having a large market and expending abroad. This development creates, however, major challenges for players from other countries like the Netherlands. It may be difficult to enter this market, unless one offers a cheaper product with the same quality or finding a niche market with a new unique product; (2) The growth of the wood biomass application for heat and electricity has led to the occurrence of another problem, a competition for wood as resource between the energy sector and other applications as pulp and paper industry. Wood imports are nowadays increasing but in the longer term Austria cannot rely on that because of the growing biomass use in neighbouring countries. Austria will therefore have to look for ways how to optimise biomass use for the energy sector and increasing the use of other fuels like straw and other forms of agricultural waste: (3) The production of biogas presents a number of new applications, production of renewable electricity, production of biogas for the transport sector as well as the possibility to inject cleaned biogas into the natural gas grid. In the short term, production of renewable electricity is the most promising for investors as feed-in tariffs are available for these projects. The other applications are still in a pilot phase but may become interesting in the coming years; (4) The

  13. Recycling energy taxes. Impacts on a disaggregated labour market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosello, F.; Carraro, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of energy taxes whose revenue is recycled to reduce gross wages and increase employment. The main novel feature of this paper, is the attempt to assess the effectiveness of this fiscal reform by using a labour market model in which both skilled and unskilled workers are used in the production process. This segmentation enables us to compare a policy which aims at reducing unskilled workers' wages, as in the original Delors' White book, with a policy in which the environmental fiscal revenue is used to reduce the gross wage of all workers. Moreover, two policy scenarios will be considered. A non-co-operative one in which each country determines the optimal domestic energy tax to achieve a given employment target and a co-operative one, in which the energy taxes are harmonised to equalise marginal abatement costs in the EU and in which the employment target is set for the EU. Our results show that: (1) an employment double dividend can be achieved in the short run only, even if a trade-off between environment and employment always exists; (2) the effect on employment is larger when the fiscal revenue is recycled into all workers' gross wages rather than into unskilled workers only; (3) a co-operative policy leads to even larger benefits in terms of employment provided that an adequate redistribution of fiscal revenues is adopted by EU countries

  14. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  15. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  16. Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future: Interlaboratory Working Group on Energy-Efficient and Clean-Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-12-18

    This study estimates the potential for public policies and R and D programs to foster clean energy technology solutions to the energy and environmental challenges facing the nation. These challenges include global climate change, air pollution, oil dependence, and inefficiencies in the production and use of energy. The study uses a scenario-based approach to examine alternative portfolios of public policies and technologies. Although the report makes no policy recommendations, it does present policies that could lead to impressive advances in the development and deployment of clean energy technologies without significant net economic impacts. Appendices are available electronically at: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/29379appendices.pdf (6.4 MB).

  17. Design of energy markets and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.; Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of competition in electricity and gas markets has necessitated the creation of new markets, power pools and financial markets. Such markets are well known from other industries (e.g. oil) but have not been applied for the gas and electricity industries during the monopoly era. To which extent can market design applied elsewhere be transferred to gas and electricity and to which extent must they be modified? The interest in new market designs has recently been extended to environmentally goals, but existing policies to encourage them are considered inefficient and a burden for the state budget. This conference brings some of these subjects into focus. (au)

  18. Renewable energy technology portfolio planning with scenario analysis: A case study for Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-Y.; Yu, Oliver S.; Hsu, George Jyh-yih; Hsu, Fang-Ming; Sung, W.-N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study of applying a systematic and proven process of technology portfolio planning with the use of scenario analysis to renewable energy developments in Taiwan. The planning process starts with decision