WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy life engine

  1. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  2. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Kramer, K.J.; Abbott, R.P.; Morris, K.R.; DeMuth, J.; Divol, L.; El-Dasher, B.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G.; Reyes, S.; Moses, G.A.; Fratoni, M.; Flowers, D.; Aceves, S.; Rhodes, M.; Kane, J.; Scott, H.; Kramer, R.; Pantano, C.; Scullard, C.; Sawicki, R.; Wilks, S.; Mehl, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  3. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  4. Emerging engineering and energy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil

    2007-01-01

    Engineers today are in an enviable position to channelise new knowledge and evolving technologies through their innovative engineering abilities to create wealth and improve quality of life of our people. Talking in terms of energy, the energy associated with nucleus being millions-fold higher than that associated with a molecule, nuclear energy provides an inevitable sustainable option that can provide for all without any significant environmental impact. Here, we thus have a mission which can provide us with solutions which the scientists and engineers must come together and implement

  5. Life-cycle energy optimisation : A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Göransson, Peter; Funazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Edlund, Stefan; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lundow, Jan-Olov; Cerin, Pontus; Cameron, Christopher J.; Wennhage, Per; Potting, José

    2016-01-01

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately...

  6. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  7. Effective Integration of Life Cycle Engineering in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; Toxopeus, Marten E.; Lutters, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    In practice, applying life cycle engineering in product design and development requires an integrated approach, because of the many stakeholders and variables (e.g. cost, environmental impact, energy, safety, quality) involved in a complete product life cycle. In educating young engineers, the same

  8. Energy and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasten, Cesar; Santamarina, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Energy is required to sustain life. A human-centered analysis of the worldwide energy situation is conducted in terms of quality of life-related variables that are affected, but not directly determined, by energy consumption. Data since 1980 show a continuous global increase in both energy consumption and quality of life, and lower population growth in countries with higher quality of life. Based on these trends, we advance non-linear energy consumption predictions and identify various plausible scenarios to optimally steer future energy demands, in order to maximize quality of life. The scenarios consider the coupling between energy consumption rate per capita, quality of life, population growth, social inequality, and governments’ energy-for-life efficiency. The results show the energy cost of increasing quality of life in the developing world, energy savings that can be realized by limiting overconsumption without impacting quality of life, and the role of governments on increasing energy-for-life efficiency and reducing social inequality. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption is inherently coupled to quality of life and population growth. ► Limiting overconsumption can keep 2040 energy consumption at 2010 levels. ► Restricting population growth has a minor effect on future energy demand. ► Social inequality reduction increases quality of life with a minor energy use. ► Increasing energy-for-life efficiency can keep 2040 energy use at 2010 levels.

  9. Energy-Aware Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Kerstin; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of energy in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems can be wasted by software, regardless of how energy-efficient the underlying hardware is. To avoid such waste, programmers need to understand the energy consumption of programs during the development process rather......, the chapter discusses how energy analysis and modelling techniques can be incorporated in software engineering tools, including existing compilers, to assist the energy-aware programmer to optimise the energy consumption of code....

  10. Energy cable engineering. Energiekabeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecking, H W

    1981-01-01

    This textbook intends to explain cable elements and common cable constructions according to VDE, and in a second part, to review the theoretical fundamentals and their consequences with a view to the construction of cables for higher voltages and powers. It will give the student a picture of the variety of problems and solutions which make cable engineering so interesting and show the practising engineer how to derive a theoretical system from their extensive everyday experience.

  11. Engineers, energy and public concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture points out that the majority of engineers are content to allow their profession to be undervalued in the eyes of society. On many issues, energy in particular, the engineer has an authoritative voice to speak with, and an incisive point to argue. U.K. energy policy is discussed and a programme is suggested to include breeder reactors and generation of 60% of the electricity demand by nuclear stations by A.D. 2000. (U.K.)

  12. Life explained by heat engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.W.J.; Seckbach, J.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are in essence fuel cells that use organics as reductant and oxygen as oxidant. In engineering, increasing attention is being given to the replacement of the internal combustion engine by the fuel cell. According to the Thermosynthesis theory, a similar replacement of heat engines by

  13. Thermal and Mechanical Design Aspects of the LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, R P; Gerhard, M A; Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Morris, K R; Peterson, P F; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-25

    The Laser Inertial confinement fusion - Fission Energy (LIFE) engine encompasses the components of a LIFE power plant responsible for converting the thermal energy of fusion and fission reactions into electricity. The design and integration of these components must satisfy a challenging set of requirements driven by nuclear, thermal, geometric, structural, and materials considerations. This paper details a self-consistent configuration for the LIFE engine along with the methods and technologies selected to meet these stringent requirements. Included is discussion of plant layout, coolant flow dynamics, fuel temperatures, expected structural stresses, power cycle efficiencies, and first wall survival threats. Further research and to understand and resolve outstanding issues is also outlined.

  14. MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the life sciences have embraced simulation as an important tool in biomedical research. Engineers are also using simulation as a powerful step in the design process. In both arenas, Matlab has become the gold standard. It is easy to learn, flexible, and has a large and growing userbase. MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences is a self-guided tour of the basic functionality of MATLAB along with the functions that are most commonly used in biomedical engineering and other life sciences. Although the text is written for undergraduates, graduate students and academics, those

  15. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  16. Energy for life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbloom, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' The production of liquid fuels, whether based on petroleum or renewable feedstock requires heat, electricity, water and possibly hydrogen. Nuclear energy can provide all of these. Nuclear energy need not be viewed as competing with fossil or renewable sources. On the contrary, nuclear energy can be coupled to renewable and fossil fuel production thereby deferring huge amounts of fossil fuel use and CO 2 emissions from these other industries in converting feedstocks into liquid fuels. This maximizes the liquid fuel production per ton of feedstock. There is some experience in this option. Although in the U.S. and Canada nuclear energy is primarily used for producing electricity, worldwide over 80 nuclear reactors have been used for non electricity uses such as industrial process energy, district heating and desalting sea water. Advanced oil recovery methods (such as tar sands) currently use large amounts of natural gas. Nuclear process heat could replace this natural gas. Nuclear process heat would also be applicable to future highly advanced techniques such as shale oil production and deep geological heating (underground refining) to release oil trapped by capillary action in depleted oil fields. Substantial research funding is now being directed to biologically based methods of producing fuels such as bio based diesel, gasoline, advanced bio ethanol and even hydrogen production. Can waste energy be utilized for bio based fuel production? About 2/3 of the energy produced by nuclear energy is normally rejected to the environment at about 120 deg F. An interesting challenge would be to use the vast resources of low temperature waste energy for driving bio based processes especially processes such as algae based methods that are not planned for northern climates like Canada. Meeting the future challenges of large scale renewable fuel production will involve large amounts of transformational energy that could be met with the hybrid energy systems

  17. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  18. Advances in through-life engineering services

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar; Shaw, Andy

    2017-01-01

    This edited book offers further advances, new perspectives, and developments from world leaders in the field of through-life engineering services (TES). It builds up on the earlier book by the same authors entitled: “Through-life Engineering Services: Motivation, Theory and Practice.” This compendium introduces and discusses further, the developments in workshop-based and 'in situ' maintenance and support of high-value engineering products, as well as the application of drone technology for autonomous and self-healing product support. The links between ‘integrated planning’ and planned obsolescence, risk and cost modelling are also examined. The role of data, information, and knowledge management relative to component and system degradation and failure is also presented. This is supported by consideration of the effects upon the maintenance and support decision by the presence of 'No Fault Found' error signals within system data. Further to this the role of diagnostics and prognostics is also discusse...

  19. An Integrated Framework for Life Cycle Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Herrmann, Christoph; Kara, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) was introduced as a concept more than 24 years ago in order to address emerging concerns about environmental sustainability in engineering. A number of methods and tools have been introduced to operationalise the LCE concept, but since then, the scope of sustainability...... has broadened, and as a result, LCE has evolved in parallel with other disciplines with similar aims. Currently, in addition to LCE, there exist a number of concepts such as Industrial Ecology, Cleaner Production, Life Cycle Management (LCM), Industrial Symbiosis, and Circular Economy. As a result......-down and bottom-up approach, the framework establishes a relationship between LCE and the other concepts and positions them relative to the planetary boundaries and the concept of absolute environmental sustainability. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V....

  20. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  1. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  2. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  3. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  4. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  5. Council of Energy Engineering Research. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Richard J.

    2003-08-22

    The Engineering Research Program, a component program of the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), was established in 1979 to aid in resolving the numerous engineering issues arising from efforts to meet U.S. energy needs. The major product of the program became part of the body of knowledge and data upon which the applied energy technologies are founded; the product is knowledge relevant to energy exploration, production, conversion and use.

  6. Wind Energy Workforce Development: Engineering, Science, & Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Stewart, Susan W.; Bridgen, Marc

    2013-03-29

    Broadly, this project involved the development and delivery of a new curriculum in wind energy engineering at the Pennsylvania State University; this includes enhancement of the Renewable Energy program at the Pennsylvania College of Technology. The new curricula at Penn State includes addition of wind energy-focused material in more than five existing courses in aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, engineering science and mechanics and energy engineering, as well as three new online graduate courses. The online graduate courses represent a stand-alone Graduate Certificate in Wind Energy, and provide the core of a Wind Energy Option in an online intercollege professional Masters degree in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Systems. The Pennsylvania College of Technology erected a 10 kilowatt Xzeres wind turbine that is dedicated to educating the renewable energy workforce. The entire construction process was incorporated into the Renewable Energy A.A.S. degree program, the Building Science and Sustainable Design B.S. program, and other construction-related coursework throughout the School of Construction and Design Technologies. Follow-on outcomes include additional non-credit opportunities as well as secondary school career readiness events, community outreach activities, and public awareness postings.

  7. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  8. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its

  9. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  10. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  11. Analysis of interconnecting energy systems over a synchronized life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is developed for evaluating a life cycle of interconnected systems. • A new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced via quantitative formulation. • The interconnecting systems are synchronized through the partial temporal boundary. • A case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system is developed. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) using the process chain analysis (PCA) approach has been widely applied to energy systems. When applied to an individual energy system, such as coal or nuclear electricity generation, an LCA–PCA methodology can yield relatively accurate results with its detailed process representation based on engineering data. However, there are fundamental issues when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to a more complex life cycle, namely, a synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems. A synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems is established through direct interconnections among the processes of different energy systems, and all interconnecting systems are bounded within the same timeframe. Under such a life cycle formation, there are some major complications when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to evaluate the interconnecting energy systems. Essentially, the conventional system and boundary formulations developed for a life cycle of individual energy system cannot be directly applied to a life cycle of interconnected energy systems. To address these inherent issues, a new LCA–PCA methodology is presented in this paper, in which a new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced to synchronize the interconnecting energy systems. The importance and advantages of these new developments are demonstrated through a case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system.

  12. Balancing Energy Processes in Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balicki Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of balancing energy processes in turbine engines in operation in aeronautic and marine propulsion systems with the aim to analyse and evaluate basic operating parameters. The first part presents the problem of enormous amounts of energy needed for driving fans and compressors of the largest contemporary turbofan engines commonly used in long-distance aviation. The amounts of the transmitted power and the effect of flow parameters and constructional properties of the engines on their performance and real efficiency are evaluated. The second part of the article, devoted to marine applications of turbine engines, presents the energy balance of the kinetic system of torque transmission from main engine turbines to screw propellers in the combined system of COGAG type. The physical model of energy conversion processes executed in this system is presented, along with the physical model of gasodynamic processes taking place in a separate driving turbine of a reversing engine. These models have made the basis for formulating balance equations, which then were used for analysing static and dynamic properties of the analysed type of propulsion, in particular in the aspect of mechanical loss evaluation in its kinematic system.

  13. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    1999-01-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  14. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  15. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  16. Energy geostructures innovation in underground engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laloui, Lyesse

    2013-01-01

    Energy geostructures are a tremendous innovation in the field of foundation engineering and are spreading rapidly throughout the world. They allow the procurement of a renewable and clean source of energy which can be used for heating and cooling buildings. This technology couples the structural role of geostructures with the energy supply, using the principle of shallow geothermal energy. This book provides a sound basis in the challenging area of energy geostructures.The objective of this book is to supply the reader with an exhaustive overview on the most up-to-date and available knowledge

  17. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  18. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  19. Global life cycle releases of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arturo A.; McFerran, Suzanne; Lazareva, Anastasiya; Suh, Sangwon

    2013-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now becoming a significant fraction of the material flows in the global economy. We are already reaping the benefits of improved energy efficiency, material use reduction, and better performance in many existing and new applications that have been enabled by these technological advances. As ENMs pervade the global economy, however, it becomes important to understand their environmental implications. As a first step, we combined ENM market information and material flow modeling to produce the first global assessment of the likely ENM emissions to the environment and landfills. The top ten most produced ENMs by mass were analyzed in a dozen major applications. Emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages were estimated, including intermediate steps through wastewater treatment plants and waste incineration plants. In 2010, silica, titania, alumina, and iron and zinc oxides dominate the ENM market in terms of mass flow through the global economy, used mostly in coatings/paints/pigments, electronics and optics, cosmetics, energy and environmental applications, and as catalysts. We estimate that 63–91 % of over 260,000–309,000 metric tons of global ENM production in 2010 ended up in landfills, with the balance released into soils (8–28 %), water bodies (0.4–7 %), and atmosphere (0.1–1.5 %). While there are considerable uncertainties in the estimates, the framework for estimating emissions can be easily improved as better data become available. The material flow estimates can be used to quantify emissions at the local level, as inputs for fate and transport models to estimate concentrations in different environmental compartments.

  20. 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing, etc.

  1. 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering continues a strong tradition of scientific meetings in the areas of sustainability and engineering within the community of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). The focus of the conference is to review and discuss the current developments, technology improvements, and future research directions that will allow engineers to help create green businesses and industries that are both socially responsible and economically successful.  The symposium covers a variety of relevant topics within life cycle engineering including Businesses and Organizations, Case Studies, End of Life Management, Life Cycle Design, Machine Tool Technologies for Sustainability, Manufacturing Processes, Manufacturing Systems, Methods and Tools for Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Supply Chain Management.

  2. Energy, the engine for progress? 120 keys to understand energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Through 120 issues or questions, the author proposes an overview of issues related to energy. He first addresses general issues (definition of energy, relationship between heat and temperature, between energy and climate change, types of energy), discusses the relationship between life and energy (our energy need, energy in food, use and consumption of energy by living materials), proposes an history of the use of energy resources by mankind, gives an overview of energy resources (origins, primary and final energies, energy mix, fossil energies, oil producers, peak oil, shale gases, coal is back, nuclear energy and accidents, renewable energies, biomass and biofuel production, the issue of energy storage, and so on). He discusses the various aspects and issues of energy transition, and the role of energy in the society (prices, technological perspectives, risks, accidents and their consequences, the strategic role of energy). He finally comments the perspectives: the interest of using scenarios, the use of hydrogen, future biofuels, micro-algae, thermal solar power plants, sea energies, etc.

  3. 20th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains information on the mission and status of the DOE's battery energy storage program, the development of an advanced battery electric energy storage system for electric utility load leveling, and the aluminum-air power cell. Plastic-bonded, nonsintered nickel-cadmium batteries for submarines and the cycle life chemistry of ambient-temperature secondary lithium cells are also discussed. The development of zinc-bromine batteries for stationary energy storage, the development of a zinc-chloride battery for 10-kw electric energy storage, and sodium sulfur cells with high conductivity glass electrolytes are discussed. The recovery of lead/acid batteries from abusive deep discharge, and high rate lithium batteries safety testing for U.L. component recognition are reviewed. Enhanced energy recovery, geothermal power, and heat engine cycles are discussed. Hydrogen energy, magnetohydrodynamics and nuclear fission are examined

  4. The Industrial Engineer and Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichan Thongprasert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Industries have always been a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, causing environmental problems. Concerns about the impact of industries on the environment have led industries to change or adapt their methodologies to be more efficient and environmentally responsible. This article explains the impact that has on the industrial engineer.

  5. The Industrial Engineer and Energy and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sirichan Thongprasert

    2009-01-01

    Industries have always been a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, causing environmental problems. Concerns about the impact of industries on the environment have led industries to change or adapt their methodologies to be more efficient and environmentally responsible. This article explains the impact that has on the industrial engineer.

  6. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  7. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  8. Through-life engineering services motivation, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating the latest research and analysis in the area of through-life engineering services (TES), this book utilizes case studies and expert analysis from an international array of practitioners and researchers – who together represent multiple manufacturing sectors: aerospace, railway and automotive – to maximize reader insights into the field of through-life engineering services. As part of the EPSRC Centre in Through-life Engineering Services program to support the academic and industrial community, this book presents an overview of non-destructive testing techniques and applications and provides the reader with the information needed to assess degradation and possible automation of through-life engineering service activities . The latest developments in maintenance-repair-overhaul (MRO) are presented with emphasis on cleaning technologies, repair and overhaul approaches and planning and digital assistance. The impact of these technologies on sustainable enterprises is also analyzed. This book wil...

  9. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  10. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  11. Engineering for Life Sciences: A Fruitful Collaboration Enabled by Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Christof M

    2017-02-13

    "… The interaction of engineering and life sciences has a long history that is characterized by a mutual dependency. The role of chemistry in these developments is to connect the engineers' instrumentation with the life scientists' specimens. This very successful partnership will further continue to produce essential and innovative solutions for future challenges …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Christof M. Niemeyer. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  13. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  14. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  15. International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Usman, Juliana; Mohktar, Mas; Ahmad, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This volumes presents the proceedings of ICIBEL 2015, organized by the Centre for Innovation in Medical Engineering (CIME) under Innovative Technology Research Cluster, University of Malaya. It was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 6-8 December 2015. The ICIBEL 2015 conference promotes the latest researches and developments related to the integration of the Engineering technology in medical fields and life sciences. This includes the latest innovations, research trends and concerns, challenges and adopted solution in the field of medical engineering and life sciences. .

  16. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  17. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  18. The LAILAPS Search Engine: Relevance Ranking in Life Science Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.

  19. High energy density, long life energy storage capacitor dielectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.; Wilson, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of energy storage dielectric systems shows a dramatic improvement in life and joule density, culminating in a 50% to 300% life improvement of polypropylene film-paper-phthalate ester over paper-castor oil depending on service. The physical and electrical drawbacks of castor oil are not present in the new system, allowing the capacitor designer to utilize the superior insulation resistance, dielectric strength, and corona resistance to full advantage. The result is longer life for equal joule density or greater joule density for equal life. Field service proof of the film-Geconol system superiority is based on 5 megajoule in operation and 16 megajoule on order

  20. Determination of Turbine Blade Life from Engine Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2013-01-01

    It is probable that no two engine companies determine the life of their engines or their components in the same way or apply the same experience and safety factors to their designs. Knowing the failure mode that is most likely to occur minimizes the amount of uncertainty and simplifies failure and life analysis. Available data regarding failure mode for aircraft engine blades, while favoring low-cycle, thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) as the controlling mode of failure, are not definitive. Sixteen high-pressure turbine (HPT) T-1 blade sets were removed from commercial aircraft engines that had been commercially flown by a single airline and inspected for damage. Each set contained 82 blades. The damage was cataloged into three categories related to their mode of failure: (1) TMF, (2) Oxidation/erosion (O/E), and (3) Other. From these field data, the turbine blade life was determined as well as the lives related to individual blade failure modes using Johnson-Weibull analysis. A simplified formula for calculating turbine blade life and reliability was formulated. The L10 blade life was calculated to be 2427 cycles (11 077 hr). The resulting blade life attributed to O/E equaled that attributed to TMF. The category that contributed most to blade failure was Other. If there were no blade failures attributed to O/E and TMF, the overall blade L(sub 10) life would increase approximately 11 to 17 percent.

  1. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  2. Master of Engineering Energy Systems Engineering Program: Smart Campus Energy Systems Demonstration DE-SC0005523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, Martha [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Coulter, John [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2014-09-25

    Program Purpose and Position: The mission of the Master of Engineering in Energy Systems Engineering program is to invigorate the pipeline of new engineering graduates interested in energy oriented careers and thus produce a new generation of technical leaders for the energy and power industries. Over the next decade, nearly 50% of the skilled workers and technical leaders in the gas and electric utility industries will retire -- a much larger void than the current available and qualified professionals could fill [CEWD, 2012 survey]. The Masters of Engineering in Energy System Engineering program provides an opportunity for cross-discipline education for graduates interested in a career in the energy industry. It focuses on electric power and the challenges and opportunities to develop a sustainable, reliable and resilient system that meets human needs in an increasingly sustainable manner through the use of environmentally sound energy resources and delivery. Both graduates and employers benefit from a well-trained professional workforce that is ready to hit the road running and be immediately productive in meeting these challenges, through this innovative and unique program.

  3. Life extending control: An interdisciplinary engineering thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of Life Extending Control (LEC) is introduced. Possible extensions to the cyclic damage prediction approach are presented based on the identification of a model from elementary forms. Several candidate elementary forms are presented. These extensions will result in a continuous or differential form of the damage prediction model. Two possible approaches to the LEC based on the existing cyclic damage prediction method, the measured variables LEC and the estimated variables LEC, are defined. Here, damage estimates or measurements would be used directly in the LEC. A simple hydraulic actuator driven position control system example is used to illustrate the main ideas behind LEC. Results from a simple hydraulic actuator example demonstrate that overall system performance (dynamic plus life) can be maximized by accounting for component damage in the control design.

  4. Bio energy: Environment and Environmental Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Morten; Noreng, Katrina; Soerensen, Heidi; Teslo, Einar; Daehlen, Knut; Liodden, Ole Joergen; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 5 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Environmental issues in the use of energy, (2) Environmental issues in the production of biomass, (3) Forestry, (4) Agriculture, (5) Environmental issues in fuel production and storage, (6) Environmental issues in combustion, (7) Environmental issues in using bio fuel, (8) Life cycle analyses, (9) Laws, regulations and norms for the use of bio fuel. Unlike the other sections, the one on laws is mostly concerned with Norwegian conditions

  5. Engineering applications of nanotechnology from energy to drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Nor

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of nanotechnology in several fields of engineering. Among others, the reader will find valuable information as to how nanotechnology can aid in extending the life of component materials exposed to corrosive atmospheres, in thermal fluid energy conversion processes, anti-reflection coatings on photovoltaic cells to yield enhanced output from solar cells, in connection with friction and wear reduction in automobiles, and buoyancy suppression in free convective heat transfer. Moreover, this unique resource presents the latest research on nanoscale transport phenomena and concludes with a look at likely future trends.

  6. Energy, variability and weather finance engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussis, Dimitrios; Parara, Iliana; Gournari, Panagiota; Moustakis, Yiannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Most types of renewable energies are characterized by intense intermittency, causing significant instabilities to the grid; further requiring additional infrastructure (e.g. pumped-storage) for buffering hydrometeorological uncertainties, as well as complex operational rules for load balancing. In addition, most intermittent renewable units are subsidized, creating significant market inefficiencies. Weather derivatives comprise mature financial tools for integrating successfully the intermittent-load and base-load components into a unified hybrid energy system and establish their operation within a generalized uncertainty management market. With a growing global market share and 46% utilization of this financial tool by the energy industry and 12% by agriculture (that partially concerns biofuel resources), weather derivatives are projected to constitute a critical subsystem of many grids for buffering frequent hydrometeorological risks of low and medium impacts -which are not covered by standard insurance contracts that aim exclusively at extreme events and high financial damages. In this context, we study the attributes of hydrometeorological time series in a remote and small island in Greece, powered by an autonomous hybrid energy system. Upon the results we choose the optimal underlying index and we further compose and engineer a weather derivative with features of a typical option contract -which we consider most flexible and appropriate for the case- to test our assumptions on its beneficiary effects for both the budget of private energy producers and the island's public administration. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  7. Eleventh symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Eleventh Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences was held on May 3--5, 1993, at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. These proceedings include the program, list of participants, and the papers that were presented during the eight technical sessions held at this meeting. This symposium was organized into eight technical sessions: Surfaces and interfaces; thermophysical properties and processes; inelastic behavior; nondestructive characterization; multiphase flow and thermal processes; optical and other measurement systems; stochastic processes; and large systems and control. Individual projects were processed separately for the databases

  8. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  9. Course Content for Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerswiet, Jack; Duflou, Joost; Dewulf, Wim

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to create an awareness of Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign in Engineering students. Topics covered in an LCE/EcoDesign course will create an awareness of environmental impacts, especially in other design course projects. This paper suggests that an awareness of product impact...... upon the environment must be created at an early stage in undergraduate education. Deciding what to include in an LCE/EcoDesign Course can be difficult because there are many different views on the subject. However, there are more similarities than differences. All LCE/ EcoDesign Engineering courses...

  10. Nuclear energy and the quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett Lewis, W [Scientific Advisory Committee of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and of the IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    1972-07-01

    By setting up goals for the quality of life and working hard towards them, the endeavour will guide the ways in which we develop nuclear energy (he writes). In its turn controlled nuclear energy will make possible ways of life for all mankind that can have the quality of our ideals. I will discuss the ' Quality of Life' first because some have doubts, recalling several aspersions on nuclear energy by detractors; in particular, that it will cause radioactive pollution, it will cause thermal pollution, from the radiation people will die of cancer, there are terrible genetic hazards, managing radioactive wastes is an unsolved problem and there is not enough uranium. Science can, however, be reassuring about all those points. There is also a false hope that fusion power from deuterium will be so clean and cheap and the supply so inexhaustible that man's energy problems will one day be solved for ever. The true state of affairs appears to be that without the further development of nuclear fission power there would be massively more starvation and malnutrition in the world, and all the diseases that go with them. Fortunately, however, there is no rational argument for stopping or delaying nuclear energy development. Recycled uranium and thorium are effectively inexhaustible sources.

  11. Atmospheric energy for subsurface life on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    The location and density of biologically useful energy sources on Mars will limit the biomass, spatial distribution, and organism size of any biota. Subsurface Martian organisms could be supplied with a large energy flux from the oxidation of photochemically produced atmospheric H(2) and CO diffusing into the regolith. However, surface abundance measurements of these gases demonstrate that no more than a few percent of this available flux is actually being consumed, suggesting that biological activity driven by atmospheric H(2) and CO is limited in the top few hundred meters of the subsurface. This is significant because the available but unused energy is extremely large: for organisms at 30-m depth, it is 2,000 times previous estimates of hydrothermal and chemical weathering energy and far exceeds the energy derivable from other atmospheric gases. This also implies that the apparent scarcity of life on Mars is not attributable to lack of energy. Instead, the availability of liquid water may be a more important factor limiting biological activity because the photochemical energy flux can only penetrate to 100- to 1,000-m depth, where most H(2)O is probably frozen. Because both atmospheric and Viking lander soil data provide little evidence for biological activity, the detection of short-lived trace gases will probably be a better indicator of any extant Martian life.

  12. Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    2016-09-28

    Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials (MEEM) was established as an interdisciplinary cutting-edge UCLA-based research center uniquely equipped to attack the challenge of rationally designing, synthesizing and testing revolutionary new energy materials. Our mission was to achieve transformational improvements in the performance of materials via controlling the nano-and mesoscale structure using selectively designed, earth-abundant, inexpensive molecular building blocks. MEEM has focused on materials that are inherently abundant, can be easily assembled from intelligently designed building blocks (molecules, nanoparticles), and have the potential to deliver transformative economic benefits in comparison with the current crystalline-and polycrystalline-based energy technologies. MEEM addressed basic science issues related to the fundamental mechanisms of carrier generation, energy conversion, as well as transport and storage of charge and mass in tunable, architectonically complex materials. Fundamental understanding of these processes will enable rational design, efficient synthesis and effective deployment of novel three-dimensional material architectures for energy applications. Three interrelated research directions were initially identified where these novel architectures hold great promise for high-reward research: solar energy generation, electrochemical energy storage, and materials for CO2 capture. Of these, the first two remained throughout the project performance period, while carbon capture was been phased out in consultation and with approval from BES program manager.

  13. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  14. Energy, EROI and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Jessica G.; Hall, Charles A.S.; Balogh, Stephen; Gupta, Ajay; Arnold, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The near- and long-term societal effects of declining EROI are uncertain, but probably adverse. A major obstacle to examining social implications of declining EROI is that we do not have adequate empirical understanding of how EROI is linked, directly or indirectly, to an average citizen′s ability to achieve well-being. To evaluate the possible linkages between societal well-being and net energy availability, we compare these preliminary estimates of energy availability: (1) EROI at a societal level, (2) energy use per capita, (3) multiple regression analyses and (4) a new composite energy index (Lambert Energy Index), to select indicators of quality of life (HDI, percent children under weight, health expenditures, Gender Inequality Index, literacy rate and access to improved water). Our results suggest that energy indices are highly correlated with a higher standard of living. We also find a saturation point at which increases in per capita energy availability (greater than 150 GJ) or EROI (above 20:1) are not associated with further improvement to society. - Highlights: • Large quantities of high quality energy appears to contribute to social well-being. • LEI examines the quantity, efficiency and distribution of energy within the system. • EROI SOC of SOC of 20–30:1, 100–200 GJ/capita and LEI 0.2–0.4. • Improvement in well-being levels off at: EROI SOC >30:1, >200 GJ/capita and LEI>0.4

  15. Convective Heating of the LIFE Engine Target During Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdener, D S; Tillack, M S; Wang, X R

    2011-10-24

    Target survival in the hostile, high temperature xenon environment of the proposed Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine is critical. This work focuses on the flow properties and convective heat load imposed upon the surface of the indirect drive target while traveling through the xenon gas. While this rarefied flow is traditionally characterized as being within the continuum regime, it is approaching transition where conventional CFD codes reach their bounds of operation. Thus ANSYS, specifically the Navier-Stokes module CFX, will be used in parallel with direct simulation Monte Carlo code DS2V and analytically and empirically derived expressions for heat transfer to the hohlraum for validation. Comparison of the viscous and thermal boundary layers of ANSYS and DS2V were shown to be nearly identical, with the surface heat flux varying less than 8% on average. From the results herein, external baffles have been shown to reduce this heat transfer to the sensitive laser entrance hole (LEH) windows and optimize target survival independent of other reactor parameters.

  16. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.; Watkiss, P.; Thorpe, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO 2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  17. IT logistics support life cycle of products in air engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.С. Кулик

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  Questions of increase of efficiency of a supply with information of creation and support in operation of modern aviation engines are considered. The revealed most perspective directions of development of complex systems of support of life cycle aviation technics.

  18. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  19. Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Center for Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Chemical Sciences & Engineering DOE Logo CSE Home About CSE Research Facilities People Publications Awards News & Highlights Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical

  20. Energy and technology for our life: Concept, execution, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Frank W.

    1989-01-01

    The VDI is a technological-scientific association, with almost 100 000 members it is the biggest in Europe. Its aim is to supply all professional engineers with 'state of the art' information. Its organisatory mode is decisive for the success of the task at hand: non-aligned as far as economic interests are concerned, unsalaried and with statutory consensus requirement it offers its services not only to members but indeed to all engineers, no matter wether they are still undergoing professional training or are already in full employment. The main services for this target group are: conferences, congresses, symposia, workshops; VDI guidelines and an individual membership service. The range of VDI tasks includes practically all spheres of technology and hence also nuclear energy. This presentation deals with tree points: Concept of the campaign wenergy and technology for our life, the main points of the measures taken between 1983 and 1987; and the results achieved, verified by demoscopic surveys

  1. Energy and technology for our life: Concept, execution, results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, Frank W

    1989-07-01

    The VDI is a technological-scientific association, with almost 100 000 members it is the biggest in Europe. Its aim is to supply all professional engineers with 'state of the art' information. Its organisatory mode is decisive for the success of the task at hand: non-aligned as far as economic interests are concerned, unsalaried and with statutory consensus requirement it offers its services not only to members but indeed to all engineers, no matter wether they are still undergoing professional training or are already in full employment. The main services for this target group are: conferences, congresses, symposia, workshops; VDI guidelines and an individual membership service. The range of VDI tasks includes practically all spheres of technology and hence also nuclear energy. This presentation deals with tree points: Concept of the campaign wenergy and technology for our life, the main points of the measures taken between 1983 and 1987; and the results achieved, verified by demoscopic surveys.

  2. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  3. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  4. Engineering a lunar photolithoautotroph to thrive on the moon - life or simulacrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, A. A.

    2018-07-01

    Recent work in developing self-replicating machines has approached the problem as an engineering problem, using engineering materials and methods to implement an engineering analogue of a hitherto uniquely biological function. The question is - can anything be learned that might be relevant to an astrobiological context in which the problem is to determine the general form of biology independent of the Earth. Compared with other non-terrestrial biology disciplines, engineered life is more demanding. Engineering a self-replicating machine tackles real environments unlike artificial life which avoids the problem of physical instantiation altogether by examining software models. Engineering a self-replicating machine is also more demanding than synthetic biology as no library of functional components exists. Everything must be constructed de novo. Biological systems already have the capacity to self-replicate but no engineered machine has yet been constructed with the same ability - this is our primary goal. On the basis of the von Neumann analysis of self-replication, self-replication is a by-product of universal construction capability - a universal constructor is a machine that can construct anything (in a functional sense) given the appropriate instructions (DNA/RNA), energy (ATP) and materials (food). In the biological cell, the universal construction mechanism is the ribosome. The ribosome is a biological assembly line for constructing proteins while DNA constitutes a design specification. For a photoautotroph, the energy source is ambient and the food is inorganic. We submit that engineering a self-replicating machine opens up new areas of astrobiology to be explored in the limits of life.

  5. Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    The pursuit of a vigorous research and development program to provide renewable and other resources to meet U. S. energy needs in the next century is an important objective of President Carter's National Energy Plan. A highly educated and motivated pool of engineers and scientists must be available for energy research and development if this objective is to be achieved. This report provides, for the first time, information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data for the year 1975 will become part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information is provided for employment in the following fields: mathematics; physics/astronomy; chemistry; Earth, Environment, and Marine Sciences; Engineering; Life Sciences; Psychology; Social Sciences; Arts and Humanities; and Education and Business.

  6. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  7. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Systems: Closing the Ethical Loophole of Social Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Sakellariou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    AbstractLife Cycle Assessment of Energy Systems: Closing the Ethical Loophole of Social SustainabilitybyNikolaos SakellariouDoctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Alastair T. Iles, ChairThis dissertation investigates the historical and normative bases of what contemporary engineers consider to be the embodiment of sustainability: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It explores the interplay among technology ethics, energy syst...

  9. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  10. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  11. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  12. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen energy pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissani, Lynda; Bourgois, Jacques; Rousseaux, Patrick; Jabouille, Florent; Loget, Sebastien; Perier Camby, Laurent; Sessiecq, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades transportation sector is a priority for environmental research. Indeed, it is the most impacting sector because it involves greenhouse emissions and fossil resources exhaustion. The Group of 'Ecole des Mines' (GEM), in France, carries out studies concerning clean and renewable energies for this sector with the 'H2-PAC' project. The GEM with four teams performs studies concerning energy systems for transportation sector and more particularly the hydrogen system. The four teams of the GEM work each one on a process of this system. More precisely, the team of Albi studies biomass gasification in order to produce synthesis gas. The team of Nantes studies purification of this gas to obtain pure hydrogen and hydrogen storage on activated carbon. The team of Paris studies fuel cell use and especially Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Finally, the team of St Etienne evaluates this system along its life cycle from an environmental point of view. This paper presents this environmental evaluation witch is realized according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. (authors)

  13. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  14. Proceedings of the fourteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Mechanical sciences; Solids and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The 26 papers in this proceedings are arranged in the following topical sections: superconductors (4 papers); materials (7); controls (4); fluid mechanics (7); and thin films (4). Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. LIVIVO - the Vertical Search Engine for Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bernd; Poley, Christoph; Pössel, Jana; Hagelstein, Alexandra; Gübitz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The explosive growth of literature and data in the life sciences challenges researchers to keep track of current advancements in their disciplines. Novel approaches in the life science like the One Health paradigm require integrated methodologies in order to link and connect heterogeneous information from databases and literature resources. Current publications in the life sciences are increasingly characterized by the employment of trans-disciplinary methodologies comprising molecular and cell biology, genetics, genomic, epigenomic, transcriptional and proteomic high throughput technologies with data from humans, plants, and animals. The literature search engine LIVIVO empowers retrieval functionality by incorporating various literature resources from medicine, health, environment, agriculture and nutrition. LIVIVO is developed in-house by ZB MED - Information Centre for Life Sciences. It provides a user-friendly and usability-tested search interface with a corpus of 55 Million citations derived from 50 databases. Standardized application programming interfaces are available for data export and high throughput retrieval. The search functions allow for semantic retrieval with filtering options based on life science entities. The service oriented architecture of LIVIVO uses four different implementation layers to deliver search services. A Knowledge Environment is developed by ZB MED to deal with the heterogeneity of data as an integrative approach to model, store, and link semantic concepts within literature resources and databases. Future work will focus on the exploitation of life science ontologies and on the employment of NLP technologies in order to improve query expansion, filters in faceted search, and concept based relevancy rankings in LIVIVO.

  16. Efficiency of Energy Transduction in a Molecular Chemical Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Kazuo; Kanada, Ryo; Amari, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of the two-state ratchet type is proposed for molecular chemical engines that convert chemical free energy into mechanical work and vice versa. The engine works by catalyzing a chemical reaction and turning a rotor. Analytical expressions are obtained for the dependences of rotation and reaction rates on the concentrations of reactant and product molecules, from which the performance of the engine is analyzed. In particular, the efficiency of energy transduction is discussed in...

  17. Proc. of the sixteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences, May 13-15, 1998, Argonne, IL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-05-13

    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Sixteenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 13--15, 1998, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was structured into eight technical sessions, which included 30 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. A list of participants is appended to this volume. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term, mission-oriented research in the Department. The Office has prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation's future energy options will be identified, developed, and built. BES is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary to solve present and future problems regarding energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, while maintaining respect for the environment. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, prolonging the useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing. The program emphasis is on reducing costs through improved industrial production and performance and expanding the nation's store of fundamental knowledge for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in energy technologies. To achieve these goals, the Engineering Research Program supports approximately 130 research projects covering a broad spectrum of topics that cut across traditional engineering disciplines. The program

  18. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  19. Life Cycle Engineering – from methodology to enterprise culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo; Poll, Christian

    2003-01-01

    As part of a sustainable development, the environmental efficiency of industry must increase by a factor four to ten. This engenders attention to the environmental impact of products and technical systems over their entire life cycle. The last decade has seen the development of a number of method......As part of a sustainable development, the environmental efficiency of industry must increase by a factor four to ten. This engenders attention to the environmental impact of products and technical systems over their entire life cycle. The last decade has seen the development of a number...... of methodologies and tools for life cycle assessment and development of more eco-efficient products, from complex to simplified, catering to the needs of especially small and medium-sized enterprizes. The tools and data are in place, but dissemination lacks behind. Propagation of life cycle thinking and life cycle...... engineering to larger parts of industry is attempted by strengthening the market pull through integrated product policy measures, and at the same time pushing through information activities, training and dissemination of tools. Experience hitherto shows that these forces are insufficient and that stronger...

  20. The fraying web of life and our future engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, Frank G.

    2004-07-01

    Evidence abounds that we are reaching the carrying capacity of the earth -- engaging in deficit spending. The amount of crops, animals, and other biomatter we extract from the earth each year exceeds wth the earth can replace by an estimated 20%. Additionally, signs of climate change are precursors of things to come. Global industrialization and the new technologies of the 20th century have helped to stretch the capacities of our finite natural system to precarious levels. Taken together, this evidence reflects a fraying web of life. Sustainable development and natural capitalism work to reverse these trends, however, we are often still wedded to the notion that environmental conservation and economic development are the 'players' in a zero-sum game. Engineering and its technological derivatives can also help remedy the problem. The well being of future generations will depend to a large extent on how we educate our future engineers. These engineers will be a new breed -- developing and using sustainable technology, benign manufacturing processes and an expanded array of environmental assessment tools that will simultaneously support and maintain healthy economies and a healthy environment. The importance of environment and sustainable development cosiderations, the need for their widespread inclusion in engineering education, the impediments to change, and the important role played by ABET will be presented.

  1. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  2. WIND ENERGY – ECOSUSTAINABILITY ENGINEERING SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewables provides increased safety energy supply and limiting imports of energy resources, interms of sustainable economic development. The new requirements for sustainable development have determinedthe world to put the issue of energy production methods and increase the share of energy produced fromrenewable energy. This paper presents the history of wind power, advantages and disadvantages of renewableenergy, particularly wind energy as an alternative source of energy. Windmills can be horizontal axis or verticalaxis Savonius and Darrieus rotor. Latest innovations allow operation of variable speed wind turbines, or turbinespeed control based on wind speed. Wind energy is considered one of the most sustainable choices betweenvariants future wind resources are immense.

  3. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  4. Mechanical engineers' handbook, energy and power

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    The engineer's ready reference for mechanical power and heat Mechanical Engineer's Handbook provides the mostcomprehensive coverage of the entire discipline, with a focus onexplanation and analysis. Packaged as a modular approach, thesebooks are designed to be used either individually or as a set,providing engineers with a thorough, detailed, ready reference ontopics that may fall outside their scope of expertise. Each bookprovides discussion and examples as opposed to straight data andcalculations, giving readers the immediate background they needwhile pointing them toward more in-depth infor

  5. Mathematics and engineering in real life through mathematical competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, M.

    2018-02-01

    We bring out an experience of organizing mathematical competitions that can be used as a medium to motivate the student and teacher minds in new directions of thinking. This can contribute to fostering research, innovation and provide a hands-on experience of mathematical concepts with the real world. Mathematical competitions can be used to build curiosity and give an understanding of mathematical applications in real life. Participation in the competition has been classified under four broad categories. Student can showcase their findings in various forms of expression like model, poster, soft presentation, animation, live performance, art and poetry. The basic focus of the competition is on using open source computation tools and modern technology, to emphasize the relationship of mathematical concepts with engineering applications in real life.

  6. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  7. Engineering support for plant life management: the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.; Hezoucky, F.; Clark, R. C.; )

    2007-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant, PLiM programme is essential. Some countries already have advanced PLiM programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Three projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all three projects contain certain issues of PLiM, there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices for optimization of NPP service life. This particular project deals with different specific issues of PLiM including aspects of ageing phenomena and their monitoring, issues of control and instrumentation, maintenance and operation issues, economic evaluation of PLiM including guidance on its earlier shut down and decommissioning

  8. Energy saving: From engineering to crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Hemming, S.

    2011-01-01

    In greenhouse horticulture, energy costs form an increasingly larger part of the total production costs. Energy is primarily used for temperature control, reduction of air humidity, increase of light intensity and CO2 supply. Use of fossil energy can be reduced by limiting the energy demand of the

  9. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials (1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF 4 or ThF 4 or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF 3 or PuF 4 as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. Preliminary design studies

  10. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  11. Computer-aided engineering in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachy, G.; Hauviller, C.; Messerli, R.; Mottier, M.

    1988-01-01

    Computing, standard tool for a long time in the High Energy Physics community, is being slowly introduced at CERN in the mechanical engineering field. The first major application was structural analysis followed by Computer-Aided Design (CAD). Development work is now progressing towards Computer-Aided Engineering around a powerful data base. This paper gives examples of the power of this approach applied to engineering for accelerators and detectors

  12. An Efficient Energy Regeneration System for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ying; YANG, Fuyuan; OUYANG, Minggao; CHEN, Lin; GAO, Guojing; He, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    In order to further improve the fuel economy of vehicles, an efficient energy regeneration system for diesel engines is designed and constructed. An additional automatic clutch is added between the engine and the motor in a conventional ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) system. During regenerative braking, the clutch can be disengaged and the engine braking is avoided. Control strategy is redesigned to determine the braking torque distribution and coordinate all the components. The gener...

  13. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  14. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  15. Proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on energy conversion engineering. Topics covered include: USAF space power requirements, modelling of the dynamics of a low speed gas-liquid heat engine, and comparative assessment of single-axis force generation mechanisms for superconducting suspensions

  16. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  17. 4+D digital engineering for advanced nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, S. G.; Suh, K. Y.; Nam, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully automated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. In line with practice in disciplines of naval architecture, aerospace engineering, and automotive manufacturing, the paper proposes total digital systems engineering based on three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four-plus-dimensional (4 + D) Technology T M, a critical know-how for digital management. The so-called OPIUM (Optimized Plant Integrated Ubiquitous Management) features a 4 + D Technology T M for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Based on an integrated 3D configuration management system, OPIUM consists of solutions NOTUS (Nuclear Optimization Technique Ubiquitous System), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Nuclear Ubiquitous System), INUUS (Informatics Nuclear Utilities Ubiquitous System), JANUS (Junctional Analysis Numerical Ubiquitous System) and EURUS (Electronic Unit Research Ubiquitous System). These solutions will help initial simulation capability for NPPs to supply the crucial information. NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4

  18. Energy Savings Opportunity Survey, Energy Engineering Analysis Program. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ...), are summarization in Tables 1 and 2. The projects were developed based on project packing instructions from the Installation and on follow-up phone calls with Directorate of Engineering and Housing (DEH...

  19. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  20. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  1. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  2. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  3. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Characterisation, control, and energy management of electrified turbocharged diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dezong; Winward, Edward; Yang, Zhijia; Stobart, Richard; Steffen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A real-time energy management framework for electrified engines is proposed. • A multi-variable robust controller is designed. • Characterisation on the air system of electrified diesel engines is given. • Reliable for engine downsizing because of the promising transient performance. - Abstract: The electrification of engine components offers significant opportunities for fuel efficiency improvements. The electrified turbocharger is one of the most attractive options since it recovers part of the engine exhaust gas mechanical energy to assist boosting. Therefore, the engine can be downsized through improved transient responsiveness. In the electrified turbocharger, an electric machine is mounted on the turbine shaft and changes the air system dynamics, so characterisation of the new layout is essential. A systematic control solution is required to manage energy flows in the hybrid system. In this paper, a framework for characterisation, control, and energy management for an electrified turbocharged diesel engine is proposed. The impacts of the electric machine on fuel economy and air system variables are analysed. Based on the characterisation, a two-level control structure is proposed. A real-time energy management strategy is employed as the supervisory level controller to generate the optimal values of critical variables, while a model-based multi-variable controller is designed as the low level controller to track the values. The two controllers work together in a cascade to address both fuel economy optimisation and battery state-of-charge maintenance. The proposed control strategy is validated on a high fidelity physical engine model. The tracking performance shows the proposed framework is a promising solution in regulating the behavior of electrified engines.

  5. Engineering tools for complex task of reducing energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Reduction of energy consumption in buildings while ensuring a good indoor environment is a very challenging and difficult engineering task. For this we need tools which are based on an integral approach of the building, control systems, occupants and outdoor environment. A building energy simulation

  6. Awakening awareness on energy consumption in software engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, Erik; Broekman, Jordy; Van Der Werf, Jan Martijn E.M.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Lago, Patricia; Blom, Leen; Van Vliet, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Software producing organizations have the ability to address the energy impact of their ICT solutions during the development process. However, while industry is convinced of the energy impact of hardware, the role of software has mostly been acknowledged by researchers in software engineering.

  7. Engineering computations at the national magnetic fusion energy computer center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, S.

    1983-01-01

    The National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE). The NMFECC headquarters is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Its purpose is to apply large-scale computational technology and computing techniques to the problems of controlled thermonuclear research. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC also maintains a large collection of computer codes in mathematics, physics, and engineering that is shared by the entire MFE research community. This review provides a broad perspective of the NMFECC, and a list of available codes at the NMFECC for engineering computations is given

  8. Nuclear energy and professional engineers. Possibility of utilization of professional engineer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shunichi; Nariai, Hideki; Madarame, Haruki; Hattori, Takuya; Kitamura, Masaharu; Fujie, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear and radiation professional engineer system started in 2004 and more than 250 persons have passed the second-step professional engineer examination, while more than 1,000 persons for the first-step examination. This special issue on possibility of utilization of professional engineer system consists of six relevant articles from experts of nuclear organizations and academia. They expect the role of professional engineer in the area of nuclear energy to enhance technology advancement and awareness of professional ethics from their respective standpoints. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Aircraft Engine Life-Consumption Monitoring for Real-Time Reliability Determination, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The object of this research is to develop an in-service life-monitor system for the prediction of the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The...

  10. Energy engineering: Student-researcher collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Beckowska, Patrycja Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on cooperation methods between researchers and students at different levels. Levels included in this work are BSc, MSc and PhD student levels. At Aalborg University, Department of Energy Technology education and research are closely linked. The relationship between student...

  11. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li, Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach. (author)

  12. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  13. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pei [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N., E-mail: e.pistikopoulos@imperial.ac.u [Centre for Process Systems Engineering (CPSE), Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Li Zheng [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  14. Tracking and Control of Gas Turbine Engine Component Damage/Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.; Wu, Dong N.; Bryg, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes damage mechanisms and the methods of controlling damages to extend the on-wing life of critical gas turbine engine components. Particularly, two types of damage mechanisms are discussed: creep/rupture and thermo-mechanical fatigue. To control these damages and extend the life of engine hot-section components, we have investigated two methodologies to be implemented as additional control logic for the on-board electronic control unit. This new logic, the life-extending control (LEC), interacts with the engine control and monitoring unit and modifies the fuel flow to reduce component damages in a flight mission. The LEC methodologies were demonstrated in a real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The results show that LEC is not only a new paradigm for engine control design, but also a promising technology for extending the service life of engine components, hence reducing the life cycle cost of the engine.

  15. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  16. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  17. National seminar on nuclear energy in everyday life: lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The document includes 8 lectures presented at the National Seminar on Nuclear Energy in Everyday Life organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt) between 28-29 June 1994 in Cairo. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture.

  18. National seminar on nuclear energy in everyday life: lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The document includes 8 lectures presented at the National Seminar on Nuclear Energy in Everyday Life organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt) between 28-29 June 1994 in Cairo. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture

  19. Energy and the quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1981-06-01

    The supply of energy in the Republic of Korea is discussed. Because of historic and political factors, a 24-hour electrical supply became available in Korea in 1957, much later than many other countries. Nation-wide rural electrification was completed in 1978. As the Korean economy developed rapidly in the last two decades, energy requirements expanded apace. The country is not endowed with a great abundance of energy sources and this has forced Korea to depend on oil for more than half of its energy needs. The aggresssive nuclear power program (12 plants by 1991) is designed to reduce this high dependence on oil. Completion of this phase of the nuclear program will result in 13.8 percent of Korea's energy requirements being met by nuclear power in 1991

  20. Energy management handbook for building operating engineers student workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The handbook provides operating engineers with the basic information needed to implement specific energy conservation opportunities, and additional information is presented relative to the formulation and development of the energy management plan. Chapters are entitled: The Need for Energy Management (International Factors, The US Energy Situation, Energy and the Building Owner); The Fundamentals of Energy Consumption in Buildings (Energy Basics, Heat Basics, Heat Flow and the Building Envelope, Air and Comfort, Factors Affecting Energy Use In Buildings); Principles of Energy Conservation (Building Energy Consumption Characteristics); Planning the Energy Management Program (Obtaining Commitment and Support, Establishing the Energy Use Index, Organizing to Develop the Plan, Developing and Implementing the Plan); Conducting a Survey of Facilities and Operations (The Energy Audit, Preparation of Building and Systems Profile, Measurement and Instrumentation); Guidelines for Energy Conservation (Operator ECO's, Owner ECO'S); Developing the Draft Final Plan (Analyze Survey Findings, Putting the Plan on Paper, Review and Submit); Implementing the Program (Developing the Final Plan, Implementing the Plan, Monitoring and Updating the Program). A glossary is included and specific information on degree days and cooling hours for some selected cities and a computer energy study data for the New York Hilton are included in appendices. (MCW)

  1. Energy, Entropy and Exergy Concepts and Their Roles in Thermal Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Cengel, Yunus A.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications. Some illustrative examples are presented to highlight the importance of t...

  2. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  3. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order Withdrawing Trading Suspension as to Extensions, Inc. December 12...

  4. Proceedings of the 30. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Kannberg, L.D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference provides a forum to present and discuss the engineering aspects of energy conversion, advanced and unconventional energy systems and devices, energy conversion and utilization, environmental issues and policy implications on research, development, and implementation of technologies. The solution for a sustainable future will lie in a mix of all of the available energy resources (renewable and non-renewable) and diverse energy conversion technologies that will maintain quality of life in a sustainable manner. The 129 papers in Volume 1 deal with aerospace power and are divided into the following topical sections: Aircraft power; Aerospace power systems; Batteries for aerospace power; Computer simulation; Power electronics; Power management; Space solar power; Space power systems; Space energy statics/dynamics; Space power--requirements and issues; Space Station power; Terrestrial applications of space power; Thermal management; Wireless transmission; Space nuclear power; Bimodal propulsion; Electric propulsion; Solar thermal; and Solar bimodal. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Fullness of life as minimal unit: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning across the life span.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, W.-M.; Eijck, van M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Challenged by a National Science Foundation–funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of

  6. Achieving Closure for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems: Engineering and Ecological Challenges, Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    Closed systems are desirable for a number of purposes: space life support systems where precious life-supporting resources need to be kept inside; biospheric systems; where global ecological pro-cesses can be studied in great detail and testbeds where research topics requiring isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) can be studied in isolation from the outside environment and where their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied. But to achieve and maintain closure raises both engineering and ecological challenges. Engineering challenges include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and devel-oping methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is devel-oping means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differen-tials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro-and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and

  7. Proceedings of the 27th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Topics included: Stirling Cycle Analysis; Stirling Cycle Models; Stirling Refrigerators/Heat Pumps and Cryocoolers; Domestic Policy; Efficiency/Conservation; Stirling Solar Terrestrial; Stirling Component Technology; Environmental Impacts; Renewable Resource Systems; Stirling Power Generation; Stirling Heat Transport System Technology; and Stirling Cycle Loss Understanding

  8. The Application of Quantum Energy Saver on Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce diesel fuel consumption, this paper conducts the research in view of a new type of quantum energy saving device, and then produce the sample and applied on automobile engine, Detect fuel use of an automobile by automobile fuel saving technology as-sessment methods from the department of transportation. Compare the changes of fuel use be-fore and after installation of quantum energy saving device on the same car, and give the feed-back of energy saving capability. The result shows, after installed quantum energy saver, both fuel consumption and the smoke of tail gas has decreased. The analysis and application of this paper carry out the conclusion that the quantum energy saver can play an important role in en-ergy saving and emission reduction, and provide a reference for other related research.

  9. A mean flow acoustic engine capable of wind energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Xu Ya; Chen Haijun; Wu, Ke; Liu Kaikai; Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mean flow acoustic engine for wind energy harvesting is designed and manufactured. ► Stable standing wave acoustic field is established at specific flow velocity. ► Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field characteristics. ► Acoustic field has monofrequency characteristic and remarkable energy density. - Abstract: Based on the mean flow induced acoustic oscillation effect, a mean flow acoustic engine (MFAE) converts wind energy and fluid energy in pipeline into acoustic energy which can be used to drive thermoacoustic refrigerators and generators without any mechanical moving parts. With natural wind simulated by a centrifugal air fan, a MFAE with a cross-junction configuration was designed and manufactured for experimental study. Stable standing wave acoustic fields were established in specific ranges of air flow velocity. Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field distribution in the engine and show the effect of the mean flow velocity and the Strouhal number on the acoustic field characteristics. With a mean flow velocity of 50.52 m/s and a mean pressure of 106.19 kPa, the maximum pressure amplitude of 6.20 kPa was achieved, which was about 5.8% of the mean pressure. It has laid a good foundation for driving power generation devices and thermoacoustic refrigerators by a MFAE.

  10. Energy and environment: a primer for scientists and engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorndike, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The book is written for practicing scientists and engineers and for students to introduce them to the field of energy and the environment; it is concerned with energy and how it affects the Earth's environment and how it affects man. Natural processes (weather and climate and biological systems) and man-made energy processes (such as the generation and distribution of electricity) are discussed. Chapter titles following an introductory chapter are Global Energy Flows; Biological Energy and Ecosystems; Sources of Energy; The Technology of Energy Use; Energy-Related Environmental Problems with five parts (General Considerations, Thermal Pollution, Radioactivity, Air Pollution, and Other Energy-Related Environmental Problems); Energy Use--History and Projections; Energy Conservation and Growth Reduction; and Conclusions and Biased Opinions. Questions are posed at the end of each chapter. Appendixes are entitled: A Short Course in Thermodynamics; A Short Course in Nuclear Physics; Electromagnetic Radiation; Title I of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; Units, Conversion Factors, Physical Constants, and Useful Numerical Data; and Answers to Selected Problems. (MCW)

  11. Renewable energy technology from underpinning physics to engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infield, D G

    2008-01-01

    The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) in it's submission to the DTI's 2006 Energy Review reminded us that the 'UK has abundant wind, wave and tidal resources available; its mild climate lends itself to bio-energy production, and solar radiation levels are sufficient to sustain a viable solar industry'. These technologies are at different stages of development but they all draw on basic and applied Science and Engineering. The paper will briefly review the renewable energy technologies and their potential for contributing to a sustainable energy supply. Three research topics will be highlighted that bridge the gap between the physics underpinning the energy conversion, and the engineering aspects of development and deployment; all three are highly relevant to the Government's programme on micro-generation. Two are these are taken from field of thin film photovoltaics (PV), one related to novel device development and the other to a measurement technique for assessing the manufacturing quality of PV modules and their performance. The third topic concerns the development of small building integrated wind turbines and examines the complex flow associated with such applications. The paper will conclude by listing key research challenges that are central to the search for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy generation

  12. Buffer thermal energy storage for a solar Brayton engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been completed on the application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine. To aid in the study, a computer program was written for complete transient/stead-state Brayton cycle performance. The results indicated that thermal storage can afford a significant decrease in the number of engine shutdowns as compared to operating without thermal storage. However, the number of shutdowns does not continuously decrease as the storage material weight increases. In fact, there appears to be an optimum weight for minimizing the number of shutdowns.

  13. Life cycle assessment of supercharger for automotive use. Small displacement, high charging pressure engine and environmental load; Jidosha tosaiyo supercharger no life cycle assessment (LCA hyoka). Shohaikiryo kokakyu engine no kankyo eno yasashisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, S; Sonoya, T; Hara, M [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In resent years environmental conservation requires low fuel consumption and low emission engine. And environmental load of every car life stage (production, using, abolition) is considered. Life Cycle Assessment of supercharging small displacement engine is reported, compared with natural aspirated engine as same maximum torque and maximum power as supercharging engine. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  15. Fissile fuel breeding and minor actinide transmutation in the life engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Suemer; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Ahmed, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    Progress on The National Ignition Facility (NIF) brings fusion a viable energy source in foreseeable future. Energy multiplication in a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor could lead earlier market penetration of fusion energy for commercial utilization. Originally, scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have worked out a hybrid reactor design concept; the so-called Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) engine, which has consisted of a spherical fusion chamber of ∼5 m diameter, surrounded by a multi-layered blanket with a beryllium multiplier zone after the first wall. However, earlier work had indicated extreme power peaks at immediate vicinity of the first wall of a hybrid assembly, if a beryllium multiplier is used. Hence, in the current work, the beryllium multiplier zone has been removed in order to mitigate fission power peaks at the vicinity of the first wall as a result of neutron moderation on beryllium. Furthermore, minor actinides (MA) will cause significant neutron multiplication under fusion neutron irradiation so that an extra beryllium multiplier will not be needed. Present work has made following modifications on the LLNL design of the original (LIFE) engine: ·Omission of beryllium multiplier. ·TRISO fuel has been suspended as micro-size particles in Flibe coolant in lieu of being dissolved in uranium salt or imbedded carbon matrix in macro-size pebbles. ·Carbide fuel is used. ·Fissionable fuel charge is kept lower than in the LLNL (LIFE) engine. The modified (LIFE) engine is kept similar to the LLNL design to a great degree in order to allow mutual feedback between two geographically separated teams towards a more advanced and improved design under consideration of totally independent views. The first wall is made of ODS (2 cm) and followed by a Li 17 Pb 83 zone (2 cm), acting as neutron multiplier, tritium breeding and front coolant zone. It is separated by an ODS layer (2 cm) from the Flibe molten salt

  16. Proceedings of the 30. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Kannberg, L.D.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference provides a forum to present and discuss the engineering aspects of energy conversion, advanced and unconventional energy systems and devices, energy conversion and utilization, environmental issues and policy implications on research, development, and implementation of technologies. The solution for a sustainable future will lie in a mix of all of the available energy resources (renewable and non-renewable) and diverse energy conversion technologies that will maintain quality of life in a sustainable manner. The 100 papers in Volume 2 are divided into the following topical sections: (1) Environmental impact--Impacts and technologies; (2) Energy systems--Electric/hybrid vehicle technology; Transportation system assessments; Simulation and modeling of systems; Cogeneration and other energy systems; Thermal energy storage applications; Fluids and heat transfer topics; Demand-side management in buildings; and Energy management; (3) Policy impacts on energy--Developing countries and Global; (4) Renewable energy sources--Solar and geothermal power; Solar thermal power; Photovoltaics; Biomass power; Solar thermal; and Renewable energy--status and future. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Compression ignition of low-octane gasoline: Life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Liu, Feiqi; Liu, Zongwei; Zhao, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A process-based, well-to-wheel conceptualized life cycle assessment model is established. • The impacts of using low-octane gasoline on compression ignition engines are examined. • Life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions reductions are 24.6% and 21.6%. • Significant technical and market barriers are still to be overcome. - Abstract: The use of low-octane gasoline on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines is considered as a competitive alternative to the conventional vehicle propulsion technologies. In this study, a process-based, well-to-wheel conceptualized life cycle assessment model is established to estimate the life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the conventional gasoline-Spark Ignition (SI) and low-octane gasoline-GCI pathways. It is found that compared with the conventional pathway, the low-octane gasoline-GCI pathway leads to a 24.6% reduction in energy consumption and a 22.8% reduction in GHG emissions. The removal of the isomerization and catalytic reforming units in the refinery and the higher energy efficiency in the vehicle use phase are the substantial drivers behind the reductions. The results indicate that by promoting the use of low-octane gasoline coupled with the deployment of GCI vehicles, considerable reductions of energy consumption and GHG emissions in the transport sector can be achieved. However, significant technical and market barriers are still to be overcome. The inherent problems of NO_x and PM exhaust emissions associated with GCI engines need to be further addressed with advanced combustion techniques. Besides, the yield of low-octane gasoline needs to be improved through adjusting the refinery configurations.

  18. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  19. Engineered Nanomaterials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Hemtej

    Energy harvesting and storage are independent mechanisms, each having their own significance in the energy cycle. Energy is generally harvested from temperature variations, mechanical vibrations and other phenomena which are inherently sporadic in nature, harvested energy stands a better chance of efficient utilization if it can be stored and used later, depending on the demand. In essence a comprehensive device that can harness power from surrounding environment and provide a steady and reliable source of energy would be ideal. Towards realizing such a system, for the harvesting component, a piezoelectric nano-composite material consisting of ZnO nanostructures embedded into the matrix of 'Paper' has been developed. Providing a flexible backbone to a brittle material makes it a robust architecture. Energy harvesting by scavenging both mechanical and thermal fluctuations using this flexible nano-composite is discussed in this thesis. On the energy storage front, Graphene based materials developed with a focus towards realizing ultra-thin lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors are introduced. Efforts for enhancing the energy storage performance of such graphitic carbon are detailed. Increasing the rate capability by direct CVD synthesis of graphene on current collectors, enhancing its electrochemical capacity through doping and engineering 3D metallic structures to increase the areal energy density have been studied.

  20. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  1. Energy Guiding and Harvesting through Phonon-Engineered Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Graphene The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of the...ABSTRACT Final Report: Energy Guiding and Harvesting through Phonon-Engineered Graphene Report Title The work performed under this proposal was primarily...Justin Wu, Xinran Wang, Kristof Tahy, Debdeep Jena, Hongjie Dai, Eric Pop. Thermally Limited Current Carrying Ability of Graphene Nanoribbons

  2. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Cogeration System with Biogas Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Doseva, Nadezhda; Chakyrova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an existing cogeneration system driven by biogas internal combustion engines (ICE) is a subject of an investigation by energy and exergy analyses. The system is installed in the Varna Wastewater Treatment Plant (Varna WWTP), Bulgaria and its purpose is to utilize the methane produced as a byproduct of the solids stabilization process at Varna WWTP. Otherwise, the produced methane would pollute the environment. The presented paperhas been organised in the following way: first, i...

  3. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

    Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

  4. Ei Compendex: A new database makes life easier for engineers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Library is expanding its range of databases. The latest arrival, called Ei Compendex, is the world's most comprehensive engineering database, which indexes engineering literature published throughout the world. It also offers bibliographic entries for articles published in scientific journals and for conference proceedings and covers an extensive range of subjects from mechanical engineering to the environment, materials science, solid state physics and superconductivity. Moreover, it is the most relevant quality control and engineering management database. Ei Compendex contains over 4.6 million references from over 2600 journals, conference proceedings and technical reports dating from 1966 to the present. Every year, 220,000 new abstracts are added to the database which is also updated on a weekly basis. In the case of articles published in recent years, it provides an electronic link to the full texts of all major publishers. The database also contains the full texts of Elsevier periodicals (over 250...

  5. Renewable energy physics, engineering, environmental impacts, economics & planning

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    This volume is a true shelf reference, providing a thorough overview of the entire renewable energy sphere, while still functioning as a go-to information source for professionals and students when they need answers about a specific technical issue. Crafted over the last 15 years into a problem-solving tool for engineers, researchers, consultants and planners currently working in the field, as well as a detailed map of the renewables universe for those looking to expand into new technological specialties, Renewable Energy by Sorensen offers the most comprehensive coverage of the subject available.

  6. Proceedings of the COBEM 99: 15. Brazilian congress on mechanical engineering. Engineering committed to quality of life. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented approaching the following area and subjects: petroleum industry, equipment and products, gas and wind turbines, hydroelectric power plants and equipment, environment, mechanical engineering, computerized analysis, fluid flow, thermal machines, fluid flow and mechanics, porous media, nuclear energy, refrigeration, bioengineering, energy sources, consumption and conservation

  7. Sensors for everyday life environmental and food engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Postolache, Octavian; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Swain, Akshya

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date overview of the concepts, modeling, technical and technological details and practical applications of different types of sensors, and discusses the trends of next generation of sensors and systems for environmental and food engineering. This book is aimed at researchers, graduate students, academics and industry professionals working in the field of environmental and food engineering, environmental monitoring, precision agriculture and food quality control.

  8. The equivalent energy method: an engineering approach to fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The equivalent energy method for elastic-plastic fracture evaluations was developed around 1970 for determining realistic engineering estimates for the maximum load-displacement or stress-strain conditions for fracture of flawed structures. The basis principles were summarized but the supporting experimental data, most of which were obtained after the method was proposed, have never been collated. This paper restates the original bases more explicitly and presents the validating data in graphical form. Extensive references are given. The volumetric energy ratio, a modelling parameter encompassing both size and temperature, is the fundamental parameter of the equivalent energy method. It is demonstrated that, in an engineering sense, the volumetric energy ratio is a unique material characteristic for a steel, much like a material property except size must be taken into account. With this as a proposition, the basic formula of the equivalent energy method is derived. Sufficient information is presented so that investigators and analysts may judge the viability and applicability of the method to their areas of interest. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the fifteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Proceedings Volume includes the technical papers that were presented during the Fifteenth Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences on May 14-15, 1997, at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. The Symposium was organized into eight technical sessions, which included 32 individual presentations followed by discussion and interaction with the audience. The topics of the eight sessions are: multiphase flows 1; multiphase flows 2; mostly optics; fluid mechanics; nonlinear fields; welding and cracks; materials; and controls. The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. It has the prime responsibility for establishing the basic scientific foundation upon which the Nation`s future energy options will have to be identified, developed, and built. It is committed to the generation of new knowledge necessary for the solution of present and future problems of energy exploration, production, conversion, and utilization, consistent with respect for the environment. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for contributions to this Symposium.

  10. Ethanol Research : Alternative Fuels & Life-Cycle Engineering Program : November 29, 2006 to November 28, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    This report presents the results of the successful ethanol fuel demonstration program conducted from September 2007 to September 2010. This project was a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Alternative Fuels and Life Cycle Engineering...

  11. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  12. NASA's Robotics Mining Competition Provides Undergraduates Full Life Cycle Systems Engineering Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette

    2017-01-01

    NASA has held an annual robotic mining competition for teams of university/college students since 2010. This competition is yearlong, suitable for a senior university engineering capstone project. It encompasses the full project life cycle from ideation of a robot design to actual tele-operation of the robot in simulated Mars conditions mining and collecting simulated regolith. A major required element for this competition is a Systems Engineering Paper in which each team describes the systems engineering approaches used on their project. The score for the Systems Engineering Paper contributes 25% towards the team's score for the competition's grand prize. The required use of systems engineering on the project by this competition introduces the students to an intense practical application of systems engineering throughout a full project life cycle.

  13. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of a Wave Energy Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Gastelum Zepeda, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energies had accomplish to become part of a new era in the energy development area, making people able to stop relying on fossil fuels. Nevertheless the environmental impacts of these new energy sources also require to be quantified in order to review how many benefits these new technologies have for the environment. In this project the use of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) will be implemented in order to quantify the environmental impact of wave energy, an LCA is a technique for ass...

  15. Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Concepts in Chemical Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Schmidt Rivera, Ximena C.; Stamford, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting represents an important professional and research opportunity for chemical engineers, but this is not broadly reflected in chemical engineering curricula worldwide. This paper aims to present the implementation of a coursework that is easy to apply, free of cost,…

  16. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  17. Life-Cycle Inventory of Manufacturing Prefinished Engineered Wood Flooring in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacturing. However, environmental impacts of manufacturing some wood products—such as prefinished engineered wood flooring—have not been determined. This study examined prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States following the life-cycle inventory...

  18. Group Creativity Development by Solving Real-life Project in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Du, Xiangyun

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, problem and project based learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. Among the diverse pedagogical practices of PBL, there has been an emergence of real-life project for students. Based on literature of creativity...... along with the learning activities etc., which are necessary for group creativity development in engineering students....

  19. The US Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    that have been incorporated into BIM technologies marketed by competing vendors (e.g., Industry Foundation Class [IFC], Construction Operations...ER D C SR -1 2- 2 The US Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) En gi ne er R es ea rc h an...Information Modeling ( BIM ) US Army Corps of Engineers Directorate of Civil Works Engineering and Construction Branch Washington, DC 20314-1000 Final

  20. Engineering in the energy sector. The single market and the engineering sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodrigues, A.

    1993-01-01

    Projects with large infrastructures, particularly those in the field of energy, provide a strong boost to certain industrial sectors in the country. In the case of Spain, the policy of direct management 'by components' of these projects - hydroelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, thermoelectric plants and nuclear power plants - adopted by the electric utility owners has furthered not only the local equipment manufacturing industry but also the engineering sector. At present, with full implementation of the Single Market in sight, it is particularly interesting for Spain to continue building up a powerful engineering sector, increasing its size and usefulness, and extending its traditional areas of action to other technologies, more on the lines of engineering and consulting firms in the USA than in the rest of Europe. The intention is to endow our equipment and construction companies with the skills necessary to enable them to compete with large European conglomerates in their respective sectors. The structure of these conglomerates usually contains engineering capabilities which are not habitual in our industry. Examples are given, showing how this model has been used to compete and win awards for important international projects. A specific analysis has been made of the position of Spanish engineering and industry in nuclear power generation projects in the former Soviet Union and East European countries, in which large investments are expected to be made. (author)

  1. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.; Simon, A.J.; Powers, S.; Meier, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  2. Chemical engineering challenges and investment opportunities in sustainable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and energy industries are transforming as they adjust to the new era of high-priced petroleum and severe global warming. As a result of the transformation, engineering challenges and investment opportunities abound. Rapid evolution and fast growth are expected in cathode and anode materials as well as polymeric electrolytes for vehicular batteries and in high-performance polymer-ceramic composites for wind turbines, fuel-efficient aircraft, and lighter and safer cars. Unique process-engineering opportunities exist in sand-oil, coal, and possibly also shale liquefaction to produce transportation fuel; and also in genetic engineering of photosynthesizing plants and other organisms for their processing into high-performance biodegradable polymers and high-value-added environmentally friendly chemicals. Also, research on the feasibility of mitigation of global warming through enhancement of CO(2) uptake by the southern oceans by fertilization with trace amounts of iron is progressing. Because chemical engineers are uniquely well trained in mathematical modeling of mass transport, flow, and mixing, and also in cost analysis, they are likely to join the oceanographers and marine biologists in this important endeavor.

  3. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 1 is organized under the following headings: space power systems requirements and issues, space power systems; space power systems 2; space nuclear power reactors space nuclear reactor technology I; space nuclear reactor technology II; reactor technology; isotopic fueled power systems I, isotopic fueled power systems II, space power automation; space power automation II, space power automation III; space power automation IV; space power automation V; power systems hardware and design selection, power components, pulse power, power management and distribution, power management and distribution II, power management and distribution III; space energy conversion: solar dynamic, space energy conversion: static and dynamic, space solar array technology, advanced space solar cells

  4. Engineering radical polymer electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Wheeler, Dean R.

    2017-06-01

    In principle a wide range of organic materials can store energy in the form of reversible redox conversions of stable radicals. Such chemistry holds great promise for energy storage applications due to high theoretical capacities, high rate capabilities, intrinsic structural tunability, and the possibility of low-cost "green" syntheses from renewable sources. There have been steady improvements in the design of organic radical polymers, in which radicals are incorporated into the backbone and/or as pendant groups. This review highlights opportunities for improved redox molecule and polymer design along with the key challenges (e.g., transport phenomena, solubility, and reaction mechanisms) to transitioning known organic radicals into high-performance electrodes. Ultimately, organic-based batteries are still a nascent field with many open questions. Further advances in molecular design, electrode engineering, and device architecture will be required for these systems to reach their full potential and meet the diverse and increasing demands for energy storage.

  5. Strain Engineering to Modify the Electrochemistry of Energy Storage Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-01-01

    Strain engineering has been a critical aspect of device design in semiconductor manufacturing for the past decade, but remains relatively unexplored for other applications, such as energy storage. Using mechanical strain as an input parameter to modulate electrochemical potentials of metal oxides opens new opportunities intersecting fields of electrochemistry and mechanics. Here we demonstrate that less than 0.1% strain on a Ni-Ti-O based metal-oxide formed on superelastic shape memory NiTi alloys leads to anodic and cathodic peak potential shifts by up to ~30 mV in an electrochemical cell. Moreover, using the superelastic properties of NiTi to enable strain recovery also recovers the electrochemical potential of the metal oxide, providing mechanistic evidence of strain-modified electrochemistry. These results indicate that mechanical energy can be coupled with electrochemical systems to efficiently design and optimize a new class of strain-modulated energy storage materials. PMID:27283872

  6. Making perfect life : bio-engineering (in) the 21st century : interim study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van R.; Keulen, van I.; Geesink, I.; Schuiff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reportnumber: PE 438.829; This document is the result of the preparatory phase of the STOA-project "Making perfect life", that defined the project focus. This resulted in the study document Making Perfect Life: Bio-engineering (in) the 21st century. A project plan for the next two phases was

  7. Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehnt, M. [Institut for Energy and Environmental Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Before new technologies enter the market, their environmental superiority over competing options must be asserted based on a life cycle approach. However, when applying the prevailing status-quo Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to future renewable energy systems, one does not distinguish between impacts which are 'imported' into the system due to the 'background system' (e.g. due to supply of materials or final energy for the production of the energy system), and what is the improvement potential of these technologies compared to competitors (e.g. due to process and system innovations or diffusion effects). This paper investigates a dynamic approach towards the LCA of renewable energy technologies and proves that for all renewable energy chains, the inputs of finite energy resources and emissions of greenhouse gases are extremely low compared with the conventional system. With regard to the other environmental impacts the findings do not reveal any clear verdict for or against renewable energies. Future development will enable a further reduction of environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Different factors are responsible for this development, such as progress with respect to technical parameters of energy converters, in particular, improved efficiency; emissions characteristics; increased lifetime, etc.; advances with regard to the production process of energy converters and fuels; and advances with regard to 'external' services originating from conventional energy and transport systems, for instance, improved electricity or process heat supply for system production and ecologically optimized transport systems for fuel transportation. The application of renewable energy sources might modify not only the background system, but also further downstream aspects, such as consumer behavior. This effect is, however, strongly context and technology dependent. (author)

  8. Low-grade energy of the ground for civil engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potienko Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches issues related to the relevance of applying renewable energy sources for civil engineering. The aim of the work is the study of modern approaches to designing buildings, using low-grade energy of the ground. The research methodology is based on the complex analysis of international design experience and on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of objects that use low-grade heat. We have identified the prospects of applying it for domestic construction practice. The state policy in the field of the efficient use of energy resources has been analyzed, and the vector of energy-saving programs development for the Samara Region has been defined. The research describes the impact of using geothermal energy on the architectural and planning solutions of buildings, as well as the peculiar features of the latter’s design, which are related primarily to the increase of energy efficiency. As a result, in the article a conclusion is made that the objects under investigation may be considered as one of the vectors of sustainable architecture development.

  9. Biocybrid systems and the re-engineering of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diana; Ferreira da Rocha, Adson; Hamdan, Camila; Augusto, Leci; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques

    2011-03-01

    The reengineering of life expanded by perceptual experiences in the sense of presence in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality is the theme of our investigation in collaborative practices confirming the artistś creativity close to the inventivity of scientists and mutual capacity for the generation of biocybrid systems. We consider the enactive bodily interfaces for human existence being co-located in the continuum and symbiotic zone between body and flesh - cyberspace and data - and the hybrid properties of physical world. That continuum generates a biocybrid zone (Bio+cyber+hybrid) and the life is reinvented. Results reaffirm the creative reality of coupled body and mutual influences with environment information, enhancing James Gibson's ecological perception theory. The ecosystem life in its dynamical relations between human, animal, plants, landscapes, urban life and objects, bring questions and challenges for artworks and the reengineering of life discussed in our artworks in technoscience. Finally, we describe an implementation in which the immersion experience is enhanced by the datavisualization of biological audio signals and by using wearable miniaturized devices for biofeedback.

  10. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  11. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  12. A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Origins of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Grover

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atoms and molecules assemble into materials, with the material structure determining the properties and ultimate function. Human-made materials and systems have achieved great complexity, such as the integrated circuit and the modern airplane. However, they still do not rival the adaptivity and robustness of biological systems. Understanding the reaction and assembly of molecules on the early Earth is a scientific grand challenge, and also can elucidate the design principles underlying biological materials and systems. This research requires understanding of chemical reactions, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, optimization, and control. Thus, the discipline of chemical engineering can play a central role in advancing the field. In this paper, an overview of research in the origins field is given, with particular emphasis on the origin of biopolymers and the role of chemical engineering phenomena. A case study is presented to highlight the importance of the environment and its coupling to the chemistry.

  13. Reducing Uncertainty in Fatigue Life Limits of Turbine Engine Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    10-8 component failures/engine flight hour. This metric underscores the essential role of safety in a design process that simultaneously strives to...This metric underscores the essential role of safety in a design process that simultaneously strives to achieve perfor- mance, efficiency, reliability...resonance at 20 kHz. At the highest stres - ses, surface-connected a particles typically served as the primary sites for crack initiation (e.g., Fig. 4

  14. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  15. RENAULT Energy TCe 90. The first RENAULT gasoline 3 cylinder turbocharged engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ser, Antoine; Covin, Bruno; Levasseur, Denis [Renault SAS, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Boiarciuc, Andrei [Renault SAS, Lardy (France)

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of a new 0.9 l, 3 cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine. This new 'downsized' engine will be the core of the B and entry segment for Renault. As part of the Energy TCe family, this engine will offer a power level of 66kW close to a naturally aspirated 1.4 l, with very low CO{sub 2} emissions and reduced costs of ownership. The Energy TCe 90 is both segment leader for real life fuel consumption on Clio 4, and among the best gasoline engines regarding CO{sub 2} emissions with only 99 g CO{sub 2}/km. Based on Renault's experience in turbocharged gasoline engines, this engine features optimized combustion in order to obtain a significantly reduced fuel consumption combined with good driveability. This new product in Renault's powertrain line up offers an attractive Total Cost of Ownership for many customers. It is an intermediate offer between diesel and traditional gasoline, a clever solution for mid distance drivers. To meet all customer requirements, the main improvement features are: - Global design for consumption reduction with optimized combustion system based on high tumble motion and intake VTC. Friction reduction, introducing DLC and a new generation of controlled oil pump has been developed. - A compact exhaust system, introducing convergent exhaust ports, an integrated turbo-manifold system and a closed coupled catalyst converter for thermodynamic optimisation, providing benefits for fast warm up and high dynamic response. - Stop and Start by reinforced starter system and regenerative breaking controlled by ESM. Cost competitiveness, a constant preoccupation for Renault, is ensured by the carry-over of industrial facilities and efficient use of the Renault-Nissan Alliance's worldwide supplier base. (orig.)

  16. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.; Beach, R.; Blink, J.; Caird, J.; Erlandson, A.; Farmer, J.; Halsey, W.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; MacIntyre, A.; Miles, R.; Storm, E.

    2008-01-01

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R and D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost

  17. Annual report 2004. Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, L.; Zevenhoven, R. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This fifth annual report in this series, covering year 2004, gives an overview of the research, education and other activities of the Laboratory of Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection at Helsinki University of Technology. From the research point of view, the laboratory continues in the Nordic Energy Research Program (2003-2006) in the field of CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and in the EU project 'ToMeRed' on toxic trace elements emissions control. The laboratory is also the operating agent for the IEA project 'Energy systems integration between society and industry'. The bulk of the research can be classified into three groups, in short: energy systems; spraying and combustion and combustion and waste treatment. This research takes mainly place in national and international consortia, but sometimes also in a direct cooperation with one industry partner. Some of the work involves the use and development of models and sub- models for the simulation and optimisation of energy systems and processes. Commercial softwares like Aspen Plus and Prosim are important tools for our work as well. Besides this, single particle modelling can be applied to fuel droplets, fuel particles or particles found in metallurgical industry. We make CFD calculations with commercial codes are made as well, while working on the improvement of (sub-) models for multiphase fluid dynamics.

  18. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  19. Life Management of high energy piping girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.J.; Paterson, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Life management of high energy piping systems is a synergistic process that combines the collective results from nondestructive examination (NDE), stress analysis, metallurgical replication, and fracture mechanics evaluations. To achieve conclusions with high confidence and reliability, the methodology requires that: (1) all weldments must be appropriately examined to establish initial baseline data and indicate both fabrication and inservice damage, (2) as-found stress analyses must be consistent with field estimated displacements to select sites of maximum in-service damage, and (3) metallurgical replicas must be taken at high stress sites determined as an outcome of a life exhaustion evaluation. The multidiscipline tasks are effectively managed by developing a rational framework incorporating all of the above requirements. Analytical algorithms that estimate linear and nonlinear degradation effects are included in the remaining life predictions. High damage locations are selected based on a life exhaustion calculation. Localized remaining life and reexamination intervals for failures governed by creep and fatigue damage are estimated by metallurgical replica cavitation damage and the service life. Stress-based creep damage identified in metallurgical replicas should correspond to the predicted high damage locations from the life exhaustion calculation. The methodology minimizes future reexamination locations while providing high certainty of monitoring lead-the-fleet damage. This life management program recognizes the aging process in plant equipment. It establishes a continuous process of examinations, evaluations, and decisions to track degradation of the piping system life cycle. Potential problems are identified long before failures occur. Corrective action is taken during scheduled outages to maintain the required level of plant performance

  20. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  1. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  2. Energy, ecology and the distribution of microbial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Jennifer L; Hamilton, Trinity L; Grettenberger, Christen L; Jones, Daniel S; Tsao, Leah E; Burgos, William D

    2013-07-19

    Mechanisms that govern the coexistence of multiple biological species have been studied intensively by ecologists since the turn of the nineteenth century. Microbial ecologists in the meantime have faced many fundamental challenges, such as the lack of an ecologically coherent species definition, lack of adequate methods for evaluating population sizes and community composition in nature, and enormous taxonomic and functional diversity. The accessibility of powerful, culture-independent molecular microbiology methods offers an opportunity to close the gap between microbial science and the main stream of ecological theory, with the promise of new insights and tools needed to meet the grand challenges humans face as planetary engineers and galactic explorers. We focus specifically on resources related to energy metabolism because of their direct links to elemental cycling in the Earth's history, engineering applications and astrobiology. To what extent does the availability of energy resources structure microbial communities in nature? Our recent work on sulfur- and iron-oxidizing autotrophs suggests that apparently subtle variations in the concentration ratios of external electron donors and acceptors select for different microbial populations. We show that quantitative knowledge of microbial energy niches (population-specific patterns of energy resource use) can be used to predict variations in the abundance of specific taxa in microbial communities. Furthermore, we propose that resource ratio theory applied to micro-organisms will provide a useful framework for identifying how environmental communities are organized in space and time.

  3. Energy life-cycle analysis modeling and decision support tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoza, M.; White, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    As one of DOE`s five multi-program national laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develops and deploys technology for national missions in energy and the environment. The Energy Information Systems Group, within the Laboratory`s Computer Sciences Department, focuses on the development of the computational and data communications infrastructure and automated tools for the Transmission and Distribution energy sector and for advanced process engineering applications. The energy industry is being forced to operate in new ways and under new constraints. It is in a reactive mode, reacting to policies and politics, and to economics and environmental pressures. The transmission and distribution sectors are being forced to find new ways to maximize the use of their existing infrastructure, increase energy efficiency, and minimize environmental impacts, while continuing to meet the demands of an ever increasing population. The creation of a sustainable energy future will be a challenge for both the soft and hard sciences. It will require that we as creators of our future be bold in the way we think about our energy future and aggressive in its development. The development of tools to help bring about a sustainable future will not be simple either. The development of ELCAM, for example, represents a stretch for the computational sciences as well as for each of the domain sciences such as economics, which will have to be team members.

  4. Symposium on extension of life time of atomic energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This symposium was held on November 18, 1987 in University of Tokyo under the sponsorship of Japan Welding Engineering Society. The papers were presented on the various problems on the examination of the extension of life time and the deterioration with the lapse of years of nuclear power plants, the data of corrosion fatigue strength in high temperature water and the controlling factors, the trend of the research on corrosion fatigue crack development in high temperature, high pressure water and future problems, long life corrosion fatigue characteristics and the method of estimating remaining life, the trend of the research on the neutron irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessels, the results of the property confirmation test on the strain aging of reactor pressure vessel materials, the evaluation of life time by probabilistic fracture mechanics, the radiation deterioration of electric wire coating and insulation materials, the deterioration of concrete structures with the lapse of years, and the detection of the deterioration with the lapse of years. (K.I.)

  5. Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wood Use in Civil Engineering in Japan Based on Life-Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Kayo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering in Japan through 2050. To assess mitigation potential, we examined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions that are avoided by storing carbon in wood and forests, substituting wooden materials for non-wooden materials (cement, concrete, steel, and asphalt, and substituting processing residue and waste wood salvaged from defunct civil engineering structures for fossil fuels (heavy oil. Our projections suggest that there will be a maximum potential domestic log volume of 6.80 million m3/year available for civil engineering use in Japan in 2050, and that it would be possible to produce this volume while increasing Japan’s forest resources over the long term. A maximum nationwide avoided GHG emissions potential of 9.63 million t-CO2eq/year could be achieved in 2050, which is equivalent to 0.7% of Japan’s current GHG emissions. The breakdown of avoided emissions is 73%, 19%, and 8% for carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution, respectively, with the greatest contributions coming from carbon storage through the use of log piles.

  6. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    . However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private...... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...... in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...

  7. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    . However, before being fully implemented in the national building codesand international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building...... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...... in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that isbalanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...

  8. Mathematical and statistical applications in life sciences and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Mahima; Chaubey, Yogendra

    2017-01-01

    The book includes articles from eminent international scientists discussing a wide spectrum of topics of current importance in mathematics and statistics and their applications. It presents state-of-the-art material along with a clear and detailed review of the relevant topics and issues concerned. The topics discussed include message transmission, colouring problem, control of stochastic structures and information dynamics, image denoising, life testing and reliability, survival and frailty models, analysis of drought periods, prediction of genomic profiles, competing risks, environmental applications and chronic disease control. It is a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in the relevant areas of mathematics and statistics.

  9. The construction of life prediction models for the design of Stirling engine heater components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, A.; Bright, A.; Cronin, M.; Arnold, S.

    1983-01-01

    The service life of Stirling-engine heater structures of Fe-based high-temperature alloys is predicted using a numerical model based on a linear-damage approach and published test data (engine test data for a Co-based alloy and tensile-test results for both the Co-based and the Fe-based alloys). The operating principle of the automotive Stirling engine is reviewed; the economic and technical factors affecting the choice of heater material are surveyed; the test results are summarized in tables and graphs; the engine environment and automotive duty cycle are characterized; and the modeling procedure is explained. It is found that the statistical scatter of the fatigue properties of the heater components needs to be reduced (by decreasing the porosity of the cast material or employing wrought material in fatigue-prone locations) before the accuracy of life predictions can be improved.

  10. Life cycle inventory analysis of fossil energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Sungyee; Yamada, Tatsuya

    1999-01-01

    Given growing concerns over global warming problems in recent years, a matter of great importance has been to grasp GHG emissions from fossil energy use as accurately as possible by figuring out how much GHGs result from a life cycle (production, transportation and consumption) of various fossil energies. The objective of this study is to make a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis of major fossil energies (coal, oil, LNG, LPG) consumed in Japan pursuant to ISO 14040. On these fossil energies imported to Japan in 1997, LCI analysis results of GHG emissions (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) put CO 2 intensity during their combustion stage (gross heat value basis) at 100:121:138:179 among LNG:LPG:oil:coal. But, in life cycle terms, the ratios turned to be 100:110:120:154. The world average (gross heat value basis) gained from IPCC data, among others, puts the ratios among LNG:LPG:oil:coal at 100:105:110:151. In comparison, our study that focused on Japan found their corresponding figures at 100:110:120:154. COP 3 set forth country-by-country targets. Yet, global warming, that is a worldwide problem, also requires a more comprehensive assessment based on a life cycle analysis (LCA). The estimation results of our study can be of some help in shaping some criteria when considering energy and environmental policies from a global viewpoint. In addition, our study results suggest the importance of the best energy mix that is endorsed by LCI analysis results, if global warming abatement efforts should successfully be in advance. As specific institutional designs of Kyoto Mechanism are currently under examination, the introduction of LCI method deserves to be considered in discussing the baseline issue of joint implementation and clean development mechanism. In the days ahead, by gathering and analysing detailed-ever data, and through fossil-energy LCA by use, we had better consider supply and demand of the right energies in the right uses. (author)

  11. The National Energy Audit (NEAT) Engineering Manual (Version 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-04-20

    Government-funded weatherization assistance programs resulted from increased oil prices caused by the 1973 oil embargo. These programs were instituted to reduce US consumption of oil and help low-income families afford the increasing cost of heating their homes. In the summer of 1988, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing technical support to the Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). A preliminary study found no suitable means of cost-effectively selecting energy efficiency improvements (measures) for single-family homes that incorporated all the factors seen as beneficial in improving cost-effectiveness and usability. In mid-1989, ORNL was authorized to begin development of a computer-based measure selection technique. In November of 1992 a draft version of the program was made available to all WAP state directors for testing. The first production release, Version 4.3, was made available in october of 1993. The Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program has continued funding improvements to the program increasing its user-friendliness and applicability. initial publication of this engineering manual coincides with availability of Version 6.1, November 1997, though algorithms described generally apply to all prior versions. Periodic updates of specific sections in the manual will permit maintaining a relevant document. This Engineering Manual delineates the assumptions used by NEAT in arriving at the measure recommendations based on the user's input of the building characteristics. Details of the actual data entry are available in the NEAT User's Manual (ORNL/Sub/91-SK078/1) and will not be discussed in this manual.

  12. Energy Balance, Climate, and Life \\-- Work of M. Budyko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, R. F.

    2003-12-01

    This talk will review the work of Mikhail I. Budyko, author of "Climate and Life" and many other works, who died recently at the age of 81 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He directed the Division for Climate Change Research at the State Hydrological Institute. We will explore Budyko's work in clarifying the role of energy balance in determining planetary climate, and the role of climate in regulating Earth's biosphere.

  13. Energy Balance, Climate, and Life - Work of M. Budyko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This talk will review the work of Mikhail I. Budyko, author of "Climate and Life" and many other works, who died recently at age 81, in St Petersburg, Russia. He directed the Division for Climate Change Research at the State Hydrological Institute. We will explore Budyko's work in clarifying the role of energy balance in determining planetary climate, and the role of climate in regulating Earth s biosphere.

  14. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  15. Aging plant life management - the requirements defined to date by the KTA nuclear engineering codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, I.

    1996-01-01

    German nuclear engineering codes so far do not enclose a specific aging plant life management programme. However, the existing codes and standards do contain a number of applicable requirements and principles of relevance to objectives and principles of such programmes, as they also cover aging-induced effects on power plants. The major principles relating to preventive safety engineering and quality assurance are laid down in the publications KTA 1401, 1404, 1201, 1202, and KTA 3211. (DG) [de

  16. Efficient Use of Energy: as a Life Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Sabry

    2017-06-01

    ,EOS,…. In addition, Ministerial decisions and resolutions were issued to enforce the standards and labeling and to monitor the industry and the market as well.At the Regional Level the League of Arab States issued the “Arab Framework for Energy Efficiency for End-User” supported by the Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency( RCREEE acting as technical arm.In 2012, MoERE applied this Framework to develop its National Plan which has been endorsed by the cabinet in the same year. This Plan included EE projects to be implemented by the Ministry as well as Measures for Energy Efficiency Improvement expected as a result of implementing these projects.Efficient Use of Energy is a Life Style and Culture that should be taught to children in Schools and at Home.

  17. Aerospace System Unified Life Cycle Engineering Producibility Measurement Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    High Energy Forming Electrochemical Mechanical Fastening Knurling Rubber Pad Forming Electrical Discharge Painting Hydroforming Electron Beam...ICan I neml Implolicd... IDA ItepoIan m ieswed by outid ponels of I -rt o esn their high quait and resneto the pro m Shadow. aMd t e okmied by thne...ul bete ubec o m iDAR IeprI IDA O Go p, I arm lewod by the seio Individuals repnI, l letthe pojctadm ohs n selecied by IDA to esmur air high quality

  18. Educating Future Energy Engineers for Sustainability: Case Study in Energy Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the case study of an interdisciplinary course in Energy Economy that was developed at the Energy Engineering Graduate Program at Başkent University. The course integrated several unique pedagogical features to satisfy the aim of developing a working knowledge in energy economy with an energy systems perspective. The novel aspects of the course thematically led to a capstone research project where 5 teams of 17 course participants analyzed their prioritized solutions towards improving the energy self-sufficiency of the campus based on the practice of energy economy. The results of the teams’ solutions towards a net-zero energy/exergy campus included electric buses for city-campus transport, poly-generation for the new Arts Center, LED/OLED lighting for campus lighting, dynamo driven/piezoelectric sports center, biofuels from the university-owned dairy products farm, and an energy efficient technology incubation center. This unique course with participatory learning is compared with others before concluding that the case study is a useful international example for energy economy.

  19. Fractal and chaotic laws on seismic dissipated energy in an energy system of engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Hong; Nie, Yong-An; Yan, Zong-Da; Wu, Guo-You

    1998-09-01

    Fractal and chaotic laws of engineering structures are discussed in this paper, it means that the intrinsic essences and laws on dynamic systems which are made from seismic dissipated energy intensity E d and intensity of seismic dissipated energy moment I e are analyzed. Based on the intrinsic characters of chaotic and fractal dynamic system of E d and I e, three kinds of approximate dynamic models are rebuilt one by one: index autoregressive model, threshold autoregressive model and local-approximate autoregressive model. The innate laws, essences and systematic error of evolutional behavior I e are explained over all, the short-term behavior predictability and long-term behavior probability of which are analyzed in the end. That may be valuable for earthquake-resistant theory and analysis method in practical engineering structures.

  20. Life-cycle assessment in the renewable energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goralczyk, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy industry is facing challenges regarding energetic safety, competitiveness, improvement of domestic companies and environmental protection. Ecological guidelines concern the elimination of detrimental solutions, and effective energy management, which will form the basis for sustainable development. The Polish power industry is required to systematically increase the share of energy taken from renewable sources in the total energy sold to customers. Besides the economic issues, particular importance is assigned to environmental factors associated with the choice of energy source. That is where life-cycle assessment (LCA) is important. The main purpose of LCA is to identify the environmental impacts of goods and services during the whole life cycle of the product or service. Therefore LCA can be applied to assess the impact on the environment of electricity generation and will allow producers to make better decisions pertaining to environmental protection. The renewable energy sources analysed in this paper include the energy from photovoltaics, wind turbines and hydroelectric power. The goal and scope of the analysis comprise the assessment of environmental impacts of production of 1 GJ of energy from the sources mentioned above. The study will cover the construction, operation and waste disposal at each power plant. Analysis will cover the impact categories, where the environmental influence is the most significant, i.e. resource depletion, global warmth potential, acidification and eutrophication. The LCA results will be shown on the basis of European and Australian research. This analysis will be extended with a comparison between environmental impacts of energy from renewable and conventional sources. This report will conclude with an analysis of possibilities of application of the existing research results and LCA rules in the Polish energy industry with a focus on Poland's future accession to the European Union. Definitions of LCA fundamental

  1. Proceedings of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.

    2014-12-01

    The second National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop was held in Broomfield, Colorado, from January 29 to February 1, 2013. The event included a day-and-a-half workshop exploring a wide variety of topics related to system modeling and design of wind turbines and plants. Following the workshop, 2 days of tutorials were held at NREL, showcasing software developed at Sandia National Laboratories, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Glenn Laboratories, and NREL. This document provides a brief summary of the various workshop activities and includes a review of the content and evaluation results from attendees.

  2. Energy and every day life, how better consume?; Energie et vie quotidienne, comment consommer mieux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The second meeting of the national debate in the energies, took place at Strasbourg the 3 april 2003. The theme was the energy in the everyday life and a better consumption. It was organized around four topics allowing to take stock, to describe the technological forecasts and define the good practices in matter or daily energy consumption. The first topic concerned the heating according a poor consumption. The second topic dealt with the choice of the energy for the house. The third one dealt with the optimization of household and lighting use, as the last one tried to conciliate travel and sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Secondary Electrons as an Energy Source for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Kamil B; Neveu, Marc; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Mickol, Rebecca L; Chou, Luoth; Webster, Kevin D; Tilley, Matt; Zacchei, Federica; Escudero, Cristina; Flores Martinez, Claudio L; Labrado, Amanda; Fernández, Enrique J G

    2018-01-01

    Life on Earth is found in a wide range of environments as long as the basic requirements of a liquid solvent, a nutrient source, and free energy are met. Previous hypotheses have speculated how extraterrestrial microbial life may function, among them that particle radiation might power living cells indirectly through radiolytic products. On Earth, so-called electrophilic organisms can harness electron flow from an extracellular cathode to build biomolecules. Here, we describe two hypothetical mechanisms, termed "direct electrophy" and "indirect electrophy" or "fluorosynthesis," by which organisms could harness extracellular free electrons to synthesize organic matter, thus expanding the ensemble of potential habitats in which extraterrestrial organisms might be found in the Solar System and beyond. The first mechanism involves the direct flow of secondary electrons from particle radiation to a microbial cell to power the organism. The second involves the indirect utilization of impinging secondary electrons and a fluorescing molecule, either biotic or abiotic in origin, to drive photosynthesis. Both mechanisms involve the attenuation of an incoming particle's energy to create low-energy secondary electrons. The validity of the hypotheses is assessed through simple calculations showing the biomass density attainable from the energy supplied. Also discussed are potential survival strategies that could be used by organisms living in possible habitats with a plentiful supply of secondary electrons, such as near the surface of an icy moon. While we acknowledge that the only definitive test for the hypothesis is to collect specimens, we also describe experiments or terrestrial observations that could support or nullify the hypotheses. Key Words: Radiation-Electrophiles-Subsurface life. Astrobiology 18, 73-85.

  4. The LAILAPS search engine: a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Spies, Karl; Colmsee, Christian; Flemming, Steffen; Klapperstück, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe

    2010-03-25

    Efficient and effective information retrieval in life sciences is one of the most pressing challenge in bioinformatics. The incredible growth of life science databases to a vast network of interconnected information systems is to the same extent a big challenge and a great chance for life science research. The knowledge found in the Web, in particular in life-science databases, are a valuable major resource. In order to bring it to the scientist desktop, it is essential to have well performing search engines. Thereby, not the response time nor the number of results is important. The most crucial factor for millions of query results is the relevance ranking. In this paper, we present a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases and its implementation in the LAILAPS search engine. Motivated by the observation of user behavior during their inspection of search engine result, we condensed a set of 9 relevance discriminating features. These features are intuitively used by scientists, who briefly screen database entries for potential relevance. The features are both sufficient to estimate the potential relevance, and efficiently quantifiable. The derivation of a relevance prediction function that computes the relevance from this features constitutes a regression problem. To solve this problem, we used artificial neural networks that have been trained with a reference set of relevant database entries for 19 protein queries. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, this concepts are implemented in the LAILAPS search engine. It can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases. LAILAPS is publicly available for SWISSPROT data at http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de.

  5. Data-Mining Toolset Developed for Determining Turbine Engine Part Life Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    The current practice in aerospace turbine engine maintenance is to remove components defined as life-limited parts after a fixed time, on the basis of a predetermined number of flight cycles. Under this schedule-based maintenance practice, the worst-case usage scenario is used to determine the usable life of the component. As shown, this practice often requires removing a part before its useful life is fully consumed, thus leading to higher maintenance cost. To address this issue, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in a collaborative effort with Pratt & Whitney, has developed a generic modular toolset that uses data-mining technology to parameterize life usage models for maintenance purposes. The toolset enables a "condition-based" maintenance approach, where parts are removed on the basis of the cumulative history of the severity of operation they have experienced. The toolset uses data-mining technology to tune life-consumption models on the basis of operating and maintenance histories. The flight operating conditions, represented by measured variables within the engine, are correlated with repair records for the engines, generating a relationship between the operating condition of the part and its service life. As shown, with the condition-based maintenance approach, the lifelimited part is in service until its usable life is fully consumed. This approach will lower maintenance costs while maintaining the safety of the propulsion system. The toolset is a modular program that is easily customizable by users. First, appropriate parametric damage accumulation models, which will be functions of engine variables, must be defined. The tool then optimizes the models to match the historical data by computing an effective-cycle metric that reduces the unexplained variability in component life due to each damage mode by accounting for the variability in operational severity. The damage increment due to operating conditions experienced during each flight is used to compute

  6. Career-Life Balance for Women of Color: Experiences in Science and Engineering Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel; Ko, Lily; Hodari, Apriel; Ong, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation recently recognized that career-life balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) may present some unique challenges for women of color compared with their White and/or male counterparts, thus negatively impacting retention and advancement for a minority demographic that has long been…

  7. Towards a Sustainable Approach to Nanotechnology by Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…

  8. Engineers and the Web: An analysis of real life gaps in information usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Engineers face a wide range of gaps when trying to identify, acquire, and utilize information from the Web. To be able to avoid creating such gaps, it is essential to understand them in detail. This paper reports the results of a study of the real life gaps in information usage processes of 17

  9. A New Energy-Critical Plane Damage Parameter for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yong Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings at high temperatures. In this paper, considering different failure types, a new energy-critical plane damage parameter is proposed for multiaxial fatigue life prediction, and no extra fitted material constants will be needed for practical applications. Moreover, three multiaxial models with maximum damage parameters on the critical plane are evaluated under tension-compression and tension-torsion loadings. Experimental data of GH4169 under proportional and non-proportional fatigue loadings and a case study of a turbine disk-blade contact system are introduced for model validation. Results show that model predictions by Wang-Brown (WB and Fatemi-Socie (FS models with maximum damage parameters are conservative and acceptable. For the turbine disk-blade contact system, both of the proposed damage parameters and Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT model show reasonably acceptable correlations with its field number of flight cycles. However, life estimations of the turbine blade reveal that the definition of the maximum damage parameter is not reasonable for the WB model but effective for both the FS and SWT models.

  10. Isobaric Expansion Engines: New Opportunities in Energy Conversion for Heat Engines, Pumps and Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Glushenkov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isobaric expansion (IE engines are a very uncommon type of heat-to-mechanical-power converters, radically different from all well-known heat engines. Useful work is extracted during an isobaric expansion process, i.e., without a polytropic gas/vapour expansion accompanied by a pressure decrease typical of state-of-the-art piston engines, turbines, etc. This distinctive feature permits isobaric expansion machines to serve as very simple and inexpensive heat-driven pumps and compressors as well as heat-to-shaft-power converters with desired speed/torque. Commercial application of such machines, however, is scarce, mainly due to a low efficiency. This article aims to revive the long-known concept by proposing important modifications to make IE machines competitive and cost-effective alternatives to state-of-the-art heat conversion technologies. Experimental and theoretical results supporting the isobaric expansion technology are presented and promising potential applications, including emerging power generation methods, are discussed. It is shown that dense working fluids with high thermal expansion at high process temperature and low compressibility at low temperature make it possible to operate with reasonable thermal efficiencies at ultra-low heat source temperatures (70–100 °C. Regeneration/recuperation of heat can increase the efficiency notably and extend the area of application of these machines to higher heat source temperatures. For heat source temperatures of 200–600 °C, the efficiency of these machines can reach 20–50% thus making them a flexible, economical and energy efficient alternative to many today’s power generation technologies, first of all organic Rankine cycle (ORC.

  11. Water Conservation Study (Water and Energy) Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) FY94S Fort Knox, Kentucky. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    .... Life cycle cost analyses were performed using the Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer program. Project descriptions and DDl39l forms were prepared for four Energy Conservation Investment Program...

  12. Water Conservation Study (Water and Energy), Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) FY94S, Fort Knox, Kentucky; Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    .... Life cycle cost analyses were performed using the Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer program. Project descriptions and DD1391 forms were prepared for four Energy Conservation Investment program...

  13. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  14. Engineering estimates versus impact evaluation of energy efficiency projects: Regression discontinuity evidence from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Corey; Siler, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades have been gaining widespread attention across global channels as a cost-effective approach to addressing energy challenges. The cost-effectiveness of these projects is generally predicted using engineering estimates pre-implementation, often with little ex post analysis of project success. In this paper, for a suite of energy efficiency projects, we directly compare ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings to ex post econometric estimates that use 15-min interval, building-level energy consumption data. In contrast to most prior literature, our econometric results confirm the engineering estimates, even suggesting the engineering estimates were too modest. Further, we find heterogeneous efficiency impacts by time of day, suggesting select efficiency projects can be useful in reducing peak load. - Highlights: • Regression discontinuity used to estimate energy savings from efficiency projects. • Ex post econometric estimates validate ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings. • Select efficiency projects shown to reduce peak load

  15. Mapping the anatomy of social engineering attacks to the systems engineering life cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Merwe, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available in Information and Communication Technology), pp. 266–279. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-44208-1_22. Mouton, F. et al. (2015) ‘Necessity for ethics in social engineering research’, Computers & Security, 55, pp. 114–127. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2015... space. These include a context diagram, functional modelling, holistic requirements modelling, matrix diagrams, stakeholder maps and a viewpoint analysis. Keywords Bidirectional Communication, Indirect Communication, Mitnick's Attack Cycle, Social...

  16. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.

    2015-01-01

    of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...... electricity market for a whole year are used for validating the results....

  17. Secondary Electrons as an Energy Source for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Kamil B.; Neveu, Marc; Vick-Majors, Trista J.; Mickol, Rebecca L.; Chou, Luoth; Webster, Kevin D.; Tilley, Matt; Zacchei, Federica; Escudero, Cristina; Flores Martinez, Claudio L.; Labrado, Amanda; Fernández, Enrique J. G.

    2018-01-01

    Life on Earth is found in a wide range of environments as long as the basic requirements of a liquid solvent, a nutrient source, and free energy are met. Previous hypotheses have speculated how extraterrestrial microbial life may function, among them that particle radiation might power living cells indirectly through radiolytic products. On Earth, so-called electrophilic organisms can harness electron flow from an extracellular cathode to build biomolecules. Here, we describe two hypothetical mechanisms, termed "direct electrophy" and "indirect electrophy" or "fluorosynthesis," by which organisms could harness extracellular free electrons to synthesize organic matter, thus expanding the ensemble of potential habitats in which extraterrestrial organisms might be found in the Solar System and beyond. The first mechanism involves the direct flow of secondary electrons from particle radiation to a microbial cell to power the organism. The second involves the indirect utilization of impinging secondary electrons and a fluorescing molecule, either biotic or abiotic in origin, to drive photosynthesis. Both mechanisms involve the attenuation of an incoming particle's energy to create low-energy secondary electrons. The validity of the hypotheses is assessed through simple calculations showing the biomass density attainable from the energy supplied. Also discussed are potential survival strategies that could be used by organisms living in possible habitats with a plentiful supply of secondary electrons, such as near the surface of an icy moon. While we acknowledge that the only definitive test for the hypothesis is to collect specimens, we also describe experiments or terrestrial observations that could support or nullify the hypotheses.

  18. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  19. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  20. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  1. Life cycle analysis of vehicles powered by a fuel cell and by internal combustion engine for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The transportation sector is responsible for a great percentage of the greenhouse gas emissions as well as the energy consumption in the world. Canada is the second major emitter of carbon dioxide in the world. The need for alternative fuels, other than petroleum, and the need to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions are the main reasons behind this study. In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. The data collected from the literature shows that the energy consumption for the production of 1 kg of aluminum is five times higher than that of 1 kg of steel, although higher aluminum content makes vehicles lightweight and more energy efficient during the vehicle use stage. Greenhouse gas regulated emissions and energy use in transportation (GREET) software has been used to analyze the fuel life cycle. The life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting, and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that the use of coal to obtain hydrogen generates the highest emissions and consumes the highest energy. Comparing the overall life cycle of an ICEV and a FCV, the total emissions of an FCV are 49% lower than an ICEV and the energy consumption of FCV is 87% lower than that of ICEV. Further, CO 2 emissions during the hydrogen fuel production in a central plant can be easily captured and sequestrated. The comparison carried out in this study between FCV and ICEV is extended to

  2. International symposium on clusters and nanomaterials (energy and life-sciences applications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Purusottam [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The International Symposium on Clusters and Nanomaterials was held in Richmond, Virginia during October 26-29, 2015. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy and life sciences applications; two of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in life sciences included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered. The symposium attracted 132 participants from 24 countries in the world. It featured 39 invited speakers in 14 plenary sessions, in addition to one key-note session. Eighty-five contributed papers were presented in two poster sessions and 14 papers from this list were selected to be presented orally at the end of each session to highlight hot topics. Papers presented at the symposium were reviewed and published in SPIE so that these can reach a wide audience. The symposium was highly interactive with ample time allotted for discussions and making new collaborations. The participants’ response

  3. A Numerical Model for Estimation of Service Life of Tribological Systems of the Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gavrilov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, develops and applies approach of the interaction of rough surfaces for one of the tasks of simulation of tribological systems of the piston engine. In this paper we described the general approach to building a model of interaction between rough surfaces, leading to the analysis of the Markov process. Given the initial data and the method of calculating the trajectory of movable elements on the lubricating layer, we determined the tribological parameters defining the service life of tribological systems of the piston engine on the example of crankshaft bearings.

  4. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  5. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virdis, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  6. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  7. Engineering for Sustainable Energy Education within Suburban, Urban and Developing Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikai, Moijue; Baker, Erin

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial that the younger generation be included in the conversation of sustainable development, given the urgent need of a global transition to cleaner energy solutions. Sustainable energy engineering (SEE) taught as early as secondary school can not only increase the number of students that will potentially study engineering to solve global…

  8. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  9. 77 FR 71846 - In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc... concerning the securities of Encore Clean Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  10. TIMELY DELIVERY OF LASER INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, A M

    2010-11-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A key goal of the NIF is to demonstrate fusion ignition for the first time in the laboratory. Its flexibility allows multiple target designs (both indirect and direct drive) to be fielded, offering substantial scope for optimization of a robust target design. In this paper we discuss an approach to generating gigawatt levels of electrical power from a laser-driven source of fusion neutrons based on these demonstration experiments. This 'LIFE' concept enables rapid time-to-market for a commercial power plant, assuming success with ignition and a technology demonstration program that links directly to a facility design and construction project. The LIFE design makes use of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology. It adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units utilized on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. A demonstration LIFE plant based on these design principles is described, along with the areas of technology development required prior to plant construction. A goal-oriented, evidence-based approach has been proposed to allow LIFE power plant rollout on a time scale that meets policy imperatives and is consistent with utility planning horizons. The system-level delivery builds from our prior national investment over many decades and makes full use of the distributed capability in laser technology, the ubiquity of semiconductor diodes, high volume manufacturing markets, and U.S. capability in fusion science and nuclear engineering. The LIFE approach is based on the ignition evidence emerging from NIF and adopts a line-replaceable unit approach to ensure high plant availability and to allow evolution from available technologies and materials. Utilization of a proven physics platform for the

  11. Integrating RAMS engineering and management with the safety life cycle of IEC 61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann; Rausand, Marvin; Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) engineering and management. The new approach covers all phases of the new product development process and is aimed at producers of complex products like safety instrumented systems (SIS). The article discusses main RAMS requirements to a SIS and presents these requirements in a holistic perspective. The approach is based on a new life cycle model for product development and integrates this model into the safety life cycle of IEC 61508. A high integrity pressure protection system (HIPPS) for an offshore oil and gas application is used to illustrate the approach.

  12. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental emissions for cornstalk-based ethyl levulinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Zaifeng; Lei, Tingzhou; Yang, Miao; Qi, Tian; Lin, Lu; Xin, Xiaofei; Ajayebi, Atta; Yang, Yantao; He, Xiaofeng; Yan, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The first LCA of cornstalk-based ethyl levulinate. • Life cycle energy consumption and environmental emissions were evaluated. • Detailed foreground data from a demonstration project in China was used. • Criteria emissions in the combustion stage were based on engine tests. • Sensitivity analysis was performed based on different cornstalk prices. - Abstract: This study analysed the sustainability of fuel-ethyl levulinate (EL) production along with furfural, as a by-product, from cornstalk in China. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the SimaPro software to evaluate the energy consumption (EC), greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions, from cornstalk growth to EL utilisation. The total life cycle EC was found to be 4.54 MJ/MJ EL, of which 94.7% was biomass energy. EC in the EL production stage was the highest, accounting for 96.8% of total EC. Fossil EC in this stage was estimated to be 0.095 MJ/MJ, which also represents the highest fossil EC throughout the life cycle (39.5% of the total). The ratio of biomass to fossil EC over the life cycle was 17.9, indicating good utilisation of renewable energy in cornstalk-based EL production. The net life cycle GHG emissions were 96.6 g CO_2-eq/MJ. The EL production stage demonstrated the highest GHG emissions, representing 53.4% of the total positive amount. Criteria emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulates ⩽10 μm (PM10) showed negative values, of −3.15 and −0.72 g/MJ, respectively. Nitrogen oxides (NO_x) and sulphur dioxide (SO_2) emissions showed positive values of 0.33 and 0.28 g/MJ, respectively, mainly arising from the EL production stage. According to the sensitivity analysis, increasing or removing the cornstalk revenue in the LCA leads to an increase or decrease in the EC and environmental emissions while burning cornstalk directly in the field results in large increases in emissions of NMVOC, CO, NO_x and PM10 but decreases in fossil EC, and SO_2 and GHG

  13. A biotic game design project for integrated life science and engineering education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate J Cira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course. We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games.

  14. A biotic game design project for integrated life science and engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Nate J; Chung, Alice M; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Rensi, Stefano; Sanchez, Gabriel N; Quake, Stephen R; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2015-03-01

    Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course). We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games.

  15. Energy system analyses of the marginal energy technology in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Münster, Marie; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2007-01-01

    in historical and potential future energy systems. Subsequently, key LCA studies of products and different waste flows are analysed in relation to the recom- mendations in consequential LCA. Finally, a case of increased waste used for incineration is examined using an energy system analysis model......In life cycle assessments consequential LCA is used as the “state-of-the-art” methodology, which focuses on the consequences of decisions made in terms of system boundaries, allocation and selection of data, simple and dynamic marginal technology, etc.(Ekvall & Weidema 2004). In many LCA studies...... marginal technology? How is the marginal technology identified and used today? What is the consequence of not using energy system analy- sis for identifying the marginal energy technologies? The use of the methodology is examined from three angles. First, the marginal electricity technology is identified...

  16. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  17. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  18. Origin of life: hypothesized roles of high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation, thermosynthesis and pre-photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that during the organization of pre-biotic bacterial cell(s), high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation (IR), thermosynthesis and possibly pre-photosynthesis were central to the origin of life. High-energy electrical discharges generated some simple organic molecules available for the origin of life. Infrared radiation, both incoming to the Earth and generated on the cooling Earth with day/night and warming/cooling cycles, was a component of heat engine thermosynthesis before enzymes and the genetic code were present. Eventually, a primitive forerunner of photosynthesis and the capability to capture visible light emerged. In addition, the dual particle-wave nature of light is discussed from the perspective that life requires light acting both as a wave and particle.

  19. Decimal Engine for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    propose a hybrid BFP/DFP engine to perform BFP division and DFP addition, multiplication and division. The main purpose of this engine is to offload the binary floating-point units for this type of operations and reduce the latency for decimal operations, and power and temperature for the whole die....

  20. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, M.

    2006-12-01

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  1. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, And Life Satisfaction Of Medical, Engineering, And Social Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sabahat; Munaf, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing higher education is not an easy task as it requires hard work, dedication, and motivation. Although there are many rewards involved in growing up academically, nevertheless, it contains a few hazards too. For instance, suicidal ideation is associated with presence of depression, anxiety, and stress with low level of satisfaction with life in students finding difficulty in handling educational demands of higher education. Therefore, the present study focused on the query that whether there is any difference or not among medical, engineering, and social sciences students of city of Karachi, Pakistan in the level of suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction. Using comparative group design, total 300 students (150 males and 150 females) with age range of 19-26 were selected from faculties of medical, engineering, and social sciences of different universities of Karachi, Pakistan, through purposive sampling. Respondent Profile Form, The Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered to assess suicidal ideation; depression, anxiety, stress; and life satisfaction, respectively, of the students. Scores were analysed through ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey's HSD) test using SPSS. Social sciences and engineering students were significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and stress than medical students [F (2, 297) =8.701, p=.000] whereas insignificant differences in the level of suicidal ideation [F (2, 297) =1.914, p=.149] and life satisfaction [F (2, 297) = .726, p = .485] among these students were found. With the help of these findings, it would be easier to counsel students of different disciplines in time on the lines of suggested preventive measures.

  2. Energy conversion in engines and machines. 7. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalide, W.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the modern engineers training methods in which the emphasis is laid on basic training, the book is a profound and easily understandable introduction to the complex field of energy conversion. First a simple introduction is given to the physical fundamentals of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics. The technical processes in piston engines and turbomachinery are explained with particular regard to a comprehensible and physically correct description of the energy conversion processes. Engines are discussed at length, due to the fact that knowledge on primary and secondary energy conversion is an important part of engineers training in this age of energy crises. Types of engines and machines are presented according to their present importance. The new edition covers further some environmental problems, as waste heat, noise and air pollution. (orig./GL) With 313 figs., 11 tabs [de

  3. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  4. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  5. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two...... scientific research efforts have taken into account some key lessons learned from past experiences with chemicals at the same time that many key challenges remain to applying these frameworks to ENM. In that setting, two main proposed approaches to use LCA and RA together for ENM are identified: i) LC......-based RA, similar to traditional RA applied in a life cycle perspective, and ii) RA-complemented LCA, similar to conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life cycle steps. This study finds that these two approaches for using LCA and RA together for ENM are similar to those made for chemicals...

  6. Energy efficient engine high pressure turbine test hardware detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, E. E.; Lenahan, D. T.; Thomas, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    The high pressure turbine configuration for the Energy Efficient Engine is built around a two-stage design system. Moderate aerodynamic loading for both stages is used to achieve the high level of turbine efficiency. Flowpath components are designed for 18,000 hours of life, while the static and rotating structures are designed for 36,000 hours of engine operation. Both stages of turbine blades and vanes are air-cooled incorporating advanced state of the art in cooling technology. Direct solidification (DS) alloys are used for blades and one stage of vanes, and an oxide dispersion system (ODS) alloy is used for the Stage 1 nozzle airfoils. Ceramic shrouds are used as the material composition for the Stage 1 shroud. An active clearance control (ACC) system is used to control the blade tip to shroud clearances for both stages. Fan air is used to impinge on the shroud casing support rings, thereby controlling the growth rate of the shroud. This procedure allows close clearance control while minimizing blade tip to shroud rubs.

  7. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine

  8. Engineering Electricity Markets for a Decarbonized Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenle, Rasmus Ploug; Pallesen, Trine

    Decarbonization of the Danish electricity sector has recently been sought achieved through the introduction of a novel retail electricity market, named EcoGrid, designed to create price responsive consumers. By following the market design process undertaken by engineers at the Technical Universit...... of introducing synthetic markets as means of governance.......Decarbonization of the Danish electricity sector has recently been sought achieved through the introduction of a novel retail electricity market, named EcoGrid, designed to create price responsive consumers. By following the market design process undertaken by engineers at the Technical University...... of Denmark, the analysis addresses the question: how do engineers make markets? The answer to this question as presented here is: engineers design control systems. By tracing the origins of EcoGrid, this paper documents the governing of electricity consumers through a ‘synthetic market’, i.e. a market...

  9. Bifunctional Membrane for High Energy, Long Shelf Life Li-S Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The adoption of high energy lithium sulfur batteries hinges on significant improvements in charge/recharge cycle life. Cycle life is limited by migration of...

  10. Thermo-mechanical and neutron lifetime modelling and design of Be pebbles in the neutron multiplier for the LIFE engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMange, P.; Marian, J.; Caro, M.; Caro, A.

    2009-01-01

    Concept designs for the laser inertial fusion/fission energy (LIFE) engine include a neutron multiplication blanket containing Be pebbles flowing in a molten salt coolant. These pebbles must be designed to withstand the extreme irradiation and temperature conditions in the blanket to enable a reliable and cost-effective operation of LIFE. In this work, we develop design criteria for spherical Be pebbles on the basis of their thermo-mechanical behaviour under continued neutron exposure. We consider the effects of high fluence and fast fluxes on the elastic, thermal and mechanical properties of nuclear-grade Be. Our results suggest a maximum pebble diameter of 30 mm to avoid tensile failure, coated with an anti-corrosive, high-strength metallic shell to avoid failure by pebble contact. Moreover, we find that the operation temperature must always be kept above 450 deg. C to enable creep to relax the stresses induced by swelling. Under these circumstances, we estimate the pebble lifetime to be at least 16 months if uncoated, and up to six years when coated. We identify the sources of uncertainty on the properties used and discuss the advantages of new intermetallic beryllides and their use in LIFE's neutron multiplier. To establish Be-pebble lifetimes with improved confidence, reliable experiments to measure irradiation creep must be performed.

  11. Complex dynamics of our economic life on different scales: insights from search engine query data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Reith, Daniel; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-12-28

    Search engine query data deliver insight into the behaviour of individuals who are the smallest possible scale of our economic life. Individuals are submitting several hundred million search engine queries around the world each day. We study weekly search volume data for various search terms from 2004 to 2010 that are offered by the search engine Google for scientific use, providing information about our economic life on an aggregated collective level. We ask the question whether there is a link between search volume data and financial market fluctuations on a weekly time scale. Both collective 'swarm intelligence' of Internet users and the group of financial market participants can be regarded as a complex system of many interacting subunits that react quickly to external changes. We find clear evidence that weekly transaction volumes of S&P 500 companies are correlated with weekly search volume of corresponding company names. Furthermore, we apply a recently introduced method for quantifying complex correlations in time series with which we find a clear tendency that search volume time series and transaction volume time series show recurring patterns.

  12. The Baccalaureate Origins of Chicana and Chicano Doctorates in the Physical, Life, and Engineering Sciences: 1980-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a national examination of the doctorate production and baccalaureate origins of Chicana and Chicano doctorates in the physical, life, and engineering sciences. Reports some gender differences in doctorate production and baccalaureate origins. Contains 78 references. (DDR)

  13. Using Model-Based System Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This is the presentation for the AIAA Space conference in September 2017. It highlights key information from Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews paper.

  14. The change in power engineering brought about by utilizing new energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation of the energy situation prevailing in the FRG after the oil crisis as well as of the tasks set for future power engineering, is followed by a survey on major technologies concerning energy conversion. The following subjects are dealt with: Standardization of light-water reactors, district heating by means of nuclear power plants with light-water reactors, fossil coal gasification for generating methane, hydrogen and synthetic fuels, nuclear district energy, the potential of alternative options for generating energy (sun, wind, fusion, etc.), energy conservation, energy storage and energy transportation, and the importance of the fast breeder reactor for energy supply. (UA) [de

  15. Conceptual study of nuclear power generation facilities life-cycle support versatile engineering database. Procedure of development and consideration of fundamental functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hidetoshi

    2009-05-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) stands out the activity of the knowledge management of nuclear safety and the movement to introduce the idea of the life cycle management into the quality control of maintenance of the nuclear power generation facilities to assure the knowledge preservation and to succeed the technology of facilities. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) also has such activities as the knowledge preservation of research and development, and related information. The facilities' performance reliability can be easily checked with the technology of data processing in the general industry and the results of the knowledge repository, transmitting technology and knowledge management by referring to the information and knowledge if the information and knowledge at each step of the life-cycle of facilities can be built. This report shows the strategy of the construction of the engineering database to support the life cycle of facilities and the basic function of the management system. (author)

  16. Experimental analysis of the global energy balance in a DI diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Payri González, Francisco; Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; Martín Díaz, Jaime; Carreño, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The increasingly stringent internal combustion engines (ICE) emissions regulations, has led to the extended use of after-treatment systems, giving progressively more importance to the engine efficiency optimization. In this context, the experimental methodologies to perform and analyse the energy balance show as a key issue to evaluate the potential of different engine strategies aimed at the consumption optimization and the improvement paths identification. This works deals with ...

  17. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  18. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is

  19. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is shown in

  20. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1978 are described. Works of the Division are development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and Committees on Reactor Physics and in Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  1. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltman, L.R.; Van, Raan A.F.J.; Smart, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach

  2. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  3. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  4. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  5. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Energy, Engines, and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the energy, engines, and combustion industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  6. The relationship between house size and life cycle energy demand: Implications for energy efficiency regulations for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, André; Crawford, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    House size has significantly increased over the recent decades in many countries. Larger houses often have a higher life cycle energy demand due to their increased use of materials and larger area to heat, cool and light. Yet, most energy efficiency regulations for buildings fail to adequately include requirements for addressing the energy demand associated with house size. This study quantifies the effect of house size on life cycle energy demand in order to inform future regulations. It uses a parametric model of a typical detached house in Melbourne, Australia and varies its floor area from 100 to 392 m"2 for four different household sizes. Both initial and recurrent embodied energy requirements are quantified using input-output-based hybrid analysis and operational energy is calculated in primary energy terms over 50 years. Results show that the life cycle energy demand increases at a slower rate compared to house size. Expressing energy efficiency per m"2 therefore favours large houses while these require more energy. Also, embodied energy represents 26–50% across all variations. Building energy efficiency regulations should incorporate embodied energy, correct energy intensity thresholds for house size and use multiple functional units to measure efficiency. These measures may help achieve greater net energy reductions. - Highlights: • The life cycle energy demand (LCE) is calculated for 90 house sizes and 4 household sizes. • The LCE is sublinearly correlated with house size. • Larger houses appear to be more energy efficient per m"2 while they use more energy overall. • Embodied energy (EE) represents up to 52% of the LCE over 50 years. • Building energy efficiency regulations need to consider house size and EE.

  7. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hischier, Roland; Walser, Tobias

    2012-05-15

    The use of engineered nanomaterials offers advantages as well as disadvantages from a sustainability perspective. It is important to identify such points as early as possible in order to be able to build on existing strengths, while counteracting disadvantages. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a suitable method to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. But so far studies applying LCA to the area of nanotechnology have been scarce. One reason might be that the LCA framework has a whole list of issues that need further precision in order to be applicable to nanotechnologies: system boundaries and a functional unit have to be chosen in a way that allows one to do a comparison of equal functionalities; adequate and comprehensive life cycle inventory data for engineered nanomaterials are the key on the level of inventory analysis; and the impact assessment step requires a clear definition of the degree of detail on the level of nanoparticle emissions. The LCA studies existing thus far in the area of nanotechnology have barely begun to cover all these aspects. Thus, in order to improve the current situation, the authors propose to go ahead in each of the LCA stages as far as scientific advances allow. For the inventory modelling this means e.g. that comprehensive, transparently documented and quality ensured data of the most important engineered nanomaterials should be collected and made available in a widely-accepted format. Concerning nanoparticle emissions, as many parameters as possible have to be collected pertaining to the production, use, and the disposal phase of these engineered nanomaterials. Furthermore, on the level of impact assessment, relevant physical characteristics have to be identified for a toxicity assessment of nanoparticles and a consensus has to be found for a limited but sufficient number of independent parameters influencing toxicity to be collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. STEMujeres: A case study of the life stories of first-generation Latina engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Karina I.

    Research points to the many obstacles that first-generation, Latina students face when attempting to enter fields in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, STEM. This qualitative, case study examined the personal and educational experiences of first-generation Latina women who successfully navigated the STEM educational pipeline earning bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in various fields of engineering. Three research questions guided the study: (1) How does a first-generation Latina engineer and scientist describe her life experiences as she became interested in STEM? (2) How does she describe her educational experiences as she navigated the educational pipeline in the physics, mathematics, and/or engineering field(s)? (3) How did she respond to challenges, obstacles and microaggressions, if any, while navigating the STEM educational pipeline? The study was designed using a combination of Critical Race Theory frameworks---Chicana feminist theory and racial microaggressions. Through a life history case study approach, the women shared their stories of success. With the participants' help, influential persons in their educational paths were identified and interviewed. Data were analyzed using crystallization and thematic results indicated that all women in this study identified their parents as planting the seed of interest through the introduction of mathematics. The women unknowingly prepared to enter the STEM fields by taking math and science coursework. They were guided to apply to STEM universities and academic programs by others who knew about their interest in math and science including teachers, counselors, and level-up peers---students close in age who were just a step more advanced in the educational pipeline. The women also drew from previous familial struggles to guide their perseverance and motivation toward educational degree completion. The lives of the women where complex and intersected with various forms of racism including

  9. The role of NDE in maintaining and extending the life cycle of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    A successful life cycle of engineering components begins during the design to select the best materials for a given application, designing for economical maintenance, and accommodating NDE inspections. NDE in the nuclear industry is part of the defense in depth to insure structural integrity of components. High reliability NDE is needed to reliably detect and accurately characterize the failure modes that have occurred in nuclear components. The move toward risk-informed inservice inspection programs focusses the NDE on the most safety significant components. The use of performance demonstration testing is leading to improved inservice inspections through screening out ineffective procedure/equipment/personnel. (orig.)

  10. A life cycle assessment of distributed energy production from organic waste: Two case studies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Clift, Roland; Tagliaferri, Carla; Lettieri, Paola

    2017-06-01

    By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology. Moreover, marginal electricity production technologies are analysed to assess their influence on the results. This study has demonstrated that the type of bio-methane fed micro-CHP technology employed has a significantly different environmental impact: fuel cells are the most environmentally friendly solution in every category analysed; Stirling engines, although can supply heat to the largest number of dwellings are the least environmentally friendly technology. However, key factors investigated in the model presented in this paper influence the decision making on the type of technology adopted and the operating strategy to be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A thermal engine for underwater glider driven by ocean thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yanan; Wang, Yanhui; Ma, Zhesong; Wang, Shuxin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal engine with a double-tube structure is developed for underwater glider. • Isostatic pressing technology is effective to increase volumetric change rate. • Actual volumetric change rate reaches 89.2% of the theoretical value. • Long term sailing of 677 km and 27 days is achieved by thermal underwater glider. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: Underwater glider is one of the most popular platforms for long term ocean observation. Underwater glider driven by ocean thermal energy extends the duration and range of underwater glider powered by battery. Thermal engine is the core device of underwater glider to harvest ocean thermal energy. In this paper, (1) model of thermal engine was raised by thermodynamics method and the performance of thermal engine was investigated, (2) thermal engine with a double-tube structure was developed and isostatic pressing technology was applied to improve the performance for buoyancy driven, referencing powder pressing theory, (3) wall thickness of thermal engine was optimized to reduce the overall weight of thermal engine, (4) material selection and dimension determination were discussed for a faster heat transfer design, by thermal resistance analysis, (5) laboratory test and long term sea trail were carried out to test the performance of thermal engine. The study shows that volumetric change rate is the most important indicator to evaluating buoyancy-driven performance of a thermal engine, isostatic pressing technology is effective to improve volumetric change rate, actual volumetric change rate can reach 89.2% of the theoretical value and the average power is about 124 W in a typical diving profile. Thermal engine developed by Tianjin University is a superior thermal energy conversion device for underwater glider. Additionally, application of thermal engine provides a new solution for miniaturization of ocean thermal energy conversion.

  12. The Integration of Gasification Systems with Gas Engine to Produce Electrical Energy from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, K.; Alamsyah, R.; Ichwana; Sholihati; Tou, S. B.; Siregar, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    The need for energy especially biomass-based renewable energy continues to increase in Indonesia. The objective of this research was to design downdraft gasifier machine with high content of combustible gas on gas engine. Downdraft gasifier machine was adjusted with the synthetic gas produced from biomass. Besides that, the net energy ratio, net energy balance, renewable index, economic analysis, and impact assessment also been conducted. Gas engine that was designed in this research had been installed with capacity of 25 kW with diameter and height of reactor were 900 mm and 1000 mm respectively. The method used here were the design the Detailed Engineering Design (DED), assembly, and performance test of gas engine. The result showed that gas engine for biomass can be operated for 8 hours with performance engine of 84% and capacity of 25 kW. Net energy balance, net energy ratio, and renewable index was 30 MJ/kWh-electric; 0.89; 0.76 respectively. The value of GHG emission of Biomass Power Generation is 0.03 kg-CO2eq/MJ. Electrical production cost for Biomass Power Generation is about Rp.1.500,/kWh which is cheaper than Solar Power Generation which is about of Rp. 3.300,-/kWh.

  13. LIFE Materials: Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M

    2008-12-19

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical, and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report (Volume 8 - Molten-salt Fuels) is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermo-chemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenges are not insurmountable, and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  14. A kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation for the turbofan engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life estimation of the prognostics and health management technique is a complicated and difficult research question for maintenance. In this article, we consider the problem of prognostics modeling and estimation of the turbofan engine under complicated circumstances and propose a kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation method for such aircraft engine. We first analyze the output data created by the turbofan engine thermodynamic simulation that is based on the kernel principal component analysis method and then distinguish the qualitative and quantitative relationships between the key factors. Next, we build a degradation model for the engine fault based on the following assumptions: the engine has only had constant failure (i.e. no sudden failure is included, and the engine has a Wiener process, which is a covariate stand for the engine system drift. To predict the remaining useful life of the turbofan engine, we built a health index based on the degradation model and used the method of maximum likelihood and the data from the thermodynamic simulation model to estimate the parameters of this degradation model. Through the data analysis, we obtained a trend model of the regression curve line that fits with the actual statistical data. Based on the predicted health index model and the data trend model, we estimate the remaining useful life of the aircraft engine as the index reaches zero. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this prediction method that we propose. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this proposed method, the precision of the method can reach to 98.9% and the average precision is 95.8%.

  15. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  16. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  17. Individual aircraft life monitoring: An engineering approach for fatigue damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui JIAO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual aircraft life monitoring is required to ensure safety and economy of aircraft structure, and fatigue damage evaluation based on collected operational data of aircraft is an integral part of it. To improve the accuracy and facilitate the application, this paper proposes an engineering approach to evaluate fatigue damage and predict fatigue life for critical structures in fatigue monitoring. In this approach, traditional nominal stress method is applied to back calculate the S-N curve parameters of the realistic structure details based on full-scale fatigue test data. Then the S-N curve and Miner’s rule are adopted in damage estimation and fatigue life analysis for critical locations under individual load spectra. The relationship between relative small crack length and fatigue life can also be predicted with this approach. Specimens of 7B04-T74 aluminum alloy and TA15M titanium alloy are fatigue tested under two types of load spectra, and there is a good agreement between the experimental results and analysis results. Furthermore, the issue concerning scatter factor in individual aircraft damage estimation is also discussed. Keywords: Fatigue damage, Fatigue monitoring, Fatigue test, Scatter factor, S-N curve

  18. Doctoral scientists and engineers working in energy-related activities, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The Department of Energy has a responsibility to help ensure the supply of highly trained personnel by providing supply and demand information on energy-related manpower to public and private planners and the general public. This report provides information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists working primarily in energy-related activities. The data for the year 1981 are part of the information base for a program of continuing studies of the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information from these studies will provide input to consideration of actions necessary to ensure that adequate numbers of qualified scientists and engineers are available, when needed, to develop the nation's energy resources and technologies

  19. Scaling up nanoscale water-driven energy conversion into evaporation-driven engines and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Goodnight, Davis; Gao, Zhenghan; Cavusoglu, Ahmet H.; Sabharwal, Nina; Delay, Michael; Driks, Adam; Sahin, Ozgur

    2015-06-01

    Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the natural environment and a dominant form of energy transfer in the Earth's climate. Engineered systems rarely, if ever, use evaporation as a source of energy, despite myriad examples of such adaptations in the biological world. Here, we report evaporation-driven engines that can power common tasks like locomotion and electricity generation. These engines start and run autonomously when placed at air-water interfaces. They generate rotary and piston-like linear motion using specially designed, biologically based artificial muscles responsive to moisture fluctuations. Using these engines, we demonstrate an electricity generator that rests on water while harvesting its evaporation to power a light source, and a miniature car (weighing 0.1 kg) that moves forward as the water in the car evaporates. Evaporation-driven engines may find applications in powering robotic systems, sensors, devices and machinery that function in the natural environment.

  20. Remaining life case history studies for high energy piping systems using equivalent stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the development of plant life extension for high energy piping systems is progressing, conventional piping system design methodologies are also being reevaluated. Traditional guidelines such as American National Standard Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.1 (ANSI/ASME) were developed for plants having design lives in the 25- to 30-year regime based upon relatively short-term base metal creep data. These guidelines use a simplified approach for the piping analysis. Two types of stress criteria must be satisfied. The first type is longitudinal plus torsion stress checks for several types of loading conditions versus the material allowable stresses. The second type is an independent minimum wall thickness check which considers the hoop stress versus the material allowable stress. Seven case histories have been evaluated to estimate the minimum piping system creep life based on the current ANSI/ASME B31.1 finite element type of analysis, which is a traditional approach, versus a multiaxial stress state type of analysis. In nearly every case, the equivalent stress methodology predicted significantly higher stresses. Consequently, the equivalent stress methodology resulted in 11 to 96% lower time to rupture values as compared to the values predicted using ANSI/ASME B31.1 stresses

  1. Energy Efficient Engine program advanced turbofan nacelle definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.; Wynosky, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced, low drag, nacelle configurations were defined for some of the more promising propulsion systems identified in the earlier Benefit/Cost Study, to assess the benefits associated with these advanced technology nacelles and formulate programs for developing these nacelles and low volume thrust reversers/spoilers to a state of technology readiness in the early 1990's. The study results established the design feasibility of advanced technology, slim line nacelles applicable to advanced technology, high bypass ratio turbofan engines. Design feasibility was also established for two low volume thrust reverse/spoiler concepts that meet or exceed the required effectiveness for these engines. These nacelle and thrust reverse/spoiler designs were shown to be applicable in engines with takeoff thrust sizes ranging from 24,000 to 60,000 pounds. The reduced weight, drag, and cost of the advanced technology nacelle installations relative to current technology nacelles offer a mission fuel burn savings ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 percent and direct operating cost plus interest improvements from 1.6 to 2.2 percent.

  2. Colloquy and workshops: regional implications of the engineering manpower requirements of the National Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segool, H. D. [ed.

    1979-05-01

    The crucial interrelationships of engineering manpower, technological innovation, productivity and capital re-formaton were keynoted. Near-term, a study has indicated a much larger New England energy demand-reduction/economic/market potential, with a probably larger engineering manpower requirement, for energy-conservation measures characterized by technological innovation and cost-effective capital services than for alternative energy-supply measures. Federal, regional, and state energy program responsibilities described a wide-ranging panorama of activities among many possible energy options which conveyed much endeavor without identifiable engineering manpower demand coefficients. Similarly, engineering manpower assessment data was described as uneven and unfocused to the energy program at the national level, disaggregated data as non-existent at the regional/state levels, although some qualitative inferences were drawn. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 16 individual presentations for the DOE Energy Data Base (EDB); 14 of these were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and 2 for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  3. EASETECH Energy: Life Cycle Assessment of current and future Danish power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Damgaard, Anders; Bisinella, Valentina

    A new life cycle assessment (LCA) model software has been developed by DTU Environment, to facilitate detailed LCA of energy technologies. The model, EASETECH Energy, is dedicated to the specific technologies needed to assess energy production and energy systems and provides an unprecedented...

  4. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  5. Energy distributions in a diesel engine using low heat rejection (LHR) concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingting; Caton, Jerald A.; Jacobs, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Altering coolant temperature was employed to devise low heat rejection concept. • The energy distributions at different engine coolant temperatures were analyzed. • Raising coolant temperature yields improvements in fuel conversion efficiency. • The exhaust energy is highly sensitive to the variations in exhaust temperature. • Effects of coolant temperature on mechanical efficiency were examined. - Abstract: The energy balance analysis is recognized as a useful method for aiding the characterization of the performance and efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines. Approximately one-third of the total fuel energy is converted to useful work in a conventional IC engine, whereas the major part of the energy input is rejected to the exhaust gas and the cooling system. The idea of a low heat rejection (LHR) engine (also called “adiabatic engine”) was extensively developed in the 1980s due to its potential in improving engine thermal efficiency via reducing the heat losses. In this study, the LHR operating condition is implemented by increasing the engine coolant temperature (ECT). Experimentally, the engine is overcooled to low ECTs and then increased to 100 °C in an effort to get trend-wise behavior without exceeding safe ECTs. The study then uses an engine simulation of the conventional multi-cylinder, four-stroke, 1.9 L diesel engine operating at 1500 rpm to examine the five cases having different ECTs. A comparison between experimental and simulation results show the effects of ECT on fuel conversion efficiency. The results demonstrate that increasing ECT yields slight improvements in net indicated fuel conversion efficiency, with larger improvements observed in brake fuel conversion efficiency.

  6. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Janet M. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has

  7. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  8. Energy systems a new approach to engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gicquel, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Mind Maps, List of Symbols, Conversion FactorsI First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics1 A New Educational Paradigm1.1 Introduction1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifi cations1.3 Specifi cs of applied thermodynamics teaching1.4 A new educational paradigm1.5 Diapason modules1.6 A three-step progressive approach1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching p

  9. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1980 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  10. Sustainable Design and Renewable Energy in the Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stachowicz, M.S.; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Design Workshop course offered at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (ECE) at the University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD). The workshop course is one mechanism by which students completing the ECE program at UMD can satisfy the requirement for a senior design...... project. The design workshop topic for the fall 2010 was the use of fuzzy logic to control comfort in solar home. The workshop is described. The project work is evaluated during the process as well as the final results using principle based on Problem Based and Project Organized Learning (PBL...

  11. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Energy in Engineering Education (H2E3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Peter A.; Cashman, Eileen; Lipman, Timothy; Engel, Richard A.

    2011-09-15

    Schatz Energy Research Center's Hydrogen Energy in Engineering Education curriculum development project delivered hydrogen energy and fuel cell learning experiences to over 1,000 undergraduate engineering students at five California universities, provided follow-on internships for students at a fuel cell company; and developed commercializable hydrogen teaching tools including a fuel cell test station and a fuel cell/electrolyzer experiment kit. Monitoring and evaluation tracked student learning and faculty and student opinions of the curriculum, showing that use of the curriculum did advance student comprehension of hydrogen fundamentals. The project web site (hydrogencurriculum.org) provides more information.

  12. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  13. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  14. Teaching Sustainable Energy and Power Electronics to Engineering Students in a Laboratory Environment Using Industry-Standard Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, David S.; Miller, Ruth Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics and renewable energy are two important topics for today's power engineering students. In many cases, the two topics are inextricably intertwined. As the renewable energy sector grows, the need for engineers qualified to design such systems grows as well. In order to train such engineers, new courses are needed that highlight the…

  15. Waste-to-energy: A review of life cycle assessment and its extension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaozhi; Tang, Yuanjun; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Buekens, Alfons

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive review of evaluation tools based on life cycle thinking, as applied to waste-to-energy. Habitually, life cycle assessment is adopted to assess environmental burdens associated with waste-to-energy initiatives. Based on this framework, several extension methods have been developed to focus on specific aspects: Exergetic life cycle assessment for reducing resource depletion, life cycle costing for evaluating its economic burden, and social life cycle assessment for recording its social impacts. Additionally, the environment-energy-economy model integrates both life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methods and judges simultaneously these three features for sustainable waste-to-energy conversion. Life cycle assessment is sufficiently developed on waste-to-energy with concrete data inventory and sensitivity analysis, although the data and model uncertainty are unavoidable. Compared with life cycle assessment, only a few evaluations are conducted to waste-to-energy techniques by using extension methods and its methodology and application need to be further developed. Finally, this article succinctly summarises some recommendations for further research.

  16. Life-cycle global warming and non-renewable energy consumption impacts of ammonia fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are, Kristian Ray Angelo; Razon, Luis; Tan, Raymond Girard

    2015-01-01

    The use of ammonia (NH 3 ) as transportation fuel had been a recent topics of research interest. NH 3 has fuel properties that are better than those of other alternative fuels, such as it high energy density and simpler storage. However, it has a low flame speed and would require to be mixed with a secondary fuel forming a dual fuel system. Moreover, current industrial methods of NH 3 production are major global warming potential (GWP) and non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) impact contributors. This study assessed the life-cycle GWP and NREC of using different NH 3 -secondary fuel mixtures. Four fuel mixtures were considered, wherein NH 3 is mixed with gasoline, diesel, hydrogen or dimethyl ether (DME). Also, our processes of NH 3 production were considered: steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (PO), which are industrial methods and two biomass-based (alternative) processes wherein cereal straw (Salix) and cyanobacteria (Anabaena ATCC 33047) are used feedstocks. Contribution, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses (via Monte Carlo simulation) were conducted for life-cycle interpretation. Dominance matrix tool was also employed to aid in drawing conclusions. The study concludes that the environmental impacts of NH 3 fuel are dependent on (i) NH 3 production methods and (ii) type of NH 3 fuel mixture. NH 3 -diesel fuel mixtures have lower GWP compared to pure diesel, while NH 3 -gasoline fuel mixture have higher GWP compared to pure gasoline. Because of large uncertainty of the NREC pure gasoline and pure diesel, no firm conclusion can be made about the NREC ammonia-diesel and ammonia-gasoline. If fuel mixture types are compared, NH 3 -H 2 mixtures have the lowest GWP and NREC among the four, though this would entail designing new engines. Over-all, it is shown that fuel systems involving biomass-based NH 3 have lower environmental impacts as compared to conventionally-produced NH 3 counterparts. (author)

  17. Intelligent energy management control of vehicle air conditioning system coupled with engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Air Conditioning (AC) systems consist of an engine powered compressor activated by an electrical clutch. The AC system imposes an extra load to the vehicle's engine increasing the vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. Energy management control of the vehicle air conditioning is a nonlinear dynamic system, influenced by uncertain disturbances. In addition, the vehicle energy management control system interacts with different complex systems, such as engine, air conditioning system, environment, and driver, to deliver fuel consumption improvements. In this paper, we describe the energy management control of vehicle AC system coupled with vehicle engine through an intelligent control design. The Intelligent Energy Management Control (IEMC) system presented in this paper includes an intelligent algorithm which uses five exterior units and three integrated fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, improved fuel consumption, low emission, and smooth driving. The three fuzzy controllers include: (i) a fuzzy cruise controller to adapt vehicle cruise speed via prediction of the road ahead using a Look-Ahead system, (ii) a fuzzy air conditioning controller to produce desirable temperature and air quality inside vehicle cabin room via a road information system, and (iii) a fuzzy engine controller to generate the required engine torque to move the vehicle smoothly on the road. We optimised the integrated operation of the air conditioning and the engine under various driving patterns and performed three simulations. Results show that the proposed IEMC system developed based on Fuzzy Air Conditioning Controller with Look-Ahead (FAC-LA) method is a more efficient controller for vehicle air conditioning system than the previously developed Coordinated Energy Management Systems (CEMS). - Highlights: ► AC interacts: vehicle, environment, driver components, and the interrelationships between them. ► Intelligent AC algorithm which uses

  18. Evaluation of thermal efficiency and energy conversion of thermoacoustic Stirling engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Junhu; Zheng Yuli; Qing Li; Qiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic cycle transferring heat and work was executed in thermoacoustic engines, when the acoustic resonators substituted the moving mechanical components of the traditional heat engines. Based on the traveling-wave phasing and reversible heat transfer, thermoacoustic Stirling engines could achieve 70% of the Carnot efficiency theoretically, if the inevitable viscous dissipation in resonators was also counted as exported power. It should be pointed out an error on this efficiency evaluation in the previous literatures. More than 70% of the acoustic power production was often consumed by the side-branch resonator that was the essential configuration to build up a thermoacoustic Stirling engine. According to the simulation results and some experimental data, the actual available acoustic power consumed by the acoustic loads was restricted by the operating peak-to-mean pressure ratio, i.e. |p 1 /p m |. When the peak-to-mean pressure ratio operated on 4-6.5%, the thermal efficiency and power density of the available acoustic power reached higher levels. But the available acoustic power would approach zero when |p 1 /p m | attained 10%. It was approved that the turbulence oscillation occurred on the higher |p 1 /p m | (usually >4%) was the main reason of the excess dissipation in the side-branch resonator. This character of the available power limited the wide application of thermoacoustic Stirling engines. The evaluation of thermal efficiency and energy conversion also indicated the improving direction of thermoacoustic Stirling engines. Generators driven by the thermoacoustic Stirling engines were an effective way, due to the elimination of the side-branch resonator. To achieve a high power density and a high pressure ratio on the higher available power efficiency level, the standing-wave thermoacoustic engines might outvie the traveling-wave thermoacoustic engines. To enjoy the best features of standing-wave engines and traveling-wave engines simultaneously

  19. Life sciences. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with life sciences: nuclear medicine, medical physics and radiation biology and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 September 2001

  20. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    A high energy return on energy investment (EROI) of an energy production process is crucial to its long-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much higher than those of renewable energy life-cycles, and specifically of photovoltaics (PVs). We show that this is largely a misconception fostered by the use of outdated data and, often, a lack of consistency among calculation methods. We hereby present a thorough review of the methodology, discuss methodological variations and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel based electricity life-cycles. - Highlights: ► We perform a review of the EROI methodology. ► We provide new calculations for PV compared to oil- and coal-based energy systems. ► If compared consistently, PV sits squarely in the same range of EROI as conventional fossil fuel life cycles.

  1. Towards real energy economics: Energy policy driven by life-cycle carbon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, R.; Law, C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission 'Ponzi Schemes' are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon-neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.

  2. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72, and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper presents results of research that led to this conclusion

  3. Energy, mining, and the commercial success of the Newcomen "steam" engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John Paul

    This dissertation is about energy; specifically how prime movers changed at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. These power needs are explored via the history of the Newcomen atmospheric engine, as it was used in the 18th century to drive pumps in flooded mines. This approach examines society as an energy-converting phenomenon, and uses the concept of an energy rent. The dissertation seeks to reach past the 19th century's "high-pressure historiography" of the first engines powered by fire; instead, it traces the actual low-pressure atmospheric technology of the first commercially successful engines, and the surprising, rather than inevitable, transformation they engendered. The costs of fuel are shown to be an essential factor in the success or failure of the first Newcomen engines. Thomas Newcomen's failed first attempts in Cornwall (1710) are contrasted with success in collieries, located in the relatively distant region of the Midlands, only two years later. To test the suggestion that coal is needed for a Newcomen engine to be profitable, two detailed case histories compare 18th century engines, both fired using wood fuel, at iron ore mines. The first was a failed engine at Dannemora, Sweden (1728); the second a successful machine built by the Brown brothers at Cranston, Rhode Island (1783). The Brown engine's case history was based on extensive original archive research, and also provides a detailed history of the Hope Furnace, which used the ore from Cranston. Success for the Browns in Rhode Island is found to have been rooted in their careful planning for fuel needs. The two mines were also found to have significantly different construction of gender roles, suggesting the Rhode Island context had established more thoroughly capitalist relations. The work shows that the demand for more extensive power, which led to these engines, was propelled by the ability of the evolving commercial market place to convert energy profitably (16th and 17th centuries

  4. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 5 - Renewable resource systems, Stirling engines and applications, systems and cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on energy conversion engineering are presented. The general topics considered are: developments in nuclear power, energy from waste and biomass, system performance and materials in photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, wind energy systems, Stirling cycle analysis, Stirling cycle power, Stirling component technology, Stirling cooler/heat pump developments, Stirling engine concepts, Stirling engine design and optimization, Stirling engine dynamics and response, Stirling engine solar terrestrial, advanced cogeneration, AMTC, fossil fuel systems and technologies, marine energy

  5. Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Chang, Andrew C; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2018-01-01

      To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output LCA to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on wastewater discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, the authors apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  6. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2017-07-01

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO 2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening.To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect.We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community.

  8. Lactobretagne: energy engineering and automatisation. Session 4 N. 4. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opstal, van; Dri,

    1984-01-01

    The increase of production costs has led Lactobretagne to chose energy saving equipment and high automation. The whey is concentrated by an evaporator with mechanical vapour recompression and a heat pump (freon 114) gives warm water at 194 deg F; both are electrical driven. The lactose is dried by a full electrical apparatus and it is scheduled to electrify the spray tower. The automation consists of a decentralized digital regulation systems for continuous processes and two programme control automatons for sequential processes.

  9. Convergence facilitating transdisciplinary integration of life sciences, physical sciences, engineering, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, institutions face a lack of guidance on how to establish effective programs, what challenges they are likely to encounter, and what strategies other organizations have used to address the issues that arise. This advice is needed to harness the excitement generated by the concept of convergence and channel it into the policies, structures, and networks that will enable it to realize its goals. Convergence investigates examples of organizations that have established mechanisms to support convergent research. This report discusses details of current programs, how organizations have chosen to measure success, and what has worked and not worked in varied settings. The report summarizes the lessons learned and provides organizations with strategies to tackle practical needs and imple...

  10. Life cycle assessment of the wave energy converter: Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hans Chr., Sørensen; Stefan, Naef; Stefan, Anderberg

    Any power production technology should be able to demonstrate that it's able to comply with current and future environmental regulation and that it demonstrates a considerable surplus in the energy balance being a part of the entire power system. This means that the energy used throughout all the...

  11. Designing renewable energy systems a life cycle assessment approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Leda

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses a multi-objective optimization approach in LCA that allows the flexible construction of comprehensive Pareto fronts to help understand the weightings and relative importance of its elements. The methodology is applied to the pertinent topics of thermochemical wood conversion, deep geothermal energy, and regional energy planning.

  12. Design of sustainable energy systems : a new challenge for Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Astier, Stéphan; Fontes, Guillaume; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the master-level programme in “EcoEnergy” offered as a full-time one year course at “Institut National Polytechnique of Toulouse” in order to provide engineers with a state-of-the-art education in the area of advanced energy technologies and systems. It is based on an original and equilibrated combination of process systems engineering and electrical engineering disciplines, with an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach necessary for identifying s...

  13. Development of sustainable energy systems: a new challenge for process systems engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Astier, Stéphan; Ayache, Antoine; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; David, Maria; Fontes, Guillaume; Gourdon, Christophe; Joulia, Xavier; Le Lann, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of the master-level programme in “EcoEnergy” offered as a full-time one year course at “Institut National Polytechnique of Toulouse” in order to provide engineers with a state-of-the-art education in the area of advanced energy technologies and systems. It is based on an original and equilibrated combination of process systems engineering and electrical engineering disciplines, with an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach necessary for identifying s...

  14. Life-cycle energy implications of different residential settings: Recognizing buildings, travel, and public infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brice G.; Kockelman, Kara M.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment can be used to influence travel demand, but very few studies consider the relative energy savings of such policies in context of a complex urban system. This analysis quantifies the day-to-day and embodied energy consumption of four different neighborhoods in Austin, Texas, to examine how built environment variations influence various sources of urban energy consumption. A microsimulation combines models for petroleum use (from driving) and residential and commercial power and natural gas use with rigorously measured building stock and infrastructure materials quantities (to arrive at embodied energy). Results indicate that the more suburban neighborhoods, with mostly detached single-family homes, consume up to 320% more embodied energy, 150% more operational energy, and about 160% more total life-cycle energy (per capita) than a densely developed neighborhood with mostly low-rise-apartments and duplexes. Across all neighborhoods, operational energy use comprised 83 to 92% of total energy use, and transportation sources (including personal vehicles and transit, plus street, parking structure, and sidewalk infrastructure) made up 44 to 47% of the life-cycle energy demands tallied. Energy elasticity calculations across the neighborhoods suggest that increased population density and reduced residential unit size offer greatest life-cycle energy savings per capita, by reducing both operational demands from driving and home energy use, and from less embodied energy from construction. These results provide measurable metrics for comparing different neighborhood styles and develop a framework to anticipate energy-savings from changes in the built environment versus household energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Total energy demands (operational and embodied) of 5 Austin settings were studied here. • Suburban settings consume much more energy than densely developed neighborhoods. • Transportation sources make up 44 to 47% of the total energy

  15. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  16. Theoretical study of the building principal of internal and external energy balances structures in diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallel ZEBBAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution knowledge of the energy introduced into the combustion chamber is of great importance in the theory of internal combustion engines. This work aims to highlight the very complex relationship, often indistinguishable between internal and external energy balances components. The scrutiny of internal balance components has permitted to trace back up to the external balance. This can be easily established on a test bench equipped for the occasion. It will assess the perfection of energy's use, the heat loss and the possibility of their reducing, the energy efficiency of exhaust gas use, the possibility and ways of engine operating parameters improving and finally it will allowing to calculate the cooling and energy recovery systems.

  17. Energy efficiency and economic feasibility of CCHP driven by stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Huang, X.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a small scale trigeneration system for combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP) with an available Stirling engine. Trigeneration systems have a large potential of energy saving and economical efficiency. The decisive values for energetic efficiency evaluation of such systems are the primary energy rate and comparative primary energy saving (Δq), while the economic feasibility analysis of such systems relates the avoided cost, the total annual saving and payback period. The investigation calculates and compares the energy saving and economic efficiency of trigeneration system with Stirling engine against contemporary conventional independent cooling, heating and power, showing that a CCHP system saves fuel resources and has the assurance of economic benefits

  18. THE SOCIAL POSITION AS AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION OF ENGINEERS' QUALITY OF LIFE IN THE SOCIETY OF POST-SOCIALIST TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Mirkov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life may be analyzed from different perspectives. In compliance with that, it may be assumed that the social position of the profession has significant impact on quality of life. The paper presents the analysis of the research which aim was to examine the three dimensions of the social position of the engineering profession in the society of post-socialist transformation: material status, social power, and social reputation. We compared the results of the current study with the results of the research that we had conducted in the period when socialist relations still exist in organizations. Moreover, we studied how the engineers perceive these three aspects of the social position of their profession. The first research was conducted in 1998 and the second in 2015. 200 engineers were questioned in 146 companies. The results indicate that the dimensions of social position, such as the material standard and the social influence of engineers in Serbia today are a little more favorable than they used to be at the end of the 90s. Finally, a majority of the engineers from our research believe that their expectations regarding the engineering profession have not been fulfilled and in future, their quality of life may be enhanced in terms of social importance and recognition.

  19. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.

    2011-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. The embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished plant. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy - heat is not as valuable as electrical energy.

  20. Life-cycle energy impacts for adapting an urban water supply system to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Lane, Joe L; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply

  1. Embodied energy and environmental impacts of a biomass boiler: a life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Longo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 policy framework for climate and energy, proposed by the European Commission, aims towards the reduction of European greenhouse gas emissions by 40% in comparison to the 1990 level and to increase the share of renewable energy of at least the 27% of the European's energy consumption of 2030. The use of biomass as sustainable and renewable energy source may be a viable tool for achieving the above goals. However, renewable energy technologies are not totally clean because they cause energy and environmental impacts during their life cycle, and in particular they are responsible of air pollutant emissions. In this context, the paper assesses the energy and environmental impacts of a 46 kW biomass boiler by applying the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, as regulated by the international standards of series ISO 14040, ISO 21930 and EN 15804. The following life-cycle steps are included in the analysis: raw materials and energy supply, manufacturing, installation, operation, transport, and end-of-life. The results of the analysis, showing a life-cycle primary energy consumption of about 2,622 GJ and emissions of about 21,664 kg CO2eq, can be used as a basis for assessing the real advantages due to the use of biomass boilers for heating and hot water production.

  2. Applications of Systems Engineering to the Research, Design, and Development of Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Meadows, R.; Felker, F.; Graf, P.; Hand, M.; Lunacek, M.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Musial, W.; Veers, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper surveys the landscape of systems engineering methods and current wind modeling capabilities to assess the potential for development of a systems engineering to wind energy research, design, and development. Wind energy has evolved from a small industry in a few countries to a large international industry involving major organizations in the manufacturing, development, and utility sectors. Along with this growth, significant technology innovation has led to larger turbines with lower associated costs of energy and ever more complex designs for all major subsystems - from the rotor, hub, and tower to the drivetrain, electronics, and controls. However, as large-scale deployment of the technology continues and its contribution to electricity generation becomes more prominent, so have the expectations of the technology in terms of performance and cost. For the industry to become a sustainable source of electricity, innovation in wind energy technology must continue to improve performance and lower the cost of energy while supporting seamless integration of wind generation into the electric grid without significant negative impacts on local communities and environments. At the same time, issues associated with wind energy research, design, and development are noticeably increasing in complexity. The industry would benefit from an integrated approach that simultaneously addresses turbine design, plant design and development, grid interaction and operation, and mitigation of adverse community and environmental impacts. These activities must be integrated in order to meet this diverse set of goals while recognizing trade-offs that exist between them. While potential exists today to integrate across different domains within the wind energy system design process, organizational barriers such as different institutional objectives and the importance of proprietary information have previously limited a system level approach to wind energy research, design, and

  3. An approach for exhaust gas energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam-assisted turbocharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Deng, Banglin; Feng, Renhua; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Xiaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy

  4. Using Model-Based Systems Engineering To Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of systems engineers to use model-based systems engineering (MBSE) to generate self-consistent, up-to-date systems engineering products for project life-cycle and technical reviews is an important aspect for the continued and accelerated acceptance of MBSE. Currently, many review products are generated using labor-intensive, error-prone approaches based on documents, spreadsheets, and chart sets; a promised benefit of MBSE is that users will experience reductions in inconsistencies and errors. This work examines features of SysML that can be used to generate systems engineering products. Model elements, relationships, tables, and diagrams are identified for a large number of the typical systems engineering artifacts. A SysML system model can contain and generate most systems engineering products to a significant extent and this paper provides a guide on how to use MBSE to generate products for project life-cycle and technical reviews. The use of MBSE can reduce the schedule impact usually experienced for review preparation, as in many cases the review products can be auto-generated directly from the system model. These approaches are useful to systems engineers, project managers, review board members, and other key project stakeholders.

  5. Effects of a biodiesel blend on energy distribution and exhaust emissions of a small CI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Agnese; Mancaruso, Ezio; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B20 does not affect the brake thermal efficiency and the engine energetic flows with respect to diesel fuel. • B20 is characterized by lower combustion noise than diesel fuel. • B20 emits lower CO, HC and PM in the most of the operating conditions. • A definite trend of NO x emissions for B20 with respect to diesel fuel was not found. • B20 emits more nuclei particles than diesel fuel. - Abstract: This paper investigates the energy distribution and the waste heat energy characteristics of a compression ignition engine for micro-cogeneration applications, at different engine speeds and loads. The experimental activity was carried out on a three-cylinder, 1028 cc, common-rail engine. Tests were performed with diesel fuel and a 20% v/v biodiesel blend (B20). The quantity and the quality of the waste heat energy were studied through energy and exergy analyses, respectively. Combustion characteristics were investigated by means of indicating data. Gaseous emissions were measured and particles were characterized in terms of number and size at exhaust. It was found out that the addition of 20% v/v of RME to diesel fuel does not affect significantly the brake fuel conversion efficiency and the energetic flows. On the other hand, biodiesel blend allows to reduce the combustion noise and the pollutants emissions in most of the operating conditions. A proper phasing of the injection strategy for the biodiesel blend could further reduce the exhaust emissions, mainly at high engine speeds. The results presented in this paper could be useful for the development of diesel engine based micro-cogeneration systems working at different engine speeds and loads

  6. Teaching physics using project-based engineering curriculum with a theme of alternative energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasior, Bryan

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide a new set of science standards that, if adopted, shift the focus from content knowledge-based to skill-based education. Students will be expected to use science to investigate the natural world and solve problems using the engineering design process. The world also is facing an impending crisis related to climate, energy supply and use, and alternative energy development. Education has an opportunity to help provide the much needed paradigm shift from our current methods of providing the energy needs of society. The purpose of this research was to measure the effectiveness of a unit that accomplishes the following objectives: uses project-based learning to teach the engineering process and standards of the NGSS, addresses required content expectations of energy and electricity from the HSCE's, and provides students with scientific evidence behind issues (both environmental and social/economic) relating to the energy crisis and current dependence of fossil fuels as our primary energy source. The results of the research indicate that a physics unit can be designed to accomplish these objectives. The unit that was designed, implemented and reported here also shows that it was highly effective at improving students' science content knowledge, implementing the engineering design standards of the NGSS, while raising awareness, knowledge and motivations relating to climate and the energy crisis.

  7. Research Capabilities Directed to all Electric Engineering Teachers, from an Alternative Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ordóñez Navea

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to contemplate research capabilities directed to all electric engineering teachers from an alternative energy model intro the explanation of a semiconductor in the National Training Program in Electricity. Some authors, such as. Vidal (2016, Atencio (2014 y Camilo (2012 point out to technological applications with semiconductor electrical devices. In this way; a diagnostic phase is presented, held on this field research as a descriptive type about: a how to identify the necessities of alternative energies, and b The research competences in the alternatives energies of researcher from a solar cell model, to boost and innovate the academic praxis and technologic ingenuity. Themselves was applied a survey for a group of 15 teachers in the National Program of Formation in electricity to diagnose the deficiencies in the research area of alternatives energies. The process of data analysis was carried out through descriptive statistic. Later the conclusions are presented the need to generate strategies for stimulate and propose exploration of alternatives energies to the development of research competences directed to the teachers of electrical engineering for develop the research competences in the enforcement of the teachers exercise for the electric engineering, from an alternative energy model and boost the technologic research in the renewal energies field.

  8. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: CERN Link Breathes Life Into Russian Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R

    2000-10-13

    Without fanfare, 600 Russian scientists here at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, are playing key roles in building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a machine that will explore fundamental questions such as why particles have mass, as well as search for exotic new particles whose existence would confirm supersymmetry, a popular theory that aims to unify the four forces of nature. In fact, even though Russia is not one of CERN's 20 member states, most top high-energy physicists in Russia are working on the LHC. Some say their work could prove the salvation of high-energy physics back home.

  9. Energy management information systems : achieving improved energy efficiency : a handbook for managers, engineers and operational staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooke, J.H.; Landry, B.J.; Hart, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2004-07-01

    There are many opportunities for industrial and commercial facilities to improve energy efficiency by minimizing waste through process optimization. Large energy users can effectively reduce energy costs, improve profits and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by using computing and control equipment. This book covers all aspects of an Energy Management Information System (EMIS) including metering, data collection, data analysis, reporting and cost benefit analyses. EMIS provides relevant information to businesses that enables them to improve energy performance. EMIS deliverables include early detection of poor performance, support for decision making and effective energy reporting. EMIS also features data storage, calculation of effective targets for energy use and comparative energy consumption. Computer systems can be used to improve business performance in terms of finance, personnel, sales, resource planning, maintenance, process control, design and training. In the 1980s, the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) developed 2 versions of an energy accounting manual to help industrial, commercial and institutional sectors implement energy-accounting systems. The manual was revised in 1989 and is a useful energy management tool for business and other organizations. The EMIS examples described in this booklet reflect that energy is a variable operating cost, not a fixed overhead charge. 8 tabs., 38 figs.

  10. Theoretical study of the building principal of internal and external energy balances structures in diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Djallel ZEBBAR; Salaheddine ZEBBAR; Sidali HORR

    2016-01-01

    Distribution knowledge of the energy introduced into the combustion chamber is of great importance in the theory of internal combustion engines. This work aims to highlight the very complex relationship, often indistinguishable between internal and external energy balances components. The scrutiny of internal balance components has permitted to trace back up to the external balance. This can be easily established on a test bench equipped for the occasion. It will assess the perfection of ener...

  11. Energy: life's foundation and basis of civilization; Energi : livets fundament og sivilisasjonens grunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Oeystein Kock

    2010-07-01

    This book is about the importance of energy - from the very earliest times until our own time, with a lighter look into the all-time opportunities for energy efficiency. Human production of energy is absolutely fundamental to the growth of civilization. The book provides insight into developments from simple to very complex forms of energy utilization, throughout the world. We are also introduced to the different meanings of the concept of energy, different energy sources and resources - both the imperishable, renewable and non-renewable or fossil energy resources. We also get some glimpses into bio energy opportunities, and examples of peculiar and particular forms of energy spices up the story. (Author)

  12. High-energy x-ray CT and its application for digital engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, H.; Sadaoka, N.

    2005-01-01

    A high-energy x-ray computed tomography system and x-ray CT data handling software have been developed for digital engineering; internal dimension measurement, density analysis, actual and designed shape comparison, STL file generation, and support for reverse engineering and rapid prototyping. The system is designed to collect accurate images in short scanning time (10 s per section) using a MeV-energy electron linear accelerator and highly sensitive semiconductor detectors in order to scan large objects made of aluminum and/or iron. An excellent environment in digital engineering is provided by the software products; 'StereoCooker' for 3D bitmap CAD (rendering, feature extraction, dimensional measurement, and shape comparison, etc.), 'FeatureMaker' for translating bitmap CT data to CAD data including feature information, and 'Wingware' for realizing an Windows PC cluster system 'WINGluster' to apply CT data analysis. (author)

  13. Energy transfer modelling of active thermoacoustic engines via Lagrangian thermoacoustic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Boe-Shong; Chou, Chia-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Resonant control on thermoacoustic engines to amplify power rating. • Least-action principle of thermoacoustic dynamics to shape engine chamber. • Spatiotemporal transfer function into feedback systems. • Conservation law of thermoacoustic storage to figure out engine cycles. • Robin boundary condition to identify flow leakage. - Abstract: This paper develops energy-transfer modelling of active thermoacoustic engines resonantly controlled on boundary for amplification of power rating toward satisfaction of renewable industry. Therein the wave equation of thermoacoustic dynamics in resonators with non-uniform media and boundary actuations is derived and then turned into a least-action principle. With this least-action principle, we obtain the governing equation of longitudinal resonators with spatially variant cross-section areas to investigate how to shape the resonator for boosting piston stroke and power-transmission efficiency. It is followed by spatiotemporal transfer-function modelling that functionally represents the dynamics and interprets the boundary actuations into internal inputs. This helps formulate the overall dynamics into feedback-interconnection between the thermoacoustic dynamics in the resonator and the mechatronic dynamics of the alternative current generator, so that synthesis of feedback systems can be applied to design the entire engine. Transfer-function modelling following least-action principle leads to the conservation law of thermoacoustic storage, which figures out engine cycles, the most fundamental principle in designing active thermoacoustic engines. Based on such feedback realization, digital signal processing is programmed to numerically assess power ratings of active designs

  14. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.; Kaufman, L.; Fluss, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER

  15. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  16. B. F. Skinner and technology's nation: Technocracy, social engineering, and the good life in 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed and promoted a technology of behavior as the basis for widespread social reform over much of his career. In 1948, he published his behaviorally engineered vision of the good life in his utopian novel Walden Two (Skinner, 1948). Skinner's efforts were part of a much larger social engineering tradition that received one of its fullest expressions in the Technocracy Movement of the 1930s. Fifteen years before Skinner's Walden Two , at the height of the Technocracy Movement's public visibility in the United States, technocrat Harold Loeb (1933/1996) published his utopia, Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like . In this article, I place the socially engineered visions of the good life promoted by the Technocracy Movement and by Skinner on an intellectual and ideological continuum to amplify and explore American attitudes toward psychology, technology, and social engineering during the middle decades of the 20th century. I argue that responses to both reveal the possibilities and limits of the social engineering enterprise, and suggest that historians of technology might consider how the history of psychology and other psy-disciplines can deepen conceptualizations of the relationships among the psychological, the social, and the technological in this period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Application of Educational Theories in Restructuring an Introductory Course in Renewable Energy Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkani, Efrossini C.; Boussiakou, Iris K.; Boussiakou, Leda G.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to apply the educational theories of Kolb's experiential learning and Bloom's educational taxonomy in restructuring the course "Renewable energy engineering". The steps of the research procedure investigate the application of learning theories to the restructuring of the course and the introduction of…

  18. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  19. Integrated energy and emission management for diesel engines with waste heat recovery using dynamic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.C.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI

  20. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  1. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  2. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  3. The Nuclear Energy Agency Mentoring a Future Generation of Female Leaders in Science and Engineering. Report on the International Mentoring Workshop in Science and Engineering in Chiba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Despite progress over the past decades, women remain under-represented in executive positions in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Female students tend to do very well in math and science early in their academic careers but often take other career paths. Many countries are working to close the gender gap and are developing policies to reverse this trend. However, considering the increasing demand worldwide for skilled workers in all areas of science and technology, including in the nuclear energy sector, more advocacy is needed to encourage the next generation and to capture their interest in these fields. Efforts to motivate young women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM fields), and to develop policies that support their progression, are worthwhile. Today, many NEA member countries are challenged in stimulating their youth to study in STEM fields. The looming shortfall has serious implications for the future. As part of its overall strategy and mission, the NEA has stated its support to members in their efforts to secure qualified human resources, nuclear skills capability building and the development of a new generation of nuclear experts. It is essential to ensure that all young people, including young women, have the opportunity to explore careers in science and technology. The NEA encourages its membership to explore ways of attracting, recruiting and retaining youth, in particular girls, in science and technology, as well as enhancing the conditions and prospects for women and girls at every stage of their careers and education. It is in this spirit that the NEA partnered with Japan's National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST) to organise a mentoring workshop on July 25-26, 2017 in Chiba, Japan. This International Mentoring Workshop in Science and Engineering was a positive step, offering young Japanese women what was, for some, a life-changing experience. Seven

  4. Re-engineering the mission life cycle with ABC and IDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Rackley, Michael; Karlin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The theory behind re-engineering a business process is to remove the non-value added activities thereby lowering the process cost. In order to achieve this, one must be able to identify where the non-value added elements are located which is not a trivial task. This is because the non-value added elements are often hidden in the form of overhead and/or pooled resources. In order to be able to isolate these non-value added processes from among the other processes, one must first decompose the overall top level process into lower layers of sub-processes. In addition, costing data must be assigned to each sub-process along with the value the sub-process adds towards the final product. IDEF0 is a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) process-modeling tool that allows for this functional decomposition through structured analysis. In addition, it illustrates the relationship of the process and the value added to the product or service. The value added portion is further defined in IDEF1X which is an entity relationship diagramming tool. The entity relationship model is the blueprint of the product as it moves along the 'assembly line' and therefore relates all of the parts to each other and the final product. It also relates the parts to the tools that produce the product and all of the paper work that is used in their acquisition. The use of IDEF therefore facilitates the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is an essential method in a high variety, product-customizing environment, to facilitate rapid response to externally caused change. This paper describes the work being done in the Mission Operations Division to re-engineer the development and operation life cycle of Mission Operations Centers using these tools.

  5. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  6. Engineering muscle tissue for the fetus: getting ready for a strong life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Joseph Christ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations frequently involve either skeletal, smooth or cardiac tissues. When large parts of those tissues are damaged, the repair of the malformations is challenged by the fact that so much autologous tissue is missing. Current treatments require the use of prostheses or other therapies and are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, affected children have generally good survival rates and mostly normal schooling. As such, new therapeutic modalities need to represent significant improvements with clear safety profiles. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the treatment of any disease or disorder involving a lack of viable tissue. With respect to congenital soft tissue anomalies, the development of, for example, implantable muscle constructs would provide not only the usual desired elasticity and contractile proprieties, but should also be able to grow with the fetus and/or in the postnatal life. Such an approach would eliminate the need for multiple surgeries. However, the more widespread clinical applications of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies require identification of the optimal indications, as well as further elucidation of the precise mechanisms and best methods (cells, scaffolds/biomaterials for achieving large functional tissue regeneration in those clinical indications. In short, despite some amazing scientific progress, significant safety and efficacy hurdles remain. However, the rapid preclinical advances in the field bode well for future applications. As such, translational researchers and clinicians alike need be informed and prepared to utilize these new techniques for the benefit of their patients, as soon as they are available. To this end, we review herein, the clinical need(s, potential applications, and the relevant preclinical studies that are currently guiding the field toward novel

  7. Energy Balance of Nuclear Power Generation. Life Cycle Analyses of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Wenisch, A.; Baumann, M.; Renner, S.

    2011-01-01

    The accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima in March 2011 triggered a debate about phasing out nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Several states are preparing to end nuclear power generation. At the same time the operational life time of many nuclear power plants is reaching its end. Governments and utilities now need to take a decision to replace old nuclear power plants or to use other energy sources. In particular the requirement of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is used as an argument for a higher share of nuclear energy. To assess the contribution of nuclear power to climate protection, the complete life cycle needs to be taken into account. Some process steps are connected to high CO2 emissions due to the energy used. While the processes before and after conventional fossil-fuel power stations can contribute up to 25% of direct GHG emission, it is up to 90 % for nuclear power (Weisser 2007). This report aims to produce information about the energy balance of nuclear energy production during its life cycle. The following key issues were examined: How will the forecasted decreasing uranium ore grades influence energy intensity and greenhouse emissions and from which ore grade on will no energy be gained anymore? In which range can nuclear energy deliver excess energy and how high are greenhouse gas emissions? Which factors including ore grade have the strongest impact on excess energy? (author)

  8. Influence of Geographic Factors on the Life Cycle Climate Change Impacts of Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, M. O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool to measure the cradle-to-grave climate change impacts of the sustainable energy systems that are planned to replace conventional fossil energy-based systems. The recent inclusion of geographic specificity in bioenergy LCAs has shown that the relative sustainability of these energy sources is often dependent on geographic factors, such as the climate change impact of changing the land cover and local resource availability. However, this development has not yet been implemented to most LCAs of energy systems that do not have biological feedstocks, such as wind, water, and solar-based energy systems. For example, the tidal velocity where tidal rotors are installed can significantly alter the life cycle climate change impacts of electricity generated using the same technology in different locations. For LCAs of solar updraft towers, the albedo change impacts arising from changing the reflectivity of the land that would be converted can be of the same magnitude as other life cycle process climate change impacts. Improvements to determining the life cycle climate change impacts of renewable energy technologies can be made by utilizing GIS and satellite data and by conducting site-specific analyses. This practice can enhance our understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of technologies that are aimed to reduce the impacts of our current energy systems, and it can improve the siting of new systems to optimize a reduction in climate change impacts.

  9. Atmospheric Energy Limits on Subsurface Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the terrestrial biomass of subterranean organisms may equal or exceed that at the surface. Taken as a group, these organisms can live in heavily saline conditions at temperatures from 115 C to as low as -20 C. Such conditions might exist on Mars beneath the surface oxidant in an aquifer or hydrothermal system, where the surrounding rock would also protect against the solar ultraviolet radiation. The way that such systems could obtain energy and carbon is not completely clear, although it is believed that on Earth, energy flows from the interaction of highly reduced basalt with groundwater produce H2, while carbon is derived from CO2 dissolved in the groundwater. Another potential source is the Martian atmosphere, acting as a photochemical conduit of solar insolation.

  10. Product design for energy reduction in concurrent engineering: An Inverted Pyramid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadi, Nasr M.

    Energy factors in product design in concurrent engineering (CE) are becoming an emerging dimension for several reasons; (a) the rising interest in "green design and manufacturing", (b) the national energy security concerns and the dramatic increase in energy prices, (c) the global competition in the marketplace and global climate change commitments including carbon tax and emission trading systems, and (d) the widespread recognition of the need for sustainable development. This research presents a methodology for the intervention of energy factors in concurrent engineering product development process to significantly reduce the manufacturing energy requirement. The work presented here is the first attempt at integrating the design for energy in concurrent engineering framework. It adds an important tool to the DFX toolbox for evaluation of the impact of design decisions on the product manufacturing energy requirement early during the design phase. The research hypothesis states that "Product Manufacturing Energy Requirement is a Function of Design Parameters". The hypothesis was tested by conducting experimental work in machining and heat treating that took place at the manufacturing lab of the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Department (IMSE) at West Virginia University (WVU) and at a major U.S steel manufacturing plant, respectively. The objective of the machining experiment was to study the effect of changing specific product design parameters (Material type and diameter) and process design parameters (metal removal rate) on a gear head lathe input power requirement through performing defined sets of machining experiments. The objective of the heat treating experiment was to study the effect of varying product charging temperature on the fuel consumption of a walking beams reheat furnace. The experimental work in both directions have revealed important insights into energy utilization in machining and heat-treating processes and its variance based

  11. Power plant engineering for the use of fossil, regenerative and nuclear energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, K.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power is the motor for technical advance and for the development of the standard of living in industrial countries. It has been provided for about 110 years on the industrial scale for general use by energy conversion in powerstations. This book gives the present state of technology for this and points out possible future developments. The author deals with the following aspects: Survey of available energy sources (fossil, regenerative, nuclear) the principles for the conversion of primary energy into electricity contamination of the environment resulting from energy conversion statements on the efficiency, availability of plant and costs. The reader can estimate the order of magnitude of energy and material flows and the dimensions of components and units from examples with answers. The book is intended for students and practical engineers in energy and powerstation technology. (orig.) With 210 figs [de

  12. Improvement of Fatigue Life of Welded Structural Components of a Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engine by Grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Hansen, Anders V.; Bjørnbak-Hansen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    one side only, with no access to the root side. Various investigations on the fatigue life of the structural components of this new design have been carried out. The present investigation concentrates on the improvement in fatigue life which may be obtained by grinding of the weld toes. The tests...... grinding to m=6 for the test series with grinding. In one of the test series, it was observed that in most cases crack initiation moved from the weld toe to the non-ground surface between the ground areas at the weld toes. Tests were made on steel S 275, on centrally and eccentrically loaded test specimens.......The crankshaft housings of large two-stroke diesel engines are welded structures subjected to constant amplitude loading and designed for infinite life at full design load. A new design of the so-called frame box has been introduced in the engine using butt weld joints of thick plates, welded from...

  13. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel about combustion, performance and emission parameters of engines. One of the parameters that have been less discussed is energy balance. In providing alternative fuels, biodiesel from waste cooking oil due to its low cost compared with biodiesel from plant oils, is the promising option. The properties of biodiesel and diesel fuels, in general, show many similarities, and therefore, biodiesel is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. The conversion of waste cooking oil into methyl esters through the transesterification process approximately reduces the molecular weight to one-third, reduces the viscosity by about one-seventh, reduces the flash point slightly and increases the volatility marginally, and reduces pour point considerably (Demirbas, 2009. In this study, effect of different percentages of biodiesel from waste cooking oil were investigated. Energy distribution study identify the energy losses ways in order to find the reduction solutions of them. Materials and Methods Renewable fuel used in this study consists of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process (Table 1. Five diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with values of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 percent of biodiesel that are signs for B0, B12, B22, B32 and B42, respectively. The test engine was a diesel engine, single-cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition and air¬cooled, series 3LD510 in the laboratory of renewable energies of agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modarres

  14. Application of the strain energy for fatigue life prediction (LCF) of metals by the energy-based criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahram Shahrooi; Ibrahim Henk Metselaar; Zainul Huda; Ghezavati, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In this study, the plastic strain energy under multiaxial fatigue condition has been calculated in the cyclic plasticity models by the stress-strain hysteresis loops. Then, using the results of these models, the fatigue lives in energy-based fatigue model is predicted and compared to experimental data. Moreover, a weighting factor on shear plastic work is presented to decrease the life factors in the model fatigue. (author)

  15. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, K.

    2006-01-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs

  16. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    2006-07-01

    The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Computational Chemistry Laboratory: Calculating the Energy Content of Food Applied to a Real-Life Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiric, Dora; Tribe, Lorena; Soriano, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory, students calculated the nutritional value of common foods to assess the energy content needed to answer an everyday life application; for example, how many kilometers can an average person run with the energy provided by 100 g (3.5 oz) of beef? The optimized geometries and the formation enthalpies of the nutritional components…

  18. Determining the Life Cycle Energy Efficiency of Six Biofuel Systems in China: A Data Envelopment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2014-01-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has...

  19. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  20. Energy policy, economic and engineering issues of the extension of Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aszodi, Attila; Boros, Ildiko; Kovacs, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The four operating blocks of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant are of Russian design. They entered into operation three decades ago, between 1982 and 1987. In 2013 they produced 15 TWh out of the 42 TWh energy consumption of Hungary, that is they produced 36% of the energy demand. In the beginning of 2014 the Hungarian and the Russian governments signed the agreement on the extension of Paks site with building two new blocks, producing 1200 MW each. The paper summarizes the energy policy, engineering, safety and economic aspects of the extension. (TRA)

  1. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  2. Army symposium: Electrical energy engineering today; Wehrtechnisches Symposium: Moderne elektrische Energietechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, H. (ed.) [Bundesakademie fuer Wehrverwaltung und Wehrtechnik, Mannheim (Germany). Fachgebiet Elektrotechnik und Elektroenergiewesen

    2000-05-01

    This symposium was held in Mannheim on May 20/21, 2000. All aspects of energy engineering were discussed, including electrochemical energy sources like accumulator batteries and fuel cells. The proceedings volume contains 26 papers which reflect the state of the art and current trends in electrical energy engineering in the German army. [German] Das Wehrtechnische Symposium 'Moderne elektrische Energietechnik' wurde von der Lehrabteilung Wehrtechnik der Bundesakademie fuer Wehrverwaltung und Wehrtechnik in Mannheim in der Zeit vom 20.05.-21.05.2000 durchgefuehrt. Das Programm enthaelt die aktuellen Themen der elektrischen Energietechnik. Die elektroschemischen Energiequellen (Batterien und Brennstoffzellen) wurden in das Programm integriert. Dadurch konnte das gesamte Spektrum der Energietechnik vielschichtig dargestellt und in der Diskussion unter z.T. sehr verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten beleuchtet werden. Die im vorliegenden Tagungsband abgedruckten 26 Skripte wurden weder gekuerzt noch ergaenzt. Sie zeigen insgesamt den aktuellen Stand und die erfolgversprechenden Entwicklungstendenzen der elektrischen Energietechnik in der Bundeswehr auf. (orig.)

  3. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-07-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  4. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-01-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  5. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  6. Energy Management of a Hybrid-Power Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid-power gas engine-driven heat pump (HPGHP combines hybrid power technology with a gas engine heat pump. The engine in the power system is capable of operating constantly with high thermal efficiency and low emissions during different operating modes. In this paper, the mathematical models of various components is established, including the engine thermal efficiency map and the motor efficiency map. The comprehensive charging/discharging efficiency model and energy management optimization strategy model which is proposed to maximize the efficiency of instantaneous HPGHP system are established. Then, different charging/discharging torque limits are obtained. Finally, a novel gas engine economical zone control strategy which combined with the SOC of battery in real time is put forward. The main operating parameters of HPGHP system under energy management are simulated by Matlab/Simulink and validated by experimental data, such as engine and motor operating torque, fuel consumption rate and comprehensive efficiency, etc. The results show that during 3600 s’ run-time, the SOC value of battery packs varies between 0.58 and 0.705, the fuel consumption rate reaches minimum values of approximately 291.3 g/(kW h when the compressor speed is nearly 1550 rpm in mode D, the engine thermal efficiency and comprehensive efficiency reach maximum values of approximately 0.2727 and 0.2648 when the compressor speed is 1575 rpm and 1475 rpm, respectively, in mode D. In general, the motor efficiency can be maintained above 0.85 in either mode.

  7. CALCULATING SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL OF BUILDINGS AND VISUALIZATION WITHIN UNITY 3D GAME ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buyuksalih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy modelling is increasingly popular, important, and economic significant in solving energy crisis for big cities. It is a clean and renewable resource of energy that can be utilized to accommodate individual or group of buildings electrical power as well as for indoor heating. Implementing photovoltaic system (PV in urban areas is one of the best options to solve power crisis over expansion of urban and the growth of population. However, as the spaces for solar panel installation in cities are getting limited nowadays, the available strategic options are only at the rooftop and façade of the building. Thus, accurate information and selecting building with the highest potential solar energy amount collected is essential in energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development of the city. Estimating the solar energy/radiation from rooftop and facade are indeed having a limitation - the shadows from other neighbouring buildings. The implementation of this solar estimation project for Istanbul uses CityGML LoD2-LoD3. The model and analyses were carried out using Unity 3D Game engine with development of several customized tools and functionalities. The results show the estimation of potential solar energy received for the whole area per day, week, month and year thus decision for installing the solar panel could be made. We strongly believe the Unity game engine platform could be utilized for near future 3D mapping visualization purposes.

  8. Calculating Solar Energy Potential of Buildings and Visualization Within Unity 3d Game Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuksalih, G.; Bayburt, S.; Baskaraca, A. P.; Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Solar energy modelling is increasingly popular, important, and economic significant in solving energy crisis for big cities. It is a clean and renewable resource of energy that can be utilized to accommodate individual or group of buildings electrical power as well as for indoor heating. Implementing photovoltaic system (PV) in urban areas is one of the best options to solve power crisis over expansion of urban and the growth of population. However, as the spaces for solar panel installation in cities are getting limited nowadays, the available strategic options are only at the rooftop and façade of the building. Thus, accurate information and selecting building with the highest potential solar energy amount collected is essential in energy planning, environmental conservation, and sustainable development of the city. Estimating the solar energy/radiation from rooftop and facade are indeed having a limitation - the shadows from other neighbouring buildings. The implementation of this solar estimation project for Istanbul uses CityGML LoD2-LoD3. The model and analyses were carried out using Unity 3D Game engine with development of several customized tools and functionalities. The results show the estimation of potential solar energy received for the whole area per day, week, month and year thus decision for installing the solar panel could be made. We strongly believe the Unity game engine platform could be utilized for near future 3D mapping visualization purposes.

  9. Research on the full life cycle management system of smart electric energy meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Guo, Dingying; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    At present, China’s smart electric energy meter life management is started from the procurement and acceptance. The related monitoring and management of the manufacturing sector has not yet been carried out. This article applies RFID technology and network cloud platform to full life cycle management system of smart electric energy meters, builds this full life cycle management system including design and manufacturing, process control, measurement and calibration testing, storage management, user acceptance, site operation, maintenance scrap and other aspects. Exploring smart electric energy meters on-line and off-line communication by the application of active RFID communication functions, and the actual functional application such as local data exchange and instrument calibration. This system provides technical supports on power demand side management and the improvement of smart electric energy meter reliability evaluation system.

  10. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  11. Effectiveness of energy healing on Quality of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Johannessen, Helle; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2014-01-01

    and alternative medicine (CAM), and faith/spirituality at baseline, 1 week, and 2 months post-intervention. They also indicated, at baseline, whether they considered QoL, depressive symptoms, mood, and sleep quality as important outcomes to them. Results: Multilevel linear models revealed no overall effect......Purpose: Our aim was to explore the effectiveness of energy healing, a commonly used complementary and alternative therapy, on well-being in cancer patients while assessing the possible influence on the results of participating in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: 247 patients treated...... of healing on QoL (p = 0.156), depressive symptoms (p = 0.063), mood (p = 0.079), or sleep quality (p = 0.346) in the intervention groups (RH, SH) compared with control (SC). Effects of healing on mood were only found for patients who had a positive attitude toward CAM and considered the outcome in question...

  12. Methodical Approach to Assessment of Quality of Labour Life of Industrial Employees Using Example of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatin Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is presentation of results of study of factors of influence upon quality of labour life of industrial employees and justification of a scorecard of its assessment at the micro-economic level with the use of statistical methods of study. The article proves that the quality of labour life is based on enterprise capabilities, which depend on economic results, identified by the use of financial, material and human resources, effectiveness of the innovation and investment activity. The article reveals main factors that influence the quality of labour life of industrial employees using example of engineering enterprises: labour remuneration, social provisions, possibility to develop personnel, progressive state of fixed assets, financial sustainability of the enterprise, and effectiveness of investing into innovation activity. The article proves expediency of use of statistical methods of study for assessment of quality of labour life of employees, namely: multi-dimensional factor analysis, neural networks and folded additive technique. Their use helped to reveal indicators that are the most sensitive to managerial impact for ensuring quality of labour life. The article justifies stages of methodical approach to assessment of the quality of labour life of industrial employees, which was applied at engineering enterprises, which proves its significance and theoretical substantiation.

  13. Advanced Materials Test Methods for Improved Life Prediction of Turbine Engine Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stubbs, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Phase I final report developed under SBIR contract for Topic # AF00-149, "Durability of Turbine Engine Materials/Advanced Material Test Methods for Improved Use Prediction of Turbine Engine Components...

  14. Renewable energy from Cyanobacteria: energy production optimization by metabolic pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Naira; Van der Kooy, Frank; Van de Rhee, Miranda D; Voshol, Gerben P; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The need to develop and improve sustainable energy resources is of eminent importance due to the finite nature of our fossil fuels. This review paper deals with a third generation renewable energy resource which does not compete with our food resources, cyanobacteria. We discuss the current state of the art in developing different types of bioenergy (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, etc.) from cyanobacteria. The major important biochemical pathways in cyanobacteria are highlighted, and the possibility to influence these pathways to improve the production of specific types of energy forms the major part of this review.

  15. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  16. 5. Kassel symposium on energy systems engineering: On-site energy generation using renewable energy sources. Proceedings 2000; 5. Kasseler Symposium: Energie-Systemtechnik. Erneuerbare Energien- und rationelle Energieverwendung. Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativen Anteil. Tagungsband 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. (comp.)

    2000-07-01

    The focal topic of the 5th Kassel Symposium on Energy Systems Engineering was ''Decentralised energy supply with a high share of renewable energies''. The contributions covered a wide range of issues including the potential of renewable energies, supply and operating concepts, components, systems engineering and future perspectives. [German] Das 5. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik legt seinen Schwerpunkt auf das Thema: 'Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativem Anteil'. Es spannt hierzu einen Bogen von den Potenzialen der Erneuerbaren Energien ueber Versorgungs- und Betriebsfuehrungskonzepte sowie Komponenten und Systemtechnik bis hin zu zukuenftigen Perspektiven. (orig.)

  17. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  18. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  19. Solar-energy conversion system provides electrical power and thermal control for life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. K.

    1974-01-01

    System utilizes Freon cycle and includes boiler turbogenerator with heat exchanger, regenerator and thermal-control heat exchangers, low-pressure and boiler-feed pumps, and condenser. Exchanger may be of interest to engineers and scientists investigating new energy sources.

  20. Seismic fatigue life evaluation of mechanical structures using energy balance equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Seiji; Okamura, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic resistant performance for severe earthquakes is required, because of occurrence of earthquakes which exceed the design criteria. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of cumulative damage by earthquake is also required. In this study, the energy balance equation is applied to the evaluation. The energy balance equation expresses integral information of response, so that the energy balance equation is adequate for the evaluation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. At first, vibration experiment that leads experimental model to fatigue failure by continuous vibration disturbance is conducted. As a result of the experiment, relation between fatigue failure and energy balance equation is confirmed. Then the relation is proved from the viewpoint of hysteresis energy, and consistency between energy balance equation and hysteresis energy is confirmed. Finally, we adopted cumulative damage rule to energy balance equation in order to expect the fatigue life under random waves that have various input acceleration. (author)

  1. Life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of biojet fuels with a technical investigation into their impact on jet engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokesh, Kadambari; Sethi, Vishal; Nikolaidis, Theoklis; Goodger, Eric; Nalianda, Devaiah

    2015-01-01

    Biojet fuels have been claimed to be one of the most promising and strategic solutions to mitigate aviation emissions. This study examines the environmental competence of Bio-Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (Bio-SPKs) against conventional Jet-A, through development of a life cycle GHG model (ALCEmB – Assessment of Life Cycle Emissions of Biofuels) from “cradle-grave” perspective. This model precisely calculates the life cycle emissions of the advanced biofuels through a multi-disciplinary study entailing hydrocarbon chemistry, thermodynamic behaviour and fuel combustion from engine/aircraft performance, into the life cycle studies, unlike earlier studies. The aim of this study is predict the “cradle-grave” carbon intensity of Camelina SPK, Microalgae SPK and Jatropha SPK through careful estimation and inclusion of combustion based emissions, which contribute ≈70% of overall life cycle emissions (LCE). Numerical modelling and non-linear/dynamic simulation of a twin-shaft turbofan, with an appropriate airframe, was conducted to analyse the impact of alternative fuels on engine/aircraft performance. ALCEmB revealed that Camelina SPK, Microalgae SPK and Jatropha SPK delivered 70%, 58% and 64% LCE savings relative to the reference fuel, Jet-A1. The net energy ratio analysis indicates that current technology for the biofuel processing is energy efficient and technically feasible. An elaborate gas property analysis infers that the Bio-SPKs exhibit improved thermodynamic behaviour in an operational gas turbine engine. This thermodynamic effect has a positive impact on aircraft-level fuel consumption and emissions characteristics demonstrating fuel savings in the range of 3–3.8% and emission savings of 5.8–6.3% (CO 2 ) and 7.1–8.3% (LTO NOx), relative to that of Jet-A. - Highlights: • Bio-SPKs were determined to deliver “Cradle-Grave” GHG savings of 58–70%. • Bio-SPKs exhibited improved thermodynamic behaviour at integrated system level assessment

  2. Abstracts of the 54. Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference : Energy for the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The key energy challenges facing the chemical process industries were addressed at this international conference. Chemical engineering was shown to play a critical role in offering technical solutions to the challenges of climate change and pollution abatement on a global scale. The sessions addressed a variety of issues dealing with heavy oil processing and utilization, natural gas processing, reservoir engineering and biotechnology process systems. The presentations also addressed issues dealing with applied thermodynamics, new technologies, polymer engineering and other fundamental processes, including some used by the pulp and paper industry. The conference featured more than 500 presentations from around the world, including Canada, the United States, Asia and Europe. A total of 84 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  3. The Nishino Breathing Method and Ki-energy (Life-energy): A Challenge to Traditional Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, S. Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    The breathing method, which was developed and is being taught by Kozo Nishino, a Japanese Ki-expert, is for raising the levels of Ki-energy (life-energy or the vitality) of an individual. It is neither a therapy nor a healing technique. However, many of his students have experienced an improvement in their health, and in some cases, they were able to overcome health problems by themselves. Since this is an interesting subject from the standpoint of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), we have been collaborating with Nishino to conduct a scientific investigation of his Ki-energy. We found that Nishino's Ki-energy can inhibit cell division of cancer cells, protect isolated mitochondria from heat deterioration and reduce lipid peroxidation in heat-treated mitochondria. Although Ki-energy may consist of several different energy forms, we found that at least one of them is near-infrared radiation between the wavelength range of 0.8 and 2.7 µm. Another interesting observation at his school is the Taiki-practice (paired Ki-practice). During this practice, Nishino can ‘move’ his students without any physical contact. Many of them run, jump or roll on the floor when they receive his Ki-energy. We studied this and propose that ‘information’ is conveyed through the air between two individuals by Ki-energy. This may be called a five sense-independent, life-to-life communication by Ki. All of our results suggest that we should re-evaluate the Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and body) which has been a fundamental principle of modern science for the past three centuries. PMID:16786048

  4. The Nishino Breathing Method and Ki-energy (Life-energy: A Challenge to Traditional Scientific Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ohnishi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The breathing method, which was developed and is being taught by Kozo Nishino, a Japanese Ki-expert, is for raising the levels of Ki-energy (life-energy or the vitality of an individual. It is neither a therapy nor a healing technique. However, many of his students have experienced an improvement in their health, and in some cases, they were able to overcome health problems by themselves. Since this is an interesting subject from the standpoint of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, we have been collaborating with Nishino to conduct a scientific investigation of his Ki-energy. We found that Nishino's Ki-energy can inhibit cell division of cancer cells, protect isolated mitochondria from heat deterioration and reduce lipid peroxidation in heat-treated mitochondria. Although Ki-energy may consist of several different energy forms, we found that at least one of them is near-infrared radiation between the wavelength range of 0.8 and 2.7 µm. Another interesting observation at his school is the Taiki-practice (paired Ki-practice. During this practice, Nishino can ‘move’ his students without any physical contact. Many of them run, jump or roll on the floor when they receive his Ki-energy. We studied this and propose that ‘information’ is conveyed through the air between two individuals by Ki-energy. This may be called a five sense-independent, life-to-life communication by Ki. All of our results suggest that we should re-evaluate the Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and body which has been a fundamental principle of modern science for the past three centuries.

  5. Comparative life cycle assessment of alternative strategies for energy recovery from used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Mendecka, Barbara; Carnevale, Ennio

    2018-06-15

    The separate collection of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) is gaining popularity through several countries in Europe. An appropriate management of UCO waste stream leads to substantial benefits. In this study, we analyse two different possibilities of UCO energy reuse: the direct feed to a reciprocating internal combustion engine (ICE) for cogeneration purpose, and the processing to generate biodiesel. Concerning biodiesel production, we analyse four among conventional and innovative technologies, characterised by different type and amount of used chemicals, heat and electricity consumptions and yields. We perform a systematic evaluation of environmental benefits and drawbacks by applying life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to compare the alternatives. For the impact assessment, two methods are selected: the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC). Results related only to the processing phases (i.e. not including yet the avoided effects) show that the recovery of UCO in cogeneration plant has in general lower values in terms of environmental impacts than its employment in biodiesel production. When products and co-products substitution are included, the savings obtained by the substitution of conventional diesel production, in the biodiesel cases, are significantly higher than the avoided effects for electricity and heat in the cogeneration case. In particular, by using the UCO in the biodiesel production processes, the savings vary from 41.6 to 54.6 GJ ex per tUCO, and from 2270 to 2860 kg CO 2eq per tUCO for CExC and GWP, respectively. A particular focus is put on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Overall, high uncertainty of final results for process impacts is observed, especially for the supercritical methanol process. Low uncertainty values are evaluated for the avoided effects. Including the uncertain character of the impacts, cogeneration scenario and NaOH catalysed process of biodiesel production result to be the most suitable

  6. Sizing Study of Second Life Li-ion Batteries for Enhancing Renewable Energy Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Renewable power plants must comply with certain codes and requirements to be connected to the grid, being the ramp rate compliance one of the most challenging requirements, especially for photovoltaic or wind energy generation plants. Battery based energy storage systems represent a promising...... economically viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal sizing of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS). SLBESS performance is also validated and, as an ultimate step, the power exchanged with the batteries...... solution due to the fast dynamics of electrochemical storage systems, besides their scalability and flexibility. However, large-scale battery energy storage systems are still too expensive to be a mass market solution for the renewable energy resources integration. Thus, in order to make battery investment...

  7. Non-ideal Stirling engine thermodynamic model suitable for the integration into overall energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, Joseph A.; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of modelling and simulation of energy systems strongly depends on the prediction accuracy of each system component. This is the case of Stirling engine-based systems, where an accurate modelling of the engine performance is very important to understand the overall system behaviour. In this sense, many Stirling engine analyses with different approaches have been already developed. However, there is a lack of Stirling engine models suitable for the integration into overall system simulations. In this context, this paper aims to develop a rigorous Stirling engine model that could be easily integrated into combined heat and power schemes for the overall techno-economic analysis of these systems. The model developed considers a Stirling engine with adiabatic working spaces, isothermal heat exchangers, dead volumes, and imperfect regeneration. Additionally, it considers mechanical pumping losses due to friction, limited heat transfer and thermal losses on the heat exchangers. The model is suitable for different engine configurations (alpha beta and gamma engines). It was developed using Aspen Custom Modeller ® (ACM®) as modelling software. The set of equations were solved using ACM ® equation solver for steady-state operation. However, due to the dynamic behaviour of the cycle, a C++ code was integrated to solve iteratively a set of differential equations. This resulted in a cyclic steady-state model that calculates the power output and thermal requirements of the system. The predicted efficiency and power output were compared with the numerical model and the experimental work reported by the NASA Lewis Research Centre for the GPU-3 Stirling engine. This showed average absolute errors around ±4% for the brake power, and ±5% for the brake efficiency at different frequencies. However, the model also showed large errors (±15%) for these calculations at higher frequencies and low pressures. Additional results include the calculation of the cyclic

  8. Universality of energy conversion efficiency for optimal tight-coupling heat engines and refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C

    2013-01-01

    A unified χ-criterion for heat devices (including heat engines and refrigerators), which is defined as the product of the energy conversion efficiency and the heat absorbed per unit time by the working substance (de Tomás et al 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 010104), is optimized for tight-coupling heat engines and refrigerators operating between two heat baths at temperatures T c and T h ( > T c ). By taking a new convention on the thermodynamic flux related to the heat transfer between two baths, we find that for a refrigerator tightly and symmetrically coupled with two heat baths, the coefficient of performance (i.e., the energy conversion efficiency of refrigerators) at maximum χ asymptotically approaches √(ε C ) when the relative temperature difference between two heat baths ε C -1 ≡(T h -T c )/T c is sufficiently small. Correspondingly, the efficiency at maximum χ (equivalent to maximum power) for a heat engine tightly and symmetrically coupled with two heat baths is proved to be η C /2+η C 2 /8 up to the second order term of η C ≡ (T h − T c )/T h , which reverts to the universal efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling heat engines operating between two heat baths at small temperature difference in the presence of left–right symmetry (Esposito et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 130602). (fast track communication)

  9. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  10. Synthesis of new aluminum nano hybrid composite liner for energy saving in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiruvenkadam, N.; Thyla, P.R.; Senthilkumar, M.; Bharathiraja, M.; Murugesan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano hybrid composite cylinder liner (NL) was developed to replace cast iron liner. • NL improved engine performance, combustion and reduced emissions except NO x . • Teardown analysis provides the suitability of NL for diesel engine. • The developed aluminum NL saved 43.75% of weight than cast iron cylinder liner. - Abstract: This work aims to replace the conventional cast iron cylinder liner (CL) in diesel engine by introducing lightweight aluminum (Al) 6061 nano hybrid composite cylinder liner (NL) by analyzing the performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine. NL was fabricated by bottom pouring stir casting technique with nano- and micro-reinforcement materials. Experimental results proved that the use of NL increased brake thermal efficiency, in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and reduced carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emission in comparison with CL. However, oxides of nitrogen slightly increased with the use of the new liner. No differences in wear or other issues were noted during the engine teardown after 1 year of operation and 2000 h of running. Thus, NL has been recommended to replace the CL to save the energy and to reap environmental benefits

  11. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  12. An Exploration of the Relationship between Improvements in Energy Efficiency and Life-Cycle Energy and Carbon Emissions using the BIRDS Low-Energy Residential Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua; O'Rear, Eric; Webb, David; O'Fallon, Cheyney

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a more complete analysis of low-energy and net-zero energy buildings that considers both the operating and embodied energy/emissions, members of the building community look to life-cycle assessment (LCA) methods. This paper examines differences in the relative impacts of cost-optimal energy efficiency measure combinations depicting residential buildings up to and beyond net-zero energy consumption on operating and embodied flows using data from the Building Industry Reporting and Design for Sustainability (BIRDS) Low-Energy Residential Database. Results indicate that net-zero performance leads to a large increase in embodied flows (over 40%) that offsets some of the reductions in operational flows, but overall life-cycle flows are still reduced by over 60% relative to the state energy code. Overall, building designs beyond net-zero performance can partially offset embodied flows with negative operational flows by replacing traditional electricity generation with solar production, but would require an additional 8.34 kW (18.54 kW in total) of due south facing solar PV to reach net-zero total life-cycle flows. Such a system would meet over 239% of operational consumption of the most energy efficient design considered in this study and over 116% of a state code-compliant building design in its initial year of operation.

  13. Change impact analysis on the life cycle carbon emissions of energy systems – The nuclear example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper evaluates the life cycle carbon emission of nuclear power in a scenario based approach. • It quantifies the impacts to the LCA results from the change in design parameters. • The methodology can give indications towards preferred or favorable designs. • The findings contribute to the life cycle inventories of energy systems. - Abstract: The life cycle carbon emission factor (measured by t-CO 2 /GW h) of nuclear power is much lower than those of fossil fueled power generation technologies. However, the fact of nuclear energy being a low carbon power source comes with many assumptions. These assumptions range from system and process definitions, to input–output definitions, to system boundary and cut-off criteria selections, and life cycle inventory dataset. However, there is a somewhat neglected but critical aspect – the design aspect. This refers to the impacts on the life cycle carbon emissions from the change in design parameters related to nuclear power. The design parameters identified in this paper include: (1) the uranium ore grade, (2) the critical process technologies, represented by the average initial enrichment concentration of 235 U in the reactor fuel, and (3) the size of the nuclear power reactor (measured by the generating capacity). If not properly tested, assumptions in the design aspect can lead to an erroneous estimation on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. In this paper, a methodology is developed using the Process Chain Analysis (PCA) approach to quantify the impacts of the changes in the selected design parameters on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. The concept of doing so broadens the scope of PCAs on energy systems from “one-off” calculation to analysis towards favorable/preferred designs. The findings from the analyses can serve as addition to the life cycle inventory database for nuclear power as well as provide indications for the sustainability of

  14. Distance Support In-Service Engineering for the High Energy Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    FEL only) o Isoplanatic angle (if available) o Fried coherence length o Object distance o Dwell time o Laser spot size While many of the items...system and the HEL system. Acquisition Sensor Laser Subsystem Beam Shaping Sensor Suile . Range Finder -. Coarse Tracker . Fine Tracker Optical...distribution is unlimited DISTANCE SUPPORT IN-SERVICE ENGINEERING FOR THE HIGH ENERGY LASER by Team Raising HEL from a Distance Cohort 311-133O March

  15. Proceedings of Symposium on Energy Engineering in the 21st Century (SEE 2000). Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-13

    Regimes of Gliding Arc Discharges 96 O. Mutaf-Yardimci, A. V. Saveliev , A. A. Fridman andL. A. Kennedy A8. Multicomponent Gas-Liquid Flows with...GLIDING ARC DISCHARGES Ozlem Mutaf-Yardimci, Alexei V. Saveliev Alexander A. Fridman, Lawrence A. Kennedy Department of Mechanical Engineering...2. Czeraichowski, Pur & Applied Chem.66,1301 (1994) 3. A. A.Fridman, S. Nester, L. A. Kennedy, A. Saveliev , O. Mutaf-Yardimci, J. Prog. Energy and

  16. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  17. A comprehensive assessment of the life cycle energy demand of passive houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, André; Crawford, Robert H.; Myttenaere, Kristel de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life cycle energy demand of a passive house (PH) is measured over 100 years. • Embodied, operational and user transport energy demand are considered. • Embodied energy represents the highest energy consumption in all variations. • A PH might not save energy compared to a standard house. • A poorly insulated city apartment can use less energy than a best case suburban PH. - Abstract: Certifications such as the Passive House aim to reduce the final space heating energy demand of residential buildings. The latter are responsible for a significant share of final energy consumption in Europe of which nearly 70% is associated with space conditioning, notably heating. The improvement of the energy efficiency of residential buildings, in terms of space heating, can therefore reduce their total energy demand. However, most certifications totally overlook other energy requirements associated with residential buildings. Studies on passive houses do not take into consideration the embodied energy required to manufacture the building materials, especially the large amount of insulation required to achieve high operational efficiencies. At an urban scale, most passive houses are single family detached houses located in low density suburbs with a high car usage, resulting in considerable transport related energy demand. This paper analyses the total life cycle energy demand of a typical Belgian passive house, comprising embodied, operational and transport energy. It relies on a comprehensive technique developed by Stephan et al. [1] and conducts a parametric analysis as well as a comparison to alternative building types. Results show that current building energy efficiency certifications might not ensure a lower energy demand and can, paradoxically result in an increased energy consumption because of their limited scope. More comprehensive system boundaries should be used to make sure that net energy savings do occur. The embodied energy of passive

  18. Development of electric vehicles use in China: A study from the perspective of life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Ou, Xunmin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2013-01-01

    China has promoted the use of electric vehicles vigorously since 2009; the program is still in its pilot phase. This study investigates the development of electric vehicle use in China from the perspectives of energy consumption and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined on the level of the regional power grid in 2009 through comparison with the energy consumption and GHG emissions of conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles. The life-cycle analysis module in Tsinghua-LCAM, which is based on the GREET platform, is adopted and adapted to the life-cycle analysis of automotive energy pathways in China. Moreover, medium term (2015) and long term (2020) energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions of PHEVs and BEVs are projected, in accordance with the expected development target in the Energy Efficient and Alternative Energy Vehicles Industry Development Plan (2012–2020) for China. Finally, policy recommendations are provided for the proper development of electric vehicle use in China. - Highlights: • There was a marked difference in energy saving and GHG emission reduction for EVs powered by regional grids in China. • Energy saving and GHG emission reduction from EVs development will be more obvious in China in future. • EVs development will benefit the strategy of oil/ petroleum substitute in China

  19. Energy use and engineering audits at state-owned facilities in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1980-01-01

    The contents and results of two large computerized data bases maintained by the Minnesota Department of Administration are described and analyzed. One contains information on monthly fuel use from 1972 through 1978 for 42 large state facilities: community colleges, state universities, hospitals, prisons, and office buildings. The second contains the results of detailed engineering audits performed at 41 such institutions. The audits cover 270 buildings and include 2010 individual energy conservation recommendations. Several data base management issues are discussed. These include errors and their identification, development of simple and consistent definitions for key terms, and collection of information on the major determinants of energy use and conservation potentials at these facilities.

  20. Life cycle assessment of an intensive sewage treatment plant in Barcelona (Spain) with focus on energy aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Ferrer, I

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate environmental impacts associated to a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with a treatment capacity of 2 million population equivalent, focussing on energy aspects and resources consumption. The wastewater line includes conventional pre-treatment, primary settler, activated sludge with nitrogen removal, and tertiary treatment; and the sludge line consists of thickening, anaerobic digestion, cogeneration, dewatering and thermal drying. Real site data were preferably included in the inventory. Environmental impacts of the resulting impact categories were determined by the CLM 2 baseline method. According to the results, the combustion of natural gas in the cogeneration engine is responsible for the main impact on Climate Change and Depletion of Abiotic Resources, while the combustion of biogas in the cogeneration unit accounts for a minor part. The results suggest that the environmental performance of the WWTP would be enhanced by increasing biogas production through improved anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

  1. The use of life-cycle analysis to address energy cycle externality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Life-cycle analysis is defined and the various impacts from energy systems to be included in such analysis are discussed. A preliminary version of a scenario for a future Danish energy systems based upon a bottom-up energy demand scenario and renewable energy sources. LCAs of wind turbine and Si solar roof-top modules are presented. The various impacts from Danish wind and building-integrated solar power generation are discussed and compared with the impacts from coal-fired power generation. The former electricity generating system looks more favorable. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  2. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  4. Toward Superior Capacitive Energy Storage: Recent Advances in Pore Engineering for Dense Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congcong; Yan, Xiaojun; Hu, Fei; Gao, Guohua; Wu, Guangming; Yang, Xiaowei

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of mobile electronics and electric vehicles, future electrochemical capacitors (ECs) need to store as much energy as possible in a rather limited space. As the core component of ECs, dense electrodes that have a high volumetric energy density and superior rate capability are the key to achieving improved energy storage. Here, the significance of and recent progress in the high volumetric performance of dense electrodes are presented. Furthermore, dense yet porous electrodes, as the critical precondition for realizing superior electrochemical capacitive energy, have become a scientific challenge and an attractive research focus. From a pore-engineering perspective, insight into the guidelines of engineering the pore size, connectivity, and wettability is provided to design dense electrodes with different porous architectures toward high-performance capacitive energy storage. The current challenges and future opportunities toward dense electrodes are discussed and include the construction of an orderly porous structure with an appropriate gradient, the coupling of pore sizes with the solvated cations and anions, and the design of coupled pores with diverse electrolyte ions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Energy Dissipation-Based Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingming; Huang, Bingqian; Zhu, Caihui; Chen, Yunsheng; Li, Ning

    2018-05-01

    The fatigue test for rock salt is conducted under different stress amplitudes, loading frequencies, confining pressures and loading rates, from which the evaluation rule of the dissipated energy is revealed and analysed. The evolution of energy dissipation under fatigue loading is divided into three stages: the initial stage, the second stage and the acceleration stage. In the second stage, the energy dissipation per cycle remains stable and shows an exponential relation with the stress amplitude; the failure dissipated energy only depends on the mechanical behaviour of the rock salt and confining pressure, but it is immune to the loading conditions. The energy dissipation of fatigued rock salt is discussed, and a novel model for fatigue life prediction is proposed on the basis of energy dissipation. A simple model for evolution of the accumulative dissipated energy is established. Its prediction results are compared with the test results, and the proposed model is validated.

  6. Engineering, Life Sciences, and Health/Medicine Synergy in Aerospace Human Systems Integration: The Rosetta Stone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S. (Editor); Doarn, Charles R. (Editor); Shepanek, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    In the realm of aerospace engineering and the physical sciences, we have developed laws of physics based on empirical and research evidence that reliably guide design, research, and development efforts. For instance, an engineer designs a system based on data and experience that can be consistently and repeatedly verified. This reproducibility depends on the consistency and dependability of the materials on which the engineer works and is subject to physics, geometry and convention. In life sciences and medicine, these apply as well, but individuality introduces a host of variables into the mix, resulting in characteristics and outcomes that can be quite broad within a population of individuals. This individuality ranges from differences at the genetic and cellular level to differences in an individuals personality and abilities due to sex and gender, environment, education, etc.

  7. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  8. Power and energy saving in buildings by distributed generation based on gas-engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arghandeh, R.; Amidpour, M.; Ghaffari, A. [Khaje Nasir Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Joint Program of Energy Systems Engineering; Manchester Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Buildings consume high amounts of energy and produce high amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed the use of gas cogeneration distributed generation (DG) technologies as a means of reducing energy consumption from buildings as well as energy losses from transmission lines in Iran. Energy sources and power generation systems were reviewed, and the economical benefits and energy savings resulting from the use of cogeneration systems were outlined. Actual rates of electricity consumption for Iran were estimated. Building power consumption was divided into the following 6 major sections: (1) lighting, (2) home appliances, (3) restaurant and cooking devices, (4) sports facilities, (5) utilities, and (6) electronics. Energy consumption criteria (ECC) and daily consumption charts (DCC) were used to plan and design the cogeneration systems. Energy balances, capital costs, and investment rates of return (IRR) were then calculated for 2 scenarios for a sample building. Results of the study showed that gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) DG systems are a reliable and economic technology for reducing energy consumption in buildings. The IRR of the CHP DG system for the sample building was achieved in 1 year. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Energy performance and energy saving of life-support systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contemporary automation systems of buildings ensure the most efficient control automation for heating, ventilation, lighting, hot water supply systems. This leads to significant increase of operation efficiency and reduction of energy costs. The integrated energy saving processes and functions are optimized depending ...

  10. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy-related scientists and engineers: a statistical profile of recent entrants into the work force, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Sharon E.

    1979-12-01

    This report examines the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates are also compared to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities. Information is based on the results of the 1976 and 1978 National Surveys of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, and the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy. Tabulations are included for the first time on employment involving specific energy sources and activities. Other characteristics discussed include educational level, salary, primary work activity, type of employer, and the proportion of graduates who found employment in their major field.

  12. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  13. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Energy and Resource-Saving Sources of Energy in Small Power Engineering of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of distant areas of Siberia is associated with the structures of energy demand and supply, the implementation and promotion of the process of environmentally safe restructuring of the energy supply system. It has been established that suspension coal fuels derived from brown coal, coal mining, coal processing wastes can be used as fuel. The results of experimental and industrial boilers on suspension water coal fuel are presented. The designs of vortex combustion chambers of various powers are developed and tested. The possibility of using coal-enrichment wastes and substandard coals for the production of manure-coal fuel briquettes was studied. It is shown that the strength and thermal power characteristics of briquettes depend on the moisture content and degree of metamorphism of the raw materials. The most effective percentage of the solid phase and manure, as a binder, was determined.

  15. Engineering Perspectives and Environmental Life Cycle Optimization to Enhance Aggregate Mining in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Schneider

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP addresses precautionary, site-specific environmental measures to reduce emissions and assess resource efficiency potentials at the point of origin by analyzing operational material and energy flows. The approach is generally based on the criteria quality as well as environmental/occupational health and safety, and promotes their integration. The paper presents options for applying CP to aggregate mining, based on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and illustrated by results from a study of small-scale industrial aggregate mining in Hoa Binh Province (Vietnam. The regulatory framework to limit the impact of mining on the environment is largely comparable to international standards and is suitably enforced. Despite gaining experience through the practical handling of enforcement procedures over the long term, there is still a considerable potential to optimize CP strategies in Vietnam’s aggregate mining industry. This is shown by the results of a survey of aggregates mining companies in Hoa Binh Province as well as on-site data collection to determine the technological characteristics of production facilities alongside economic and environmental factors. The assessment of the survey is supported by LCA results for: (a the existing situation; and (b the scenario of a merging of companies, undertaken to improve the resource efficiency of the aggregate mining in Hoa Binh. Findings can help implement an integrated approach to foster the sustainable mining of building aggregates.

  16. More caution is needed when using life cycle assessment to determine energy return on investment (EROI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative energy demand (CED) estimates from life cycle assessments (LCAs) are increasingly used to determine energy return on investment (EROI), but the difference in indicators can lead to a misclassification of energy flows in the assessment. The core idea of EROI is to measure the relation of energy diverted from society to make energy available to society. CED, on the other hand, includes forms of energy that are not appropriated by society, such as fugitive methane emissions from oil wells as well as losses of heating value of coal during transport and storage. Such energy forms should be excluded from EROI; failure to do so leads to results that are inconsistent with the intention of EROI and potentially misleading. We demonstrate how this problem is at least partially rectifiable by adopting consistent energy accounting, but also note that among the energy flows not appropriated by society occurring in CED, not all flows can easily be removed. Further, we point to inconsistencies in heating value assumptions in a widely used database that have misled analysts. Finally, we argue that the differential weighting of primary energy forms in published CED-based EROI work is unsubstantiated and should be reconsidered. - Highlights: • LCA can be used to determine EROI, but misclassification of energy flows can occur. • Supply chain losses included in LCA need to be adjusted for when determining EROI. • Inconsistencies in heating value assumptions in LCA databases have misled analysts. • Differential weighting of primary energy forms in LCA-EROI should be reconsidered

  17. Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Pal

    2006-01-01

    Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20-40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40-80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution

  18. Vehicle lightweighting vs. electrification: Life cycle energy and GHG emissions results for diverse powertrain vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Anne Marie; Kelly, Jarod C.; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from diverse powertrain vehicles. • Lightweight versions of the vehicle models were compared against baseline models. • Maximum energy and GHG emissions occur with aluminum vs. advanced high strength steel. • Design harmonization method shows 0.2–0.3 kg of support required per 1 kg powertrain mass increase. - Abstract: This work assesses the potential of electrified vehicles and mass reduction to reduce life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to account for processes upstream and downstream of the vehicle operation, thereby incorporating regional variation of energy and GHG emissions due to electricity production and distinct energy and GHG emissions due to conventional and lightweight materials. Design harmonization methods developed in previous work are applied to create baseline and lightweight vehicle models of an internal combustion vehicle (ICV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Thus, each vehicle is designed to be functionally equivalent and incorporate the structural support required for heavier powertrains. Lightweight vehicles are designed using body-in-white (BIW) mass reduction scenarios with aluminum and advanced/high strength steel (A/HSS). For the mass reduction scenarios considered in this work, results indicate that the greatest life cycle energy and GHG emissions reductions occur when steel is replaced by aluminum. However, since A/HSS requires less energy to produce as compared to aluminum, the energy and GHG reductions per unit mass removed is greatest for A/HSS. Results of the design harmonization modeling method show that 0.2–0.3 kg of structural support is required per unit increase in powertrain mass, thus extending previous methods

  19. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  20. Exploitation of low-temperature energy sources from cogeneration gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caf, A.; Urbancl, D.; Trop, P.; Goricanec, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an original and innovative technical solution for exploiting low-temperature energy sources from cogeneration gas reciprocating engines installed within district heating systems. This solution is suitable for those systems in which the heat is generated by the use of reciprocating engines powered by gaseous fuel for combined heat and power production. This new technical solution utilizes low-temperature energy sources from a reciprocating gas engine which is used for a combined production of heat and power. During the operation of the cogeneration system low-temperature heat is released, which can be raised to as much as 85 °C with the use of a high-temperature heat-pump, thus enabling a high-temperature regime for heating commercial buildings, district heating or in industrial processes. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of utilizing low-temperature heat sources in the cogeneration system, an economic calculation is included which proves the effectiveness and rationality of integrating high-temperature heat-pumps into new or existing systems for combined heat and power production with reciprocating gas engines. - Highlights: • The use of low-temperature waste heat from the CHP is described. • Total energy efficiency of the CHP can be increased to more than 103.3%. • Low-temperature heat is exploited with high-temperature heat pump. • High-temperature heat pump allows temperature rise to up to 85 °C. • Exploitation of low-temperature waste heat increases the economics of the CHP.

  1. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance

    2005-01-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  2. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  3. Life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation by comprehensive biogas-digestate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Song, Dan

    2012-06-01

    In the context of global energy shortages and climate change, developing biogas plants with links to agricultural system has become an important strategy for cleaner rural energy and renewable agriculture. In this study, a life-cycle energy and environmental assessment was performed for a biogas-digestate utilization system in China. The results suggest that biogas utilization (heating, illumination, and fuel) and comprehensive digestate reuse are of equal importance in the total energy production of the system, and they also play an important role in systemic greenhouse gas mitigation. Improvement can be achieved in both energy production and emissions mitigation when the ratio of the current three biogas utilization pathways is adjusted. Regarding digestate reuse, a tradeoff between energy and environmental performance can be obtained by focusing on the substitution for top-dressing, base fertilizers, and the application to seed soaking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Building energy analysis of Electrical Engineering Building from DesignBuilder tool: calibration and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, J.; Osma, G.; Caicedo, C.; Torres, A.; Sánchez, S.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This research shows the energy analysis of the Electrical Engineering Building, located on campus of the Industrial University of Santander in Bucaramanga - Colombia. This building is a green pilot for analysing energy saving strategies such as solar pipes, green roof, daylighting, and automation, among others. Energy analysis was performed by means of DesignBuilder software from virtual model of the building. Several variables were analysed such as air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, daylighting, and energy consumption. According to two criteria, thermal load and energy consumption, critical areas were defined. The calibration and validation process of the virtual model was done obtaining error below 5% in comparison with measured values. The simulations show that the average indoor temperature in the critical areas of the building was 27°C, whilst relative humidity reached values near to 70% per year. The most critical discomfort conditions were found in the area of the greatest concentration of people, which has an average annual temperature of 30°C. Solar pipes can increase 33% daylight levels into the areas located on the upper floors of the building. In the case of the green roofs, the simulated results show that these reduces of nearly 31% of the internal heat gains through the roof, as well as a decrease in energy consumption related to air conditioning of 5% for some areas on the fourth and fifth floor. The estimated energy consumption of the building was 69 283 kWh per year.

  5. Norwegian Residential Energy Demand: Coordinated use of a System Engineering and a Macroeconomic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A Johnsen

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway, the system engineering model MARKAL and the macroeconomic model MSG-EE are both used in studies of national CO2 controlling strategies. MARKAL is a linear programming model that calculates a composite set of technologies necessary to meet demand and environmental constraints at minimised total energy expenditure. MSG-EE is an applied general equilibrium model including the link between economic activity, energy demand and emissions to air. MSG-EE has a theory consistent description of the link between income, prices and energy demand, but the representation of technological improvements is simple. MARKAL has a sophisticated description of future energy technology options, but includes no feedback to the general economy. A project for studying the potential for a coordinated use of these two models was initiated and funded by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR. This paper gives a brief presentation of the two models. Results from independent model calculations show that MARKAL gives a signficant lower residential energy demand than MSG-EE does. This is explained by major differences in modelling approach. A first attempt of coordinating the residential energy demand in the models is reported. This attempt shows that implementing results from MARKAL, in MSG-EE for the residential sector alone gives little impact on the general economy. A further development of an iteration procedure between the models should include all energy using sectors.

  6. Conflicts in Everyday Life: The Influence of Competing Goals on Domestic Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Selvefors

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A common approach for understanding people’s domestic energy behavior is to study the influence of deterministic factors, such as attitudes, norms and knowledge, on behavior. However, few studies have succeeded in fully explaining people’s behavior based on these factors alone. To further the understanding of people’s everyday energy use, a goal-oriented approach based on activity theory has been applied to discuss energy conservation from a multiple goal perspective based on the findings from an interview study with 42 informants. The findings show that the informants used energy to fulfill goals linked to basic needs or desires related to their well-being. Even though the majority of informants had an explicit goal to reduce their energy consumption, many experienced conflicts with other competing goals, which often made energy conservation undesirable or challenging. The findings suggest that actions to reduce energy use will most often not be prioritized if they cannot be integrated into people’s daily life without jeopardizing their possibilities to achieve their primary goals and satisfy their everyday needs. It is thus vital to consider people’s everyday life and the many conflicts they experience when aiming to understand why people do, or do not, prioritize energy conservation during everyday activities.

  7. Life cycle optimization model for integrated cogeneration and energy systems applications in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ayat E.

    Energy use in commercial buildings constitutes a major proportion of the energy consumption and anthropogenic emissions in the USA. Cogeneration systems offer an opportunity to meet a building's electrical and thermal demands from a single energy source. To answer the question of what is the most beneficial and cost effective energy source(s) that can be used to meet the energy demands of the building, optimizations techniques have been implemented in some studies to find the optimum energy system based on reducing cost and maximizing revenues. Due to the significant environmental impacts that can result from meeting the energy demands in buildings, building design should incorporate environmental criteria in the decision making criteria. The objective of this research is to develop a framework and model to optimize a building's operation by integrating congregation systems and utility systems in order to meet the electrical, heating, and cooling demand by considering the potential life cycle environmental impact that might result from meeting those demands as well as the economical implications. Two LCA Optimization models have been developed within a framework that uses hourly building energy data, life cycle assessment (LCA), and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). The objective functions that are used in the formulation of the problems include: (1) Minimizing life cycle primary energy consumption, (2) Minimizing global warming potential, (3) Minimizing tropospheric ozone precursor potential, (4) Minimizing acidification potential, (5) Minimizing NOx, SO 2 and CO2, and (6) Minimizing life cycle costs, considering a study period of ten years and the lifetime of equipment. The two LCA optimization models can be used for: (a) long term planning and operational analysis in buildings by analyzing the hourly energy use of a building during a day and (b) design and quick analysis of building operation based on periodic analysis of energy use of a building in a

  8. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a gamma type Stirling engine in an energy recovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowale, Ayodeji; Kolios, Athanasios J; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Somorin, Tosin; Parker, Alison; Williams, Leon; Collins, Matt; McAdam, Ewan; Tyrrel, Sean

    2018-06-01

    The demand for better hygiene has increased the need for developing more effective sanitation systems and facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Non-Sewered Sanitary systems are considered to be one of the promising alternative solutions to the existing flush toilet system. An example of these systems is the Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) system being developed at Cranfield University, which targets the safe disposal of human waste while generating power and recovering water. The NMT will generate energy from the conversion of human waste with the use of a micro-combustor; the heat produced will power a Stirling engine connected to a linear alternator to generate electricity. This study presents a numerical investigation of the thermodynamic analysis and operational characteristics of a quasi steady state model of the gamma type Stirling engine integrated into a combustor in the back end of the NMT system. The effects of the working gas, at different temperatures, on the Stirling engine performance are also presented. The results show that with the heater temperature of 390 °C from the heat supply via conduction at 820 W from the flue gas, the Stirling engine generates a daily power output of 27 Wh/h at a frequency of 23.85 Hz.

  10. Microalgal bioengineering for sustainable energy development: Recent transgenesis and metabolic engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-03-01

    Exploring the efficiency of algae to produce remarkable products can be directly benefitted by studying its mechanism at systems level. Recent advents in biotechnology like flux balance analysis (FBA), genomics and in silico proteomics minimize the wet lab exertion. It is understood that FBA predicts the metabolic products, metabolic pathways and alternative pathway to maximize the desired product, and these are key components for microalgae bio-engineering. This review encompasses recent transgenesis techniques and metabolic engineering strategies applied to different microalgae for improving different traits. Further it also throws light on RNAi and riboswitch engineering based methods which may be advantageous for high throughput microalgal research. A valid and optimally designed microalga can be developed where every engineering strategies meet each other successfully and will definitely fulfill the market needs. It is also to be noted that Omics (viz. genetic and metabolic manipulation with bioinformatics) should be integrated to develop a strain which could prove to be a futuristic solution for sustainable development for energy. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Engineering Support for Handling Controller Conflicts in Energy Storage Systems Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zanabria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems will play a major role in the decarbonization of future sustainable electric power systems, allowing a high penetration of distributed renewable energy sources and contributing to the distribution network stability and reliability. To accomplish this, a storage system is required to provide multiple services such as self-consumption, grid support, peak-shaving, etc. The simultaneous activation of controllers operation may lead to conflicts, as a consequence the execution of committed services is not guaranteed. This paper presents and discusses a solution to the exposed issue by developing an engineering support approach to semi-automatically detect and handle conflicts for multi-usage storage systems applications. To accomplish that an ontology is developed and exploited by model-driven engineering mechanisms. The proposed approach is evaluated by implementing a use case example, where detection of conflicts is automatically done at an early design stage. Besides this, exploitable source code for conflicts resolution is generated and used during the design and prototype stages of controllers development. Thus, the proposed engineering support enhances the design and development of storage system controllers, especially for multi-usage applications.

  12. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  13. ENERGY AND ENTROPY ANALYSES OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TURBOJET ENGINE FOR TARGET DRONE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Turan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates energy and entropy analyses of an experimental turbojet engine build in Anadolu University Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics Test-Cell Laboratory.  Law of motions and Brayton thermodynamic cycle model are used for this purpose. The processes (that is, compression, combustion, and expansion are simulated in P-v, T-s and h-s diagrams. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics is applied to the cycle model to perform the entropy analysis. A distribution of the wasted and thrust power, the overall (energy-based the first law efficiency, and the specific fuel consumption and specific thrust of the engine were calculated during the analyses as well. The results of the study also show the entropy changing value in engine components due to irreversibilities and inefficiencies. As a conclusion, it is expected that this study is useful to study future design and research work similar aircraft turbojets, auxiliary power units and target drone power systems.

  14. AREAL low energy electron beam applications in life and materials sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Aroutiounian, R.M. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Aloyan, L.R.; Aslanyan, L.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Avagyan, V.Sh. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Babayan, N.S. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute of Molecular Biology NAS, 0014 Yerevan (Armenia); Buniatyan, V.V. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Dalyan, Y.B.; Davtyan, H.D. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Grigoryan, B.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Grigoryan, N.E. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutyunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Harutiunyan, V.V. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hovhannesyan, K.L. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Khachatryan, V.G. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Martirosyan, N.W. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Melikyan, G.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    The AREAL laser-driven RF gun provides 2–5 MeV energy ultrashort electron pulses for experimental study in life and materials sciences. We report the first experimental results of the AREAL beam application in the study of molecular-genetic effects, silicon-dielectric structures, ferroelectric nanofilms, and single crystals for scintillators.

  15. Protein-energy nutritional status and kidney disease-specific quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, A.H.A.; de Wit, G.A.; Penne, E.L.; van der Weerd, N.C.; Grooteman, M.P.C.; van den Dorpel, M.A.; Nube, M.J.; Buskens, E.; Levesque, R.; ter Wee, P.M.; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.

    Objective: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome in dialysis care. Previous research has related protein-energy nutritional status to generic HRQOL domains, but it is still not clear as to how it relates to HRQOL domains that are unique to hemodialysis patients. Therefore,

  16. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  17. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  18. Engineering management technologies of increasing energy efficiency processes in the investment and construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovich Zelentsov, Leonid; Dmitrievna Mailyan, Liya; Sultanovich Shogenov, Murat

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the problems of using the energy-efficient materials and engineering technologies during the construction of buildings and structures. As the analysis showed, one of the most important problems in this sphere is the infringement of production technologies working with energy-efficient materials. To improve the given situation, it is offered to set a technological normal at the design stage by means of working out the technological maps studying the set and the succession of operations in details, taking in mind the properties of energy-efficient materials. At Don State Technical University (DSTU) the intelligent systems of management are being developed providing organizational and technological and also informational integration of design and production stages by means of creating the single database of technological maps, volumes of work and resources.

  19. Dissipated energy and entropy production for an unconventional heat engine: the stepwise `circular cycle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio

    2011-05-01

    When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot heat source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible heat pumps transfer entropy from a cold heat source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for heat engines, and some extra work for heat pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy production. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of heat given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy production and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.

  20. Internal combustion engines in stationary installations for the efficient use of energy. VDI-meeting at Stuttart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titl, A

    1976-11-01

    The efficient use of stationary internal combustion engines for energy supply is discussed: the state of technology and the scientific significance of internal combustion engines; thermal power coupling with unit-type thermal power plants which supply current as well as heat; and operational experience with unit-type thermal power plants for living districts, sport centers, industries etc.

  1. Modeling and simulation in the systems engineering life cycle core concepts and accompanying lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Loper, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    This easy to read text/reference provides a broad introduction to the fundamental concepts of modeling and simulation (M&S) and systems engineering, highlighting how M&S is used across the entire systems engineering lifecycle. Each chapter corresponds to a short lecture covering a core topic in M&S or systems engineering.  Topics and features: reviews the full breadth of technologies, methodologies and uses of M&S, rather than just focusing on a specific aspect of the field; presents contributions from renowned specialists in each topic covered; introduces the foundational elements and proce

  2. Computation techniques and computer programs to analyze Stirling cycle engines using characteristic dynamic energy equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, V. H.

    1982-01-01

    The basic equations that are used to describe the physical phenomena in a Stirling cycle engine are the general energy equations and equations for the conservation of mass and conversion of momentum. These equations, together with the equation of state, an analytical expression for the gas velocity, and an equation for mesh temperature are used in this computer study of Stirling cycle characteristics. The partial differential equations describing the physical phenomena that occurs in a Stirling cycle engine are of the hyperbolic type. The hyperbolic equations have real characteristic lines. By utilizing appropriate points along these curved lines the partial differential equations can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved numerically using a fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta integration technique.

  3. Systems engineering approach to U.S. Department of Energy's commercial nuclear waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has been given the responsibility of developing a program to transport commercially produced spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes to disposal sites or storage facilities safely and cost-effectively. To accomplish this task it is desirable to plan, perform, and document all technical activities based on systems engineering principles. This paper presents an overview of the systems engineering approach being developed by Battelle for consideration by DOE, specifically the early identification of the required technical activities and approaches to technical management and decision making. The program should support the development of an integrated, well-documented transportation system acceptable to regulatory agencies and the public

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  5. Near Zero Energy House (NZEH) Design Optimization to Improve Life Cycle Cost Performance Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Y.; Berawi, M. A.; Koesalamwardi, A. B.; Supriadi, L. S. R.

    2018-03-01

    Near Zero Energy House (NZEH) is a housing building that provides energy efficiency by using renewable energy technologies and passive house design. Currently, the costs for NZEH are quite expensive due to the high costs of the equipment and materials for solar panel, insulation, fenestration and other renewable energy technology. Therefore, a study to obtain the optimum design of a NZEH is necessary. The aim of the optimum design is achieving an economical life cycle cost performance of the NZEH. One of the optimization methods that could be utilized is Genetic Algorithm. It provides the method to obtain the optimum design based on the combinations of NZEH variable designs. This paper discusses the study to identify the optimum design of a NZEH that provides an optimum life cycle cost performance using Genetic Algorithm. In this study, an experiment through extensive design simulations of a one-level house model was conducted. As a result, the study provide the optimum design from combinations of NZEH variable designs, which are building orientation, window to wall ratio, and glazing types that would maximize the energy generated by photovoltaic panel. Hence, the design would support an optimum life cycle cost performance of the house.

  6. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  7. Energy as a technology: Thermodynamics, energy engineering, environment, renewable energy, rational energy use. 2. rev. ed.; Technologie Energie: Thermodynamik, Energietechnik, Umwelt, regenerative Energien, rationeller Energieeinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, R.

    2000-07-01

    The book discusses the technical and scientific fundamentals and the ecological consequences of anthropogenic energy conversion. The information is to make the public energy discussion more rational and less emotional. [German] Trotz oder gerade wegen der duesteren Zukunftsaussichten sind sachliche und fundierte Informationen ueber die Zusammenhaenge zu diesem Thema erforderlich. In diesem Buch werden schwerpunktmaessig die technisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Sachverhalte und die oekologischen Folgeerscheinungen, die im Zusammenhang mit der anthropogenen Energieumwandlung auftreten, dagestellt. Diese Kenntnisse sollten auch zu einer Versachlichung der Energiediskussion und einer rationaleren Beurteilung der Situation fuehren koennen. (orig.)

  8. A New Statistical Approach for Cyclic Life Tracking of Engine Critical Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiang, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a flight data based statistical method that allows missing low cycle fatigue data in engine critical parts to be filled in with appropriate values that are not overly conservative...

  9. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  10. Updating the U.S. Life Cycle GHG Petroleum Baseline to 2014 with Projections to 2040 Using Open-Source Engineering-Based Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gregory; Jamieson, Matthew; Marriott, Joe; Bergerson, Joule; Brandt, Adam; Skone, Timothy J

    2017-01-17

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory produced a well-to-wheels (WTW) life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. in 2005, known as the NETL 2005 Petroleum Baseline. This study uses a set of engineering-based, open-source models combined with publicly available data to calculate baseline results for 2014. An increase between the 2005 baseline and the 2014 results presented here (e.g., 92.4 vs 96.2 g CO 2 e/MJ gasoline, + 4.1%) are due to changes both in modeling platform and in the U.S. petroleum sector. An updated result for 2005 was calculated to minimize the effect of the change in modeling platform, and emissions for gasoline in 2014 were about 2% lower than in 2005 (98.1 vs 96.2 g CO 2 e/MJ gasoline). The same methods were utilized to forecast emissions from fuels out to 2040, indicating maximum changes from the 2014 gasoline result between +2.1% and -1.4%. The changing baseline values lead to potential compliance challenges with frameworks such as the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Section 526, which states that Federal agencies should not purchase alternative fuels unless their life cycle GHG emissions are less than those of conventionally produced, petroleum-derived fuels.

  11. A continuous latitudinal energy balance model to explore non-uniform climate engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, F.; McInnes, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Current concentrations of atmospheric CO2 exceed measured historical levels in modern times, largely attributed to anthropogenic forcing since the industrial revolution. The required decline in emissions rates has never been achieved leading to recent interest in climate engineering for future risk-mitigation strategies. Climate engineering aims to offset human-driven climate change. It involves techniques developed both to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods) and to counteract the radiative forcing that it generates (Solar Radiation Management (SRM) methods). In order to investigate effects of SRM technologies for climate engineering, an analytical model describing the main dynamics of the Earth's climate has been developed. The model is a time-dependent Energy Balance Model (EBM) with latitudinal resolution and allows for the evaluation of non-uniform climate engineering strategies. A significant disadvantage of climate engineering techniques involving the management of solar radiation is regional disparities in cooling. This model offers an analytical approach to design multi-objective strategies that counteract climate change on a regional basis: for example, to cool the Artic and restrict undesired impacts at mid-latitudes, or to control the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Using the Green's function approach the resulting partial differential equation allows for the computation of the surface temperature as a function of time and latitude when a 1% per year increase in the CO2 concentration is considered. After the validation of the model through comparisons with high fidelity numerical models, it will be used to explore strategies for the injection of the aerosol precursors in the stratosphere. In particular, the model involves detailed description of the optical properties of the particles, the wash-out dynamics and the estimation of the radiative cooling they can generate.

  12. Systems Engineering Applied to the Development of a Wave Energy Farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Malins, Robert Joseph; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    A motivation for undertaking this stakeholder requirements analysis and Systems Engineering exercise is to document the requirements for successful wave energy farms to facilitate better design and better design assessments. A difficulty in wave energy technology development is the absence to date of a verifiable minimum viable product against which the merits of new products might be measured. A consequence of this absence is that technology development progress, technology value, and technology funding have largely been measured, associated with, and driven by technology readiness, measured in technology readiness levels (TRLs). Originating primarily from the space and defense industries, TRLs focus on procedural implementation of technology developments of large and complex engineering projects, where cost is neither mission critical nor a key design driver. The key deficiency with the TRL approach in the context of wave energy conversion is that WEC technology development has been too focused on commercial readiness and not enough on the stakeholder requirements and particularly economic viability required for market entry.

  13. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  14. Energy and life-cycle cost analysis of a six-story office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, I.

    1981-10-01

    An energy analysis computer program, DOE-2, was used to compute annual energy use for a typical office building as originally designed and with several energy conserving design modifications. The largest energy use reductions were obtained with the incorporation of daylighting techniques, the use of double pane windows, night temperature setback, and the reduction of artificial lighting levels. A life-cycle cost model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the design modifications discussed. The model incorporates such features as inclusion of taxes, depreciation, and financing of conservation investments. The energy conserving strategies are ranked according to economic criteria such as net present benefit, discounted payback period, and benefit to cost ratio.

  15. Life cycle of the plastics in the wastes. Energy development analysis of the PET disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.; Carlini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The work is directed to an energy-environmental evaluation, through the LCA methodology, of the life cycle of the containers for liquids in PET, particularly to the phase post use. Applied the italian decree with the force of law (Decreto Ronchi), the methodology LCA has been described in the basic points. Then such methodology has been applied to the containers for liquids in PET. Several disposal systems have been studied and it was found out the most suitable system from the energy and environmental point of view. The recycling turned out to be the best solution either from the energy point of view or environmental. The incineration with energy saving has found out better than the conferring in disposal (with biogas recovery) from the energy point of view, on the contrary the conferring in disposal has found out better than the environmental one [it

  16. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  17. Thermodynamic and energy saving benefits of hydraulic free-piston engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhenfeng; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Shuanlu; Zhang, Fujun

    2016-01-01

    The hydraulic free-piston engine integrates the internal combustion engine with a hydraulic pump. The piston of an HFPE is not connected to the crankshaft and the piston movement is determined by the forces that act upon it. These features optimize combustion and make higher power density and efficiency increase. In this paper, a detailed thermodynamic and energy saving analysis is performed to demonstrate the fundamental efficiency advantage of an HFPE. The thermodynamic results show that the combustion process can be optimized to an ideal engine cycle. The experimental results show that the HFPE combustion process is a nearly constant-volume process; the efficiency is approximately 50%; the piston displacement and velocity curves for a cycle are the same at any frequency, even at a 1.25 Hz. The maximum velocities are of the same value at high or low frequencies. Similarly, pump output flow is not influenced by frequency. The independent cyclic characteristics of HFPE determine that it should work in higher frequencies when the vehicle runs in Japanese 10–15 road conditions. It indicates that a higher working frequency will lead to the starting frequency of HFPE, and a lower frequency will decrease the pressurized pressure of the hydraulic accumulator. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic and energy saving benefits of the HFPEs was investigated. • The approach of combustion optimization was obtained by adjusting the injection timing and compression ratio. • The high efficiency area of HFPE was given as a function of injection timing and compression pressure. • The maximum efficiency of HFPE of 50% was obtained from the prototype. • The method of energy saving with adjusting the piston frequency was examined.

  18. Energy climate visions 2030 / 2050: which ways of life for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, Francois

    2014-06-01

    This report proposes a prospective vision of the ways of life of French household by 2030 and 2050, these ways of life being in compliance with scenarios presented by the ADEME within the frame of the national debate on energy transition which notably aims at dividing by four greenhouse gas emissions in France by 2050. Eight types of households are defined (couple with two children, mother alone with a child, elderly retired, rather young retired, father with two children in alternating custody, couple with three children) with different revenue levels (from modest to better off) and different living locations (medium city, suburban, urban, rural, city centre). Lifestyles or scenarios of life are rather precisely defined for these different households and their members. The objective is to compare energy profiles and greenhouse emissions, the impact of lifestyles on the level of direct and indirect consumptions and on the different types of used energies, to control the global result with aggregates. Consumptions are assessed for different aspects of life: food, appliances, housing, and mobility. These assessments are made for 2030 and for 2050

  19. Eleventh symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Solid mechanics and processing: Analysis, measurement and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Eleventh Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences was held on May 3--5, 1993, at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. These proceedings include the program, list of participants, and the papers that were presented during the eight technical sessions held at this meeting. This symposium was organized into eight technical sessions: Surfaces and interfaces; thermophysical properties and processes; inelastic behavior; nondestructive characterization; multiphase flow and thermal processes; optical and other measurement systems; stochastic processes; and large systems and control. Individual projects were processed separately for the databases.

  20. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  1. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  2. Energy-saving construction. A practice book for architects, engineers and energy consultants; Energiesparendes Bauen. Ein Praxisbuch fuer Architekten, Ingenieure und Energieberater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Helmut

    2011-07-01

    Due to a rapid amendment of the Energy Saving Ordinance in 2007 and 2009, the opportunities for energy conservation in buildings come more clearly into the public consciousness. The energy consultancy increasingly is in demand. Under this aspect, the author of te book under consideration reports on the fundamentals of thermal protection, on designs for compliance with the Energy Saving Ordinance, on the appropriate plant engineering as well as on the calculation of residential buildings according to the Energy Saving Ordinance and Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources.

  3. Energy valuation methods for biofuels in South Florida: Introduction to life cycle assessment and emergy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treese II, J. Van [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Amponsah, Nana [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose -Luis [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Here, recent changes in the United States requiring the use of ethanol in gasoline for most vehicular transportation have created discussion about important issues, such as shifting the use of certain plants from food production to energy supply, related federal subsidies, effects on soil, water and atmosphere resources, tradeoffs between food production and energy production, speculation about biofuels as a possible means for energy security, potential reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or development and expansion of biofuels industry. A sustainable approach to biofuel production requires understanding inputs (i.e., energy required to carry out a process, both natural and anthropogenic) and outputs (i.e., energy produced by that process) and cover the entire process, as well as environmental considerations that can be overlooked in a more traditional approach. This publication gives an overview of two methods for evaluating energy transformations in biofuels production: (1) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (2) Emergy Assessment (EA). The LCA approach involves measurements affecting greenhouse gases (GHG), which can be linked to the energy considerations used in the EA. Although these two methods have their basis in energy or GHG evaluations, their approaches can lead to a reliable judgment regarding a biofuel process. Using these two methods can ensure that the energy components are well understood and can help to evaluate the economic environmental component of a biofuel process. In turn, using these two evaluative tools will allow for decisions about biofuel processes that favor sustainability

  4. Life cycle water use of energy production and its environmental impacts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-12-17

    The energy sector is a major user of fresh water resources in China. We investigate the life cycle water withdrawals, consumptive water use, and wastewater discharge of China's energy sectors and their water-consumption-related environmental impacts, using a mixed-unit multiregional input-output (MRIO) model and life cycle impact assessment method (LCIA) based on the Eco-indicator 99 framework. Energy production is responsible for 61.4 billion m(3) water withdrawals, 10.8 billion m(3) water consumption, and 5.0 billion m(3) wastewater discharges in China, which are equivalent to 12.3%, 4.1% and 8.3% of the national totals, respectively. The most important feature of the energy-water nexus in China is the significantly uneven spatial distribution of consumptive water use and its corresponding environmental impacts caused by the geological discrepancy among fossil fuel resources, fresh water resources, and energy demand. More than half of energy-related water withdrawals occur in the east and south coastal regions. However, the arid north and northwest regions have much larger water consumption than the water abundant south region, and bear almost all environmental damages caused by consumptive water use.

  5. Life cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in eastern U.S. with comparison to solid strip wood flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacture. Our study followed the life cycle inventory approach for prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern US and compared the results with those of solid strip wood flooring. Our study surveyed five engineered wood flooring manufacturers in the eastern US....

  6. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  7. Strategy on energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks based on life cycle cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Qiu, Zejing; Xu, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Chupeng

    2017-08-01

    Because the actual distribution network reconstruction project funds are often limited, the cost-benefit model and the decision-making method are crucial for distribution network energy saving reconstruction project. From the perspective of life cycle cost (LCC), firstly the research life cycle is determined for the energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks with multi-devices. Then, a new life cycle cost-benefit model for energy-saving reconstruction of distribution network is developed, in which the modification schemes include distribution transformers replacement, lines replacement and reactive power compensation. In the operation loss cost and maintenance cost area, the operation cost model considering the influence of load season characteristics and the maintenance cost segmental model of transformers are proposed. Finally, aiming at the highest energy saving profit per LCC, a decision-making method is developed while considering financial and technical constraints as well. The model and method are applied to a real distribution network reconstruction, and the results prove that the model and method are effective.

  8. Advances in therapeutic Fc engineering - modulation of IgG associated effector functions and serum half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG antibodies have become a major option in cancer therapy especially for the patients with advanced or metastatic cancers. Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are achieved through both its antigen binding fragment (Fab and crystallizable fragment (Fc. Fab can specifically recognize tumor associated antigen (TAA and thus modulate TAA-linked downstream signaling pathways that may lead to inhibition of tumor growth, induction of tumor apoptosis and differentiation. The Fc region can further improve mAbs’ efficacy by mediating effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and antibody dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP. Moreover, Fc is the region interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in a pH-dependent manner that can slow down IgG’s degradation and extend its serum half-life. Loss of the antibody Fc region dramatically shortens its serum half-life and weakens its anti-cancer effects. Given the essential roles that the Fc region plays in the modulation of the efficacy of mAb in cancer treatment, Fc engineering has been extensively studied in the past years. This review focuses on the recent advances in therapeutic Fc engineering that modulates its related effector functions and serum half-life. We also discuss the progress made in aglycosylated mAb development that may substantially reduce cost of manufacture but maintain similar efficacies as conventional glycosylated mAb. Finally, we highlight several Fc engineering based mAbs under clinical trials.

  9. The effect of cojugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Bykov, A.I.; Egorushkin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of control of conjugate energy consumptions on comparative efficiency of alternatives of the development of nuclear power engineering, including NPPs with thermal and fast reactors has been calculated. Economical-mathematical models of the system of nuclear power engineering including the subsystems of fuel utilization, fuel supply and conjugate industries, have been used. It has been shown, that with allowance for conjugate energy consumptions, the economic characteristics of nuclear power engineering sharply degradate when it develops only on the basis of thermal reactors. Putting the fast reactors into the system of nuclear power engineering has an important effect on reduction of conjugate energy consumptions and favors the increase of the efficiency of the system functioning during the considered time interval (60 years). Positive effects from putting breeders into operation become appreciable only on the latest estimated time intervals

  10. Repurposing Mass-produced Internal Combustion Engines Quantifying the Value and Use of Low-cost Internal Combustion Piston Engines for Modular Applications in Energy and Chemical Engineering Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Zara E.

    This thesis proposes that internal combustion piston engines can help clear the way for a transformation in the energy, chemical, and refining industries that is akin to the transition computer technology experienced with the shift from large mainframes to small personal computers and large farms of individually small, modular processing units. This thesis provides a mathematical foundation, multi-dimensional optimizations, experimental results, an engine model, and a techno-economic assessment, all working towards quantifying the value of repurposing internal combustion piston engines for new applications in modular, small-scale technologies, particularly for energy and chemical engineering systems. Many chemical engineering and power generation industries have focused on increasing individual unit sizes and centralizing production. This "bigger is better" concept makes it difficult to evolve and incorporate change. Large systems are often designed with long lifetimes, incorporate innovation slowly, and necessitate high upfront investment costs. Breaking away from this cycle is essential for promoting change, especially change happening quickly in the energy and chemical engineering industries. The ability to evolve during a system's lifetime provides a competitive advantage in a field dominated by large and often very old equipment that cannot respond to technology change. This thesis specifically highlights the value of small, mass-manufactured internal combustion piston engines retrofitted to participate in non-automotive system designs. The applications are unconventional and stem first from the observation that, when normalized by power output, internal combustion engines are one hundred times less expensive than conventional, large power plants. This cost disparity motivated a look at scaling laws to determine if scaling across both individual unit size and number of units produced would predict the two order of magnitude difference seen here. For the first

  11. Life cycle assessment ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel preparation and its usage in diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.; Wang, Z.; Novelli, G.; Benedetti, B. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-08-15

    The study described the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal-water-oil fuel (UCMWOF) and its usage in diesel engine. The production and usage of UCMCWOF and diesel oil, on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) basis, were evaluated. A comparison between the two systems shows that beside reducing of photochemical ozone creation potential and rest indicators in UCMCWOF increase. This predicates that the system of UCMCWOF is characterized by high global environmental impact, but its local impacts are lower if compared with the use of diesel and traditional coal. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Fascicles and the interfascicular matrix show decreased fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C

    2017-07-01

    Tendon is composed of rope-like fascicles bound together by interfascicular matrix (IFM). The IFM is critical for the function of energy storing tendons, facilitating sliding between fascicles to allow these tendons to cyclically stretch and recoil. This capacity is required to a lesser degree in positional tendons. We have previously demonstrated that both fascicles and IFM in energy storing tendons have superior fatigue resistance compared with positional tendons, but the effect of ageing on the fatigue properties of these different tendon subunits has not been determined. Energy storing tendons become more injury-prone with ageing, indicating reduced fatigue resistance, hence we tested the hypothesis that the decline in fatigue life with ageing in energy storing tendons would be more pronounced in the IFM than in fascicles. We further hypothesised that tendon subunit fatigue resistance would not alter with ageing in positional tendons. Fascicles and IFM from young and old energy storing and positional tendons were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing until failure, and mechanical properties were calculated. The results show that both IFM and fascicles from the SDFT exhibit a similar magnitude of reduced fatigue life with ageing. By contrast, the fatigue life of positional tendon subunits was unaffected by ageing. The age-related decline in fatigue life of tendon subunits in energy storing tendons is likely to contribute to the increased risk of injury in aged tendons. Full understanding of the mechanisms resulting in this reduced fatigue life will aid in the development of treatments and interventions to prevent age-related tendinopathy. Understanding the effect of ageing on tendon-structure function relationships is crucial for the development of effective preventative measures and treatments for age-related tendon injury. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the fatigue resistance of the interfascicular matrix decreases with ageing in energy

  13. Progression of technology education for atomic energy engineering in Tsuyama National College of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Okada, T.; Sato, M.; Sasai, Y.; Konishi, D.; Harada, K.; Taniguchi, H.; Toya, H.; Inada, T.; Sori, H.; Yagi, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the achievements of a program in which technology education is provided to cultivate practical core engineers for low-level radiation. It was made possible by means of (1) an introductory education program starting at an early age and a continuous agenda throughout college days and (2) regional collaboration. First, with regard to the early-age introductory education program and the continuous education agenda, the subjects of study related to atomic energy or nuclear engineering were reorganized as 'Subjects related to Atomic Power Education' for all grades in all departments. These subjects were included in the syllabus and the student guide book, emphasizing a continuous and consistent policy throughout seven-year college study, including the five-year system and additional two-year advanced course. Second, to promote practical education, the contents of lectures, experiments, and internships were enriched and realigned in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Okayama University and The Cyugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. In addition to the expansion and rearrangement of atomic power education, research on atomic power conducted for graduation thesis projects were undertaken to enhance the educational and research activities. In consequence, it has been estimated that there is now a total of fourteen subject areas in atomic energy technology, more than eight-hundred registered students in the department, and thirteen members of the teaching staff related to atomic energy technology. Furthermore, the 'Tsuyama model' is still being developed. This program was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (author)

  14. Progression of technology education for atomic energy engineering in Tsuyama National College of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Manabu; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Okada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the achievements of a program in which technology education is provided to cultivate practical core engineers for low-level radiation. It was made possible by means of (1) an introductory education program starting at an early age and a continuous agenda throughout college days and (2) regional collaboration. First, with regard to the early-age introductory education program and the continuous education agenda, the subjects of study related to atomic energy or nuclear engineering were reorganized as “Subjects related to Atomic Power Education” for all grades in all departments. These subjects were included in the syllabus and the student guide book, emphasizing a continuous and consistent policy throughout seven-year college study, including the five-year system and additional two-year advanced course. Second, to promote practical education, the contents of lectures, experiments, and internships were enriched and realigned in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Okayama University and The Cyugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. In addition to the expansion and rearrangement of atomic power education, research on atomic power conducted for graduation thesis projects were undertaken to enhance the educational and research activities. In consequence, it has been estimated that there is now a total of fourteen subject areas in atomic energy technology, more than eight-hundred registered students in the department, and thirteen members of the teaching staff related to atomic energy technology. Furthermore, the “Tsuyama model” is still being developed. This program was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. (author)

  15. Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us po

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Credit: Image courtesy Barbara Summey, NASA Goddard Visualization Analysis Lab, based upon data processed by Takmeng Wong, CERES Science Team, NASA Langley Research Center Satellite: Terra Sensor: CERES Image Date: 09-30-2001 VE Record ID: 11546 Description: Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us possible. But the energy cannot stay bound up in the Earth's environment forever. If it did then the Earth would be as hot as the Sun. Instead, as the surface and the atmosphere warm, they emit thermal longwave radiation, some of which escapes into space and allows the Earth to cool. This false-color image of the Earth was produced on September 30, 2001, by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows where more or less heat, in the form of longwave radiation, is emanating from the top of Earth's atmosphere. As one can see in the image, the thermal radiation leaving the oceans is fairly uniform. The blue swaths across the central Pacific represent thick clouds, the tops of which are so high they are among the coldest places on Earth. In the American Southwest, which can be seen in the upper righthand corner of the globe, there is often little cloud cover to block outgoing radiation and relatively little water to absorb solar energy. Consequently, the amount of outgoing radiation in the American Southwest exceeds that of the oceans. Also, that region was experiencing an extreme heatwave when these data were acquired. Recently, NASA researchers discovered that incoming solar radiation and outgoing thermal radiation increased in the tropics from the 1980s to the 1990s. (Click to read the press release .) They believe that the reason for the unexpected increase has to do with an apparent change in circulation patterns around the globe, which effectively reduced the amount of water vapor and cloud cover in the upper reaches of the atmosphere

  16. !Claro, se puede! Critical resilience: A critical race perspective on resilience in the baccalaureate achievement of Latino/a engineering and life science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gary Anthony

    An under representation of Latino/as in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) still persists. In Rising Above the Gathering Storm, the National Academies sounded an alarm in response to data indicating a "troubling decline" in the number of U.S. citizens trained to become scientists and engineers at a time when the number of technical jobs is outpacing the rate of the U.S. workforce. The shrinking technical talent pipeline threatens the country's future in technology innovation, energy alternatives, national security, and education. This study purported to contextualize resilience and discern the cultural capital and persistence behaviors of STEM Latino/a students succeeding in two adverse environments---higher education and science and engineering. Through a critical race perspective the student cuentos were thematically analyzed. Student narratives were then triangulated with the narrative of the researcher---a Mexican American, first-generation college student, who pursued a life science bachelor's degree through the two institutions in this study. The theoretical framework was guided by Critical Race Theory, Resiliency, Persistence Theory, and Social Construction of Technology. The study consisted of a pilot survey and narrative inquiry. The survey contained pilot questions on the use and perception of information technologies in STEM education. The narrative inquiry was guided by critical race that enabled both positionality and storytelling through narratives and counter-narratives. Twenty-two Latino/a graduating seniors majoring in the biological sciences or engineering/engineering technology at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) and a Predominantly-White Institution (PWI) in Texas were recruited. The narratives of these students were collected through one-time, semi-structured interviews during the last semester of their studies. Results from the study indicate that these Latino/a STEM students are conscious of their ethnicity

  17. Energy consumption during the building life cycle – influence of investment activities and operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytlačil Dalibor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the dynamic model of maintenance and investments of a building structure and HVAC systems. The aim of the research is finding the time dependent curve for energy consumption and also the cash flow that depends on the investments to energy saving arrangements and operations. The solution is based on the system dynamics method. The method makes possible to interconnect technical and economic parts of the problem. The main parameter in the model is the energy consumption in the building per floor square meter and year. This parameter is influenced by a deterioration of the building structure and the components of the active elements. The investments realized with the aim to decrease the energy consumption is another influence. The example of the computer simulation of the building parameters during the life cycle is presented in the paper.

  18. Energy use and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of drones for commercial package delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Samaras, Constantine; O'Neill, Emma R; Lubers, Alia; Mitchell, Alexandra S; Ceperley, Daniel

    2018-02-13

    The use of automated, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver commercial packages is poised to become a new industry, significantly shifting energy use in the freight sector. Here we find the current practical range of multi-copters to be about 4 km with current battery technology, requiring a new network of urban warehouses or waystations as support. We show that, although drones consume less energy per package-km than delivery trucks, the additional warehouse energy required and the longer distances traveled by drones per package greatly increase the life-cycle impacts. Still, in most cases examined, the impacts of package delivery by small drone are lower than ground-based delivery. Results suggest that, if carefully deployed, drone-based delivery could reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy use in the freight sector. To realize the environmental benefits of drone delivery, regulators and firms should focus on minimizing extra warehousing and limiting the size of drones.

  19. Simplified life cycle assessment models: methodological framework and applications to energy pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padey, Pierryves

    2013-01-01

    The energy transition debate is a key issue for today and the coming years. One of the challenges is to limit the environmental impacts of electricity production. Decision support tools, sufficiently accurate, simple to use, accounting for environmental aspects and favoring future energetic choices, must be implemented. However, the environmental assessment of the energy pathways is complex, and it means considering a two levels characterization. The 'energy pathway' is the first level and corresponds to its environmental distribution, to compare overall pathways. The 'system pathway' is the 2. level and compares environmental impacts of systems within each pathway. We have devised a generic methodology covering both necessary characterization levels by estimating the energy pathways environmental profiles while allowing a simple comparison of its systems environmental impacts. This methodology is based on the definition of a parameterized Life Cycle Assessment model and considers, through a Global Sensitivity Analysis, the environmental impacts of a large sample of systems representative of an energy pathway. As a second step, this methodology defines simplified models based on few key parameters identified as inducing the largest variability in the energy pathway environmental impacts. These models assess in a simple way the systems environmental impacts, avoiding any complex LCAs. This reduction methodology has been applied to the onshore wind power energy pathway in Europe and the photovoltaic energy pathway in France. (author)

  20. Life cycle energy and environmental analysis of a microgrid power pavilion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, David V.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Baron, Scott G.

    2006-01-01

    Microgrids - generating systems incorporating multiple distributed generator sets linked together to provide local electricity and heat - are one possible alterative to the existing centralized energy system. Potential advantages of microgrids include flexibility in fuel supply options, the ability to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, and energy efficiency improvements through combined heat and power (CHP) applications. As a case study in microgrid performance, this analysis uses a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy and emissions performance of the NextEnergy microgrid Power Pavilion in Detroit, Michigan and a reference conventional system. The microgrid includes generator sets fueled by solar energy, hydrogen, and natural gas. Hydrogen fuel is sourced from both a natural gas steam reforming operation and as a by-product of a chlorine production operation. The chlorine plant receives electricity exclusively from a hydropower generating station. Results indicate that the use of this microgrid offers a total energy reduction potential of up to 38%, while reductions in non-renewable energy use could reach 51%. Similarly, emissions of CO 2 , a key global warming gas, can be reduced by as much as 60% relative to conventional heat and power systems. Hydrogen fuels are shown to provide a net energy and emissions benefit relative to natural gas only when sourced primarily from the chlorine plant. (Author)