WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy input requirements

  1. Substantial reductions of input energy and peak power requirements in targets for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two ways of reducing the requirements of the heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target implosion are described. Compared to estimates of target gain not using these methods, the target input energy and peak power may be reduced by about a factor of two with the use of the hybrid-implosion concept. Another factor of two reduction in input energy may be obtained with the use of spin-polarized DT fuel in the ICF target

  2. Input-output analysis of energy requirements for short rotation, intensive culture, woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, C.H.; Grado, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A production model for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) plantations was developed to determine the energy and financial cost of woody biomass. The model was based on hybrid poplars planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha -1 , with average annual growth forecast at 16 metric tonne, oven dry (mg(OD)). Energy and financial analyses showed preharvest cost 4381 megajoules (MJ) Mg -1 (OD) and $16 (US) Mg -1 (OD). Harvesting and transportation requirements increased the total costs 6130 MJ Mg -1 (OD) and $39 Mg -1 (OD) for the delivered material. On an energy cost basis, the principal input was land, whereas on a financial basis, costs were more uniformly distributed among equipment, land, labor, and materials and fuel

  3. Droplet size characteristics and energy input requirements of emulsions formed using high-intensity-pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Sisson, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental methods have been developed to measure droplet size characteristics and energy inputs associated with the rupture of aqueous droplets by high-intensity-pulsed electric fields. The combination of in situ microscope optics and high-speed video cameras allows reliable observation of liquid droplets down to 0.5 μm in size. Videotapes of electric-field-created emulsions reveal that average droplet sizes of less than 5 μm are easily obtained in such systems. Analysis of the energy inputs into the fluids indicates that the electric field method requires less than 1% of the energy required from mechanical agitation to create comparable droplet sizes. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. MARS code manual volume II: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Kyung Doo; Bae, Sung Won; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung Wook; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2010-02-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-Of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS3.1. MARS3.1 development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  5. The direct and indirect household energy requirements in the Republic of Korea from 1980 to 2000 - An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hi-Chun; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2007-01-01

    As energy conservation can be realized through changes in the composition of goods and services consumed, there is a need to assess indirect and total household energy requirements. The Korean household sector was responsible for about 52% of the national primary energy requirement in the period from 1980 to 2000. Of this total, more than 60% of household energy requirement was indirect. Thus, not only direct but also indirect household energy requirement should be the target of energy conservation policies. Electricity became the main fuel in household energy use in 2000. Households consume more and more electricity intensive goods and services, a sign of increasing living standards. Increases in household consumption expenditure were responsible for a relatively high growth of energy consumption. Switching to consumption of less energy intensive products and decrease in energy intensities of products in 1990s contributed substantially to reduce the increase in the total household energy requirement. A future Korean study should apply a hybrid method as to reduce errors occurred by using uniform (average) prices in constructing energy input-output tables and as to make energy intensities of different years more comparable. (author)

  6. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  7. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  8. Mars 2.2 code manual: input requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kyung Doo; Lee, Seung Wook; Bae, Sung Won

    2003-07-01

    Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) conceived and started the development of MARS code with the main objective of producing a state-of-the-art realistic thermal hydraulic systems analysis code with multi-dimensional analysis capability. MARS achieves this objective by very tightly integrating the one dimensional RELAP5/MOD3 with the multi-dimensional COBRA-TF codes. The method of integration of the two codes is based on the dynamic link library techniques, and the system pressure equation matrices of both codes are implicitly integrated and solved simultaneously. In addition, the Equation-of-State (EOS) for the light water was unified by replacing the EOS of COBRA-TF by that of the RELAP5. This input manual provides a complete list of input required to run MARS. The manual is divided largely into two parts, namely, the one-dimensional part and the multi-dimensional part. The inputs for auxiliary parts such as minor edit requests and graph formatting inputs are shared by the two parts and as such mixed input is possible. The overall structure of the input is modeled on the structure of the RELAP5 and as such the layout of the manual is very similar to that of the RELAP. This similitude to RELAP5 input is intentional as this input scheme will allow minimum modification between the inputs of RELAP5 and MARS. MARS development team would like to express its appreciation to the RELAP5 Development Team and the USNRC for making this manual possible

  9. Energy Input Flux in the Global Quiet-Sun Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Cormack, Cecilia; Vásquez, Alberto M.; López Fuentes, Marcelo; Nuevo, Federico A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, CC 67—Suc 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering (CLaSP), University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present first results of a novel technique that provides, for the first time, constraints on the energy input flux at the coronal base ( r ∼ 1.025 R {sub ⊙}) of the quiet Sun at a global scale. By combining differential emission measure tomography of EUV images, with global models of the coronal magnetic field, we estimate the energy input flux at the coronal base that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. The technique is described in detail and first applied to data provided by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument, on board the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, for two solar rotations with different levels of activity. Our analysis indicates that the typical energy input flux at the coronal base of magnetic loops in the quiet Sun is in the range ∼0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 5} (erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), depending on the structure size and level of activity. A large fraction of this energy input, or even its totality, could be accounted for by Alfvén waves, as shown by recent independent observational estimates derived from determinations of the non-thermal broadening of spectral lines in the coronal base of quiet-Sun regions. This new tomography product will be useful for the validation of coronal heating models in magnetohydrodinamic simulations of the global corona.

  10. Fishing input requirements of artisanal fishers in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts towards increase in fish production through artisanal fishery can be achieved by making needed inputs available. Fishing requirements of artisanal fishers in coastal communities of Ondo State, Nigeria were studied. Data were obtained from two hundred and sixteen artisans using multistage random sampling ...

  11. Reducing external speedup requirements for input-queued crossbars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert

    2005-01-01

    performance degradation. This implies, that the required bandwidth between port card and switch card is 2 times the actual port speed, adding to cost and complexity. To reduce this bandwidth, a modified architecture is proposed that introduces a small amount of input and output memory on the switch card chip...

  12. KAJIAN INPUT ENERGI PADA BUDIDAYA PADI METODE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION Studies on Energy Input in System of Rice Intensification Method of Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwantana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available System of Rice Intensification (SRI is a rice cultivation method that intensively control and manage macro and micro nutrients as well as irrigation. This paper quantifies and compares the energy uses of SRI and conventional rice cultiva- tion systems. The study was conducted at some SRI’s experimental plots in the districts of Sleman, Kulonprogo, and Bantul, the province of Yogyakarta. The calculation of the energy was based on the farmers’ work schedule, the time required for each operation, the number of laborers, machines, tools, fuel, and all materials and inputs used. The result shows that SRI method consumed 35% less energy to conventional rice cultivation. Energy inputs from seed, water, fertilizer and pesticide were significantly reduces. However, there was higher input of human energy due to compost- ing, land preparation and weeding operations. The specific energy of SRI method was 1.96 MJ ha-1 lower than conven- tional method of 4.43 MJ ha-1. In the SRI method, 56.2 % of energy consumed was classified as direct energy and 43.8% was indirect energy. The SRI method used 61.9 % of renewable energy and 38.1 % of non-renewable energy. The working efficiency in composting and weeding operations should be improved in perspective of machine and tools to reduce the use of human energy. ABSTRAK System of Rice Intensification (SRI, merupakan suatu metode budidaya padi secara intensif dengan pengendalian unsur-unsur hara makro dan mikro disertai pengendalian dan pengaturan kebutuhan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan energi dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada budidaya padi SRI. Pe- nelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Kulonprogo, dan Bantul, Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengamatan dilakukan pada plot-plot percobaan budidaya padi SRI dengan melakukan audit seluruh input energi selama proses budidaya dan dikomparasikan dengan input energi pada budidaya padi cara konvensional. Hasil

  13. MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY QUALITY ON THE TRACTION SUBSTATION INPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Gryb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the implementation of measures to maintain the quality of the energy industrial enterprises have to spend a significant material and monetary assets. In this regard, significant is the feasibility study of the allocation of such funds and, primarily, the determination of the economic damage arising from low quality of electricity. The reliability of the electricity metering system, relay protection and automation of modern digital substations depends on the quality of electrical energy. At the present time to improve the reliability of the substation operation it is necessary to monitor indicators of quality of electric energy, allowing you to take organizational and technical solutions for their improvement. Monitoring the power quality at the input traction substation has shown that indicators such as the coefficient of the n-th harmonic component of the voltage does not meet the standards GOST 13109-97. The source of higher harmonics is a voltage Converter used on the locomotive. To eliminate higher harmonics in the supply network for traction substations will need to install power filters. Today, the USB-analyzer of power quality «Digital measurement system of power quality» type of CSICE of accuracy class 0.2. Work energy requires reliable and quality electricity supply to consumers. The new model of balancing energy market are bilateral contracts. The main task of this market, it ensure the stable and reliable operation of the unified energy system of Ukraine, that is, transmission and supply of electricity of appropriate quality.

  14. Direct energy inputs to the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.

  15. Cumulative input/output balance of a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant. Comparison of construction material requirements, operating energy expenditure, and the requirement of auxiliary materials in comparison with waste combustion; Kumulative Bilanzierung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung - Baumaterialien und betrieblicher Energie- und Hilfsstoffaufwand im Vergleich zur Muellverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallmann, R.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen (Germany); Vogtmann, H. [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Regionalentwicklung und Landwirtschaft, Kassel (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The study strikes a cumulative input/output balance of an existing waste conditioning plant considering not only operating energy demand but also the required construction materials for erecting the plant. In operation since 1996, the waste conditioning plant is entirely state of the art; hence the data obtained are up to date. The results are compared with relevant results for a waste processing plant and evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung erfolgt eine kumulative Bilanzierung einer bestehenden MBA-Anlage, wobei neben den betrieblichen Energieaufwendungen auch die Baumaterialien zur Herstellung der Anlage beruecksichtigt werden. Die seit 1996 in Betrieb befindliche Abfallbehandlungsanlage entspricht weitestgehend dem Stand der Technik der MBA, wodurch die Aktualitaet der Daten gegeben ist. Die Ergebnisse der Bilanzierung werden im Vergleich zu einer MVA dargestellt und bewertet. (orig.)

  16. Microbial Communities Are Well Adapted to Disturbances in Energy Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Nuria; Huber, Julie A; Vallino, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Although microbial systems are well suited for studying concepts in ecological theory, little is known about how microbial communities respond to long-term periodic perturbations beyond diel oscillations. Taking advantage of an ongoing microcosm experiment, we studied how methanotrophic microbial communities adapted to disturbances in energy input over a 20-day cycle period. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes together with quantification of microbial abundance and ecosystem function were used to explore the long-term dynamics (510 days) of methanotrophic communities under continuous versus cyclic chemical energy supply. We observed that microbial communities appeared inherently well adapted to disturbances in energy input and that changes in community structure in both treatments were more dependent on internal dynamics than on external forcing. The results also showed that the rare biosphere was critical to seeding the internal community dynamics, perhaps due to cross-feeding or other strategies. We conclude that in our experimental system, internal feedbacks were more important than external drivers in shaping the community dynamics over time, suggesting that ecosystems can maintain their function despite inherently unstable community dynamics. IMPORTANCE Within the broader ecological context, biological communities are often viewed as stable and as only experiencing succession or replacement when subject to external perturbations, such as changes in food availability or the introduction of exotic species. Our findings indicate that microbial communities can exhibit strong internal dynamics that may be more important in shaping community succession than external drivers. Dynamic "unstable" communities may be important for ecosystem functional stability, with rare organisms playing an important role in community restructuring. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for internal community dynamics will certainly be required for understanding and manipulating

  17. Energy Consumptions of Text Input Methods on Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Obison, Henry; Ajuorah, Chiagozie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computing devices, in particular smartphones are powered from Lithium-ion batteries, which are limited in capacity. With the increasing popularity of mobile systems, various text input methods have been developed to improve user experience and performance. Briefly, text input method is a user interface that can be used to compose an electronic mail, configure mobile Virtual Private Network, and carryout bank transactions and online purchases. Efficient energy management in these system...

  18. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  19. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  20. Energy inputs and outputs in a chickpea production system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important grain legumes which traditionally cultivated in marginal areas and saline soils. In this study, chickpea production in Kurdistan, Iran and the energy equivalences of input used in production were investigated. The aims of this study were to determine the amount of ...

  1. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  2. Input-output analysis for installing renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Y.; Nakata, T.

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy facilities have been installed in many regions, because of their possibility to be an alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating global warming. Besides the profitability of renewable energy businesses, indirect economic effects of installing renewable energy facilities should be clarified. This study examines the possibility that the renewable energy facilities give renewed impetus to regional economic progress. The economic effects are analysed with input-output techniques in a rural area in Japan. As a consequence, both positive and negative effects on the rural economy are derived. In addition, we will focus on the changes in sectors such as construction, business services, banking, etc. as a result of economic activities for renewable systems. The business benefits of renewable energy system are discussed. (author)

  3. Fertilizer consumption and energy input for 16 crops in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenumey, Sheila E.; Capel, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Fertilizer use by U.S. agriculture has increased over the past few decades. The production and transportation of fertilizers (nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P; potassium, K) are energy intensive. In general, about a third of the total energy input to crop production goes to the production of fertilizers, one-third to mechanization, and one-third to other inputs including labor, transportation, pesticides, and electricity. For some crops, fertilizer is the largest proportion of total energy inputs. Energy required for the production and transportation of fertilizers, as a percentage of total energy input, was determined for 16 crops in the U.S. to be: 19–60% for seven grains, 10–41% for two oilseeds, 25% for potatoes, 12–30% for three vegetables, 2–23% for two fruits, and 3% for dry beans. The harvested-area weighted-average of the fraction of crop fertilizer energy to the total input energy was 28%. The current sources of fertilizers for U.S. agriculture are dependent on imports, availability of natural gas, or limited mineral resources. Given these dependencies plus the high energy costs for fertilizers, an integrated approach for their efficient and sustainable use is needed that will simultaneously maintain or increase crop yields and food quality while decreasing adverse impacts on the environment.

  4. The energy input in the construction and operation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.; Niehaus, F.; Rath-Nagel, S.; Voss, A.

    1975-08-01

    The production of electric energy requires energy investments not only for direct fuel input but for the construction of power plants and for the extraction of primary energy fuels as well. When the overall energy balance of energy converting systems has to be assessed these energetic investments must be included. In the present investigation the overall energy input of different nuclear power plant types (comprising the nuclear fuel cycle) is computed and compared with a coal-fired plant. Moreover a time-dependent energy balance for the expansion of nuclear capacity according to the existing nuclear programs is calculated. Even applying only Light Water Reactors the nuclear expansion program (with an installed capacity of 50 GWsub(el) in 1985 and 170 GWsub(el) in 2000) would result in an accumulated fossil fuel saving of approximately the tenfold amount of primary energy consumed in the Federal Republic of Germany yearly today. (orig.) [de

  5. Energy analysis handbook. CAC document 214. [Combining process analysis with input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, C. W.; Penner, P. S.; Pilati, D. A.

    1976-10-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the energy required, directly and indirectly, to produce all types of goods and services. Procedures for combining process analysis with input-output analysis are described. This enables the analyst to focus data acquisition cost-effectively, and to achieve a specified degree of accuracy in the results. The report presents sample calculations and provides the tables and charts needed to perform most energy cost calculations, including the cost of systems for producing or conserving energy.

  6. Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Input-output modeling of primary energy and greenhouse gas embodiments in goods and services is a useful technique for designing greenhouse gas abatement policies. The present paper describes direct and indirect primary energy and greenhouse gas requirements for a given set of Australian final consumption. It considers sectoral disparities in energy prices, capital formation and international trade flows and it accounts for embodiments in the Gross National Expenditure as well as the Gross Domestic Product. Primary energy and greenhouse gas intensities in terms of MJ/$ and kg CO 2 -e/$ are reported, as well as national balance of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  7. Energy and the non-energy inputs substitution: evidence for Italy, Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, J.; Vega-Cervera, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The factor demand is modeled for Italy, Portugal and Spain. We estimated a translog cost function with capital, labor and energy over the 1980-1996 period. Our objective regarding energy as input was two-fold: on the one hand, to verify its incorporation as a productive factor, and, on the other, to observe its degree of substitutability with the other classical factors, given the high level of energy dependency of these countries. Using a separability test and confidence intervals for the Allen and price elasticities, our estimates confirmed both the nonseparability of the energy input and the existence of consistent substitution between energy and labor only for Italy. (author)

  8. Finnish industry's energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Industry uses around half of the electricity consumed in Finland. In 1999, this amounted to 42.3 TWh and 420 PJ of fuel. Despite the continual improvements that have been made in energy efficiency, energy needs look set to continue growing at nearly 2% a year. Finnish industrial output rose by some 5.5% in 1999. In energy-intensive sectors such as pulp and paper, output rose by 3.4%, in the metal industry by 4%, and in the chemical industry by 3.1%. Growth across Finnish industry is largely focused on the electrical and electronics industries, however, where growth last year was 24.3% The Finnish forest products industry used a total of 26.1 TWh of electricity last year, up 1% on 1998. This small increase was the result of the industry's lower-than-average operating rate in the early part of the year The metal industry used 7.2 TWh of electricity, an increase of 5.8% on 1998. Usage in the chemical industry rose by 2% to 5.2 TWh. Usage by the rest of industry totalled 3.8 TWh, up 2.3% on 1998. All in all, industry's use of electricity rose by 2% in 1999 to 42,3 TWh. Increased demand on industry's main markets in Europe will serve to boost industrial output and export growth this year. This increased demand will be particularly felt in energy-intensive industries in the shape of an increased demand for electricity. Overall, electricity demand is expected to grow by 3% this year, 1% more than industry's longterm projected electricity usage growth figure of 2%. The structure of industry's fuel use in Finland has changed significantly over the last 25 years. Oil, for example, now accounts for only some 10% of fuel use compared to the 40% typical around the time of the first oil crisis. Oil has been replaced by biofuels, peat, and natural gas. The pulp and paper industry is the largest industrial user of renewable energy sources in Finland, and uses wood-related fuels to cover nearly 70% of its fuel needs

  9. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  10. Hvede, rug og triticale til energi - input, udbytte og kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2000-01-01

    Yield and quality of wheat, rye or triticale for energy purposes have been evaluated in field trials. Triticale and rye had a higher biomass production than wheat in spite of a lower input of nitrogen. The straw fraction contained more chloride, potassium and sodium than the grain fraction...... of chloride and sulphur in the straw as well as content of potassium, sodium and ash may be reduced due to precipitation before harvest........ These minerals may lead to corrosion processes, ash slagging and fouling. The grain fraction contained more sulphur and nitrogen, which may lead to emission of SO2 and NOx. Fertilizers containing chloride and sulphur, may lead to an increased content of chloride and sulphur in the straw fraction. Content...

  11. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  12. Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Afshin; Rajabi, M.H.; Zeinali, E.; Soltani, Elias

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze energy use and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in various wheat production scenarios in north eastern Iran and to identify measures to reduce energy use and GHG emissions. Three high-input, a low-input, a better crop management and a usual production scenarios were included. All activities and production processes were monitored and recorded. Averages of total energy input and output were 15.58 and 94.4 GJ ha −1 , respectively. Average across scenarios, GHG emissions of 1137 kg CO 2 -eq ha −1 and 291 kg CO 2 -eq t −1 were estimated. The key factors relating to energy use and GHG emissions were seedbed preparation and sowing and applications of nitrogen fertilizer. The better crop management production scenario required 38% lower nitrogen fertilizer (and 33% lower total fertilizer), consumed 11% less input energy and resulted in 33% more grain yield and output energy compared to the usual production scenario. It also resulted in 20% less GHG emissions per unit field area and 40% less GHG emissions per ton of grain. It was concluded that this scenario was the cleaner production scenario in terms of energy use and GHG emissions. Measures of improvement in energy use and GHG emission were identified. - Highlights: ► Wheat production scenarios were evaluated for energy use and greenhouse gases emission. ► A better crop management production scenario was the cleaner production scenario. ► Measures to reduce energy use and greenhouse gases emission were identified

  13. Comparison of energy inputs in glasshouse double crop (fall and summer crops) tomato production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Ceylan, R. Figen; Kizilay, Hatice [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07070 (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    The study examines energy use patterns and the relationship between energy inputs and yield for double crop (fall and summer) glasshouse tomato production in Antalya province, where is one of the most important greenhouse centres in Turkey. The data of the study was retrieved from 37 fall and 25 summer glasshouse tomato producers via face to face survey in 2007. The research findings revealed energy use values for inputs such as manure, electricity, chemical fertilizer and fuel. While the average yield per hectare is 25025.4 kg for enterprises involved in tomato production in fall, it is 22392.9 kg for summer production. The overall energy consumption is higher in fall production with 81362.2 MJ ha{sup -1} in comparison to summer production 63023.2 MJ ha{sup -1}. In addition, the specific energy requirement is 3521.2 MJ t{sup -1} and 2814.4 MJ t{sup -1} for fall and summer production in order and the energy efficiency was found out to be 0.31 kg MJ{sup -1} and 0.36 kg MJ{sup -1} respectively. Finally, the energy relationship was tested using the production relationship. The findings indicated that direct energy sources are effective in tomato yield for both of the two seasons. More clearly, the most significant energy input was electrical energy for summer production and a combination of electrical energy, human power and machinery for fall production. Yet, excess and unconscious use of chemical ingredients in glasshouse tomato production was confirmed as energy derived from chemical drugs leaded a declination in the yield for fall season. Therefore, the paper revealed energy relationship for double crop glasshouse tomato production in Antalya, being a reference for similar production methodologies. (author)

  14. Low-energy ion outflow modulated by the solar wind energy input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wei, Yong; Andre, Mats; Eriksson, Anders; Haaland, Stein; Kronberg, Elena; Nilsson, Hans; Maes, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Due to the spacecraft charging issue, it has been difficult to measure low-energy ions of ionospheric origin in the magnetosphere. A recent study taking advantage of the spacecraft electric potential has found that the previously 'hidden' low-energy ions is dominant in the magnetosphere. This comprehensive dataset of low-energy ions allows us to study the relationship between the ionospheric outflow and energy input from the solar wind (ɛ). In this study, we discuss the ratios of the solar wind energy input to the energy of the ionospheric outflow. We show that the ɛ controls the ionospheric outflow when the ɛ is high, while the ionospheric outflow does not systematically change with the ɛ when the ɛ is low.

  15. Energy embodied in the international trade of China. An energy input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Guo, Ju'e; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation. (author)

  16. The Gift Code User Manual. Volume I. Introduction and Input Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ‘TII~ GIFT CODE USER MANUAL; VOLUME 1. INTRODUCTION AND INPUT REQUIREMENTS FINAL 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER ?. AuTHOR(#) 8...reverua side if neceaeary and identify by block number] (k St) The GIFT code is a FORTRANcomputerprogram. The basic input to the GIFT ode is data called

  17. Canadian energy standards : residential energy code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K. [SAR Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A survey of residential energy code requirements was discussed. New housing is approximately 13 per cent more efficient than housing built 15 years ago, and more stringent energy efficiency requirements in building codes have contributed to decreased energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a survey of residential energy codes across Canada has determined that explicit demands for energy efficiency are currently only present in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. The survey evaluated more than 4300 single-detached homes built between 2000 and 2005 using data from the EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) database. House area, volume, airtightness and construction characteristics were reviewed to create archetypes for 8 geographic areas. The survey indicated that in Quebec and the Maritimes, 90 per cent of houses comply with ventilation system requirements of the National Building Code, while compliance in the rest of Canada is much lower. Heat recovery ventilation use is predominant in the Atlantic provinces. Direct-vent or condensing furnaces constitute the majority of installed systems in provinces where natural gas is the primary space heating fuel. Details of Insulation levels for walls, double-glazed windows, and building code insulation standards were also reviewed. It was concluded that if R-2000 levels of energy efficiency were applied, total average energy consumption would be reduced by 36 per cent in Canada. 2 tabs.

  18. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  19. Energy requirement of some energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.F.; Hemming, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The energy requirements for the sources of energy under examination are expressed as the fraction of total energy consumed in the production of a unit of gross output. Clearly there are vast differences between the energy requirements of these sources of fuels. Using energy analysis it is possible to indicate points of futility where no net energy is produced (i.e. Xsub(f) = 1). For North Sea oil fields using current technology, this appears to occur at a field size of 100,000-200,000 tons of recoverable reserves of oil. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting, the outer limit is at a grade of about 5 gal/ton. For uranium ores used to fuel a burner reactor, the cut-off grade was found to be of the order of 20 ppm. However, it should be remembered that at Xsub(f) = 1, there is no net output and the price of the fuel would be infinite. Because of payments to labour and capital, the upper limit of economic viability may well occur at values of Xsub(f) from 0.1 to 0.2. Thus uranium ores of a grade of 100 ppm U 3 O 8 or less may not be ecomically viable using current burner reactors and this in turn implies an upper bound for the total thermal reactor capacity. For oil shales exploited using above-ground retorting and room-and-pillar mining 15-20 gal/ton shale may represent the upper limit of economic viability, depending on the efficiency that can be achieved in a commercial-scale retort

  20. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Omid, Mahmoud [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for greenhouse cucumber production. For this purpose, the data on 43 cucumber production greenhouses in the Tehran province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that a total energy input of 148836.76 MJ ha{sup -1} was consumed for cucumber production. Diesel fuel (with 41.94%) and chemical fertilizers (with 19.69%) were amongst the highest energy inputs for cucumber production. The energy productivity was estimated as 0.80 kg MJ{sup -1}. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 0.64. Results indicate 10.93% and 89.07% of total energy input was in renewable and non-renewable forms, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for fertilizers and seeds energies) was significant. The human labour energy had the highest impact (0.35) among the other inputs in greenhouse cucumber production. Econometric analysis indicated that the total cost of production for one hectare of cucumber production was around 33425.70$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. (author)

  1. Requirements for an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conant, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central issue facing the US today lies in the rise of oil imports. No supergiant (5 billion barrels) oil discoveries have been made in the US. Production from existing fields is declining. The 1985-86 oil price collapse from $26 to less than $15 per barrel had a disastrous effect on the budgets of smaller oil companies which do most of the exploring, and on the service industry. Budgets for overseas exploration has been generally sustained. Oil prices are not expected to sustain domestic exploration. Gulf oil sources will, in the next five years, supply some 75 percent of all oil in international trade. Without an energy policy, involvement in Middle East oil will grow exponentially, as will the needs of others for Gulf oil. The natural gas situation is different, with a spare producing capacity of one trillion cubic feet this year, which could double next year. Natural gas deregulation has created an unbelievable mess in the requirements of producers/suppliers and purchasers to have dependable business arrangements. Coal is plentiful and will be until the end of time. Public opposition to emission problems and the greenhouse effect are an obstacle to greater use of coal. The nuclear option may be dead, with no new orders since 1978. Statistics are provided on proven world reserves of conventional crude oil, recoverable heavy oils, tar sands, and shale oil; which indicates for the long term an ability to transform the Geopolitics of oil away from the middle east. Energy options require energy R ampersand D, use of Alaskan gas, conservation and efficiency in energy use, strategic reserves, close energy relations with allies, and a government-industry link which insures meeting the US oil needs from the Western Hemisphere

  2. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  3. Investigation of energy inputs for peach production using sensitivity analysis in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royan, Mahsa; Khojastehpour, Mehdi; Emadi, Bagher; Mobtaker, Hassan Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy use and inputs–output relationship in peach production. ► Total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 . ► Diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. ► Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 0.55 and 0.29 kg MJ −1 . ► The machinery energy was the most significant input affecting the output level. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the energy balance between the energy inputs and yield in peach production in Golestan province of Iran as a case study. The results showed that total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 where the diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. The direct energy shared about (50.98%) whereas the indirect energy did (49.02%). Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were 0.55, 0.29 kg MJ −1 , 3.41 MJ kg −1 and −16642.03 MJ ha −1 , respectively. Econometric assessment results revealed that the energy inputs of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure had significant influence on the yield. The impact of human labor energy (1.36) was found as the highest among the other input parameters. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the MPP value of energy inputs was between −2.8 and 11.31. Also the MPP value of human labor was the highest, followed by diesel fuel and farm yard manure energy inputs, respectively.

  4. Input data requirements for performance modelling and monitoring of photovoltaic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Anamaria Florina; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates the input data requirements in the context of performance modeling of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis focuses on the PVWatts performance model, well suited for on-line performance monitoring of PV strings, due to its low number of parameters and high......, modelling the performance of the PV modules at high irradiances requires a dataset of only a few hundred samples in order to obtain a power estimation accuracy of ~1-2\\%....

  5. Energy prices and the post oil/energy crisis Brazilian inflation: an input-output study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Resende, M.deM.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the implications of the OPEC-induced severalfold increase in the international price of oil for average and sectoral domestic prices in Brazil, a large oil-importing open developing economy. Rather than using a Keynesian model (focusing on the universal characteristics of an economy), the study makes use of an open-price input-output model (capturing the structural characteristics of the Brazilian economy). The first three chapters, descriptive in nature, place in perspective the following three, which detail the model and the empirical results. The main conclusion is that, despite the significant increase observed in the post-crisis period, the relative percentage contribution of primary energy to wholesale inflation in Brazil is still relatively minor. A conservative estimate suggests that, in the years of substantial acceleration (1974 and 1979), approximately 15% of the wholesale inflation was due to energy (basically crude oil and oil derivatives). Though such low estimates are partly due to the limitations and assumptions underlying input-output analysis, it seems that the acceleration of inflation is related to more than cost increases originating in energy prices. It also seems to be related to agricultural and labor prices, as well as to the government's decision to abruptly and inopportunely raise several important product prices.

  6. Energy input in conventional and organic paddy rice production in Missouri and Italy: A comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Johnson, Thomas G; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The expected decline in availability of fossil fuels over the next several decades, either because of resource depletion or because of limits on carbon emissions, is leading to a keen interest in finding more sustainable energy sources. For this reason, it is useful to assess the energy footprint of alternative agricultural systems for crops and animal production and to identify potential transition scenarios to systems largely based on renewable energy. The present work aims to assess for the first time a comparative analysis of energy inputs in rice production systems in Southern Europe (Piemonte, Italy) and in North America (Missouri, USA). A total of twelve rice farms, either conventional or organic, were selected, collecting detailed data on direct (fuel and electricity) and indirect (machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds) energy inputs. While energy input of conventional farms ranged from 3.5 to 7 MJ/kg paddy rice, organic farming could reduce inputs by more than 50% with only 8% yield decrease. A significant reduction in fuel or electricity use can be achieved also with no till and surface irrigation. The use of renewable energy sources, as already practiced by some farms, could more than cover their electrical energy requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  8. Energy inputs for production of wheat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The energetics of the wheat crop on rainfed farms have been worked out and compared with the farms having canal and tube well irrigation. A survey was conducted to investigate the pattern of energy used in production of wheat. The information was recorded from selected farms through biweekly visits. Results indicated that the farmers on bullock operated farms used more family labour than tractor operated farms, whereas, farmers on tractor operated farms used more casual labour. Bullocks were main source of power for all farms operations on bullock operated farms, however, threshing was performed with tractor driven threshers on almost all farms. Farmers on tube well irrigated farms used maximum energy to irrigate their crop.(author)

  9. Residential-commercial energy input estimation based on genetic algorithm (GA) approaches: an application of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.K.; Canyurt, O.E.; Hepbasli, A.; Utlu, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to develop the energy input estimation equations for the residential-commercial sector (RCS) in order to estimate the future projections based on genetic algorithm (GA) notion and to examine the effect of the design parameters on the energy input of the sector. For this purpose, the Turkish RCS is given as an example. The GA Energy Input Estimation Model (GAEIEM) is used to estimate Turkey's future residential-commercial energy input demand based on gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export, house production, cement production and basic house appliances consumption figures. It may be concluded that the three various forms of models proposed here can be used as an alternative solution and estimation techniques to available estimation techniques. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies. (author)

  10. Energy requirement and economic analysis of citrus production in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan E-mail: bozkan@akdeniz.edu.tr; Akcaoz, Handan; Karadeniz, Feyza

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy requirements of the inputs and output in citrus production in the Antalya province of Turkey. Data for the production of citrus fruits (orange, lemon and mandarin) were collected from 105 citrus farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The research results revealed that lemon production was the most energy intensive among the three fruits investigated. The energy input of chemical fertilizer (49.68%), mainly nitrogen, has the biggest share in the total energy inputs followed by Diesel (30.79%). The lemon production consumed a total of 62 977.87 MJ/ha followed by orange and mandarin with 60 949.69 and 48 838.17 MJ/ha, respectively. The energy ratios for orange, mandarin and lemon were estimated to be 1.25, 1.17 and 1.06, respectively. On average, the non-renewable form of energy input was 95.90% of the total energy input used in citrus production compared to only 3.74% for the renewable form. The benefit-cost ratio was the highest in orange production (2.37) followed by lemon. The results indicate that orange production in the research area is most remunerative to growers compared to lemon and mandarin.

  11. NIKIEhT input in the energy strategy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Gabaraev, B.A.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Dzhalavyan, A.V.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Murav'ev, E.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigations performed by specialists at Research and Design Institute of Electrical Technology together with other enterprises, institutes, and organizations concerning the formulation of a strategy for the development of nuclear power in Russia in the first half of the 21st century are presented. The individual stages of the work, key assumptions, ideas, and recommendations, on which the strategy is based, the initiatives which the President of the Russian Federation advanced at the millennium summit held at the United Nations, and the international INPRO project initiated by Russia are examined. It is concluded that innovative development and a transition to building as quickly as possible nuclear power objects that meet the requirements and demands of the new century are necessary [ru

  12. Input data requirements for special processors in the computation system containing the VENTURE neutronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-07-01

    User input data requirements are presented for certain special processors in a nuclear reactor computation system. These processors generally read data in formatted form and generate binary interface data files. Some data processing is done to convert from the user oriented form to the interface file forms. The VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other computation modules in this system use the interface data files which are generated

  13. Input data requirements for special processors in the computation system containing the VENTURE neutronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents user input data requirements for certain special processors in a nuclear reactor computation system. These processors generally read data in formatted form and generate binary interface data files. Some data processing is done to convert from the user-oriented form to the interface file forms. The VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other computation modules in this system use the interface data files which are generated

  14. Nursing home staffing requirements and input substitution: effects on housekeeping, food service, and activities staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowblis, John R; Hyer, Kathryn

    2013-08-01

    To study the effect of minimum nurse staffing requirements on the subsequent employment of nursing home support staff. Nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) System merged with state nurse staffing requirements. Facility-level housekeeping, food service, and activities staff levels are regressed on nurse staffing requirements and other controls using fixed effect panel regression. OSCAR surveys from 1999 to 2004. Increases in state direct care and licensed nurse staffing requirements are associated with decreases in the staffing levels of all types of support staff. Increased nursing home nurse staffing requirements lead to input substitution in the form of reduced support staffing levels. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. The long-term development of the energy input in transportation, 1970-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiren, P B [E.F.C.E.E., Mechelen (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    This paper is a - modest - statistical and economic analysis of the energy input in the transportation sector over the past twenty-five years (1970 - 1995) and an attempt at looking ahead over the next twenty-five years (1995 - 2020). After World War II passenger cars and trucks became the means of transportation par excellence and are still the main vehicle for moving around, both men and freight. Energy input statistics were born. Let us see what they teach us. (EG)

  16. SaskEnergy small volume customers - direct gas purchase stakeholder discussion and public input report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    With the approval of the Provincial Government of Saskatchewan, SaskEnergy, the provincial utility decided to extend the premise of natural gas deregulation to all sizes of customers by opening the core market for natural gas commodity sales to private sector natural gas agents, brokers and marketers (ABMs). SaskEnergy will continue to provide natural gas transportation and storage related services. Before doing so, the Utility sought to discuss with various stakeholders the terms and conditions that would need to be met by industry to enter into the Saskatchewan market. To assure a balanced interest during the discussions that would include a perspective on consumer protection requirements, the Utility contracted KPMG Regina to chair the stakeholders discussion table and facilitate a public input process for interested individuals to channel comments and seek responses to questions. This report contains the edited summary of the four meetings held by stakeholders. The stakeholders were successful in providing SaskEnergy with insight and suggestions to ensure that a direct purchase market will be developed in Saskatchewan, and that consumers will have objective information to make informed choices about their natural gas purchase options. The meetings also produced an ABMs Code of Conduct, a Direct Purchase 'Enrollment Agreement' and a 'Disclosure Agreement' and delivery terms and conditions for the core market that are similar to industry requirements in the rest of Canada. Copies of the draft forms are included in appendices to this summary report

  17. Achieving Actionable Results from Available Inputs: Metamodels Take Building Energy Simulations One Step Further

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsey, Henry; Fleming, Katherine; Ball, Brian; Long, Nicholas

    2016-08-26

    Modeling commercial building energy usage can be a difficult and time-consuming task. The increasing prevalence of optimization algorithms provides one path for reducing the time and difficulty. Many use cases remain, however, where information regarding whole-building energy usage is valuable, but the time and expertise required to run and post-process a large number of building energy simulations is intractable. A relatively underutilized option to accurately estimate building energy consumption in real time is to pre-compute large datasets of potential building energy models, and use the set of results to quickly and efficiently provide highly accurate data. This process is called metamodeling. In this paper, two case studies are presented demonstrating the successful applications of metamodeling using the open-source OpenStudio Analysis Framework. The first case study involves the U.S. Department of Energy's Asset Score Tool, specifically the Preview Asset Score Tool, which is designed to give nontechnical users a near-instantaneous estimated range of expected results based on building system-level inputs. The second case study involves estimating the potential demand response capabilities of retail buildings in Colorado. The metamodel developed in this second application not only allows for estimation of a single building's expected performance, but also can be combined with public data to estimate the aggregate DR potential across various geographic (county and state) scales. In both case studies, the unique advantages of pre-computation allow building energy models to take the place of topdown actuarial evaluations. This paper ends by exploring the benefits of using metamodels and then examines the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

  18. Energy-positive sewage sludge pre-treatment with a novel ultrasonic flatbed reactor at low energy input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas; Bandelin, Jochen; Musch, Alexandra; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad

    2018-05-20

    The performance of a novel ultrasonic flatbed reactor for sewage sludge pre-treatment was assessed for three different waste activated sludges. The study systematically investigated the impact of specific energy input (200 - 3,000 kJ/kg TS ) on the degree of disintegration (DD COD , i.e. ratio between ultrasonically and maximum chemically solubilized COD) and methane production enhancement. Relationship between DD COD and energy input was linear, for all sludges tested. Methane yields were significantly increased for both low (200 kJ/kg TS ) and high (2,000 - 3,000 kJ/kg TS ) energy inputs, while intermediate inputs (400 - 1,000 kJ/kg TS ) showed no significant improvement. High inputs additionally accelerated reaction kinetics, but were limited to similar gains as low inputs (max. 12%), despite the considerably higher DD COD values. Energy balance was only positive for 200 kJ/kg TS -treatments, with a maximum energy recovery of 122%. Results suggest that floc deagglomeration rather than cell lysis (DD COD =1% - 5% at 200 kJ/kg TS ) is the key principle of energy-positive sludge sonication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetospheric energy inputs into the upper atmospheres of the giant planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the effects of Joule heating upon the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. We show that in addition to direct Joule heating there is an additional input of kinetic energy – ion drag energy – which we quantify relative to the Joule heating. We also show that fluctuations about the mean electric field, as observed in the Earth's ionosphere, may significantly increase the Joule heating itself. For physically plausible parameters these effects may increase previous estimates of the upper atmospheric energy input at Saturn from ~10 TW to ~20 TW.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena

  20. Energy input for tomato production what economy says, and what is good for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshyar, Ehsan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Tarazkar, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The central Fars province is the main tomato producer region in Southwest Iran. This study was undertaken to evaluate the energy consumption patterns of tomato production, corresponding GHG emissions, and relationships between inputs and output by a Cobb–Douglass econometric model. The changes...... productivities (MPPs), however, indicated that tomato yield is most sensitive to machinery and chemicals energy inputs in the C1 and C2, respectively, which should be considered first to increase in order to achieve productivity enhancement. The result displayed that higher energy consumption according...... to the econometric models and MPPs may lead to much higher CO2 emissions compared to the current average emissions particularly when MPP is low. Hence, it is suggested that production types with the highest MPPs should be considered if change in energy inputs is desired. In addition, it is recommended that “green...

  1. An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties.

  2. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels...... of minimum energy performance requirements. In addition to the summary report released in August 2011, the full detailed report on this study is now also made available, just as the EC is about to publish its proposed Regulation for MS to apply in their process to update national building requirements....

  3. Edible energy: balancing inputs and waste in food supply chain and biofuels from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, Gianluca; Brambilla, Riccardo; Pileci, Rosaria; Romano, Riccardo; Rosa, Francesca; Spinicci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Energy is life. Without it there is no water, there is no nutrition. Man's ability to live, grow, produce wealth is closely linked to the energy availability and use. Fire has been the first energy conversion technology; since that moment, the link between energy and progress has been indissoluble. Nowadays, a much greater energy input into the food supply chain has made a much higher food production possible. This might have an impact on the water availability. Algae are a promising solution for the energy-food-water nexus.

  4. Energy requirements for racing endurance sled dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, John P.; Yazwinski, Molly; Milizio, Justin G.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sled dogs have unique dietary energy requirements. At present, there is disparity in the literature regarding energy expenditure and thus energy requirements of these dogs. We sought to further elucidate energy requirements for endurance sled dogs under field conditions. Three sled dog teams completing the 2011 Yukon Quest volunteered to provide diet history. Nutritional content was evaluated and a mock meal was analysed for each team. Race data were obtained from www.yukonquest.com...

  5. Energy Requirements of Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J

    2005-01-01

    ...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...

  6. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeltzel, D.

    1978-01-01

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account [fr

  7. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  8. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  9. A Comprehensive Energy Analysis and Related Carbon Footprint of Dairy Farms, Part 1: Direct Energy Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Todde

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle farms are continuously developing more intensive systems of management which require higher utilization of durable and not-durable inputs. These inputs are responsible of significant direct and indirect fossil energy requirements which are related to remarkable emissions of CO2. This study aims to analyze direct energy requirements and the related carbon footprint of a large population of conventional dairy farms located in the south of Italy. A detailed survey of electricity, diesel and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG consumptions has been carried out among on-farm activities. The results of the analyses showed an annual average fuel consumption of 40 kg per tonne of milk, while electricity accounted for 73 kWh per tonne of milk produced. Expressing the direct energy inputs as primary energy, diesel fuel results the main resource used in on-farm activities, accounting for 72% of the total fossil primary energy requirement, while electricity represents only 27%. Moreover, larger farms were able to use more efficiently the direct energy inputs and reduce the related emissions of carbon dioxide per unit of milk produced, since the milk yield increases with the herd size. The global average farm emissions of carbon dioxide equivalent, due to all direct energy usages, accounted for 156 kg CO2-eq per tonne of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM, while farms that raise more than 200 heads emitted 36% less than the average value. In this two-part series, the total energy demand (Part 1 + Part 2 per farm is mainly due to agricultural inputs and fuel consumption, which have the largest quota of the annual requirements for each milk yield class. These results also showed that large size farms held lower CO2-eq emissions when referred to the mass of milk produced.

  10. Assessing a disaggregated energy input: using confidence intervals around translog elasticity estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisnanick, J.J.; Kyer, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The role of energy in the production of manufacturing output has been debated extensively in the literature, particularly its relationship with capital and labor. In an attempt to provide some clarification in this debate, a two-step methodology was used. First under the assumption of a five-factor production function specification, we distinguished between electric and non-electric energy and assessed each component's relationship with capital and labor. Second, we calculated both the Allen and price elasticities and constructed 95% confidence intervals around these values. Our approach led to the following conclusions: that the disaggregation of the energy input into electric and non-electric energy is justified; that capital and electric energy and capital and non-electric energy are substitutes, while labor and electric energy and labor and non-electric energy are complements in production; and that capital and energy are substitutes, while labor and energy are complements. (author)

  11. Energy input and dissipation in a temperate lake during the spring transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Simpson, John H.

    2017-08-01

    ADCP and temperature chain measurements have been used to estimate the rate of energy input by wind stress to the water surface in the south basin of Windermere. The energy input from the atmosphere was found to increase markedly as the lake stratified in spring. The efficiency of energy transfer ( Eff), defined as the ratio of the rate of working in near-surface waters ( RW) to that above the lake surface ( P 10), increased from ˜0.0013 in vertically homogenous conditions to ˜0.0064 in the first 40 days of the stratified regime. A maximum value of Eff˜0.01 was observed when, with increasing stratification, the first mode internal seiche period decreased to match the diurnal wind period of 24 h. The increase in energy input, following the onset of stratification was reflected in enhancement of the mean depth-varying kinetic energy without a corresponding increase in wind forcing. Parallel estimates of energy dissipation in the bottom boundary layer, based on determination of the structure function show that it accounts for ˜15% of RW in stratified conditions. The evolution of stratification in the lake conforms to a heating stirring model which indicates that mixing accounts for ˜21% of RW. Taken together, these estimates of key energetic parameters point the way to the development of full energy budgets for lakes and shallow seas.

  12. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  13. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  14. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  15. High Resolution Modeling of the Thermospheric Response to Energy Inputs During the RENU-2 Rocket Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Brinkman, D. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Hecht, J. H.; Lessard, M.; Fritz, B.; Hysell, D. L.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Moen, J.; Oksavik, K.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp provides direct access of energetic particles to the thermosphere. These particles produce ionization and kinetic (particle) heating of the atmosphere. The increased ionization coupled with enhanced electric fields in the cusp produces increased Joule heating and ion drag forcing. These energy inputs cause large wind and temperature changes in the cusp region. The Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling -2 (RENU-2) launched from Andoya, Norway at 0745UT on 13 December 2015 into the ionosphere-thermosphere beneath the magnetic cusp. It made measurements of the energy inputs (e.g., precipitating particles, electric fields) and the thermospheric response to these energy inputs (e.g., neutral density and temperature, neutral winds). Complementary ground based measurements were made. In this study, we use a high resolution two-dimensional time-dependent non hydrostatic nonlinear dynamical model driven by rocket and ground based measurements of the energy inputs to simulate the thermospheric response during the RENU-2 flight. Model simulations will be compared to the corresponding measurements of the thermosphere to see what they reveal about thermospheric structure and the nature of magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling in the cusp. Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grants: NNX16AH46G and NNX13AJ93G. This research was also supported by The Aerospace Corporation's Technical Investment program

  16. Input rights or licenses, competition or complementanty in the energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gautesen, Kristian L.

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the Norwegian energy policies. The focus is on economical and political measures and the consequences of the shift from emphasis on ''green licesenes'' to input tariffs. Various European and environmental aspects are considered and comparisons to the Norwegian development are made. (tk)

  17. 'Key' sectors in final energy consumption: an input-output application to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determination of 'key' sectors in the final energy consumption. We approach this issue from an input-output perspective and we design a methodology based on the elasticities of the demands of final energy consumption. As an exercise, we apply the proposed methodology to the Spanish economy. The analysis allows us to indicate the greater or lesser relevance of the different sectors in the consumption of final energy, pointing out which sectors deserve greater attention in the Spanish case and showing the implications for energy policy

  18. Transition Region Emission and the Energy Input to Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Raymond, John C.; Panasyuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the energetics of solar flares depends on obtaining reliable determinations of the energy input to flare plasma. X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung from hot flare plasma provide temperatures and emission measures which, along with estimates of the plasma volume, allow the energy content of this hot plasma to be computed. However, if thermal energy losses are significant or if significant energy goes directly into cooler plasma, this is only a lower limit on the total energy injected into thermal plasma during the flare. We use SOHO UVCS observations of O VI flare emission scattered by coronal O VI ions to deduce the flare emission at transition region temperatures between 100,000 K and 1 MK for the 2002 July 23 and other flares. We find that the radiated energy at these temperatures significantly increases the deduced energy input to the thermal plasma, but by an amount that is less than the uncertainty in the computed energies. Comparisons of computed thermal and nonthermal electron energies deduced from RHESSI, GOES, and UVCS are shown.

  19. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  20. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  1. Projections of energy requirements and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogroian, P.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. The record of nuclear power forecasting (estimates of the growth of world nuclear power, penetration of the electric power market by nuclear power); brief review of energy forecasting techniques and problems; some views of future world energy demand (estimates of world primary energy requirements); possible allocations of energy resources to needs (allocation of resources (oil, oil from tar sands, shale, natural gas, coal, coal to gasification, hydroelectricity, renewable resources, nuclear) to the world's primary energy needs in the year 2000); observations on the adequacy of energy resources; implications for nuclear energy (postulated growth of world nuclear power, annual fuel cycle requirements of the world, annual uranium requirements of the world). (U.K.)

  2. Jupiter's Auroral Energy Input Observed by Hisaki/EXCEED and its Modulations by Io's Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Yoshioka, K.; Kita, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aurora is an important indicator representing the momentum transfer from the fast-rotating outer planet to the magnetosphere and the energy input into the atmosphere through the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's northern aurora was achieved by the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer called EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) onboard JAXA's Earth-orbiting planetary space telescope Hisaki until today after its launch in September 2013. We have proceeded the statistical survey of the Jupiter's auroral energy input into the upper atmosphere. The auroral electron energy is estimated using a hydrocarbon color ratio (CR) adopted for the wavelength range of EXCEED, and the emission power in the long wavelength range 138.5-144.8 nm is used as an indicator of total emitted power before hydrocarbon absorption and auroral electron energy flux. Temporal dynamic variation of the auroral intensity was detected when Io's volcanic activity and thus EUV emission from the Io plasma torus are enhanced in the early 2015. Average of the total input power over 80 days increases by 10% with sometimes sporadically more than a factor of 3 upto 7, while the CR indicates the auroral electron energy decrease by 20% during the volcanic event compared to the other period. This indicates much more increase in the current system and Joule heating which contributes heating of the upper atmosphere. We will discuss the impact of this event on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere.

  3. Input-output analysis of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities: An application for Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Maria; Pie, Laia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the economic impact of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities of the Catalan production system. Specifically, we analyze the effects of a tax on intermediate energy uses, a reduction in intermediate energy demand, and a tax on intermediate uses combined with a reduction in intermediate energy demand. The methodology involves two versions of the input-output price model: a competitive price formulation and a mark-up price formulation. The input-output price framework will make it possible to evaluate how the alternative measures modify production prices, consumption prices, private real income, and intermediate energy uses. The empirical application is for the Catalan economy and uses economic data for the year 2001. The combination of a tax on energy uses and an improvement in the energy efficiency of the production system is a measure that accomplishes both economic and environmental goals, since it has no effects on prices, it has a positive effect on private real income and, finally, energy consumption is considerably reduced. (author)

  4. Auroral energy input from energetic electrons and Joule heating at Chatanika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickwar, V.B.; Baron, M.J.; Sears, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    With the incoherent scatter radar at Chatanika, Alaska, a wide variety of measurements can be made related to the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and neutral atmosphere. A significant parameter is the amount of energy transferred from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere during periods of auroral activity. In this report a procedure is examined whereby the incident energy flux of auroral electrons is ascertained from radar measurements. As part of the process radar-determined fluxes are compared with those ascertained from simultaneous photometric observations at 4278 A. The fluxes obtained by both techniques had similar magnitudes and time variations. If it is assumed that the largest uncertainty in the radar/photometer comparison is the effective recombination coefficient, then that coefficient can also be deduced. A value 3times10 -7 cm 3 /s at about 105 km is found, which is in good agreement with other recent determinations during active auroral conditions. This technique is combined with one to ascertain the Joule heating to determine the energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere in a region localized above the radar on March 22, 1973, in the midnight sector. The energy input is continuous at a significant level, i.e., greater than the 3 ergs/cm 2 that could be delivered by the sun, were it overhead. Moreover, at times, each of these inputs became as great as 30 ergs/cm 2 s

  5. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae

    2008-10-01

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained

  6. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Input to the Claustrum Is Required for Top-Down Action Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance. We further show that ACC input monosynaptically targets claustrum inhibitory interneurons and spiny glutamatergic projection neurons, the latter of which amplify ACC input in a manner that is powerfully constrained by claustrum inhibitory microcircuitry. These results demonstrate ACC input to the claustrum is critical for top-down control guiding action. : White et al. show that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC input to the claustrum encodes a top-down preparatory signal on a 5-choice response assay that is critical for task performance. Claustrum microcircuitry amplifies top-down ACC input in a frequency-dependent manner for eventual propagation to the cortex for cognitive control of action. Keywords: 5CSRTT, optogenetics, fiber photometry, microcircuit, attention, bottom-up, sensory cortices, motor cortices

  7. Analysis of different inputs share and determination of energy Indices in broilers production in Mashhad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sadrnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The high energy consumption is one of the serious problems in poultry industry. The poultry industry consume about five percent of total energy sources in different countries, with consideration of losses, it increases up to 16-20%. In the year 2003 also, the Iranian chicken meat consumption per capita was 13.3 kg, while in the year 2013 it increased to 25.9 kg (FAO, 2014. It shows that in the diet of Iranian people, the chicken meat has become a strategic food. Poultry industry is one of the biggest and most developed industries in Iran. In the past two decays, mainly due to population growth and increase demand of white meats, it is necessary to change and improve energy efficiency in this industry. Technical efficiency of broiler farms in the central region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed through stochastic frontier approach (Alrwis and Francis, 2003. They reported that many farms under study work lower than their total capacity. In the research, the output was chicken meat weight in the term of the kilogram per one period and the inputs were the number of chicks, feed, the total of all variable expenses and fixed input except chicks and feed and the total cost of fixed inputs including building, equipment and machinery used for the broiler houses. They found that the small and large size broiler farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia were produced chicken with mean technical efficiency 83 and 88%, respectively (Alrwis and Francis, 2003. Efficiency measurement of broiler production units in Hamadan province was investigated by Fotros and Solgi (2003. They reported that the minimum, maximum and mean technical efficiency under variable return to scale were 12.7, 100 and 64.4%, respectively. Their results showed that technical efficiency at 16.5 (14 units and 42.35% (24 units of farms were more than 90 and 70%, respectively (Fotros and Salgi, 2003. Khorasan Razavi province after Esfahan and Mazandaran provinces is the third

  8. Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinckard, Margaret J.; Brown, Richard E.; Mills, Evan; Lutz, James D.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Atkinson, Celina; Bolduc, Chris; Homan, Gregory K.; Coughlin, Katie

    2005-07-13

    The Home Energy Saver (HES, http://HomeEnergySaver.lbl.gov) is an interactive web site designed to help residential consumers make decisions about energy use in their homes. This report describes the underlying methods and data for estimating energy consumption. Using engineering models, the site estimates energy consumption for six major categories (end uses); heating, cooling, water heating, major appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment. The approach taken by the Home Energy Saver is to provide users with initial results based on a minimum of user input, allowing progressively greater control in specifying the characteristics of the house and energy consuming appliances. Outputs include energy consumption (by fuel and end use), energy-related emissions (carbon dioxide), energy bills (total and by fuel and end use), and energy saving recommendations. Real-world electricity tariffs are used for many locations, making the bill estimates even more accurate. Where information about the house is not available from the user, default values are used based on end-use surveys and engineering studies. An extensive body of qualitative decision-support information augments the analytical results.

  9. Solar Wind Energy Input during Prolonged, Intense Northward Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: A New Coupling Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Sun, W.

    2012-04-01

    Sudden energy release (ER) events in the midnight sector at auroral zone latitudes during intense (B > 10 nT), long-duration (T > 3 hr), northward (Bz > 0 nT = N) IMF magnetic clouds (MCs) during solar cycle 23 (SC23) have been examined in detail. The MCs with northward-then-southward (NS) IMFs were analyzed separately from MCs with southward-then-northward (SN) configurations. It is found that there is a lack of substorms during the N field intervals of NS clouds. In sharp contrast, ER events do occur during the N field portions of SN MCs. From the above two results it is reasonable to conclude that the latter ER events represent residual energy remaining from the preceding S portions of the SN MCs. We derive a new solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function during northward IMFs: ENIMF = α N-1/12V 7/3B1/2 + β V |Dstmin|. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation represents the energy input via "viscous interaction", and the second term indicates the residual energy stored in the magnetotail. It is empirically found that the magnetosphere/magnetotail can store energy for a maximum of ~ 4 hrs before it has dissipated away. This concept is defining one for ER/substorm energy storage. Our scenario indicates that the rate of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere/magnetotail determines the form of energy release into the magnetosphere/ionosphere. This may be more important than the dissipation mechanism itself (in understanding the form of the release). The concept of short-term energy storage is applied for the solar case. It is argued that it may be necessary to identify the rate of energy input into solar magnetic loop systems to be able to predict the occurrence of solar flares.

  10. Energy requirements for new buildings in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M., Email: miimu.airaksinen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Buildings account for circa 40% of the total energy use in Europe [1] and for about 36% of the EU's total CO{sub 2} emissions [2], including the existing energy conservation in buildings [3]. Key features of the Finnish energy policy are improved energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources. To achieve a sustainable shift in the energy system, a target set by the authorities, both energy savings and increased use of low-pollution energy sources are therefore priority areas. Building low-energy buildings is in accordance with the declared national aim of reducing energy use and thus reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The main motivation in renewing building codes for new buildings was to build more energy efficiently, encourage the use the most efficient energy sources and to enhance the use of renewable energy sources. In addition the aim was to give more freedom to fi nd the real optimal solutions for energy efficiency by optimising all aspects including the building architecture and different systems with demand controls. However, in order to ensure the good quality of buildings certain minimum requirements for structure U-values are given. (orig.)

  11. Short communication: Prediction of energy requirements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected on metabolizable energy (ME) intake and growth performance of preruminant female kids of the Murciano-Granadina breed was used to assess the accuracy of the latest U. S. National Research Council (NRC) recommendations to predict their energy requirements. Female kids were fed a milk replacer ...

  12. Disaggregated seismic hazard and the elastic input energy spectrum: An approach to design earthquake selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Martin Colby

    1998-12-01

    The design earthquake selection problem is fundamentally probabilistic. Disaggregation of a probabilistic model of the seismic hazard offers a rational and objective approach that can identify the most likely earthquake scenario(s) contributing to hazard. An ensemble of time series can be selected on the basis of the modal earthquakes derived from the disaggregation. This gives a useful time-domain realization of the seismic hazard, to the extent that a single motion parameter captures the important time-domain characteristics. A possible limitation to this approach arises because most currently available motion prediction models for peak ground motion or oscillator response are essentially independent of duration, and modal events derived using the peak motions for the analysis may not represent the optimal characterization of the hazard. The elastic input energy spectrum is an alternative to the elastic response spectrum for these types of analyses. The input energy combines the elements of amplitude and duration into a single parameter description of the ground motion that can be readily incorporated into standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis methodology. This use of the elastic input energy spectrum is examined. Regression analysis is performed using strong motion data from Western North America and consistent data processing procedures for both the absolute input energy equivalent velocity, (Vsbea), and the elastic pseudo-relative velocity response (PSV) in the frequency range 0.5 to 10 Hz. The results show that the two parameters can be successfully fit with identical functional forms. The dependence of Vsbea and PSV upon (NEHRP) site classification is virtually identical. The variance of Vsbea is uniformly less than that of PSV, indicating that Vsbea can be predicted with slightly less uncertainty as a function of magnitude, distance and site classification. The effects of site class are important at frequencies less than a few Hertz. The regression

  13. Coupled-Inductor-Based Aalborg Inverter With Input DC Energy Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Houqing; Wu, Weimin; Chung, Henry Shu-hung

    2018-01-01

    Due to the global environmental issues and energy crisis, the injection of renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power system is continuously increasing. As the interface between RESs and power grid, grid-tied inverters using MOSFET switches, without traditional line frequency transformers, show...... some potential advantages, in terms of low cost, high efficiency, and lightweight and small size. Among several proposed configurations, the Aalborg inverter was proposed as a new family of high efficiency MOSFET-switch-based hybrid source inverters. For a conventional “half bridge” type Aalborg...... inverter, due to the imbalance of two independent dc sources, the input dc energies may not be fully utilized, which may reduce the efficiency of whole system. In order to extract the maximum energy from two independent dc sources, a coupled-inductor-based “half bridge” type Aalborg inverter is proposed...

  14. Input-Independent Energy Harvesting in Bistable Lattices from Transition Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Myungwon; Arrieta, Andres F

    2018-02-26

    We demonstrate the utilisation of transition waves for realising input-invariant, frequency-independent energy harvesting in 1D lattices of bistable elements. We propose a metamaterial-inspired design with an integrated electromechanical transduction mechanism to the unit cell, rendering the power conversion capability an intrinsic property of the lattice. Moreover, focusing of transmitted energy to desired locations is demonstrated numerically and experimentally by introducing engineered defects in the form of perturbation in mass or inter-element forcing. We achieve further localisation of energy and numerically observe a breather-like mode for the first time in this type of lattice, improving the harvesting performance by an order of magnitude. Our approach considers generic bistable unit cells and thus provides a universal mechanism to harvest energy and realise metamaterials effectively behaving as a capacitor and power delivery system.

  15. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily...... influenced by path dependent regime structuration processes, and that the mechanism constitutes a barrier to more radical developments within low energy housing. Few and poorly organized frontrunner activities within low energy housing have accordingly taken place in a Danish context during the past decades....... Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes....

  16. Wind energy input into the upper ocean over a lengthening open water season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Rolph, R.; Walsh, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Wind energy input into the ocean has important consequences for upper ocean mixing, heat and gas exchange, and air-sea momentum transfer. In the Arctic, the open water season is increasing and extending further into the fall storm season, allowing for more wind energy input into the water column. The rate at which the delayed freeze-up timing extends into fall storm season is an important metric to evaluate because the expanding overlap between the open water period and storm season could contribute a significant amount of wind energy into the water column in a relatively short period of time. We have shown that time-integrated wind speeds over open water in the Chukchi Sea and southern Beaufort region have increased since 1979 through 2014. An integrated wind energy input value is calculated for each year in this domain over the open water season, as well as for periods over partial concentrations of ice cover. Spatial variation of this integrated wind energy is shown along the Alaskan coastline, which can have implications for different rates of coastal erosion. Spatial correlation between average wind speed over open water and open water season length from 1979-2014 show positive values in the southern Beaufort, but negative values in the northern Chukchi. This suggests possible differences in the role of the ocean on open water season length depending on region. We speculate that the warm Pacific water outflow plays a more dominant role in extending the open water season length in the northern Chukchi when compared to the southern Beaufort, and might help explain why we can show there is a relatively longer open water season length there. The negative and positive correlations in wind speeds over open water and open water season length might also be explained by oceanic changes tending to operate on longer timescales than the atmosphere. Seasonal timescales of wind events such as regional differences in overlap of the extended open water season due to regional

  17. Quantum-mechanical few-body scattering equations with half-on-shell energy-independent subsystem input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiger, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    New equations are presented for three- and four-body scattering, within the context of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and a Hamiltonian scattering theory. For the three-body case Faddeev-type equations are presented which, although obtained from the rigorous Faddeev theory, only require two-body bound state wave functions and half-off-shell transition amplitudes as input. In addition, their effective potentials are independent of the three-body energy, and can easily be made real after an angular momentum decomposition. The equations are formulated in terms of physical transition amplitudes for three-body processes, except that in the breakup case the partial-wave amplitudes differ from the corresponding full amplitudes by a Watson final-state-interaction factor. Also presented are new equations for four-body scattering, obtained by generalizing our three-body formalism to the four-body case. These equations, although equivalent to those of Faddeev--Yakubovskii, are expressed in terms of singularity-free transition amplitudes, and their energy-independent effective potentials require only half-on-shell subsystem transition amplitudes (and bound state wave functions) as input. However, due to the detailed index structure of the Faddeev--Yakubovskii formalsim, the result of the generalization is considerably more complicated than in the three-body case

  18. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  19. Input-output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esengun, Kemal; Guenduez, Orhan; Erdal, Guelistan

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the amount of input-output energy used in dry apricot production, to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption and to make an economic analysis of dry apricot production in Malatya, Turkey. Data used in this study were obtained from 97 farmers using a face to face questionnaire method. The sample farms were selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The population investigated was divided into two strata based on the size of apricot farms as 0.1-3.0 ha (66 farms) and larger than 3.1 ha (31 farms). The results revealed that 28647.03 MJ ha -1 energy were consumed by the first group and 17884.72 MJ ha -1 by the second group of farmers. The input-output ratio and productivities were 1.24 and 0.24 in the first strata and 1.31 and 0.25 in the second strata, respectively. Results further indicated that in both types of farms, 3/4 of the total energy cost was in non-renewable energy forms, and only 1/4 was in renewable forms. The economic analyses showed that the profit-cost ratios of the farms were 1.11 and 1.19, respectively. Net returns calculated were 414.51 $ ha -1 and 495.59 $ ha -1 in the farms investigated. It was concluded that extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in dry apricot production and to employ environmentally friendly agricultural management practices and production methods

  20. Energy and carbon embodied in the international trade of Brazil. An input-output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G; Schaeffer, R.; Worrell, E.

    2001-01-01

    All goods and services produced in an economy are directly and/or indirectly associated with energy use and, according to the type of fuel utilized, with CO2 emissions as well. International trade is an important factor in shaping the industrial structure of a country and, consequently, in affecting a country's energy use and CO2 emissions. This study applies input-output techniques to the Brazilian economy to evaluate the total impacts of international trade on its energy use and CO2 emissions. A commodity-by-industry IO model in hybrid units (energy commodities in physical units and non-energy commodities in monetary units) is applied to the Brazilian economy in 1995. Results show that total energy embodied in the exports of non-energy goods of Brazil equals 831 PJ, while total carbon embodied is 13.5 MtC. These amounts are larger than the relevant amounts embodied in the imports of non-energy goods, respectively 679 PJ and 9.9 MtC. These figures are better understood by contrasting them with the total energy use and the corresponding total carbon emissions of the Brazilian economy in 1995 estimated by this work: 6781 PJ and 99.4 MtC, respectively. This means that international inflows and outflows of energy embodied in non-energy goods are in the order of 10 and 12% of the total energy use, while inflows and outflows of carbon embodied in non-energy goods are approximately 10 and 14% of the corresponding total carbon emissions of the Brazilian economy in 1995. The general picture is that Brazil is not only a net exporter of energy (153 PJ) and of carbon (3.6 MtC) embodied in the non-energy goods internationally traded by the country in 1995, but also that each dollar earned with exports embodied 40% more energy and 56% more carbon than each dollar spent on imports. These findings suggest that Brazilian policy-makers should be concerned about the extra impacts international trade policy may have on energy use and carbon emissions of the country. 71 refs

  1. Low carbon energy scenarios for sub-Saharan Africa: An input-output analysis on the effects of universal energy access and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Thomas Gerard Adam; Kelly, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Meeting Sub-Saharan African (SSA) human development goals will require economic development to be the priority over the coming decades, but economic development ‘at all cost’ may not be acceptable across these goals. This paper aims to explore five development scenarios for the five largest economies in SSA to understand the implications to CO_2-equivalent emissions (CO_2-e) and off-grid energy modernisation in 2030. Within this scope GDP growth; economic structure; availability of energy resources; international trade; and, the development of distributed generation for remote locations are considered. Regional CO_2 emissions were studied using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. Under the scenarios analysed all five nations will be unable to reduce 2030 CO_2-e emissions below 2012 levels, whilst simultaneously achieving forecast GDP growth and universal access to modernised energy services. 100% off-grid modernisation is estimated to require a three-fold increase in Primary Energy Supply and a 26% (1317 Mt) increase in 2030 CO_2-e emissions. Total regional CO_2-e emissions could be reduced from 45% to 35% by meeting a 50% renewable energy supply target by 2030. Climate Change policy would need to focus on multi-sector reform to reduce regional emissions as the agricultural sector is the largest emitter in Nigeria, Ethiopia and Kenya. - Highlights: • GHG"1 emissions were studied with a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. • SSA"2 GDP growth is inextricably linked with access to additional energy supply. • SSA will not attain universal energy access and low carbon growth in parallel. • GHG emissions decline needs both renewable energy adoption and agriculture reform. • SSA Climate Change policy would need to target multiple GHG emitting sector reform.

  2. Investigation of intense XUV emission of nitrogen-puff Z-pinch with small energy input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raus, J.; Krejci, A.; Piffl, V.

    1992-01-01

    Light elements like nitrogen or carbon are suggested as optimum working media for small Z-pinches (several kJ energy input). It is shown that such elements can be ionized up to K-shell ionization stages not only in hot-spots, but also in the bulk plasma. The yield of nitrogen K-shell radiation (about 10 J/shot) is therefore substantially higher than that of the conventionally used neon. In addition to pinch physics and radiation dynamics, such radiation could be of interest for applications in the 'water window' spectral region. (author) 1 tab., 4 figs., 8 refs

  3. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-05-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  4. Method for measuring energy-input inhomogeneities in electroionization CO/sub 2/-lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovkov, V V; Kornilov, V G; Sukhanov, L V; Chelpanov, V I

    1987-08-01

    A Michelson interferometer at a wavelength of 0.63 micron was used to measure optical inhomogeneities due to variations of the polarizability of the molecular components in CO/sub 2/-laser mixtures under vibrational excitation in a nonself-sustained electric discharge. It is suggested that the observed effect can be used for the noninertial and noncontact diagnostics of energy-input distribution over the cross section of the active medium of an electroionization CO/sub 2/-laser. Results are presented for N/sub 2/-He, CO/sub 2/-He, CO/sub 2/-N/sub 2/-He, and CO/sub 2/-He mixtures. 10 references.

  5. Input price risk and optimal timing of energy investment: choice between fossil- and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murto, Pauli; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-01-01

    We consider energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost, estimates of two different power plant types. (author)

  6. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Karandikar, Vivek; Rana, Ashish; Dani, Prasanna

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  7. Technological change in energy systems. Learning curves, logistic curves and input-output coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)

  8. Energy Requirements for Biomass Harvest and Densification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Shinners

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research quantified the unit and bulk density of several biomass crops across a variety of harvest and processing methods, as well as the energy and fuel requirements for these operations. A load density of approximately 240 kg·m−3 is needed to reach the legal weight limit of most transporters. Of the three types of balers studied, only the high density (HD large square baler achieved this target density. However, the specific energy and fuel requirements increased exponentially with bale density, and at the maximum densities for corn stover and switchgrass, the dry basis energy and fuel requirements ranged from 4.0 to 5.0 kW·h·Mg−1 and 1.2 to 1.4 L·Mg−1, respectively. Throughputs of tub grinders when grinding bales was less than any other harvesting or processing methods investigated, so specific energy and fuel requirements were high and ranged from 13 to 32 kW·h·Mg−1 and 5.0 to 11.3 L·Mg−1, respectively. Gross size-reduction by pre-cutting at baling increased bale density by less than 6% and increased baling energy requirements by 11% to 22%, but pre-cut bales increased the tub grinder throughput by 25% to 45% and reduced specific fuel consumption for grinding by 20% to 53%. Given the improvement in tub grinder operation, pre-cutting bales should be considered as a means to increase grinder throughput. Additional research is needed to determine the energy required to grind high density pre-cut bales at high throughputs so that better estimates of total energy required for a high density bale system can be made. An alternative bulk feedstock system was investigated that involved chopping moist biomass crops with a precision-cut forage harvester, compacting the bulk material in a silo bag, and then segmenting the densified material into modules optimized for efficient transport. The specific fuel use for chopping and then compacting biomass crops in the silo bag ranged from 1.6 to 3.0 L·Mg−1 and 0.5 to 1.3 L·Mg−1

  9. The structures of energy consumption and emissions into air in Finnish economy in 1990. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Tervo, H.

    1994-01-01

    The structures of utilization of primary energy, final consumption of electricity, and the main emissions into the air in Finnish economy in 1990 have been derived in this report on the basis of input-output analysis. By using an input-output model it is possible to calculate what is the productional content of different products, i.e. how much in total, directly or indirectly, work of different fields of production is needed for production of commodities. Energy and emissions into air can be assumed as basic inputs of the production. By using input-output analysis it is possible to follow up how the energy inputs and emissions of different branches are bound into commodity flows of economy. Hence a systematic and expiring figure is obtained of energy and emission contents of different branches. The basic matrix for calculation of primary energy and emission coefficients of different branches are made in the chapter no. 2. The formulae for calculation of the energy and emission contents of commodities are derived from common basic formulae of input-output analysis in the chapter no. 3. The branch-based energy and emission coefficients of commodities are presented in the chapter no. 4. The energies bound into household commodities and emissions into the air are presented in the chapter no. 5. The total presentation of the Finnish national product, the gross national product and the energy and emission contents of the main commodities is made in the chapter no. 6. (11 refs.)

  10. Input vector optimization of feed-forward neural networks for fitting ab initio potential-energy databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malshe, M.; Raff, L. M.; Hagan, M.; Bukkapatnam, S.; Komanduri, R.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in the fitting accuracy of neural networks (NNs) when used to fit databases comprising potential energies obtained from ab initio electronic structure calculations is investigated as a function of the number and nature of the elements employed in the input vector to the NN. Ab initio databases for H2O2, HONO, Si5, and H2CCHBr were employed in the investigations. These systems were chosen so as to include four-, five-, and six-body systems containing first, second, third, and fourth row elements with a wide variety of chemical bonding and whose conformations cover a wide range of structures that occur under high-energy machining conditions and in chemical reactions involving cis-trans isomerizations, six different types of two-center bond ruptures, and two different three-center dissociation reactions. The ab initio databases for these systems were obtained using density functional theory/B3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with extended basis sets. A total of 31 input vectors were investigated. In each case, the elements of the input vector were chosen from interatomic distances, inverse powers of the interatomic distance, three-body angles, and dihedral angles. Both redundant and nonredundant input vectors were investigated. The results show that among all the input vectors investigated, the set employed in the Z-matrix specification of the molecular configurations in the electronic structure calculations gave the lowest NN fitting accuracy for both Si5 and vinyl bromide. The underlying reason for this result appears to be the discontinuity present in the dihedral angle for planar geometries. The use of trigometric functions of the angles as input elements produced significantly improved fitting accuracy as this choice eliminates the discontinuity. The most accurate fitting was obtained when the elements of the input vector were taken to have the form Rij-n, where the Rij are the interatomic distances. When the Levenberg-Marquardt procedure was modified

  11. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  12. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  13. Latitudinal Dependence of the Energy Input into the Mesosphere by High Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C. U.; Nikutowski, B.; Ranta, H.

    1984-01-01

    Night-time ionspheric absorption measurements give the possibility to study the precipitation of high energy electrons into the mesosphere during and after magnetospheric storms. The uniform Finnish riometer network was used together with measurements from Kuhlungsborn and Collm (GDR) to investigate the night-time absorption as a function of latitude (L=6.5 to 2.5) and storm-time for seven storms. The common trends visible in all these events are summarized in a schematic average picture, showing the distribution of increased ionospheric absorption as a function of latitude (L value) and storm-time.

  14. Structure requirements for magnetic energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyssa, Y.M.; Huang, X.

    1993-01-01

    Large variety of large and small magnetic energy storage systems have been designed and analyzed in the last 20 years. Cryoresistive and superconductive energy storage (SMES) magnets have been considered for applications such as load leveling for electric utilities, pulsed storage for electromagnetic launchers and accelerator devices, and space borne superconductive energy storage systems. Large SMES are supported by a combination of cold and warm structure while small SMES are supported only by cold structure. In this article we provide analytical and numerical tools to estimate the structure requirements as function of the stored energy and configuration. Large and small solenoidal and toroidal geometries are used. Considerations for both warm and cold structure are discussed. Latest design concepts for both large and small units are included. (orig.)

  15. Applying physical input-output tables of energy to estimate the energy ecological footprint (EEF) of Galicia (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one

  16. Perspectives in energy requirements of mankind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.

    1975-08-01

    The growth of energy demand from the nineteenth century to the present and its likely future development are described, for the interested layman, in the context of the changing pattern of resource use. The availability and distribution of the renewable and non-renewable resources of energy, which will provide for the future, show that developed and developing countries will incur supply problems in the decades ahead unless the potential of all energy reserves is tapped. Factors such as the market penetration of new resources and the depletion of resources are outlined. It is pointed out that coal may be used increasingly for some time but that nuclear energy is the only other energy form which is immediately available and which can be utilised commercially. Nuclear energy will be needed even if countries are prepared to cut back to low growth rates in energy use. It is suggested that lower growth rates may well be necessary in the next twenty to thirty years, since it takes this time to bring new alternative technologies into commercial use, and a further similar period will be required to achieve significant resource substitution. (author)

  17. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: User's guide and input requirements. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. Volume II contains detailed instructions for code application and input data preparation

  18. Lessons learned using HAMMLAB experimenter systems: Input for HAMMLAB 2000 functional requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia L.

    1998-02-01

    To design a usable HAMMLAB 2000, lessons learned from use of the existing HAMMLAB must be documented. User suggestions are important and must be taken into account. Different roles in HAMMLAB experimental sessions are identified, and major functions of each role were specified. A series of questionnaires were developed and administered to different users of HAMMLAB, each tailored to the individual job description. The results of those questionnaires are included in this report. Previous HAMMLAB modification recommendations were also reviewed, to provide input to this document. A trial experimental session was also conducted, to give an overview of the tasks in HAMMLAB. (author)

  19. Power Flow Control of a Dual-Input Interleaved Buck/Boost Converter with Galvanic Isolation for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    DC microgrids or nanogrids have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Therefore, as a critical component, dc-dc converters with multiple inputs are required. In this paper, a dual-input interleaved buck/boost converter is proposed and its corresponding power flow control methods...

  20. Analyzing Requirements for and Designing a Collaborative Tool Based on Functional and User Input

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Christopher K; Burneka, Chris; Whited, Vaughan; Kancler, David E

    2006-01-01

    .... Technology provides a multitude of potential collaborative tools and techniques, and this must be balanced against the requirement to leverage and/or support maintainer's existing interaction skills...

  1. Impact of operational factors on fossil energy inputs in motor-manual tree felling and processing: results of two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ignea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases tree felling and processing operations are carried out motor-manually and knowledge about fossil fuel consumption and direct energy inputs when using such equipment is required for different purposes starting with operational costing and ending with environmental assessment of forest operations. In this study, fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs were evaluated for two chainsaws which were used to fell and process trees in two silvicultural systems. The results of this study suggest that there is a strong dependence relation between selected tree size variables such as the diameter at breast height and tree volume on one hand and the fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs when felling and processing broadleaved hardwood and resinous softwood trees on the other hand. For the broadleaved trees (mean tree volume of 1.50 m3 × tree-1, DBH of 45.5 cm and tree height of 21.84 m the mean direct fossil energy input was of 3.86 MJ m-3 while for resinous trees (mean tree volume of 1.77 m3 tree-1, DBH of 39.28 cm and tree height of 32.49 m it was of 3.93 MJ m-3. Other variables, including but not limited to the technology used, work experience and procedural pattern, may influence the mentioned figures and extensive studies are required to clarify their effects.

  2. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops......, there are many different types of crops significantly varies in terms of energy potential yields, production and provision methods, etc. To this end, a thoroughly assessment of the energy inputs and outputs of each potential energy crop is necessary. In this paper, the Giant Reed is evaluated energetically...... as a potential energy crop. The assessment regards a 10 year period. The considered energy elements include direct inputs (e.g. fuel consumption) as well as indirect inputs (e.g. embodied energy of materials and machinery). According to the results, the balance between the estimated total energy input...

  3. Characteristics of evacuated tubular solar thermal collector as input energy for cooling system at Universitas Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, M. Idrus; Nasruddin, Aisyah, Nyayu; Sholahudin

    2017-03-01

    This paper discussed the use of solar thermal collector as an input energy for cooling system. The experimental investigation was undertaken to characterize solar collectors that have been integrated with an absorption chiller. About 62 modules of solar collectors connected in series and parallel are placed on the roof top of MRC building. Thermistors were used to measure the fluid temperature at inlet, inside and outlet of each collector, inside the water tank and ambient temperature. Water flow that circulated from the storage was measured by flow meter, while solar radiation was measured by a pyranometer that was mounted parallel to the collector. Experimental data for a data set was collected in March 2016, during the day time hours of 08:00 - 17:00. This data set was used to calculate solar collector efficiency. The results showed that in the maximum solar radiation, the outlet temperature that can be reached is about 78°C, the utilized energy is about 70 kW and solar collector has an efficiency of 64%. While in the minimum solar radiation, the outlet temperature that can be reached is about 53°C, the utilized energy is about 28 kW and solar collector has an efficiency of 43%.

  4. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...... of all other project material related to that topic, which allows to easily identify the most pertinent information. Part C lists the project partners and sponsors....

  5. Monitoring the inputs required to extend and sustain hygiene promotion: findings from the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Leslie D; Gore, Fiona M; Andre, Nathalie; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2016-08-01

    There are significant gaps in information about the inputs required to effectively extend and sustain hygiene promotion activities to improve people's health outcomes through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We sought to analyse current country and global trends in the use of key inputs required for effective and sustainable implementation of hygiene promotion to help guide hygiene promotion policy and decision-making after 2015. Data collected in response to the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey from 93 countries of 94 were included, and responses were analysed for 12 questions assessing the inputs and enabling environment for hygiene promotion under four thematic areas. Data were included and analysed from 20 External Support Agencies (ESA) of 23 collected through self-administered surveys. Firstly, the data showed a large variation in the way in which hygiene promotion is defined and what constitutes key activities in this area. Secondly, challenges to implement hygiene promotion are considerable: include poor implementation of policies and plans, weak coordination mechanisms, human resource limitations and a lack of available hygiene promotion budget data. Despite the proven benefits of hand washing with soap, a critical hygiene-related factor in minimising infection, GLAAS 2013/2014 survey data showed that hygiene promotion remains a neglected component of WASH. Additional research to identify the context-specific strategies and inputs required to enhance the effectiveness of hygiene promotion at scale are needed. Improved data collection methods are also necessary to advance the availability and reliability of hygiene-specific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  7. 75 FR 30395 - Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... peak flow as part of an SSO rulemaking to allow for a holistic and integrated approach to reducing SSOs... Charles Glass, EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management at tel.: 202-564-0418 or... principles with the following suggested NPDES permit requirements: (1) Capacity, management, operation and...

  8. Energy required to pinch a DNA plectoneme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Céline; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

    2018-03-01

    DNA supercoiling plays an important role from a biological point of view. One of its consequences at the supramolecular level is the formation of DNA superhelices named plectonemes. Normally separated by a distance on the order of 10 nm, the two opposite double strands of a DNA plectoneme must be brought closer if a protein or protein complex implicated in genetic regulation is to be bound simultaneously to both strands, as if the plectoneme was locally pinched. We propose an analytic calculation of the energetic barrier, of elastic nature, required to bring closer the two loci situated on the opposed double strands. We examine how this energy barrier scales with the DNA supercoiling. For physically relevant values of elastic parameters and of supercoiling density, we show that the energy barrier is in the kBT range under physiological conditions, thus demonstrating that the limiting step to loci encounter is more likely the preceding plectoneme slithering bringing the two loci side by side.

  9. A Three-Phase Dual-Input Matrix Converter for Grid Integration of Two AC Type Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Chiang Loh, Poh

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel dual-input matrix converter (DIMC) to integrate two three-phase ac type energy resources to a power grid. The proposed matrix converter is developed based on the traditional indirect matrix converter under reverse power flow operation mode, but with its six......-to-output voltage boost capability since power flows from the converter’s voltage source side to its current source side. Commanded currents can be extracted from the two input sources to the grid. The proposed control and modulation schemes guarantee sinusoidal input and output waveforms as well as unity input......-switch voltage source converter replaced by a nine-switch configuration. With the additional three switches, the proposed DIMC can provide six in put terminals, which make it possible to integrate two independent ac sources into a single grid-tied power electronics interface. The proposed converter has input...

  10. Maintenance energy requirements in miniature colony dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serisier, S; Weber, M; Feugier, A; Fardet, M-O; Garnier, F; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2013-05-01

    There are numerous reports of maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs, but little information is available about energy requirements of miniature dog breeds. In this prospective, observational, cohort study, we aimed to determine MER in dogs from a number of miniature breeds and to determine which factors were associated with it. Forty-two dogs participated in the study. MER was calculated by determining daily energy intake (EI) during a period of 196 days (28-359 days) when body weight did not change significantly (e.g. ±2% in 12 weeks). Estimated median MER was 473 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-766 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, median 113 kcal/kg(0.75) /day (68-183 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). In the obese dogs that lost weight, median MER after weight loss was completed was 360 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-515 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, 86 kcal/kg(0.75) /day, (68-123 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). Simple linear regression analysis suggested that three breeds (e.g. Chihuahua, p = 0.002; Yorkshire terrier, p = 0.039; dachshund, p = 0.035) had an effect on MER. In addition to breed, simple linear regression revealed that neuter status (p = 0.079) and having previously been overweight (p = 0.002) were also of significance. However, with multiple linear regression analysis, only previous overweight status (MER less in dogs previously overweight p = 0.008) and breed (MER greater in Yorkshire terriers [p = 0.029] and less in Chihuahuas [p = 0.089]) remained in the final model. This study is the first to estimate MER in dogs of miniature breeds. Although further information from pet dogs is now needed, the current work will be useful for setting energy and nutrient requirement in such dogs for the future. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. RET Functions as a Dual-Specificity Kinase that Requires Allosteric Inputs from Juxtamembrane Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Plaza-Menacho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit a variety of activation mechanisms despite highly homologous catalytic domains. Such diversity arises through coupling of extracellular ligand-binding portions with highly variable intracellular sequences flanking the tyrosine kinase domain and specific patterns of autophosphorylation sites. Here, we show that the juxtamembrane (JM segment enhances RET catalytic domain activity through Y687. This phospho-site is also required by the JM region to rescue an otherwise catalytically deficient RET activation-loop mutant lacking tyrosines. Structure-function analyses identified interactions between the JM hinge, αC helix, and an unconventional activation-loop serine phosphorylation site that engages the HRD motif and promotes phospho-tyrosine conformational accessibility and regulatory spine assembly. We demonstrate that this phospho-S909 arises from an intrinsic RET dual-specificity kinase activity and show that an equivalent serine is required for RET signaling in Drosophila. Our findings reveal dual-specificity and allosteric components for the mechanism of RET activation and signaling with direct implications for drug discovery.

  12. Chipping machines: disc and drum energy requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and fossil fuel reserves exhaustion are increasing the importance of the biomass-derived products, in particular wood, as source of clean and renewable energy for the production of electricity or steam. In order to improve the global efficiency and the entire production chain, we have to evaluate the energetic aspects linked to the process of transformation, handling and transport of these materials. This paper reports results on a comparison between two chippers of similar size using different cutting technology: disc and drum tool respectively. During trials, fuel consumption, PTO torque and speed, processing time and weight of processed material were recorded. Power demand, fuel consumption, specific energy and productivity were computed. The machine was fed with four different feedstock types (chestnut logs, poplar logs, poplar branches, poplar sawmill residues. 15 repetitions for each combination of feedstock-tool were carried out. The results of this study show that the disc tool requires, depending on the processed material, from 12 to 18% less fuel per unit of material processed than the drum tool, and consequently, from 12 to 16% less specific energy. In particular, the highest difference between tools was found in branches processing whereas the smallest was in poplar logs. Furthermore the results of the investigation indicate, that, in testing conditions, the productivity of drum tool is higher (8% than disc tool.

  13. Optimization model of peach production relevant to input energies – Yield function in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Rahim; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin Badry, Ahmad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of input–output energy used in peach production and to develop an optimal model of production in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. Data were collected from 100 producers by administering a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Farms were selected based on random sampling method. Results revealed that the total energy of production is 47,951.52 MJ/ha and the highest share of energy consumption belongs to chemical fertilizers (35.37%). Consumption of direct energy was 47.4% while indirect energy was 52.6%. Also, Total energy consumption was divided into two groups; renewable and non-renewable (19.2% and 80.8% respectively). Energy use efficiency, Energy productivity, Specific energy and Net energy were calculated as 0.433, 0.228 (kg/MJ), 4.38 (MJ/kg) and −27,161.722 (MJ/ha), respectively. According to the negative sign for Net energy, if special strategy is used, energy dismiss will decrease and negative effect of some parameters could be omitted. In the present case the amount is indicating decimate of production energy. In addition, energy efficiency was not high enough. Some of the input energies were applied to machinery, chemical fertilizer, water irrigation and electricity which had significant effect on increasing production and MPP (marginal physical productivity) was determined for variables. This parameter was positive for energy groups namely; machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer, water irrigation and electricity while it was negative for other kind of energy such as chemical pesticides and human labor. Finally, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy-efficient practices to establish sustainable production systems without disrupting the natural resources. In addition, extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to sustain the natural resources. - Highlights: • Replacing non-renewable energy with renewable

  14. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D.; Karagianni, S.; Pempetzoglou, M.; Sfetsos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  15. Design optimization of radial flux permanent magnetwind generator for highest annual energy input and lower magnet volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, J.; Rajabi-Sebdani, M.; Ebrahimi, B. M. (Univ. of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)); Khan, M. A. (Univ. of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa))

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective optimization method to maximize annual energy input (AEI) and minimize permanent magnet (PM) volume in use. For this purpose, the analytical model of the machine is utilized. Effects of generator specifications on the annual energy input and PM volume are then investigated. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) parameters and dimensions are then optimized using genetic algorithm incorporated with an appropriate objective function. The results show an enhancement in PMSG performance. Finally 2D time stepping finite element method (2D TSFE) is used to verify the analytical results. Comparison of the results validates the optimization method

  16. Monte Carlo modeling of the net effects of coma scattering and thermal reradiation on the energy input to cometary nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.

    1988-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation method is presented that can, to an accuracy of a few percent, calculate the effects of a dusty coma on the total energy input to the cometary nucleus. This method treats nonconservative nonisotropic scattering, as well as the reflection from the nucleus surface. Results are presented as a function of the optical thickness of the dust column in the sun-comet axis. The total energy input to the nucleus appears to be only weakly dependent on the opacity of the coma, the radial distribution of the dust, or the details of the extinction processes. 18 references

  17. Simulation Study on the Effect of Reduced Inputs of Artificial Neural Networks on the Predictive Performance of the Solar Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahiba Yaïci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong growth in solar power generation industries. The need for highly efficient and optimised solar thermal energy systems, stand-alone or grid connected photovoltaic systems, has substantially increased. This requires the development of efficient and reliable performance prediction capabilities of solar heat and power production over the day. This contribution investigates the effect of the number of input variables on both the accuracy and the reliability of the artificial neural network (ANN method for predicting the performance parameters of a solar energy system. This paper describes the ANN models and the optimisation process in detail for predicting performance. Comparison with experimental data from a solar energy system tested in Ottawa, Canada during two years under different weather conditions demonstrates the good prediction accuracy attainable with each of the models using reduced input variables. However, it is likely true that the degree of model accuracy would gradually decrease with reduced inputs. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the ANN technique is an effective approach for predicting the performance of highly non-linear energy systems. The suitability of the modelling approach using ANNs as a practical engineering tool in renewable energy system performance analysis and prediction is clearly demonstrated.

  18. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  19. Multiple Input Energy Harvesting Systems for Autonomous IoT End-Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J. Estrada-López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet-of-Things (IoT paradigm is under constant development and is being enabled by the latest research work from both industrial and academic communities. Among the many contributions in such diverse areas as sensor manufacturing, network protocols, and wireless communications, energy harvesting techniques stand out as a key enabling technology for the realization of batteryless IoT end-node systems. In this paper, we give an overview of the recent developments in circuit design for ultra-low power management units (PMUs, focusing mainly in the architectures and techniques required for energy harvesting from multiple heterogeneous sources. The paper starts by discussing a general structure for IoT end-nodes and the main characteristics of PMUs for energy harvesting. Then, an overview is given of different published works for multisource power harvesting, observing their main advantages and disadvantages and comparing their performance. Finally, some open areas of research in multisource harvesting are observed and relevant conclusions are given.

  20. A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy...

  1. A grey neural network and input-output combined forecasting model. Primary energy consumption forecasts in Spanish economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiuli; Moreno, Blanca; García, Ana Salomé

    2016-01-01

    A combined forecast of Grey forecasting method and neural network back propagation model, which is called Grey Neural Network and Input-Output Combined Forecasting Model (GNF-IO model), is proposed. A real case of energy consumption forecast is used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The GNF-IO model predicts coal, crude oil, natural gas, renewable and nuclear primary energy consumption volumes by Spain's 36 sub-sectors from 2010 to 2015 according to three different GDP growth scenarios (optimistic, baseline and pessimistic). Model test shows that the proposed model has higher simulation and forecasting accuracy on energy consumption than Grey models separately and other combination methods. The forecasts indicate that the primary energies as coal, crude oil and natural gas will represent on average the 83.6% percent of the total of primary energy consumption, raising concerns about security of supply and energy cost and adding risk for some industrial production processes. Thus, Spanish industry must speed up its transition to an energy-efficiency economy, achieving a cost reduction and increase in the level of self-supply. - Highlights: • Forecasting System Using Grey Models combined with Input-Output Models is proposed. • Primary energy consumption in Spain is used to validate the model. • The grey-based combined model has good forecasting performance. • Natural gas will represent the majority of the total of primary energy consumption. • Concerns about security of supply, energy cost and industry competitiveness are raised.

  2. An extended environmental input-output lifecycle assessment model to study the urban food-energy-water nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, John; Clabeaux, Raeanne; Carbajales-Dale, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We developed a physically-based environmental account of US food production systems and integrated these data into the environmental-input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) model. The extended model was used to characterize the food, energy, and water (FEW) intensities of every US economic sector. The model was then applied to every Bureau of Economic Analysis metropolitan statistical area (MSA) to determine their FEW usages. The extended EIO-LCA model can determine the water resource use (kGal), energy resource use (TJ), and food resource use in units of mass (kg) or energy content (kcal) of any economic activity within the United States. We analyzed every economic sector to determine its FEW intensities per dollar of economic output. This data was applied to each of the 382 MSAs to determine their total and per dollar of GDP FEW usages by allocating MSA economic production to the corresponding FEW intensities of US economic sectors. Additionally, a longitudinal study was performed for the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, metropolitan statistical area to examine trends from this singular MSA and compare it to the overall results. Results show a strong correlation between GDP and energy use, and between food and water use across MSAs. There is also a correlation between GDP and greenhouse gas emissions. The longitudinal study indicates that these correlations can shift alongside a shifting industrial composition. Comparing MSAs on a per GDP basis reveals that central and southern California tend to be more resource intensive than many other parts of the country, while much of Florida has abnormally low resource requirements. Results of this study enable a more complete understanding of food, energy, and water as key ingredients to a functioning economy. With the addition of the food data to the EIO-LCA framework, researchers will be able to better study the food-energy-water nexus and gain insight into how these three vital resources are interconnected

  3. The impacts of removing energy subsidies on economy-wide rebound effects in China: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Jiang, Zhujun

    2016-01-01

    Facing with the increasing contradiction of economic growth, energy scarcity and environmental deterioration, energy conservation and emissions abatement have been ambitious targets for the Chinese government. Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement is a primary measure to achieve these targets. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. This paper adopted a modified input-output model to estimate the economy-wide energy rebound effects across China's economic sectors with the consideration of energy subsidies. The empirical results show that the aggregate rebound effect of China is about 1.9% in 2007–2010, thus technological advancement significantly restrains energy consumption increasing. Removing energy subsidies will cause the aggregate rebound effect declines to 1.53%. Specifically, removing subsidies for coal and nature gas can reduce the rebound effects signifcantly, while removing the subsidies for oil products has a small impact on rebound effect. The existence of rebound effects implies that technological advancement should be cooperated with energy price reform so as to achieve the energy saving target. In addition, the government should consider the diversity of economic sectors and energy types when design the reform schedule. - Highlights: • Rebound effects with the consideration of energy subsidies are estimated in China. • When considering the interactions among sectors, the aggregate rebound effect become small. • Removing subsidies will reduce energy consumption, thereby declining the rebound effects. • Removing subsidies for different energy types has varies effects on rebound effect.

  4. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  5. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  6. Tomorrow's energy needs require intelligent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitsch, R.

    1998-01-01

    With the European wide move towards increased competition and greater deregulation of the energy industry, has come a thrust for greater efficiency and understanding customer needs and external constraints such as the environment. This, in turn, has led to solutions which take advantage of the tremendous developments in information technology and on-line control systems which are described in this paper. Topics include intelligent networks, decentralised energy supplies and decentralised energy management. (UK)

  7. Input-output and energy demand models for Ireland: Data collection report. Part 1: EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E W; Scott, S

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented in support of EXPLOR, an input-output economic model for Ireland. The data follow the listing of exogenous data-sets used by Batelle in document X11/515/77. Data are given for 1974, 1980, and 1985 and consist of household consumption, final demand-production, and commodity prices. (ACR)

  8. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  9. The embodied energy and environmental emissions of construction projects in China: An economic input-output LCA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang Yaowu

    2010-01-01

    A complete understanding of the resource consumption, embodied energy, and environmental emissions of civil projects in China is difficult due to the lack of comprehensive national statistics. To quantitatively assess the energy and environmental impacts of civil construction at a macro-level, this study developed a 24 sector environmental input-output life-cycle assessment model (I-O LCA) based on 2002 Chinese national economic and environmental data. The model generates an economy-wide inventory of energy use and environmental emissions. Estimates based on the level of economic activity related to planned future civil works in 2015 are made. Results indicate that the embodied energy of construction projects accounts for nearly one-sixth of the total economy's energy consumption in 2007, and may account for approximately one-fifth of the total energy use by 2015. This energy consumption is dominated by coal and oil consumptions. Energy-related emissions are the main polluters of the country's atmosphere and environment. If the industry's energy use and manufacturing techniques remain the same as in 2002, challenges to the goals for total energy consumption in China will appear in the next decade. Thus, effective implementation of efficient energy technologies and regulations are indispensable for achieving China's energy and environmental quality goals.

  10. Trends and Effective Use of Energy Input in the Palm Kernel Oil Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamgboye, AI.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at studying the importance and the efficiency of energy use in a few palm kernel oil mills selected for their representativity. Pattern of energy use, the cost of energy per unit product, energy intensity and normalized performance indicator (NPI were determined. Results show that the medium and the large mills depend largely on fossil fuel; while the small mill depends on electricity. It was found out that the large mill has the most effective use of energy with high energy intensity. The annual cost of energy per unit product of N8,360,000 ($64,307.69; N12,262,250 ($94,325 and N13,353,870 ($102, 722.08 were obtained for small, medium and large mills respectively. The NPI results show that there was no wastage of energy through space heating in energy supplied for production within the factory site.

  11. The roles of direct input of energy from the solar wind and unloading of stored magnetotail energy in driving magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, G.; Akasofu, S. I.; Baumjohann, W.; Kamide, Y.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions to the substorm expansive phase of direct energy input from the solar wind and from energy stored in the magnetotail which is released in an unpredictable manner are considered. Two physical processes for the dispensation of the energy input from the solar wind are identified: (1) a driven process in which energy supplied from the solar wind is directly dissipated in the ionosphere; and (2) a loading-unloading process in which energy from the solar wind is first stored in the magnetotail and then is suddenly released to be deposited in the ionosphere. The pattern of substorm development in response to changes in the interplanetary medium has been elucidated for a canonical isolated substorm.

  12. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  13. Energy inputs and outputs and sustainability of corn silage production; Balanco energetico e sutentabilidade na producao de silagem de milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Zanini, Agostinho; Prestes, Tania Maria Vicentini; Dalmolin, Maria Fatima da Silva [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana

    2004-07-01

    The agricultural ecosystem as way of converting solar energy in products, needs several energy sources, among that sources stand out fertilizers, agricultural defensives and others. These inputs are derived from fossils. In the present paper, it was studied the energy flows involved in corn silage production in a no tillage crop system, in Sao Miguel of Iguacu-Parana State/Brazil. In the direct energy flow, the fuels and lubricants were the largest consumers, representing 45.90% of the total, the agricultural defensives were responsible for the consumption of 24.12% of the total, while the fertilizers for 10.53% of the total consumption. By computing the fossil origin components, fuels, lubricants, defensive and fertilizers, the participation of the total consumption of energy was of 84.07%. (author)

  14. Development of input data to energy code for analysis of reactor fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.O.; Todreas, N.E.

    1975-05-01

    The ENERGY 1 code is a semi-empirical method for predicting temperature distributions in wire wrapped rod bundles of a LMFBR. A comparison of ENERGY 1 and MISTRAL 2 is presented. The predictions of ENERGY 1 for special sets of data taken under geometric conditions at the limits of the code are analyzed. 14 references

  15. Impact of high-latitude energy input on the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    High-latitude energy input has a profound impact on the ionosphere and thermosphere especially during geomagnetic storms. Intense auroral particle precipitation ionizes neutral gases and modifies ionospheric conductivity; collisions between neutrals and fast-moving ions accelerate the neutral winds and produce Joule frictional heating; and the excess Joule and particle heating causes atmospheric upwelling and changes neutral composition due to the rising of the heavier, molecular-rich air. In addition, impulsive Joule heating launches large-scale gravity waves that propagate equatorward toward middle and low latitudes and even into the opposite hemisphere, altering the mean global circulation of the thermosphere. Furthermore, high-latitude electric field can also directly penetrate to lower latitudes under rapidly changing external conditions, causing prompt ionospheric variations in the mid- and low-latitude regions. To study the effects of high-latitude energy input, we apply the different convection and auroral precipitation patterns based on both empirical models and the AMIE outputs. We investigate how the mid- and low-latitude regions respond to the different specifications of high-latitude energy input. The main purpose of the study is to delineate the various dynamical, electrodynamical, and chemical processes and to determine their relative importance in the resulting ionospheric and thermospheric properties at mid and low latitudes.

  16. MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS FOR THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R. C.; Skeen, C. H.

    1963-03-15

    The fundamentals of the thermionic energy conversion and its potential applications are reviewed. Materials problems associated with thermionic emitters are considered in relation to the following: work function; emissivity; vaporization; thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties; chemical stability; permeation; and stability under nuclear radiation. Cesium purity and materials suitable for collectors, electrical leads, support structures, insulators, and seals are also discussed. Experimental work on problems involved is reviewed. It is concluded that significant developments have occurred recently in all areas of thermionic energy conversion. (40 references) (A.G.W.)

  17. Substitution between energy and classical factor inputs in the Chinese steel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Russell; Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Shi, Hongliang

    2011-01-01

    China's steel sector is the largest in the world and has been a major driving force behind China's high rate of economic growth. This sector, however, is also a major consumer of energy and, in particular, coal. As a result, the iron and steel sector in China is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. In this article we examine the potential for inter-factor substitution between capital, energy and labor in the Chinese steel sector and find that capital and energy and energy and labor are substitutes. This result suggests that removal of price ceilings on energy would tend to reduce energy use and increase capital intensiveness. While the potential for substitution between energy and labor is less than that between energy and capital, the elasticity of substitution between energy and labor is high compared with previous findings for other countries. This fact suggests that there may be potential for substituting labor for energy, given China's abundance of labor.

  18. TASS/SMR Code Topical Report for SMART Plant, Vol II: User's Guide and Input Requirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Rae (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The TASS/SMR code has been developed with domestic technologies for the safety analysis of the SMART plant which is an integral type pressurized water reactor. It can be applied to the analysis of design basis accidents including non-LOCA (loss of coolant accident) and LOCA of the SMART plant. The TASS/SMR code can be applied to any plant regardless of the structural characteristics of a reactor since the code solves the same governing equations for both the primary and secondary system. The code has been developed to meet the requirements of the safety analysis code. This report describes the overall structure of the TASS/SMR, input processing, and the processes of a steady state and transient calculations. In addition, basic differential equations, finite difference equations, state relationships, and constitutive models are described in the report. First, the conservation equations, a discretization process for numerical analysis, search method for state relationship are described. Then, a core power model, heat transfer models, physical models for various components, and control and trip models are explained.

  19. Requirements for success in competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, E.

    1997-01-01

    A summary of a lecture delivered to the Institute of Energy on a power generator's experience of the UK competitive electricity market is given. It is concluded that privatization has met the public interest better than nationalisation and that the future lies in international growth and globalisation. (UK)

  20. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  1. Reliability of LCI considering the uncertainties of energy consumptions in input-output analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Ishitani, H.; Kudoh, Y.; Okuma, H.; Kobayashi, O.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion of input-coefficients in input-output (I-O) tables and the effect on LCA results are evaluated, utilizing the data for compiling the I-O tables. CO 2 emission intensity and its variance with each commodity and service categorized in the I-O tables are estimated and applied to the LCA of a specific passenger car. Calculated results show that coefficients of variation (CV) of CO 2 -emission intensity are about 0.8 for the intermediate commodities which are frequently assessed in LCA. CO 2 emissions induced by the production of the passenger car and the CV of the emissions are estimated at 1.3 Mg-C and 0.14, respectively. The value of CV is smaller than that of the most intermediate commodities since the CV of total emissions decreases as the number of components of the passenger car increases. Although emissions intensity itself given by I-O tables has large variance, I-O tables are still useful tools for LCA if the number of components of a product is large enough. (author)

  2. Distribution of large-earthquake input energy in viscous damped outrigger structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Beltran, M.G.; Turan, Gursoy; Yildirim, Umut

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analytical framework to assess the distribution of seismic energy in outrigger structures equipped with viscous dampers. The principle of damped outriggers for seismic control applications lies on the assumption that the total earthquake energy will be absorbed by the

  3. Development, validation and application of a fixed district heating model structure that requires small amounts of input data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberg, Magnus; Widén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A fixed model structure for cost-optimisaton studies of DH systems is developed. • A method for approximating heat demands using outdoor temperature data is developed. • Six different Swedish district heating systems are modelled and studied. • The impact of heat demand change on heat and electricity production is examined. • Reduced heat demand leads to less use of fossil fuels and biomass in the modelled systems. - Abstract: Reducing the energy use of buildings is an important part in reaching the European energy efficiency targets. Consequently, local energy systems need to adapt to a lower demand for heating. A 90% of Swedish multi-family residential buildings use district heating (DH) produced in Sweden’s over 400 DH systems, which use different heat production technologies and fuels. DH system modelling results obtained until now are mostly for particular DH systems and cannot be easily generalised. Here, a fixed model structure (FMS) based on linear programming for cost-optimisaton studies of DH systems is developed requiring only general DH system information. A method for approximating heat demands based on local outdoor temperature data is also developed. A scenario is studied where the FMS is applied to six Swedish DH systems and heat demands are reduced due to energy efficiency improvements in buildings. The results show that the FMS is a useful tool for DH system optimisation studies and that building energy efficiency improvements lead to reduced use of fossil fuels and biomass in DH systems. Also, the share of CHP in the production mix is increased in five of the six DH systems when the heat demand is reduced

  4. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption

  5. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J., E-mail: skoester@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.

  6. Impact of chashma right-canal on energy-inputs and crop production in dera ismail khan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Rehman, A.; Singh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the patterns of energy-consumption and their relationship with crop-production and poverty-alleviation of the farming community, before and after the completion of Chashma Right-Bank Canal (CRBC) Project. A survey was made of daily inputs of energy for crop-production operations on more than 60 crop plots of 10 farms in three villages. The selection of farms in the villages was based on the financial condition of the farmers, as judged by the main power-source (bullock or tractor) that the farmer uses on his farm. Sources of energy recorded on biweekly basis were: human labor, bullocks and tractors. Crops-yields and values of output were recorded. Energy-inputs were computed on per hectare basis by summing the energy inputs to all crop-plots. Results indicated that the use of tractors does result in a reduction of human labor-hours and bullock-energy on per hectare basis. Due to lack of a permanent source of irrigation (crops were dependent on rain and floodwater), the crop-yield in the study areas was low before CRBC improvement work. Moreover, floods also damaged the crops on some plots before harvesting; therefore the consumption of energy on both bullock-operated farms (BOF) and Tractor-Operated Farms (TOF) was very low in the 1992-93 year. Post CRBC project, during 1997-98 and 2000-2001, the farms used more energy. In 1997-98, TOF obtained higher wheat-yields than BOF. However, in 2000-2001, both BOF and TOF were using tractors as their main power source, which indirectly indicated a reduction 'in poverty. As the yields and therefore crop-values were higher on TOF than BOF, the TOF obtained higher gross margins. Cost of production was low in 1992-93, but the crop-values were also low, so the gross margins remained low. Results indicate that there will be an increase in production and a reduction in cost of production through mechanized farming, however, there will be an increase in energy

  7. Implications of the stagnation line model for energy input through the dayside magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Semenov, V.S.; Heyn, M.F.; Biernat, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the formation of a stagnation line at the magnetopause the electromagnetic energy transport from the solar wind into the dayside magnetosphere is analyzed. The resulting energy flux is analyzed. The resulting energy flux is proportional to v/sub infinity/B/sub infinity/sin 2 (theta/sub infinity/-phi/sub infinity/), where v/sub infinity/ and B/sub infinity/ are the solar wind speed and magnetic field and theta/sub infinity/-phi/sub s/infinity is the angle between the IMF and the stagnation line projected into the interplanetary space. A stagnation line parallel to the separator gives approximately the sin 4 (theta/sub infinity//2) energy flux dependence of Akasofu's epsilon-index

  8. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  9. Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodoo, Ambrose; Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Gustavsson, Leif

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9–14 kWh/m"2 depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. - Highlights: • Energy balances are modelled for conventional and efficient variants of a building. • Influence of assumptions and parameter combinations and variations are explored. • Parameter interactions influence is apparent as more single parameters are varied. • Calculated space heating demand is notably affected by how heat gains are modelled.

  10. RdgB2 is required for dim-light input into intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marquis T; Rupp, Alan; Elsaesser, Rebecca; Güler, Ali D; Sheng, Wenlong; Weng, Shijun; Berson, David M; Hattar, Samer; Montell, Craig

    2015-10-15

    A subset of retinal ganglion cells is intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) and contributes directly to the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment under bright-light conditions. ipRGCs are also indirectly activated by light through cellular circuits initiated in rods and cones. A mammalian homologue (RdgB2) of a phosphoinositide transfer/exchange protein that functions in Drosophila phototransduction is expressed in the retinal ganglion cell layer. This raised the possibility that RdgB2 might function in the intrinsic light response in ipRGCs, which depends on a cascade reminiscent of Drosophila phototransduction. Here we found that under high light intensities, RdgB2(-/-) mutant mice showed normal pupillary light responses and circadian photoentrainment. Consistent with this behavioral phenotype, the intrinsic light responses of ipRGCs in RdgB2(-/-) were indistinguishable from wild-type. In contrast, under low-light conditions, RdgB2(-/-) mutants displayed defects in both circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light response. The RdgB2 protein was not expressed in ipRGCs but was in GABAergic amacrine cells, which provided inhibitory feedback onto bipolar cells. We propose that RdgB2 is required in a cellular circuit that transduces light input from rods to bipolar cells that are coupled to GABAergic amacrine cells and ultimately to ipRGCs, thereby enabling ipRGCs to respond to dim light. © 2015 Walker et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Modelling of capital requirements in the energy sector: capital market access. Final memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Formal modelling techniques for analyzing the capital requirements of energy industries have been performed at DOE. A survey has been undertaken of a number of models which forecast energy-sector capital requirements or which detail the interactions of the energy sector and the economy. Models are identified which can be useful as prototypes for some portion of DOE's modelling needs. The models are examined to determine any useful data bases which could serve as inputs to an original DOE model. A selected group of models are examined which can comply with the stated capabilities. The data sources being used by these models are covered and a catalog of the relevant data bases is provided. The models covered are: capital markets and capital availability models (Fossil 1, Bankers Trust Co., DRI Macro Model); models of physical capital requirements (Bechtel Supply Planning Model, ICF Oil and Gas Model and Coal Model, Stanford Research Institute National Energy Model); macroeconomic forecasting models with input-output analysis capabilities (Wharton Annual Long-Term Forecasting Model, Brookhaven/University of Illinois Model, Hudson-Jorgenson/Brookhaven Model); utility models (MIT Regional Electricity Model-Baughman Joskow, Teknekron Electric Utility Simulation Model); and others (DRI Energy Model, DRI/Zimmerman Coal Model, and Oak Ridge Residential Energy Use Model).

  12. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  13. Improving power output of inertial energy harvesters by employing principal component analysis of input acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of principal component analysis to process the measured acceleration data in order to determine the direction of acceleration with the highest variance on given frequency of interest. This method can be used for improving the power generated by inertial energy harvesters. Their power output is highly dependent on the excitation acceleration magnitude and frequency, but the axes of acceleration measurements might not always be perfectly aligned with the directions of movement, and therefore the generated power output might be severely underestimated in simulations, possibly leading to false conclusions about the feasibility of using the inertial energy harvester for the examined application.

  14. Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babarit, Aurélien; Bull, Diana; Dykes, Katherine; Malins, Robert; Nielsen, Kim; Costello, Ronan; Roberts, Jesse; Bittencourt Ferreira, Claudio; Kennedy, Ben; Weber, Jochem

    2017-12-01

    In this study, systems engineering techniques are applied to wave energy to identify and specify stakeholders' requirements for a commercially successful wave energy farm. The focus is on the continental scale utility market. Lifecycle stages and stakeholders are identified. Stakeholders' needs across the whole lifecycle of the wave energy farm are analyzed. A list of 33 stakeholder requirements are identified and specified. This list of requirements should serve as components of a technology performance level metric that could be used by investors and funding agencies to make informed decisions when allocating resources. It is hoped that the technology performance level metric will accelerate wave energy conversion technology convergence.

  15. Chinese regional industrial energy efficiency evaluation based on a DEA model of fixing non-energy inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, G.-M.; Bi Jun; Wang Jinnan

    2010-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently become a popular method in measuring energy efficiency at the macro-economy level. However, previous studies are limited in that they failed to consider the issues of undesirable outputs and minimisation of energy consumption. Thus, this study considers both factors in measuring Chinese industrial energy efficiency and investigates the maximum energy-saving potential in 28 administrative regions in China. The results show that industries in the east area have the best average energy efficiency for the period 2000-2006, followed by the central area. Further, after comparing the industrial energy overall efficiency, pure technical efficiency (IEPTE), and scale efficiency of the 28 administrative regions examined, the study finds that in most regions of this study, the two main reasons causing the wastage of a large amount of energy during the industrial production process are that the industrial structure of most regions still relies on the massive use of energy in order to support the industrial-based economy and the IEPTE is too low. Based on these findings, this paper correspondingly proposes some policies to improve regional industrial energy efficiency.

  16. Investment requirements in the energy sector and their financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, R.; Radtke, G.; Stoessel, R.

    1980-01-01

    The authors investigate the investment requirements of the energy economy, especially for the Federal Republic Germany, but also for parts of the world. Possibilities for financing are shown which can be considered as assured, under certain conditions. Included are the investments and the capital requirements for the fossil energy-carriers (coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas), for the electricity economy and for the regenerativ energy sources (e.g. tidal energy, wind, solar radiation). The last chapter deals with financing the necessary investments in the energy sector, considering the financing structure, financial problems of individual branches and the development of the credit volume. (orig.) [de

  17. Investment requirements in the energy sector and their financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, R; Radtke, G; Stoessel, R [Dresdner Bank A.G., Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-01-01

    The authors investigate the investment requirements of the energy economy, especially for the Federal Republic Germany, but also for parts of the world. Possibilities for financing are shown which can be considered as assured, under certain conditions. Included are the investments and the capital requirements for the fossil energy-carriers (coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas), for the electricity economy and for the regenerativ energy sources (e.g. tidal energy, wind, solar radiation). The last chapter deals with financing the necessary investments in the energy sector, considering the financing structure, financial problems of individual branches and the development of the credit volume.

  18. The science and the technology like input for the environmental administration of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    It is presented an analysis of the scientific-technological dynamics of Colombia in function of the environmental administration of the energy sector. The importance of the investigation is emphasized the flow of knowledge in terms of the competitiveness and environmental effectiveness of the electric, oil and carboniferous companies. Of critical way and positive, the effective of the institution is evaluated and relative suggestions are made to the interaction and coordination inter-institutional. Some of the variables that condition the offer and demand of science and technology are discussed and, with base in it, they think about elements to be kept in mind in the design and implementation of strategies and politics of environmental investigation for the energy sector

  19. Partitioning of Electromagnetic Energy Inputs to the Thermosphere during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    boundary of a local flux tube volume is an equipotential . Figure 4 contains maps of Poynting flux normal to a 500 km altitude surface and maps of height...as a cell quantity throughout its computational volume, we are able to generate maps of the Poynting flux, ⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ , on altitude surfaces at...the top of the thermosphere. We used separate modules to integrate the Poynting flux over this surface to compute the total electromagnetic energy

  20. A forecast of energy requirements in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotze, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adequacy of South Africa's energy resources relative to projected demands. The forecasting procedure embraces the construction of suitable energy balances and the development of econometric demand models. An energy balance is employed which integrates supply and demand data on all forms of energy for a particular year. The demand side of the balance is divided into both final demand and demand by the conversion sector. Useful energy consumption in each sector is estimated by applying utilisation efficiency co-efficients to the physics energy content of each energy form. Total final demand is determined by developing sub-models for each sector of final demand including households, industry, mining and transport. In these sub-models, economic series representing the type of activity in the particular sub-sector, are used as explanatory variables. Further relationships, quantifying the contributions of each form of energy to the sectorial totals, are constructed. Having established the future value of final useful energy demand, total future production and final consumption is obtained. The forecast of primary energy requirements is therefore made via a reversed calculation from the final energy demand through all conversion processes to the primary energy stage. Once the future distribution of energy by source, form and end use sector is known it is possible to plan the optimum allocation of energy resources in the country. It is also possible to evaluate the life of indigenous energy resources, their adequacy, and import requirements

  1. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  2. Sampling the fermi distribution for β-decay energy input to EGS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Liu, J.

    1992-06-01

    A general method is presented for sampling the kinetic energy of electrons emitted during the β-decay process. Two computer codes (BETACDF and BETASAM) have been created to demonstrate and check the sampling scheme. The main purpose of this exercise is to come up with a convenient way to incorporate β-spectra sampling as a front-end to the EGS4 code. This should aid in the solution of a number of problems of current interest, ranging from the design of detectors for experiments in search of 17-keV neutrinos, to establishing a better understanding of the role of β rays in the dosimetry around SLAC beam device

  3. Effects of temperature and input energy on a quasi-three-level emission cross section of Nd3+:YAG pumped by a flashlamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourmand Seyed Ebrahim; Bidin Noriah; Bakhtiar Hazri

    2012-01-01

    The influence of temperature and input energy on the fluorescence emission cross section of Nd 3+ :YAG crystal is studied. The stimulated emission cross sections of quasi-three-level systems are determined in a temperature range from −30 to 60°C and an input energy range from 18 to 75 J. The cross section is found to be decreased when the temperature and the input energy are increased. This is attributed to the thermal broadening mechanism of the emission line. This study is relevant for the development of laser design

  4. Reducing Energy Degradation Due to Back-bombardment Effect with Modulated RF Input in S-band Thermionic RF Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Toshiteru; Nakai, Yoko; Fukui, Toshio; Zen, Heishun; Kusukame, Kohichi; Okawachi, Norihito; Nakano, Masatsugu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Energy degradation due to back-bombardment effect is quite serious to produce high-brightness electron beam with long macro-pulse with thermionic rf gun. To avoid the back-bombardment problem, a laser photo cathode is used at many FEL facilities, but usually it costs high and not easy to operate. Thus we have studied long pulse operation of the rf gun with thermionic cathode, which is inexpensive and easy to operate compared to the photocathode rf gun. In this work, to reduce the energy degradation, we controlled input rf power amplitude by controlling pulse forming network of the power modulator for klystron. We have successfully increased the pulse duration up to 4 μs by increasing the rf power from 7.8 MW to 8.5 MW during the macro pulse.

  5. Development of the world energy requirement until 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1977-01-01

    In its final report entitled 'Energy Global Prospects 1985 - 2000' and in three technical reports the Workshop on Alternative Energy Strategies (WAES), which was attended by 70 experts from 15 countries, in the summer of this year published the first worldwide forecast of the energy requirement up to the year 2000. The uncertainties affecting the long term development caused the WAES to employ a scenario in which the variables were economic growth, price levels of energy (and oil, respectively), and energy policy. Additional variables included to describe the long term problems arising in meeting the energy requirement are the coal vs. nuclear power alternative, the gross additions to the oil reserves, and assumptions about OPEC production limits. In view of the long lead times of technological developments and the extraordinarily high capital investments involved, rethinking is necessary right now, according to the WAES study, to find a possibility to change to other sources of fossil energy, nuclear power and, finally, renewable sources of energy, in view of the impending scarcity of the most important present source of energy, i.e., oil. Since the chances to meet a growing energy requirement by natural gas are viewed sceptically and a major contribution of new sources of energy is not expected to come forth before the next century, coal and nuclear power will be the main sources of energy supply for a foreseeable period of time to come. (orig.) [de

  6. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  7. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  8. Energy requirement for fine grinding of torrefied wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repellin, Vincent; Govin, Alexandre; Guyonnet, Rene [Department of Powder and Multi-Components Materials (PMMC), SPIN Research Center, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne (EMSE), 158 Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Rolland, Matthieu [Process Developments and Engineering Division, Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP-Lyon), F-69390 Vernaison (France)

    2010-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of torrefaction on wood grinding energy. Wood chips were torrefied at different temperatures and durations. The energy required to obtain fine powder was measured. Particle size analyses were carried out on each powder sample. It is showed that torrefaction decreases both grinding energy and particle size distribution. A criterion to compare grindability of natural and torrefied wood is proposed. It takes into account both grinding energy and particle size distribution. It accounts the energy required for grinding particles to sizes inferior to 200 {mu}m, for given grinding conditions. Torrefaction is characterised by the anhydrous weight loss (AWL) of wood. For AWL inferior to around 8%, grinding energy decreases fast. Over 8%, grinding energy decreases at a slow rate. Particle size distribution decreases linearly as the AWL increases. Both for spruce and beech, the grinding criterion is decreased of 93% when the AWL is around 28%. (author)

  9. Development and supply of the world energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, E.

    1981-01-01

    Recently published research reveals that the world energy requirement can and must grow more slowly than previously anticipated. In order to supply developing nations with the energy necessary for the expansion of their economies, energy saving and oil substitution assume greater significance in the industrialised countries such as the Federal Republic. Future fulfillment of the world energy requirement will be characterised by escalating costs for supply, especially for the current main energy carrier oil, on the one hand and by increased use of coal and nuclear energy as well unconventional fossils such as regenerative energies on the other. Nuclear energy and thus the electricity economy must play a key function in the future energy supply of industrial nations such as Federal Germany. Nuclear energy enables, both directly and indirectly, the substitution of oil in the heat market, supplies the process heat required for coal production and, due to the ease of storage or uranium, provides a hedge against fluctuations on the world energy market. (orig.) [de

  10. The energy requirement of holidays and household reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, M.; Vringer, K.

    1999-12-01

    Like all consumer products and services, holidays require energy. The aim of this study is to give insight to the energy consumption for holidays of Dutch households and to suggest options to reduce this energy demand. To examine the energy consumption for holidays, nine holiday packages are composed, each representing a large group of Dutch vacationers. The packages describe the destination, means of transport, duration, accommodation and number of vacationers. The average energy requirement for the accommodation and transport for long summer holidays is 12.5 GJ per Dutch household, excluding the energy requirement for food and activities. About 10% of the Dutch households, the ones that travel by plane to their holiday destination, consume 70% of the total amount of energy all households require for holiday purposes. This is mainly due to the distance travelled, rather than to the chosen means of transport. If the travelled distances will be reduced by 50% and all nights are spent in a tent, the average household energy requirement would be 6.1 GJ, a reduction of more than 50%. 36 refs

  11. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-02-10

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centres of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and their host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies, have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that, in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  12. The impact on chinese economic growth and energy consumption of the Global Financial Crisis: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Xie, Naiming

    2010-01-01

    The dependence on foreign trade increased sharply in China, and therefore Chinese economy is obviously export-oriented. The Global Financial Crisis will impact the Chinese economic growth violently. Chinese government has recently adopted some effective measures to fight against the Global Financial Crisis. The most important measure is the 4 trillion Yuan ($586 billion) stimulus plan which was announced on November 9, 2008. This paper discusses the influence on energy consumption and economic growth of Global Financial Crisis and the stimulus plan against it by input-output analysis. The results show that the fall of exports caused by the Global Financial Crisis will lead to a decrease of 7.33% in GDP (Gross Domestic Production) and a reduction of 9.21% in energy consumption; the stimulus plan against the Global Financial Crisis will lead to an increase of 4.43% in economic growth and an increase of 1.83% in energy consumption; In the Global Financial Crisis, energy consumption per unit GDP will fall in China. (author)

  13. The German energy policy: between national requirements and community exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic and economic stakes that are associated with the security of energy supplies, the German federal government has made of this question one of the priorities of its european presidency. In this note, the author observes a radical change in the German energy policy with the future phaseout of nuclear energy and the perspectives of Russian gas supply. The author also reviews the challenges of the elaboration of a European energy policy, with certain member States refusing to transfer their sovereignty in the energy domain, and the large split between national requirements and community exigencies in this field

  14. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  15. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  16. Energy requirements during sponge cake baking: Experimental and simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureta, M. Micaela; Goñi, Sandro M.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Olivera, Daniela F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sponge cake energy consumption during baking was studied. • High oven temperature and forced convection mode favours oven energy savings. • Forced convection produced higher weight loss thus a higher product energy demand. • Product energy demand was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied. • The greatest energy efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode. - Abstract: Baking is a high energy demanding process, which requires special attention in order to know and improve its efficiency. In this work, energy consumption associated to sponge cake baking is investigated. A wide range of operative conditions (two ovens, three convection modes, three oven temperatures) were compared. Experimental oven energy consumption was estimated taking into account the heating resistances power and a usage factor. Product energy demand was estimated from both experimental and modeling approaches considering sensible and latent heat. Oven energy consumption results showed that high oven temperature and forced convection mode favours energy savings. Regarding product energy demand, forced convection produced faster and higher weight loss inducing a higher energy demand. Besides, this parameter was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied, with an average error between experimental and simulated values in a range of 8.0–10.1%. Finally, the energy efficiency results indicated that it increased linearly with the effective oven temperature and that the greatest efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode.

  17. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatten, Mike [Solarc Energy Group, LLC, Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Cooper, Matthew [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research is to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.

  18. Analysis of the energy requirement for household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    Humans in households use energy for their activities. This use is both direct, for example electricity and natural gas, but also indirect, for the production, transport and trade of other goods and services. The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into the energy requirement associated

  19. A comparative multivariate analysis of household energy requirements in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, India and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzen, M. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics; Wier, M. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark). Danish Research Institute of Food Economics; Cohen, C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia; Hayami, Hitoshi [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Keio Economic Observatory; Pachauri, S. [Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Schaeffer, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). COPPE

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we appraise sustainable household consumption from a global perspective. Using per capita energy requirements as an indicator of environmental pressure, we focus on the importance of income growth in a cross-country analysis. Our analysis is supported by a detailed within-country analysis encompassing five countries, in which we assess the importance of various socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of household energy requirements. We bring together family expenditure survey data, input-output tables, and energy statistics in a multivariate analysis. Instead of a uniform Kuznet's curve, we find that the effect of increasing income varies considerably across countries, even when controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variations. The latter variables show similar influences, but differing importance across countries. (author)

  20. Quantifying the risk of an increase in the prices of non-energy products by combining the portfolio and input-output approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kengo; Uchiyama, Yohji

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the price of imported fossil fuels indirectly increases the producer price in non-energy sectors; however, this indirect influence cannot be taken into account by the traditional portfolio approach. This study proposes an analytical framework combining the input-output (I-O) model and the portfolio approach that can take the indirect influence into account. A risk of an increase in the producer price in Japanese non-energy sectors during the period 1970-2000 is estimated, and the causes of a decrease in the risk through the analysis period are clarified by decomposing an index of the risk. The result indicates that almost all non-energy sectors have decreased this risk during the analysis period. The degree and cause of the decrease depends on a sector's location in the hierarchical structure of Japanese industries. For example, assembly sectors have decreased their risk mainly as the result of improvement in energy usage by upstream sectors, such as material sectors, rather than their own improvements. Proper policies considering such a structure are required to decrease the risk further because the effort taken to do so is seldom motivated by economic profit.

  1. Quantifying Energy and Mass Fluxes Controlling Godthåbsfjord Freshwater Input in a 5-km Simulation (1991–2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, P.L.; Mottram, R.H.; Christensen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater runoff to fjords with marine-terminating glaciers along the Greenland Ice Sheet margin has an impact on fjord circulation and potentially ice sheet mass balance through increasing heat transport to the glacier front. Here, the authors use the high-resolution (5.5 km) HIRHAM5 regional...... with observations (typically .0.9), there are biases that impact the results. In particular, overestimated albedo leads to underestimation of melt and runoff at low elevations. In the model simulation (1991–2012), the ice sheet experiences increasing energy input from the surface turbulent heat flux (up...... to elevations of 2000m) and shortwave radiation (at all elevations). Southerly wind anomalies and declining cloudiness due to an increase in atmospheric pressure over north Greenland contribute to increased summer melt. This results in declining surface mass balance (SMB), increasing surface runoff, and upward...

  2. Modulation of dayside on and neutral distributions at Venus Evidence of direct and indirect solar energy inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Cloutier, P. A.; Barnes, A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The details of solar variability and its coupled effects on the Venusian dayside are examined for evidence of short-term perturbations and associated energy inputs. Ion and neutral measurements obtained from the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer and Orbital Neutral mass Spectrometer are used to show that the dayside concentrations of CO2(+) and the neutral gas temperature are smoothly modulated with a 28-day cycle reasonably matching that of the solar F(10.7) and EUV fluxes. Earlier measurements show less pronounced and more irregular modulations and more conspicuous short-term day-to-day fluctuations in the ions and neutrals, as well as relatively large enhancements in the solar wind, which appear consistent with differences in solar coronal behavior during the two periods. It is suggested that the solar wind variations cause fluctuations in joule heating, producing the observed short-term ion and neutral variations.

  3. Energy requirements for growth in the Yorkshire terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2017-01-01

    The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) equation calculating puppy energy requirements does not account for reported breed differences in growth pattern. Energy requirements of toy breed puppies are unknown and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines should differ between breeds. Energy requirements of Yorkshire terrier (YT) puppies were observed over their first year of life and compared with those predicted by the NRC and those previously observed in large (Labrador retriever) and medium (miniature Schnauzer; MS) breed puppies. Twenty-two puppies (from eight litters) were offered complete and balanced diets to maintain ideal body condition score (BCS). Energy intake, body weight and BCS were recorded from 10 to 52 weeks of age. Every 12 weeks, health was monitored by veterinary examination, routine haematology and plasma biochemistry. Puppies remained clinically healthy with normal skeletal development throughout. After analysis by linear mixed models it was observed that the NRC equation overestimates YT energy requirements between 10 and 20 weeks of age by up to 324·3 (95 % CI 390·4, 258·2) kJ/kg 0·75 . Energy intake was lower ( P  < 0·05) in YT than Labradors until 29 weeks by up to 376·6 (95 % CI 477·4, 275·3) kJ/kg 0·75 and lower than MS between 16 and 25 weeks by up to 216·3 (95 % CI 313·0, 119·7) kJ/kg 0·75 ( P  < 0·05). Data indicate differences in toy, medium and large breed energy requirements for growth. The NRC equation for puppy energy requirements overestimated the requirements of this YT population, suggesting the need for breed-specific feeding guides for growth to avoid overfeeding.

  4. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  5. Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III). Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.

    2004-08-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a critical review of the RIPL-2 file. The new library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  6. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  7. Analysis and Control of Buck-Boost Converter with the Same Input Polarity Based on Novel Energy Factor Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaker Nasr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents firstly a buck-boost circuit with the advantage that its output voltage polarity is the same as the input polarity. The circuit operation is presented and analyzed in different modes of operation. The well known parameters used in evaluation of DC/DC converters like Total Harmonic Distortion THD, Power Factor PF, and Ripple Factor RF have no meaning in DC/DC converters, so it is to introduce efficient concepts to permit a fair evaluation of the converter. This paper present other parameters that can be used to study the characteristics of the converter and gives a real and logic means of its operation. These main parameters are: pumping energy PE, storage energy SE, energy factor EF, and energy losses EL. In addition, the converter efficiency is not considered as 100 % as taken in most analyzing studies. The positive DC/DC buck-boost converter is evaluated according to the new concepts and the system model is deduced for different cases of operation taking into account the resistance of the circuit inductor. The circuit is implemented practically and the presented obtained results show the correct operation under different modes of operation. In addition the control design of the converter is built such that a PI controller with windup is considered. In order to test the effectiveness of the designed control algorithm, the system were exposed to different voltage reference values and the obtained results demonstrate that the system responses for all cases are very acceptable according to the criteria of the control system theory.

  8. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  9. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  10. Changing Energy Requirements in the Mediterranean Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demosthenous

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional climate models run at a resolution of 25 km × 25 km in the framework of EU project ENSEMBLES using the A1B emissions scenario. The impacts of changes in temperature on energy requirements are investigated using the concept of degree days, defined as the difference of mean air temperature from a base temperature. Base temperature should be chosen to coincide with the minimum energy consumption. In this way, changes in heating and cooling requirements between the reference and the future period are calculated and areas about to undergo large changes identified. These changes are calculated between a 30-year reference period 1961–1990 and a near future period 2021–2050 taking the ensemble mean of all regional climate models. The near-term future has been chosen instead of the frequently used end-of-the-century period to assist policy makers in their planning. In general, a decrease in energy requirements is projected under future milder winters and an increase under hotter summers.

  11. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  12. Investment requirements in the energy sector and their financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, R; Radtke, G; Stoesel, R

    1981-06-01

    The present research study illustrates the required volume of investment in the energy sector during the next two decades while referring explicitly to the availability of financial resources. The data for the respective primary energy sources and electric power production relate to the Federal Republic of Germany; still, as far as figures were available, the energy situation of the Western World is taken into account. Starting from the premise that energy needs will continue to grow - albeit at a slower rate -, future investment activity will have to depart from past trends, with their more or less evenly spread recourse to all available primary energy sources, to a substantial reliance on nuclear energy, coal and natural gas as against oil. In addition to the higher capital requirements due to the restructuring of the energy supply, future investment will be characterized by particularly capital-intensive projects and, in addition, by the fact that expensive development schemes must be vigorously pursued. This applies not only to coal gasification and liquifaction but also to regenerative energy sources.

  13. Forecast of wind energy production and ensuring required balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, M.

    2010-01-01

    The wind energy is gaining larger part of the energy mix around the world as well as in Bulgaria. Having in mind the irregularity of the wind, we are in front of a challenge for management of the power grid in new unknown conditions. The world's experience has proven that there could be no effective management of the grid without forecasting tools, even with small scale of wind power penetration. Application of such tools promotes simple management of large wind energy production and reduction of the quantities of required balancing powers. The share of the expenses and efforts for forecasting of the wind energy is incomparably small in comparison with expenses for keeping additional powers in readiness. The recent computers potential allow simple and rapid processing of large quantities of data from different sources, which provides required conditions for modeling the world's climate and producing sophisticated forecast. (author)

  14. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  15. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  16. The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Francis I

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015.

  17. A ‘Carbon Saving Multiplier’ as an alternative to rebound in considering reduced energy supply chain requirements from energy efficiency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen; Katris, Antonios

    2017-01-01

    A growing area of research into rebound effects from increased energy efficiency involves application of demand-driven input-output models to consider indirect energy consumption effects associated with re-spending decisions by households with reduced energy spending requirements. However, there is often a lack of clarity in applied studies as to how indirect effects involving energy use and/or carbon emissions in supply chains of both energy and non-energy goods and services have been calculated. We propose that more transparency for policymakers may be introduced by replacing consideration of what are often referred to as ‘indirect rebound’ effects with a simple Carbon Saving Multiplier metric. We illustrate using results from a demand-driven input-output model that tracks supply chain activity at national and/or global level. We argue that this captures and conveys the same information on quantity adjustments in energy used in supply chain activity but does so in a manner that is more positive, transparent, understandable and useful for a policy audience. This is achieved by focusing (here via carbon emissions) on the net benefits of changes in different types of energy use at both household and supply chain levels when energy efficiency improves in households. - Highlights: • Considers energy supply adjustments when household energy efficiency improves. • Focuses on energy supply chain impacts that may offset direct rebound effects. • Carbon Saving Multiplier proposed as a useful indicator of net energy use benefits.

  18. Energie- en eiwitbehoefte van biologisch gehouden pluimvee = Energy and protein requirements of organic housed poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review, the physiological basis for possible differences in energy and protein requirements of organic versus conventional poultry is investigated. Energy need for maintenance of organic housed poultry seems to be increased, whereas protein requirements might not differ between

  19. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  20. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  1. Energy-efficient houses built according to the energy performance requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet new tighter building energy requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006 and prepare the way for future buildings with even lower energy consumption, single-family houses were built with the purpose to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses with an en......% of the required and almost the level of typical passive houses.......In order to meet new tighter building energy requirements introduced in Denmark in 2006 and prepare the way for future buildings with even lower energy consumption, single-family houses were built with the purpose to demonstrate that it is possible to build typical single-family houses...... with an energy consumption that meets the demands without problems concerning building technology or economy. The paper gives a brief presentation of the houses and the applied energy-saving measures. The paper also presents results from measurements of the overall energy use, indoor climate and air tightness...

  2. Required Assets for a Nuclear Energy Applied R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Craig L. Jacobson

    2009-03-01

    This report is one of a set of three documents that have collectively identified and recommended research and development capabilities that will be required to advance nuclear energy in the next 20 to 50 years. The first report, Nuclear Energy for the Future: Required Research and Development Capabilities—An Industry Perspective, was produced by Battelle Memorial Institute at the request of the Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. That report, drawn from input by industry, academia, and Department of Energy laboratories, can be found in Appendix 5.1. This Idaho National Laboratory report maps the nuclear-specific capabilities from the Battelle report onto facility requirements, identifying options from the set of national laboratory, university, industry, and international facilities. It also identifies significant gaps in the required facility capabilities. The third document, Executive Recommendations for Nuclear R&D Capabilities, is a letter report containing a set of recommendations made by a team of senior executives representing nuclear vendors, utilities, academia, and the national laboratories (at Battelle’s request). That third report can be found in Appendix 5.2. The three reports should be considered as set in order to have a more complete picture. The basis of this report was drawn from three sources: previous Department of Energy reports, workshops and committee meetings, and expert opinion. The facilities discussed were winnowed from several hundred facilities that had previously been catalogued and several additional facilities that had been overlooked in past exercises. The scope of this report is limited to commercial nuclear energy and those things the federal government, or more specifically the Office of Nuclear Energy, should do to support its expanded deployment in order to increase energy security and reduce carbon emissions. In the context of this report, capabilities mean innovative, well-structured research and development programs

  3. Microalgae Oil Production: A Downstream Approach to Energy Requirements for the Minamisoma Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani S. Wibawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of microalgae oil production as an alternative renewable energy source, in a pilot project located at Minamisoma City in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan. The algal communities used in this research were the locally mixed species, which were mainly composed of Desmodesmus collected from the Minamisoma pilot project. The microalgae oil-production processes in Minamisoma consisted of three stages: cultivation, dewatering, and extraction. The estimated theoretical input-energy requirement for extracting oil was 137.25 MJ to process 50 m3 of microalgae, which was divided into cultivation 15.40 MJ, centrifuge 13.39 MJ, drum filter 14.17 MJ, and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL 94.29 MJ. The energy profit ratio (EPR was 1.41. The total energy requirement was highest in the HTL process (68% followed by cultivation (11% and the drum filter (10%. The EPR value increased along with the yield in the cultivation process. Using HTL, the microalgae biomass could be converted to bio-crude oil to increase the oil yield in the extraction process. Therefore, in the long run, the HTL process could help lower production costs, due to the lack of chemical additions, for extracting oil in the downstream estimation of the energy requirements for microalgae oil production.

  4. Energy inputs and outputs in the wheat production at different localizations; Balanco de energia na producao de trigo em diferentes locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollmann, Pedro; Greco, Marcelo; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: jefersonklein@yahoo.com.br; Klein, Jeferson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Palagi, Celso A.; Jurach, Jorge J. [Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agricola Tecnologia da Nossa Terra (COODETEC), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The intensifying and modernization of agriculture, in spite of improving the productivity, it caused a complete petroleum derived dependence, so much in the form of fuels, lubricants and machinery, as in the form of inputs for the production. This work had as objective to esteem the energy inputs and outputs and the energy conversion, in two different local, in the west of Parana State/Brazil. The largest consumption was observed for the direct energy category, with 95.6% and 95.28% in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. In the direct energy flow, the Palotina production spent 5,0% more. The consumption of fossil energy was of 22.32% for the Palotina farm and of 23.84% for the Cascavel farm. The energy conversion was of 3.2 and 1.8, for the wheat productions in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. (author)

  5. The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.A.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article global energy issue is discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas, electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to the production of renewable energy sources like technology of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed. Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail. keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also suggested that availability of all the materials required for the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed. Interest should be developed at the university and other research organization level of Pakistan to do work on polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that they can be practically utilized. (author)

  6. Energy requirements and perceived body discomfort of the various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this preliminary study was to assess the energy cost of the various sub tasks required of workers during manual sugar cane harvesting. A secondary aim was to assess body mass changes, levels of dehydration and body discomfort. Eight workers were randomly selected to participate in this pilot study and ...

  7. Energy requirement for firing porcelain | M. de O. Madivate | Bulletin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from studies on the ternary system Ribaué kaolin–Carapira feldspar– Marracuene quartz sands were used to test a procedure that we developed for calculation of the energy requirement for firing porcelain. Results obtained vary between 1300 and 1800 kJ/kg porcelain. These results differ largely from the ones ...

  8. Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; E.Bodner; Andrew; J.Schmitt; John; D.Sethian

    2013-01-01

    We will review some of the requirements for a laser that would be used with a laser fusion energy power plant, including frequency, spatial beam smoothing, bandwidth, temporal pulse shaping, efficiency, repetition rate, and reliability. The lowest risk and optimum approach uses a krypton fluoride gas laser. A diode-pumped solid-state laser is a possible contender.

  9. Investigation into the influence of laser energy input on selective laser melted thin-walled parts by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhicong; Wu, Weihui

    2018-04-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) provides a feasible way for manufacturing of complex thin-walled parts directly, however, the energy input during SLM process, namely derived from the laser power, scanning speed, layer thickness and scanning space, etc. has great influence on the thin wall's qualities. The aim of this work is to relate the thin wall's parameters (responses), namely track width, surface roughness and hardness to the process parameters considered in this research (laser power, scanning speed and layer thickness) and to find out the optimal manufacturing conditions. Design of experiment (DoE) was used by implementing composite central design to achieve better manufacturing qualities. Mathematical models derived from the statistical analysis were used to establish the relationships between the process parameters and the responses. Also, the effects of process parameters on each response were determined. Then, a numerical optimization was performed to find out the optimal process set at which the quality features are at their desired values. Based on this study, the relationship between process parameters and SLMed thin-walled structure was revealed and thus, the corresponding optimal process parameters can be used to manufactured thin-walled parts with high quality.

  10. Compact toroid challenge experiment with the increasing in the energy input into plasma and the level of trapped magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romadanov, I.V.; Ryzhkov, S.V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Compact torus formation method with high level of magnetic flux is proposed. • A compact torus is produced in a theta-pinch-coil with pulse mode of operation. • Key feature is a pulse of current in an axial direction. • We report a level of linked magnetic flux is higher than theta-pinch results. - Abstract: The present work reports on compact toroid hydrogen plasma creation by means of a specially designed discharge system and results of magnetic fields introduction. Experiments in the compact toroid challenge (CTC) device at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) have been conducted since 2005. The CTC device differs from the conventional theta-pinch formation in the use of an axial current for enhanced efficiency. We have used a novel technique to maximize the flux linked to the plasma. The purpose of this method is to increase the energy input into the plasma and the level of trapped magnetic flux using an additional toroidal magnetic field. A study of compact torus formation with axial and toroidal currents was done and a new method is proposed and implemented.

  11. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  12. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  13. A 2nd generation static model for predicting greenhouse energy inputs, as an aid for production planning

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L

    1985-01-01

    A model which allows accurate prediction of energy consumption of a greenhouse is a useful tool for production planning and optimisation of greenhouse components. To date two types of model have been developed; some very simple models of low precision, others, precise dynamic models unsuitable for employment over long periods and too complex for use in practice. A theoretical study and measurements at the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed development of a new static model named "HORTICERN", easy to use and as precise as more complex dynamic models. This paper demonstrates the potential of this model for long-term production planning. The model gives precise predictions of energy consumption when given greenhouse conditions of use (inside temperatures, dehumidification by ventilation, …) and takes into account local climatic conditions (wind radiative losses to the sky and solar gains), type of greenhouse (cladding, thermal screen …). The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and requires less...

  14. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  15. Initiation of male sperm-transfer behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans requires input from the ventral nerve cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Shahla

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caenorhabditis elegans male exhibits a stereotypic behavioral pattern when attempting to mate. This behavior has been divided into the following steps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion, and sperm transfer. We and others have begun in-depth analyses of all these steps in order to understand how complex behaviors are generated. Here we extend our understanding of the sperm-transfer step of male mating behavior. Results Based on observation of wild-type males and on genetic analysis, we have divided the sperm-transfer step of mating behavior into four sub-steps: initiation, release, continued transfer, and cessation. To begin to understand how these sub-steps of sperm transfer are regulated, we screened for ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS-induced mutations that cause males to transfer sperm aberrantly. We isolated an allele of unc-18, a previously reported member of the Sec1/Munc-18 (SM family of proteins that is necessary for regulated exocytosis in C. elegans motor neurons. Our allele, sy671, is defective in two distinct sub-steps of sperm transfer: initiation and continued transfer. By a series of transgenic site-of-action experiments, we found that motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord require UNC-18 for the initiation of sperm transfer, and that UNC-18 acts downstream or in parallel to the SPV sensory neurons in this process. In addition to this neuronal requirement, we found that non-neuronal expression of UNC-18, in the male gonad, is necessary for the continuation of sperm transfer. Conclusion Our division of sperm-transfer behavior into sub-steps has provided a framework for the further detailed analysis of sperm transfer and its integration with other aspects of mating behavior. By determining the site of action of UNC-18 in sperm-transfer behavior, and its relation to the SPV sensory neurons, we have further defined the cells and tissues involved in the generation of this behavior. We

  16. Initiation of male sperm-transfer behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans requires input from the ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelman, Gary; Whittaker, Allyson J; Thum, Jian Yuan; Gharib, Shahla; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-08-15

    The Caenorhabditis elegans male exhibits a stereotypic behavioral pattern when attempting to mate. This behavior has been divided into the following steps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion, and sperm transfer. We and others have begun in-depth analyses of all these steps in order to understand how complex behaviors are generated. Here we extend our understanding of the sperm-transfer step of male mating behavior. Based on observation of wild-type males and on genetic analysis, we have divided the sperm-transfer step of mating behavior into four sub-steps: initiation, release, continued transfer, and cessation. To begin to understand how these sub-steps of sperm transfer are regulated, we screened for ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutations that cause males to transfer sperm aberrantly. We isolated an allele of unc-18, a previously reported member of the Sec1/Munc-18 (SM) family of proteins that is necessary for regulated exocytosis in C. elegans motor neurons. Our allele, sy671, is defective in two distinct sub-steps of sperm transfer: initiation and continued transfer. By a series of transgenic site-of-action experiments, we found that motor neurons in the ventral nerve cord require UNC-18 for the initiation of sperm transfer, and that UNC-18 acts downstream or in parallel to the SPV sensory neurons in this process. In addition to this neuronal requirement, we found that non-neuronal expression of UNC-18, in the male gonad, is necessary for the continuation of sperm transfer. Our division of sperm-transfer behavior into sub-steps has provided a framework for the further detailed analysis of sperm transfer and its integration with other aspects of mating behavior. By determining the site of action of UNC-18 in sperm-transfer behavior, and its relation to the SPV sensory neurons, we have further defined the cells and tissues involved in the generation of this behavior. We have shown both a neuronal and non-neuronal requirement for

  17. Energy prospects for the Mediterranean area through 2030: a sustainable energy future requires a real energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet-Allal, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean Energy Observatory (MEO), an association of the main energy companies around the Mediterranean, celebrated its 20. anniversary last October. For that occasion, the organisation published a special edition of its magazine GEM, Global Energy for the Mediterranean, which, apart from covering the history of the association, presents an in-depth analysis of the Mediterranean energy market in 2011 and its prospects going out to 2030. This collective assessment, undertaken by a team from MEG, benefited from the expertise of several members of the organization, as well as the inputs from well-known experts from the energy sector. The same survey has also been reviewed in the May 2012 issue of the specialist publication Medenergie. This article has been drawn from that study. (author)

  18. Energy, material and land requirement of a fusion plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte; Hamacher, T.; Cabal, H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy and material necessary to construct a power plant and the land covered by the plant are indicators for the ‘consumption’ of environment by a certain technology. Based on current knowledge, estimations show that the material necessary to construct a fusion plant will exceed the material...... requirement of a fission plant by a factor of two. The material requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 2000 t/MW and little less than 1000 t/MW for a fission plant. The land requirement for a fusion plant is roughly 300 m2/MW and the land requirement for a fission plant is a little less than 200 m2/MW...... less ‘environment’ for the construction than renewable technologies, especially wind and solar....

  19. Key natural analogue input required to build a safety case for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hardie, S.M.L.; Klein, E. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Kawamura, H. [Obayashi Corporation, Nuclear Facilities Division, Tokyo (Japan); Beattie, T.M. [MCM Consulting, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Natural analogues have been previously used to support the safety case for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel, but the focus of such work was very dependent on the key barriers of specific national disposal concepts. Investigations of the feasibility of such disposal in Japan are at an early stage but, nevertheless, it is clear that building a robust safety case will be very challenging and would benefit from focused support from natural analogue studies—both in terms of developing/testing required models and, as importantly, presenting safety arguments to a wide range of stakeholders. This paper identifies key analogues that support both longevity and spread of failure times of massive steel overpacks, the effectiveness of buffering of radiolytic oxidants and the chemical and physical mechanisms retarding release of radionuclides from the engineered barriers. It is concluded that, for countries like Japan where performance needs to be assessed as realistically as possible, natural analogues can complement the existing laboratory and theoretical knowledge base and contribute towards development of a robust safety case. (authors)

  20. Meeting cross-section requirements for nuclear-energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Santoro, R.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Gilai, T. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1982-01-01

    Current requirements in cross-section data that are essential to nuclear-energy programmes are summarized and explained and some insight into how these data might be obtained is provided. The six sections of the paper describe: design parameters and target accuracies; data collection, evaluation and analysis; determination of high-accuracy differential nuclear data for technological applications; status of selected evaluated nuclear data; analysis of benchmark testing; identification of important cross sections and inferred needs.

  1. Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We present the energy use situation in Hong Kong from 1979 to 2001. The primary energy requirement (PER) nearly tripled during the 23-year period, rising from 195,405 TJ to 572,684 TJ. Most of the PER was used for electricity generation, and the electricity use in residential buildings rose from 7556 TJ (2099 GWh) to 32,799 TJ (9111 GWh), an increase of 334%. Air-conditioning accounted for about 40% of the total residential sector electricity consumption. A total of 144 buildings completed in the month of June during 1992-2001 were surveyed. Energy performance of the building envelopes was investigated in terms of the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV). To develop the appropriated parameters used in OTTV calculation, long-term measured weather data such as ambient temperature (1960-2001), horizontal global solar radiation (1992-2001) and global solar radiation on vertical surfaces (1996-2001) were examined. The OTTV found varied from 27 to 44 W/m 2 with a mean value of 37.7 W/m 2 . Building energy simulation technique using DOE-2.1E was employed to determine the cooling requirements and hence electricity use for building envelope designs with different OTTVs. It was found that cooling loads and electricity use could be expressed in terms of a simple two-parameter linear regression equation involving OTTV

  2. GAROS input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollan, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the input for the programs GAROS1 and GAROS2, version 5.8 and later, February 1988. The GAROS system, developed by Arne Vollan, Omega GmbH, is used for the analysis of the mechanical and aeroelastic properties for general rotating systems. It has been specially designed to meet the requirements of aeroelastic stability and dynamic response of horizontal axis wind energy converters. Some of the special characteristics are: * The rotor may have one or more blades. * The blades may be rigidly attached to the hub, or they may be fully articulated. * The full elastic properties of the blades, the hub, the machine house and the tower are taken into account. * With the same basic model, a number of different analyses can be performed: Snap-shot analysis, Floquet method, transient response analysis, frequency response analysis etc.

  3. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ashfaq; Alahmari, Abdulrahman M; Mohammed, Muneer Khan; Renganayagalu, Ravi Kottan; Moiduddin, Khaja

    2017-02-21

    Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM), an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  4. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM, an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  5. Effect of heat-insulating wall on input energy of a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system for a residence; Jutaku no kodannetsuka ni yoru taiyoko netsu/taiki netsu system no donyu energy sakugen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A proposal was made to introduce a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system which positively utilizes natural energy in order to curtail consumption of fossil energy, corroborating that the system has greatly reduced energy input in the primary energy level in a house. This paper examines the effect of curtailment of energy input in the case of reducing the load of air conditioning through the high heat insulation of a house. The energy input was evaluated by calculating additional equipment energy needed newly for the high heat insulation. The system performance and the energy load varied greatly depending on weather conditions. The subject system consisted of solar cells, inverter, heat concentrator, heat storage tank, heat pump and gas hot-water supply device. The thickening of the insulation sharply reduced heating load in the house, thereby decreasing fuel energy substantially. An insulation material of 100mm thick was capable of reducing energy input by 16-23% compared with that of 50mm thick. 5 refs., 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. Energy requirements, protein-energy metabolism and balance, and carbohydrates in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Denne, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Energy is necessary for all vital functions of the body at molecular, cellular, organ, and systemic levels. Preterm infants have minimum energy requirements for basal metabolism and growth, but also have requirements for unique physiology and metabolism that influence energy expenditure. These include body size, postnatal age, physical activity, dietary intake, environmental temperatures, energy losses in the stool and urine, and clinical conditions and diseases, as well as changes in body composition. Both energy and protein are necessary to produce normal rates of growth. Carbohydrates (primarily glucose) are principle sources of energy for the brain and heart until lipid oxidation develops over several days to weeks after birth. A higher protein/energy ratio is necessary in most preterm infants to approximate normal intrauterine growth rates. Lean tissue is predominantly produced during early gestation, which continues through to term. During later gestation, fat accretion in adipose tissue adds increasingly large caloric requirements to the lean tissue growth. Once protein intake is sufficient to promote net lean body accretion, additional energy primarily produces more body fat, which increases almost linearly at energy intakes >80-90 kcal/kg/day in normal, healthy preterm infants. Rapid gains in adiposity have the potential to produce later life obesity, an increasingly recognized risk of excessive energy intake. In addition to fundamental requirements for glucose, protein, and fat, a variety of non-glucose carbohydrates found in human milk may have important roles in promoting growth and development, as well as production of a gut microbiome that could protect against necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  8. Generator Requirements For Rural Electrification From Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzune Mipoung, Olivare; Pragasen, Pillay

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the issue of rural electrification from renewable energy. A brief introduction on biomass and wind electrical systems is given. The aim of this research is to propose optimal electrification system design for rural areas. This requires suitable generators selection as a starting point. Some generator types for rural electrification systems are introduced, followed by a discussion on the selection criteria. Simulation results of a typical electrification system for remote areas are obtained to support the safety aspect related to the individual generator types, in the event of accidental rotor motion. All simulations are done in Matlab-Simulink.

  9. A safeguards program for implementing Department of Energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued a new materials control and accountability (MC ampersand A) order 5633.3 in February of 1988. This order contains all of the requirements for an effective MC ampersand A (safeguards) program for facilities that control and account for nuclear materials in their operations. All contractors were expected to come into compliance with the order by April 30, 1989, or obtain approval for exceptions and/or extensions. The order also contains various performance requirements that are not in effect until the DOE issues the guidelines to the performance requirements. After evaluations were completed in February 1989, it was determined there were several deficiencies in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) safeguards program. Documentation of policy and procedures needed correction before LANL could be in compliance with the new MC ampersand A order. Differences between the old and new orders were addressed. After this determination, action teams were established to corrected LANL's safeguards program. Compliance with the DOE requirements was the goal of this activity. The accomplishments of the action teams are the subject of this paper

  10. Ultraviolet and solar photocatalytic ozonation of municipal wastewater: Catalyst reuse, energy requirements and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the treatment of municipal wastewater containing phenol using solar and ultraviolet (UV) light photocatalytic ozonation processes to explore comparative performance. Important aspects such as catalyst reuse, mineralization of pollutants, energy requirements, and toxicity of treated wastewater which are crucial for practical implementation of the processes were explored. The activity of the photocatalysts did not change significantly even after three consecutive uses despite approximately 2% of the initial quantity of catalyst being lost in each run. Analysis of the change in average oxidation state (AOS) demonstrated the formation of more oxidized degradation products (ΔAOS values of 1.0-1.7) due to mineralization. The energy requirements were determined in terms of electrical energy per order (E EO ) and the collector area per order (A CO ). The E EO (kWh m -3  Order -1 ) values were 26.2 for ozonation, 38-47 for UV photocatalysis and 7-22 for UV photocatalytic ozonation processes. On the other hand, A CO (m 2  m -3  order -1 ) values were 31-69 for solar photocatalysis and 8-13 for solar photocatalytic ozonation. Thus photocatalytic ozonation processes required less energy input compared to the individual processes. The cytotoxicity of the wastewater was analysed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with Vero cells. The cell viability increased from 28.7% in untreated wastewater to 80% in treated wastewater; thus showing that the treated wastewater was less toxic. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ozonation, recovery and reusability of the photocatalysts, as well as detoxification of the wastewater make this low energy consumption process attractive for wastewater remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Time Requirement for Collecting Cooking Energy in an Indian Village : Comparative Study Between Charcoal and Fuelwood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Karabee; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, Deben C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the vital input for sustainable development of a country as it is directly related to the country’s economic growth. Even though energy use has doubled since 2000, but energy consumption per capita is still only around one-third of the global average and some 240 million people have no

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  13. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  14. Peptide-chaperone-directed transdermal protein delivery requires energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Renquan; Jin, Peipei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Changli; Chen, Chuanjun; Ding, Weiping; Wen, Longping

    2014-11-03

    The biologically inspired transdermal enhanced peptide TD1 has been discovered to specifically facilitate transdermal delivery of biological macromolecules. However, the biological behavior of TD1 has not been fully defined. In this study, we find that energy is required for the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery through rat and human skins. Our results show that the permeation activity of TD1-hEGF, a fusion protein composed of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and the TD1 sequence connected with a glycine-serine linker (GGGGS), can be inhibited by the energy inhibitor, rotenone or oligomycin. In addition, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the essential energetic molecule in organic systems, can effectively facilitate the TD1 directed permeation of the protein-based drug into the skin in a dose-dependent fashion. Our results here demonstrate a novel energy-dependent permeation process during the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery that could be valuable for the future development of promising new transdermal drugs.

  15. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  16. Discussion paper : offshore wind facilities renewable energy approval requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    This paper discussed a proposed shoreline exclusion zone for offshore wind projects in Ontario. Considerations relevant to offshore wind projects and the protection of human health, cultural heritage, and the environment were also discussed. The paper was prepared in order to provide greater clarity to renewable energy developers and to Ontario residents about the offshore wind policy that is currently being considered by the Ontario Government. Feedback received from the discussion paper will be used to propose policy and associated regulatory amendments. A 5 km shoreline exclusion zone for all offshore wind facilities was proposed. Some projects may be required to be located beyond the proposed exclusion zone. Proposed developments within the exclusion zone must meet all applicable requirements, including those related to cultural and natural heritage. The zone will establish a distance between drinking water intakes, and ensure that sediment dredging and other construction-related activities do not impact drinking water quality, and ensure that potential noise levels are within acceptable levels. The zone will establish a distance between near-shore activities and wind facilities, and also help to maintain the ecological health of inland waters. Guidelines and technical requirements for wind facility operators were also included.

  17. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.

  18. Employment impacts of energy conservation schemes in the residential sector. Calculation of direct and indirect employment effects using a dedicated input/output simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Weber, C.; Maeenpaeae, I.; Rivero Garcia, F.; Wiltshire, V.; Wade, J.

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between investments in energy efficiency and employment is investigated. The employment effects of several energy conservation schemes implemented in the residential sector are determined by means of a dedicated input/output simulation approach. The employment effects of energy conservation schemes were determined for France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Within the time frame of the project, it was not feasible to perform a comparable analysis for Greece, Ireland and Austria. For Finland, the employment effects of energy auditing schemes were investigated by means of a macro economic simulation model. The main driving force behind the positive employment effect of investment in energy efficiency in the residential sector is the fact that the energy sector has a rather low labour intensity. The resulting shift of expenditures from the energy sector to other sectors with higher labour intensity leads to increased employment. The main mechanisms that determine the net shift in employment resulting from investments in energy conservation are: 1. The employment effect related to the initial investment in energy efficiency; 2. The energy saving effect. Due to lower energy bill, a shift in expenditure pattern will occur from the labour extensive energy sector towards sectors with higher labour intensity, thus inducing a net positive effect on employment; 3. The effects of money transfers between sectors. For example, when the investment is subsidised by the government, money is transferred from the governmental sector to the residential sector; 4. Changes in the total government budget as a result of changes in total tax revenue and expenditures on unemployment benefits. Different financing methods for the investment in energy efficiency are analysed. The initial investment can be financed from the general household consumption budget, by means of a loan, using a subsidy or using private savings. The following input parameters

  19. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  20. Carbon and energy footprints of electric delivery trucks:a hybrid multi-regional input-output life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Onat, Nuri Cihat; Küçükvar, Murat; Tatari, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent stop-and-go operation and long idling periods when driving in congested urban areas, the electrification of commercial delivery trucks has become an interesting topic nationwide. In this study, environmental impacts of various alternative delivery trucks including battery electric, diesel, diesel-electric hybrid, and compressed natural gas trucks are analyzed. A novel life cycle assessment method, an environmentally-extended multi-region input-output analysis, is utilized to c...

  1. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  2. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-12-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  3. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  4. Energy inputs and outputs in organic and conventional corn production systems; Balanco de energia em sistemas organico e convencional de producao de milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Greco, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana; Zonin, Wilson J; Silva, Nardel L.S.; Gouvea, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    corn production systems. The experimental delineating was in casual blocks with arrangement in subdivided parcels, with the production systems as main parcels and the cultivate crops as sub parcels. The seeding was accomplished directly in oat and azevem straws. In the chemical system the vegetable covering was wiped with glyphosate (2 L/ha), while in the organic system it was used roll machinery to handle the straw. All the inputs, in products or operations form, and the outputs, in grain form, were transformed in energy to estimate the energy balance. The energy coefficients were obtained in research travails. The employed energy was divided in three categories, according to its origin, as biological, fossil and industrial. In the category of biological energy the items human work, seeds, bio fertilizer and humus were inserted. The oil products and by-products, such as chemical fertilizer, pesticides, diesel were grouped in fossil energy category. Industrial energy was considered one that was used in the manufacture of machinery used in the products process. Are included in this categories: tractor and tools. The energy consumption in the organic corn production system was of 2,047.42 MJ ha{sup -1} and the energy conversion was of 78,235.33 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the biological energy was the energy form more consumed, 65,77% of total consumed, while in the conventional system the consumption was of 3,764.66 MJ ha{sup -1} and the energy conversion of 82,653.29 MJ ha{sup -1}, and the fossil was energy form more consumed, representing 79.57% of the energy consumed in this production system. The organic production system presented an efficiency of 38.21 significantly larger than the chemical system with 21.95. (author)

  5. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy efficiency in future wireless networks: cognitive radio standardization requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of mobile and wireless networks and devices is significant, indirectly increasing greenhouse gas emissions and energy costs for operators. Cognitive radio (CR) solutions can save energy for such networks and devices; moreover...

  7. Analyzing the Effects of the Iranian Energy Subsidy Reform Plan on Short- Run Marginal Generation Cost of Electricity Using Extended Input-Output Price Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Salimian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsidizing energy in Iran has imposed high costs on country's economy. Thus revising energy prices, on the basis of a subsidy reform plan, is a vital remedy to boost up the economy. While the direct consequence of cutting subsidies on electricity generation costs can be determined in a simple way, identifying indirect effects, which reflect higher costs for input factors such as labor, is a challenging problem. In this paper, variables such as compensation of employees and private consumption are endogenized by using extended Input-Output (I-O price model to evaluate direct and indirect effects of electricity and fuel prices increase on economic subsectors. The determination of the short-run marginal generation cost of electricity using I-O technique with taken into account the Iranian targeted subsidy plan's influences is the main goal of this paper. Marginal cost of electricity, in various scenarios of price adjustment of energy, is estimated for three conventional categories of thermal power plants. Our results show that the raising the price of energy leads to an increase in the electricity production costs. Accordingly, the production costs will be higher than 1000 Rials per kWh until 2014 as predicted in the beginning of the reform plan by electricity suppliers.

  8. Compatibility of DOE energy data bases with EEMIS data requirements. [Energy Emergency Management Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& #x27; Acierno, J; Hermelee, A

    1979-12-01

    Object of this report is to present the data from EIA data bases which are compatible with the requirements of the data structure for the Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS). An overview of data availability is briefly described and presented in the EEMIS petroleum and natural gas flow diagrams as well as in a more detailed review with each data element in the EEMIS data requirements. This information is presented with the intent that it be used as an overall system guide during the data transfer task as well as in future operation of EEMIS and in the interpretation of EEMIS data.

  9. Efficient design and simulation of an expandable hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) power system with MPPT and inverter input voltage regulation features in compliance with electric grid requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skretas, Sotirios B.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios P. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritos University of Thrace (DUTH), 12 V. Sofias, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized DC - bus Grid Connected Hybrid (Wind-PV) power system for supplying electric power to a single phase of a three phase low voltage (LV) strong distribution grid are proposed and presented. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG); and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed-pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs) with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs); to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric grid, while fulfilling all necessary interconnection requirements. Finally, a practical case study is conducted for the purpose of fully evaluating a possible installation in a city site of Xanthi/Greece, and the practical results of the simulations are presented. (author)

  10. ANALISIS ENERGI MASUKAN-KELUARAN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI KELAPA SAWIT (Elaesis guineensis jacq. Input-Output Energy Analyisis in Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2012-03-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis energi masukan-keluaran dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada proses budidaya kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN VII Unit Usaha Rejosari, Lampung Selatan dengan mengamati semua energi yang digunakan dan dihasilkan. Energi masukan terdiri dari tenaga manusia, bahan bakar, energi tidak langsung dari pupuk, pestisida, dan alat-mesin pertanian. Energi keluaran berasal dari tandan buah segar (TBS dengan komponen minyak sawit, minyak inti sawit, serat, cangkang, dan tandan kosong, serta pelepah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kelapa sawit memerlukan energi masukan sebesar 57,63 GJ.ha-1  dan menghasilkan energi 339,14 GJ.ha-1. Sebagian besar energi masukan adalah penggunaan pupuk yang mencapai 31,22 GJ.ha-1  (54,18 % dari total energi masukan. Berdasarkan tahapan budidaya, maka pemeliharaan tanaman produktif memerlukan energi yang paling besar yaitu 33,06 GJ.ha-1  (57,37 %. Budidaya kelapa sawit menghasilkan energi neto 281,51 GJ.ha-1 dengan rasio energi 5,88, produktivitas energi 0,258 kg TBS/MJ, dan intensitas energi 3,87 MJ/kg TBS.   Kata kunci: Analisis energi, energi masukan, energi keluaran, indikator energi

  11. Modeling the ionosphere-thermosphere response to a geomagnetic storm using physics-based magnetospheric energy input: OpenGGCM-CTIM results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Hyunju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetosphere is a major source of energy for the Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere (IT system. Current IT models drive the upper atmosphere using empirically calculated magnetospheric energy input. Thus, they do not sufficiently capture the storm-time dynamics, particularly at high latitudes. To improve the prediction capability of IT models, a physics-based magnetospheric input is necessary. Here, we use the Open Global General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM coupled with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (CTIM. OpenGGCM calculates a three-dimensional global magnetosphere and a two-dimensional high-latitude ionosphere by solving resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD equations with solar wind input. CTIM calculates a global thermosphere and a high-latitude ionosphere in three dimensions using realistic magnetospheric inputs from the OpenGGCM. We investigate whether the coupled model improves the storm-time IT responses by simulating a geomagnetic storm that is preceded by a strong solar wind pressure front on August 24, 2005. We compare the OpenGGCM-CTIM results with low-earth-orbit satellite observations and with the model results of Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe. CTIPe is an up-to-date version of CTIM that incorporates more IT dynamics such as a low-latitude ionosphere and a plasmasphere, but uses empirical magnetospheric input. OpenGGCM-CTIM reproduces localized neutral density peaks at ~ 400 km altitude in the high-latitude dayside regions in agreement with in situ observations during the pressure shock and the early phase of the storm. Although CTIPe is in some sense a much superior model than CTIM, it misses these localized enhancements. Unlike the CTIPe empirical input models, OpenGGCM-CTIM more faithfully produces localized increases of both auroral precipitation and ionospheric electric fields near the high-latitude dayside region after the pressure shock and after the storm onset

  12. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  13. An Input and Output Analysis of the Quaternity-Dominating Energy Engineering Model from China’s Countryside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing Long; Xian Xue, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively explore an energy engineering model termed quaternity-dominating pattern emerging in North China’s countryside. This study finds methane produced in this model serves household activities such as cooking, inducing reduction of coal or biomass spending, which otherwise would provoke air pollution, water loss and land erosion, and ultimately leading to ecological environment betterment. Additionally, this project generates byproducts, biogas liquids and residuals, which can, as a category of fertilizer, can promote straightening of fertility preservation capacity and improvement in the chemical and physical quality of land as well as increasing crop output and quality. This study also finds this engineering could encourage social stability via efficiently allocating bucolic surplus labor during winter and successful running this engineering project would trigger an increase of scientific and technological qualifications for rural citizens. Moreover, cost-profit analysis indicates this pattern can allow one rural home to obtain access to a hygienic energy resource of biogas in the yearly volume of 375m3, generate annual net earnings of US3458.82 and make investment return in about 2.73 years. Especially for poverty-stricken areas, this energy engineering project enjoys high values and great significance, which can lift these impoverished areas from poverty both in economics and energy. The paper concludes with pointing out practical proposals on launching and operating this energy engineering project.

  14. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, T; Roundy, S; Ma, X; Rahn, C

    2014-01-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation

  15. Calculating the wind energy input to a system using a spatially explicit method that considers atmospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric stability has a major effect in determining the wind energy doing work in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL); however, it is seldom considered in determining this value in emergy analyses. One reason that atmospheric stability is not usually considered is that a sui...

  16. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author) 9 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Private capital requirements for international biomass energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    In developing countries, the use of biomass for energy production faces two contradictory pressures. On the one hand, biomass costs very little and it is used inefficiently for fuel or charcoal production, leading to widespread destruction of forested areas and environmental degradation; this problem is being attenuated by the promotion, through aid programmes, of more efficient cook stoves for poor people. On the other hand, the conversion of biomass into high-grade fuel such as ethanol from sugar cane or burning urban refuse or gasifying it to produce electricity is not economically competitive at this time and requires subsidies of approximately 30% to make it as attractive as conventional fuels. Only electricity production using residues from sawmills, crops and other biomass by-products is competitive, and a number of plants are in operation in some countries, particularly the United States. For such plants, the usual rates of return and long-term contract purchases that characterize investments of this kind are applied. Although technologies are available for the widespread efficient use of biomass, the financial hurdle of high initial costs has impeded their market penetration, which in turn precludes any decline in costs that might otherwise have come from production increases. Intervention by governments or by GEF, justified on grounds of environmental protection, is needed to accelerate the introduction of the new technologies. The only private flows that are taking place at the moment are those from enlightened investors wishing to guarantee themselves a strong position in the area for the future or to preempt command and control regulations, such as carbon taxes, imposed by governments. The joint implementation of biomass technologies between industrialized and developing countries might be one method of accelerating this flow. (author)

  18. The Status and Evolution of Energy Supply and Use in Mexico Prior to the 2014 Energy Reform: An Input-Output Approach †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeus Guevara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Mexican government approved a bold energy reform that allows private energy companies to freely participate in the energy market (something prohibited during the previous eight decades. This reform is expected to significantly restructure the energy sector and boost and diversify the energy production. Moreover, changes in the energy sector and production might lead to structural changes in the rest of the economy and ultimately generate significant economic benefits for the country. Nevertheless, the fundamental role of the energy sector in this oil producing country makes the potential impacts of the reform complex to forecast. The objective of the study is to analyze the current state, evolution, and driving factors of the total primary energy use in Mexico in 2003–2012 (prior to the implementation of the reform as a precedent for future analyses of impacts of the energy reform. The results show three driving factors of the evolution of primary energy use: final non-energy demand, direct energy intensity, and economic structure. Also, it was found that the energy sector has been in a precarious situation regarding its structure and efficiency. However, this situation had a small effect on the evolution of primary energy use.

  19. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  20. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  1. Model of an aquaponic system for minimised water, energy and nitrogen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Lastiri, D; Slinkert, T; Cappon, H J; Baganz, D; Staaks, G; Keesman, K J

    2016-01-01

    Water and nutrient savings can be established by coupling water streams between interacting processes. Wastewater from production processes contains nutrients like nitrogen (N), which can and should be recycled in order to meet future regulatory discharge demands. Optimisation of interacting water systems is a complex task. An effective way of understanding, analysing and optimising such systems is by applying mathematical models. The present modelling work aims at supporting the design of a nearly emission-free aquaculture and hydroponic system (aquaponics), thus contributing to sustainable production and to food security for the 21st century. Based on the model, a system that couples 40 m(3) fish tanks and a hydroponic system of 1,000 m(2) can produce 5 tons of tilapia and 75 tons of tomato yearly. The system requires energy to condense and recover evaporated water, for lighting and heating, adding up to 1.3 GJ/m(2) every year. In the suggested configuration, the fish can provide about 26% of the N required in a plant cycle. A coupling strategy that sends water from the fish to the plants in amounts proportional to the fish feed input, reduces the standard deviation of the NO3(-) level in the fish cycle by 35%.

  2. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  3. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  4. Initial mass function and global rates of mass, momentum, and energy input to the interstellar medium via stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Using the Michigan HD catalog volumes I--III, the all-sky sample of O stars of Garmany, Conti, and Chiosi, Lucke's map of the distribution of obscuring material within 2 kpc, and an amalgam of recent stellar evolution calculations, the number of stars formed kpc -2 yr -1 [log (M/M/sub sun/)] -1 (IMF) is psi = 5.4 x 10 -4 (M/M/sub sun/)/sup -1.03/. A calibration of mass-loss rates with stellar parameters based on published data yields m = 2.0 x 10 -13 (L/L/sub sun/)/sup 1.25/M/sub sun/ yr -1 . Energy injection into the ISM by winds and supernovae balances mechanical energy dissipation via cloud-cloud collisions. For stars M>5 M/sub sun/ there is near balance between the rate at which mass is turned into stars and the rate at which it is lost from them, implying small remnant masses

  5. Energy and protein requirements for growth of the local domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet 3 in the grower phase improved growth with the highest EFU, 0.12, and was better utilized by the birds than in the chick starter phase where it was least utilized. High energy, high protein diet enhanced growth while low energy, high protein diet did not support maximum growth especially in the chick starter phase.

  6. Analysis of health impact inputs to the US Department of Energy's risk information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Siegel, M.R.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of completing a survey of environmental problems, referred to as the Environmental Survey, at their facilities across the country. The DOE Risk Information System (RIS) is being used to prioritize these environmental problems identified in the Environmental Survey's findings. This report contains a discussion of site-specific public health risk parameters and the rationale for their inclusion in the RIS. These parameters are based on computed potential impacts obtained with the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). MEPAS is a computer-based methodology for evaluating the potential exposures resulting from multimedia environmental transport of hazardous materials. This report has three related objectives: document the role of MEPAS in the RIS framework, report the results of the analysis of alternative risk parameters that led to the current RIS risk parameters, and describe analysis of uncertainties in the risk-related parameters. 20 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the longitudinal changes in energy requirements in late life. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the energy requirements in late life and how they changed during a 7 year time-span, (2) determine whether changes in fat free mass (FFM) were related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and (3) determine the accuracy of predicted total energy expenditure (TEE) to measured TEE. Methods TEE was assessed via doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in older adults in both 1999 (n = 302; age: 74 ± 2.9 yrs) and again in 2006 (n = 87 age: 82 ± 3.1 yrs). RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results The energy requirements in the 9th decade of life were 2208 ± 376 kcal/d for men and 1814 ± 337 kcal/d for women. This was a significant decrease from the energy requirements in the 8th decade of life in men (2482 ± 476 kcal/d vs. 2208 ± 376 kcal/d) but not in women (1892 ± 271 kcal/d vs. 1814 ± 337 kcal/d). In addition to TEE, RMR, and activity EE (AEE) also decreased in men, but not women, while FFM decreased in both men and women. The changes in FFM were correlated with changes in RMR for men (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) but not for women (r = −0.08, ns). Measured TEE was similar to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) predicted TEE for men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2305 ± 35 kcal/d) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 1781 ± 20 kcal/d). However, measured TEE was different than the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted TEE in men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2915 ± 31 kcal/d (p < 0.05)) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 2315 ± 21 kcal/d (p < 0.05)). Conclusions TEE, RMR and AEE decreased in men, but not women, from the 8th to 9th decade of life. The DRI equation to predict TEE was comparable to measured TEE, while the WHO equation over-predicted TEE in our elderly population

  8. Energy conservation: a requirement of the present time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoforado, Fernando Antonio Goncalves

    1993-01-01

    The origins of the financial crisis that affects the Brazilian electrical sector is presented. The options available to overcome this situation and the role played by energy conservation are described. 7 refs

  9. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  10. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  11. Supplementing the energy and plant nutrient requirements through organic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, S. S.; Misra, R. V.

    1980-03-15

    In context of dwindling non-renewable energy resources and increasing health hazards because of environmental pollution, recycling of organic residues obtained through various sources like crops, animals, and human beings is becoming increasingly important. The organic residues obtained as wastes through these sources can be recycled effectively to meet scarce resources of energy and the plant nutrients, so vitally needed for our day-to-day activities and for raising agricultural production. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy. Considerable quantities of crop residues available from agriculture can be utilized to serve as a source of organic fertilizers which not only provide plant nutrients but also improve soil health. The country has a large animal and human population. The animal and human wastes can be successfully used for production of energy and organic fertilizer by routing through biogas system. There is a need to develop an integrated energy and nutrient supply program. An action program is outlined.

  12. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  13. Analysis of influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong: evidence from regional China based on the input-output and structural decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinlin; Deng, Haijun

    2017-11-01

    It is important to analyze the influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions from a regional perspective to effectively achieve reductions in energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Based on the "energy-economy-carbon emissions" hybrid input-output analysis framework, this study conducted structural decomposition analysis (SDA) on carbon emissions influencing factors in Guangdong Province. Systems-based examination of direct and indirect drivers for regional emission is presented. (1) Direct effects analysis of influencing factors indicated that the main driving factors of increasing carbon emissions were economic and population growth. Carbon emission intensity was the main contributing factor restraining carbon emissions growth. (2) Indirect effects analysis of influencing factors showed that international and interprovincial trades significantly affected the total carbon emissions. (3) Analysis of the effects of different final demands on the carbon emissions of industrial sector indicated that the increase in carbon emission arising from international and interprovincial trades is mainly concentrated in energy- and carbon-intensive industries. (4) Guangdong had to compromise a certain amount of carbon emissions during the development of its export-oriented economy because of industry transfer arising from the economic globalization, thereby pointing to the existence of the "carbon leakage" problem. At the same time, interprovincial export and import resulted in Guangdong transferring a part of its carbon emissions to other provinces, thereby leading to the occurrence of "carbon transfer."

  14. Visual input that matches the content of vist of visual working memory requires less (not faster) evidence sampling to reach conscious access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; van Maanen, L.; Heilbron, M.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Van Der Stigchel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate

  15. Potential impact on the global atmospheric N2O budget of the increased nitrogen input required to meet future global food demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosier, A.; Kroeze, C.

    2000-01-01

    In most soils, biogenic formation of N2O is enhanced by an increase in available mineral N through increased nitrification and denitrification. N-fertilization, therefore, directly results in additional N2O formation. In addition, these inputs may lead to indirect formation of N2O after N leaching

  16. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only

  17. Department of Energy Emergency Management Functional Requirements Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This Study, the Emergency Management Functional Requirements Study (EMFRS), identifies the physical environment, information resources, and equipment required in the DOE Headquarters Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to support the DOE staff in managing an emergency. It is the first step toward converting the present Forrestal EOC into a practical facility that will function well in each of the highly diverse types of emergencies in which the Department could be involved. 2 figs

  18. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  19. A decay heat removal system requiring no external energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.; Fermandjian, J.

    1983-12-01

    A new Decay heat Removal System is described for PWR's with dry containment, i.e. a containment building which encloses no permanent reserve of cooling water. This new system is intended to provide a high level of safety since it uses no external energy, but only the thermodynamic energy of the air-steam-liquid water mixture generated in the containment after the failure of the primary circuit (''LOCA'') or of the secondary circuit. Thermodynamics of the system is evaluated first: after some design considerations, the use of the system for protecting actual PWR's is addressed

  20. Abnormalities of climate require energy-political consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The speeches held on the Winter Conference 1990 of the German Atom Forum are reported on in brief summaries. The speeches deal mainly with problems connected with a necessary reactivation of nucleon energy, particularly referring to measures of additional equipment, problems of safety and waste management and recycling. (UA) [de

  1. Global energy - investment requirements. A presentation of the world energy investments outlook 2003 - insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattier, F.

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the World's energy requirements for the next 30 years, 16 000 billion dollars will be necessary. Some 60% of this investment will go to the electricity sector and almost half of the total investment must be made in the developing countries. Where fossil fuels are concerned the bulk of the investments will a devoted to exploration and development activities. Transportation and distribution will account for 54 % of the investment in the electricity sector. The financing of these investments is currently the subject of various uncertainties. The conditions for access to resources will be decisive for the oil and gas sectors. The impact of liberalization in the countries of the OECD and the profitability of the investments in developing countries constitute the main challenges for the electricity sector. (authors)

  2. Dynamic facades, the smart way of meeting the energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Winther, Frederik Vilbrad

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes an innovative dynamic façade system, developed in cooperation between two industrial companies, the Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Den¬mark. The system, named Energy Frames, is a newly developed industrially produced façade system based on the exper...... climate conditions. The dynamic façades play an important role in this development as it optimizes the interaction with the external environment in close correlation with the demand from the building and the users.......The paper describes an innovative dynamic façade system, developed in cooperation between two industrial companies, the Danish Building Research Institute and Aalborg University, Den¬mark. The system, named Energy Frames, is a newly developed industrially produced façade system based...

  3. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  4. Correlation of iodine uptake and perfusion parameters between dual-energy CT imaging and first-pass dual-input perfusion CT in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Xu, Yanyan; Duan, Jianghui; Li, Chuandong; Sun, Hongliang; Wang, Wu

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the potential relationship between perfusion parameters from first-pass dual-input perfusion computed tomography (DI-PCT) and iodine uptake levels estimated from dual-energy CT (DE-CT).The pre-experimental part of this study included a dynamic DE-CT protocol in 15 patients to evaluate peak arterial enhancement of lung cancer based on time-attenuation curves, and the scan time of DE-CT was determined. In the prospective part of the study, 28 lung cancer patients underwent whole-volume perfusion CT and single-source DE-CT using 320-row CT. Pulmonary flow (PF, mL/min/100 mL), aortic flow (AF, mL/min/100 mL), and a perfusion index (PI = PF/[PF + AF]) were automatically generated by in-house commercial software using the dual-input maximum slope method for DI-PCT. For the dual-energy CT data, iodine uptake was estimated by the difference (λ) and the slope (λHU). λ was defined as the difference of CT values between 40 and 70 KeV monochromatic images in lung lesions. λHU was calculated by the following equation: λHU = |λ/(70 - 40)|. The DI-PCT and DE-CT parameters were analyzed by Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis, respectively.All subjects were pathologically proved as lung cancer patients (including 16 squamous cell carcinoma, 8 adenocarcinoma, and 4 small cell lung cancer) by surgery or CT-guided biopsy. Interobserver reproducibility in DI-PCT (PF, AF, PI) and DE-CT (λ, λHU) were relatively good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]Inter = 0.8726-0.9255, ICCInter = 0.8179-0.8842; ICCInter = 0.8881-0.9177, ICCInter = 0.9820-0.9970, ICCInter = 0.9780-0.9971, respectively). Correlation coefficient between λ and AF, and PF were as follows: 0.589 (P input CT perfusion analysis method can be applied to assess blood supply of lung cancer patients. Preliminary results demonstrated that the iodine uptake relevant parameters derived from DE-CT significantly correlated with perfusion

  5. Prediction of the metabolizable energy requirements of free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainer, M M A; Rabello, C B V; Santos, M J B; Lopes, C C; Ludke, J V; Silva, J H V; Lima, R A

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the aim of estimating the ME requirements of free-range laying hens for maintenance, weight gain, and egg production. These experiments were performed to develop an energy requirement prediction equation by using the comparative slaughter technique and the total excreta collection method. Regression equations were used to relate the energy intake, the energy retained in the body and eggs, and the heat production of the hens. These relationships were used to determine the daily ME requirement for maintenance, the efficiency energy utilization above the requirements for maintenance, and the NE requirement for maintenance. The requirement for weight gain was estimated from the energy content of the carcass, and the diet's efficiency energy utilization was determined from the weight gain, which was measured during weekly slaughter. The requirement for egg production was estimated by considering the energy content of the eggs and the efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. The requirement and efficiency energy utilization for maintenance were 121.8 kcal ME/(kg∙d)and 0.68, respectively. Similarly, the NE requirement for maintenance was 82.4 kcal ME/(kg∙d), and the efficiency energy utilization above maintenance was 0.61. Because the carcass body weight and energy did not increase during the trial, the weight gain could not be estimated. The requirements for egg production requirement and efficiency energy utilization for egg production were 2.48 kcal/g and 0.61, respectively. The following energy prediction equation for free-range laying hens (without weight gain) was developed: ME /(hen ∙ d) = 121.8 × W + 2.48 × EM, in which W = body weight (kg) and EM = egg mass (g/[hen ∙ d]).

  6. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo O. Fiems

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW. They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10. Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001, although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  7. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo O; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-02-13

    Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW(0.75)/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  8. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  9. The Effects of Normothermic and Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass Upon Defibrillation Energy Requirements and Transmyocardial Impedance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, David

    1993-01-01

    .... To evaluate these questions we studied the effect of controlled hypothermia upon defibrillation energy requirements and transcardiac impedance in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass in which 26...

  10. Attaining the Photometric Precision Required by Future Dark Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-01-21

    This report outlines our progress towards achieving the high-precision astronomical measurements needed to derive improved constraints on the nature of the Dark Energy. Our approach to obtaining higher precision flux measurements has two basic components: 1) determination of the optical transmission of the atmosphere, and 2) mapping out the instrumental photon sensitivity function vs. wavelength, calibrated by referencing the measurements to the known sensitivity curve of a high precision silicon photodiode, and 3) using the self-consistency of the spectrum of stars to achieve precise color calibrations.

  11. [Utilization of feed energy by growing pigs. 3. Energy requirement for the growth and fattening of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L; Schiemann, R; Jentsch, W

    1979-02-01

    The test series for the investigation of the energy consumption of growing pigs of the breeds large white and improved land race pig as well as cross breeds of the two breeds in a total of 369 metabolism periods (as described in the first two pieces of information of this publication series -- Hoffmann and others, 1977 and Jentsch and Hoffmann, 1977) were statistically analysed for the purpose of the derivation of the energy requirement for maintenance and the partial energy requirement for growth in order to test the possibilities of the factorial analysis for the derivation of energy requirement values of growing pigs. The dependence of the maintenance requirement of growing pigs (investigations in the live weight range of 10 to 40 kg -- see 1st information--were made with boars those in the live weight range of 30 to 120 kg were made with gelded boars, 2nd information) on the live weight can best be characterised by applying a power exponent of 0,61 or 0,62 for the live weight. A definition is offered to be discussed for the energetic maintenance requirement of productive live stock and laboratory animals as a conventional value. The energy requirement values derived from the doubly-factorial statistical analysis show a satisfactory adaptation to the measured values as such concerning energy intake and observed growth performance of the test animals. The conclusion is drawn that the factorial analysis of the energy requirement (maintenance plus partial performances) results in a better estimate of the requirement of growing animals than the assessment according only to live weight and live weight increase without characterising the energy requirement for partial performances. This is important for the further working on and more exact definition of requirement norms.

  12. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only the direct household energy requirement. Our analysis is mainly based on data of expenditures of households and the associated energy intensities of consumer goods. We found that differences between countries in the total energy requirement of households are mainly due to differences in total household expenditure. In particular, the indirect energy requirement is linearly related to the total household expenditure. The share of direct energy to the total energy requirement in different countries varies from 34% up to 64%. Differences in climate do not fully account for this variation. Corrected for total household expenditure, indirect energy requirement may vary significantly per country in the consumption classes 'food, beverages and tobacco', 'recreation and culture', 'housing', and 'hotels, cafes and restaurants'

  13. Analysis of Marine Corps renewable energy planning to meet installation energy security requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Chisom, Christopher M.; Templenton, Jack C., II

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze Marine Corps installation energy consumption and the pursuit of increased renewable energy generation goals across Marine Corps installations. The main objective of this report is to determine the cost of interruption and the net present value (NPV) of renewable energy generation needed to meet the Marine Corps energy security objectives. First, we determine installation-specific energy consump...

  14. Analysis of the electrical energy requirements of the GSI facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ripp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Die Veränderung auf dem deutschen Energiemarkt durch die Energiewende bringt eine Viel-zahl von Problemen mit sich. Der stetig ansteigende Ausbau von erneuerbaren Energien und die daraus resultierende starke Schwankung der eingespeisten Energiemengen zwingen die Netzbetreiber zum Ausbau der Stromnetze [1]. Die dadurch verursachten Kosten lassen die Netznutzungsgebühren steigen, welche an die Endkunden weitergegeben werden. Ebenfalls stieg die EEG-Umlage (Erneuerbare-Energie-Gesetz) von 3,6ct/kWh im Jahr 2012 über 5,3ct/kWh im Jahr 2013 auf 6,3ct/kWh für das Jahr 2014 [2], [3], [4]. Die extrem schnell steigenden Energiekosten zwingen die Verbraucher zur Erhöhung ihrer Energieeffizienz, um die laufenden Kosten so niedrig wie möglich zu halten [3]. Dies verlangt nach innovativen Ansätzen und Lösungen im unternehmenseigenen Energiemanagement. Besonders For-schungseinrichtungen mit großem Energiebedarf müssen eine höhere Energieeffizienz reali-sieren, um bei knappen Budgets ihrem Forschungsauftrag gerec...

  15. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  16. Local Content Requirements in Renewable Energy Schemes - Government Procurement or a Violation of International Obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Numerous States have adopted renewable energy schemes aimed at incentivising investments in renewable energy generation capacity that contain local content requirements as an eligibility criterion to obtain support, such as a feed-in tariff. However, these requirements may violate the international

  17. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can...... be identified amongst multiple alternatives. However, meeting performance criteria is often associated with manual data inputs and retroactive modifications of the design. Due to poor interoperability between the authoring tools and the compliance check program, the processes are redundant and inefficient...... from building geometry created in Autodesk Revit and its translation to input for compliance check analysis....

  18. Energy-efficient Ship Operation – Training Requirements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baldauf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO, through its Maritime Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC, has been carrying out substantive work on the reduction and limitation of greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping since 1997, following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol and the 1997 MARPOL Conference. While to date no mandatory GHG instrument for international shipping has been adopted, IMO has given significant consideration of the matter and has been working in accordance with an ambitious work plan with a view to adopting a package of technical provisions. Beside the efforts undertaken by IMO, it is assumed that e.g. optimized manoeuvring regimes have potential to contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions. Such procedures and supporting technologies can decrease the negative effects to the environment and also may reduce fuel consumption. However, related training has to be developed and to be integrated into existing course schemes accordingly. IMO intends to develop a Model Course aiming at promoting the energy-efficient operation of ships. This Course will contribute to the IMO’s environmental protection goals as set out in resolutions A.947(23 and A.998(25 by promulgating industry “best practices”, which reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global shipping on climate change. In this paper the outline of the research work will be introduced and the fundamental ideas and concepts are described. A concept for the overall structure and the development of suggested detailed content of the draft Model course will be exemplarily explained. Also, a developed draft module for the model course with samples of the suggested integrated practical exercises will be introduced and discussed. The materials and data in this publication have been obtained partly through capacity building research project of IAMU kindly supported by the International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU and The Nippon

  19. Energy requirements of Federal Germany and their consequences for the energy policy of the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalthoff, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author deals in a popular way with the hindrances preventing the energy supply from a continuous development. When doing this, he looks at the development in th FRG within a world-wide frame. The energy sources of the future are for the FRG coal and nuclear energy. (UA) [de

  20. ENERGY-REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLT IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIETZ, MW; DAAN, S; MASMAN, D

    1992-01-01

    We estimated energy requirements for plumage replacement in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by comparing O2 consumption Vo2 and metabolizable energy intake during molt and nonmolt. The energy expenditure for feather synthesis (S) as derived from the regression of basal metabolic rate (BMR) on molt

  1. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  2. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy activities. (b...

  3. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. T...

  4. Software safety analysis on the model specified by NuSCR and SMV input language at requirements phase of software development life cycle using SMV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Safety-critical software process is composed of development process, verification and validation (V and V) process and safety analysis process. Safety analysis process has been often treated as an additional process and not found in a conventional software process. But software safety analysis (SSA) is required if software is applied to a safety system, and the SSA shall be performed independently for the safety software through software development life cycle (SDLC). Of all the phases in software development, requirements engineering is generally considered to play the most critical role in determining the overall software quality. NASA data demonstrate that nearly 75% of failures found in operational software were caused by errors in the requirements. The verification process in requirements phase checks the correctness of software requirements specification, and the safety analysis process analyzes the safety-related properties in detail. In this paper, the method for safety analysis at requirements phase of software development life cycle using symbolic model verifier (SMV) is proposed. Hazard is discovered by hazard analysis and in other to use SMV for the safety analysis, the safety-related properties are expressed by computation tree logic (CTL)

  5. Preliminary Hanford technical input for the Department of Energy programmatic spent nuclear fuel management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory environmental restoration and waste management programs environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating its programmatic options for the safe management of its diverse spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (SNF and INEL EIS). In the SNF and INEL EIS, the DOE is assessing five alternatives for SNF management, which consider at which of the DOE sites each of the various SNF types should be managed until ultimate disposition. The range of SNF inventories considered for management at the Hanford Site in the SNF and INEL EIS include the current Hanford Site inventory, only the current Hanford Site defense production SNF inventory, the DOE complex-wide SNF inventory, or none at all. Site-specific SNF management decisions will be evaluated in separate National Environmental Policy Act evaluations. Appendixes A and B include information on (1) additional facilities required to accommodate inventories of SNF within each management alternative, (2) existing and new SNF management facility descriptions, (3) facility costs for construction and operation, (4) facility workforce requirements for construction and operation, and (5) facility discharges. The information was extrapolated from existing analyses to the extent possible. New facility costs, manpower requirements, and similar information are based on rough-order-of-magnitude estimates

  6. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  7. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can b...

  8. Compliance of SLAC's Laser Safety Program with OSHA Requirements for the Control of Hazardous Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    2009-01-01

    SLAC's COHE program requires compliance with OSHA Regulation 29CFR1910.147, 'The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)'. This regulation specifies lockout/tagout requirements during service and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment, or release of stored energy, could cause injury to workers. Class 3B and Class 4 laser radiation must be considered as hazardous energy (as well as electrical energy in associated equipment, and other non-beam energy hazards) in laser facilities, and therefore requires careful COHE consideration. This paper describes how COHE is achieved at SLAC to protect workers against unexpected Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation, independent of whether the mode of operation is normal, service, or maintenance

  9. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  10. Multi-component nuclear energy system to meet requirement of self-consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki; Artisyuk, Vladimir; Shmelev, Anotolii; Korovin, Yorii

    2000-01-01

    Environmental harmonization of nuclear energy technology is considered as an absolutely necessary condition in its future successful development for peaceful use. Establishment of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, that simultaneously meets four requirements - energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety, strongly relies on the neutron excess generation. Implementation of external non-fission based neutron sources into fission energy system would open the possibility of approaching Multicomponent Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System with unlimited fuel resources, zero radioactivity release and high protection against uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear materials. (author)

  11. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  12. Determining required valve performance for discrete control of PTO cylinders for wave energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    investigates the required valve performance to achieve this energy efficient operation, while meeting basic dynamic requirements. The components making up the total energy loss during shifting is identified by analytically expressing the losses from the governing differential equations. From the analysis...... a framework for evaluating the adequacy of a valve’s response is established, and the analysis shows the results may be normalised for a wider range of systems. Finally, the framework is successfully applied to the Wavestar converter....

  13. Energy management system for power distribution. Interfaces and data communication requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.; Lemstroem, B.; Ikonen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The opening of the electricity market for competition in Finland creates new requirements for the information systems and data communication in distribution utilities. Energy management systems for distribution utilities are needed with interfaces that make it possible to separate the network business from the energy trade business. However, these interfaces should also support optimization of the whole energy supply system of the country. In this report the interfaces and data communication requirements of the energy management system of the electricity trade business are analyzed. To support this subfunctions of the energy management have been analyzed. It was realized that the amount of necessary data transfer and optimization of the national power system both depend strongly on the general rules of the energy markets. (author)

  14. Food and energy choices for India: a programming model with partial endogenous energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, K S; Srinivasan, T N

    1980-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for all matter-energy processing subsystems at the level of the society, specifically India. It explores India's choices in the food and energy sectors over the coming decades. Alternative land intensive, irrigation energy intensive, and fertilizer intensive techniques of food production are identified using a nonlinear programming model. The land saved is devoted to growing firewood. The optimum combination of railway (steam, diesel, and electric traction) and road (automobiles, diesel trucks, and diesel and gasoline buses) transport is determined. For the oil sector, two alternative sources of supply of crude oil and petroleum products are included, namely, domestic production and imports. The optimum choice is determined through a linear programming model. While the model is basically a static one, designed to determine the optimal choice for the target year of 2000-2001, certain intertemporal detail is incorporated for electricity generation. The model minimizes the costs of meeting the needs for food, transport in terms of passenger kilometers and goods per ton per kilometer, energy needs for domestic cooking and lighting, and the energy needs of the rest of the economy.

  15. Case Study of Electrical Energy Requirement for Various Needs in a Desert Dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq Ali Shah; Abdul Fatah Abbasi; Jawaid Daudpoto

    2013-01-01

    case study of electrical energy requirement for various needs in a desert dwelling is carried out in order to explore an indigenous self-sustained electrical power generation process, which can provide means to produce electrical power, potable water and agricultural production. The objective of such study is to develop a self-sustainable and self-contained electrical energy system that can cater for energy needs for the people living in such remote areas. The study is carried out on a micro ...

  16. The role and importance of nuclear energy in the realisation of energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.

    1976-01-01

    The competitiveness of nuclear energy in relation to fuel oil is now fully established for electricity generation, not merely for base production but also for much lower load factors. Likewise, in the field of steam generation nuclear energy has a high competitivity margin in comparison with fuel oil. At the outlet of the boiler the cost of the nuclear steam B.T.U. is much lower than the cost of the nuclear electricity B.T.U., but this advantage could be evened out, partially or totally, by the ease of transportation and the flexibility of utilization of electricity. The availability of high temperatures may in the future open new markets (hydrogen production, industrial processes ..). Thus, through its various vectors, nuclear energy may occupy an important place in the energy balance of a country. An evaluation has been made, on certain assumptions, until the year 2030, of the place that nuclear energy will take. The evaluation shows clearly that uranium supply will be next to impossible if nuclear energy is supplied by light water reactors, associated or not with other thermal reactors. It will be necessary to resort urgently to fast breeder reactors. The acceleration of the fast breeder reactors breakthrough resulting from the insertion of natural uranium converters does not fundamentally change the supply problem, nor does the insertion of HTRs intended to break into the high temperature market. On the other hand, improvement of the performance of fast breeder reactors, particularly an increase in the breeding ratio and a shortening of the cycle, might have a decisive effect and might ensure the definite mastering of the uranium needs. (author)

  17. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O.

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 o C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 o C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 o C to 80 o C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively.

  18. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  19. Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junbeum; Guillaume, Bertrand; Chung, Jinwook; Hwang, Yongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Critical and precious materials requirement in the wind energy system in the EU 27 by 2020. - Highlights: • The critical and precious materials consumption were calculated in wind energy system in the EU 27. • The future requirement of critical and precious materials was estimated in the EU 27 by 2020. • Fluorspar, silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum are the mainly used and required materials. • This research approach could be applied to other industrial sectors as well as other renewable technology. - Abstract: Critical materials as well as rare earth elements and precious metals such as platinum, gold and silver are used significantly for computer hard disk drives, mobile phones, hybrid electric vehicles, batteries, renewable energy system and many other applications. It is therefore important to quantify and estimate both current stocks and flows of such materials, as well as future requirement for industries and economies. In this study, which is focused on wind energy system in the European Union (EU) 27, the current consumption and future requirement of critical and precious materials were calculated and estimated using the wind power production dataset from ecoinvent and data from National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). It is shown that fluorspar has been the most consumed material to date, and will probably be the most required material in the future. Among other critical and valuable materials, the main materials used for current wind energy system are silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum. These materials will also be required significantly by 2020 for the wind energy system in the EU 27. It is argued that these results should be connected to the future energy and material policy and management

  20. Analysis of Marine Corps Renewable Energy Planning to Meet Installation Energy Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    monitoring grid interruptions at each installation and their impact on operations. Collecting interruption data will assist in obtaining an accurate...zero energy status is within reach if Miramar implements the recommended measures, replaces all remaining natural gas with biogas , and completely

  1. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  2. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  3. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  4. Quantifying the energy required for groundwater pumping across a regional aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Shugert, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater pumping can be a substantial source of energy expenditure, particularly in semiarid regions with large depths to water. In this study we assessed the energy required for groundwater pumping in the Denver Basin aquifer system, a group of sedimentary rock aquifers used for municipal water supply in Colorado. In recent decades, declining water levels in the Denver Basin aquifers has resulted in increased pumping lifts and higher energy use rates. We quantified the spatially variable energy intensity for groundwater pumping by analyzing spatial variations in the lift requirement. The median energy intensities for two major aquifers were 1.2 and 1.8 kWh m-3. Considering typical municipal well production rates and household water use in the study area, these results indicate that the energy cost associated with groundwater pumping can be a significant fraction (>20%) of the total electricity consumption for all household end uses. Pumping at this scale (hundreds of municipal wells producing from deep aquifers) also generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Analytical wellfield modeling conducted as part of this study clearly demonstrates how multiple components of the lift impact the energy requirement. Results provide guidance for water management strategies that reduce energy expenditure.

  5. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  6. The development of the world's population as a factor determining future energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.; Henssen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Urgently desired economic developments improving the conditions of living in the developing countries and, in the long term, introducing a stabilization of the world's population, result in a considerable rise in world energy requirement. This, in turn, causes conflicts and raises major ecological dangers because of the accelerated depletion of fossil sources of energy it entails. The severity of the CO 2 problem emerges clearly only when seen in connection with the population growth of the developing countries. Undoubtedly, therefore, the fossil sources of energy will have to give up their present leading role in world energy supply because of the intolerable environmental pollution they produce and because of the dwindling oil and gas reserves. The only hope remaining for the present is the possibility of nuclear power and renewable energies pointly being able to meet requirements, while all economically reasonable conservation potentials are being exploited. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Developing the (ASTM) voluntary consensus standards required to help implement the National Energy Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The recommended guide is the first American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) matrix in a family of such documents that combined, will help manage the development of the ASTM standards considered necessary to implement the current National Plan for Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration. It is expected that the guide will provide a framework for standards development to complement the nation's research and development in support of critical energy needs. The recommended guide identifies the energy-critical areas that are to be developed, the master ASTM recommended guide for developing the standards required to help the National Plan, the section in which each energy-critical area is covered, and the suggested ASTM lead committee responsible for each area (fossil, solar, geothermal, conservation, fusion, and fission reactor development). A comprehensive matrix to identify the areas of need for which ASTM standards will be required to help implement the National Energy Plan is also presented

  8. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  9. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  10. Case study of electrical energy requirement for various needs in a desert dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    A case study of electrical energy requirement for various needs in a desert dwelling is carried out in order to explore an indigenous self-sustained electrical power generation process, which can provide means to produce electrical power, potable water and agricultural production. The objective of such study is to develop a self-sustainable and self-contained electrical energy system that can cater for energy needs for the people living in such remote areas. The study is carried out on a micro level but these results are stretchable to macro levels to accommodate a possible increase in the scale of energy consumption in the long run. (author)

  11. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. V. Bompadre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW and 23±5 d of age using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake. A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age. Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG, and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate

  12. Cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in the Danish Building Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerholm, S.

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the report is to analyse the cost optimality of the energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 2010, BR10 to new building and to existing buildings undergoing major renovation. The energy requirements in the Danish Building Regulations have by tradition always been based on the cost and benefits related to the private economical or financial perspective. Macro economical calculations have in the past only been made in addition. The cost optimum used in this report is thus based on the financial perspective. Due to the high energy taxes in Denmark there is a significant difference between the consumer price and the macro economical for energy. Energy taxes are also paid by commercial consumers when the energy is used for building operation e.g. heating, lighting, ventilation etc. In relation to the new housing examples the present minimum energy requirements in BR 10 all shows gaps that are negative with a deviation of up till 16 % from the point of cost optimality. With the planned tightening of the requirements to new houses in 2015 and in 2020, the energy requirements can be expected to be tighter than the cost optimal point, if the costs for the needed improvements don't decrease correspondingly. In relation to the new office building there is a gap of 31 % to the point of cost optimality in relation to the 2010 requirement. In relation to the 2015 and 2020 requirements there are negative gaps to the point of cost optimality based on today's prices. If the gaps for all the new buildings are weighted to an average based on mix of building types and heat supply for new buildings in Denmark there is a gap of 3 % in average for the new building. The excessive tightness with today's prices is 34 % in relation to the 2015 requirement and 49 % in relation to the 2020 requirement. The component requirement to elements in the building envelope and to installations in existing buildings adds up to significant energy efficiency

  13. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  14. Input by insight. Implementation of renewable energy in 2050 taking into account macro-economical aspects and fitting-in options in sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Reepe, D.

    2001-11-01

    In the determination of the potential of renewable energy two factors are important: (1) macro-economical consequences for the Netherlands because of the use of renewable energy sources, and (2) the possibilities of renewable energy to fulfil the energy demands of the several sectors. The main question to be answered in this report is: What is the maximum quantity of renewable energy that can be realized in 2050? The answer will be expressed in the percentage of renewable energy in relation to the total secondary energy demand (excluding non-energetic use of energy carriers). The aim is, that 50% of the energy supply is produced by renewable energy sources. The quantity is eventually determined by the influence of these renewable energy options on the macro-economical position of the Netherlands and the extent to which renewable energy supply meets the energy demands of the several sectors. The macro-economical consequences are determined on the basis of the cost and sensitivities of the several renewable energy options in 2050. Subquestions to answer the main question concern energy demand, renewable energy options, multi-criteria analysis and contemplation. The energy demand in 2050 and the energy profiles of the sectoral energy demand of secondary energy carriers are determined. The renewable energy options, wind energy (onshore and offshore), bioenergy, photovoltaic energy and thermal solar energy, heat pumps and import of green electricity and biomass, are investigated on several factors: Maximal realizable potential; Cost (Cost reduction until 2050, Investment cost, O and M-cost and fuel cost, Total cost, Out of pocket cost); Need for energy storage and cost for fitting in the energy grid; Integration with other renewable energy sources; Availability in sectors; Sensitivity analysis. These data are used in a multi-criteria analysis with four quantitative criteria. The results of this multi-criteria analysis are combined with qualitative criteria with regard

  15. Energy Storage Requirements for PV Power Ramp Rate Control in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Schnabel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV generators suffer from fluctuating output power due to the highly fluctuating primary energy source. With significant PV penetration, these fluctuations can lead to power system instability and power quality problems. The use of energy storage systems as fluctuation compensators has been proposed as means to mitigate these problems. In this paper, the behavior of PV power fluctuations in Northern European climatic conditions and requirements for sizing the energy storage systems to compensate them have been investigated and compared to similar studies done in Southern European climate. These investigations have been performed through simulations that utilize measurements from the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant in Finland. An enhanced energy storage charging control strategy has been developed and tested. Energy storage capacity, power, and cycling requirements have been derived for different PV generator sizes and power ramp rate requirements. The developed control strategy leads to lesser performance requirements for the energy storage systems compared to the methods presented earlier. Further, some differences on the operation of PV generators in Northern and Southern European climates have been detected.

  16. Direct and indirect energy requirements of output of the New Zealand economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet, N.J.

    1985-10-01

    Data on energy supply in New Zealand for the year of the survey are reviewed critically. Results are tabulated as the direct and indirect energy intensities of output for each of the energy supply industries: coal mining and natural gas production; petroleum refining, oil and coal products; electricity, state supply; electricity, local body supply; and gas manufacture and distribution. Two types of sector tabulations are presented; at the 178-sector level (the maximum detail available) and the 29-sector level, corresponding to the usual GDP sectors and the energy industries. Energy requirements of gross fixed capital formation are also tabulated, at the 29-sector level. While the data from the survey are now eight years old, changes in the energy supply industries, and in industry as a whole, are believed to have been sufficiently slow for the results to be generally applicable until data from the 1981-82 survey become available. 33 references, 4 tables.

  17. Formula for average energy required to produce a secondary electron in an insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ai-Gen; Zhan Yu; Gao Zhi-Yong; Wu Hong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Based on a simple classical model specifying that the primary electrons interact with the electrons of a lattice through the Coulomb force and a conclusion that the lattice scattering can be ignored, the formula for the average energy required to produce a secondary electron (in) is obtained. On the basis of the energy band of an insulator and the formula for in, the formula for the average energy required to produce a secondary electron in an insulator (in i ) is deduced as a function of the width of the forbidden band (E g ) and electron affinity χ. Experimental values and the in i values calculated with the formula are compared, and the results validate the theory that explains the relationships among E g , χ, and in i and suggest that the formula for in i is universal on the condition that the primary electrons at any energy hit the insulator. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  19. Comparison of initial capital investment requirements for new domestic energy supplies: 1980 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.; Hay, N.E.; Wilkinson, P.

    1980-01-01

    A.G.A.'s update of its 1978 analysis comparing the initial capital investments required for several domestic sources of alternative energy (coal conversion, oil shale, unconventional natural gas, Alaskan gas, nuclear power, and solar energy) concludes that US energy-supply and utilization systems based on gaseous fuels need substantially less initial capital investment than do equivalent nuclear, coal, and solar electric systems or synthetic-liquids systems. The capital estimates include the costs of resource extraction, processing and conversion, transmission and distribution, and end-use equipment. The cost advantages shown for the three end-use applications compared - residential and small-commercial space heating, premium industrial usage, and large industrial boilers - reflect both the lower capital requirements and higher energy efficiencies of the gaseous systems

  20. Evaluation of the energy required for constructing and operating a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1982-09-01

    The energy required for constructing and operating a tokamak fusion power plant is appraised with respect to the energy output during the lifetime of the plant. A harvesting factor is deduced as a relevant figure of energetic merit and is used for a comparison between fusion, fission, and coal-fired power plants. Because fusion power plants involve considerable uncertainties the comparison is supplemented by a sensitivity analysis. In comparison with Light Water Reactor plants fusion power plants appear to be rather favourable in this respect. The energy required for providing the fuel is relatively low for fusion plants, thus overcompensating the considerable higher amount of energy necessary for constructing the fusion power plant. (orig.)

  1. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Diaz, M.E.; Aleman-Mateo, H.; Valencia-Julleirat, M.; Salazar, G.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  2. Calculating the Contribution of Zooxanthellae to Giant Clams Respiration Energy Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ambariyanto

    2002-01-01

    Giant clams (Tridacnidae) are known to live in association with photosynthetic single cell dinoflagellate algae commonly called zooxanthellae. These algae which can be found in the mantle of the clams are capable of transferring part of their photosynthates which become an important source of energy to the host ( apart from filter feeding activity). In order to understand the basic biological processes of the giant clams , the contribution of zooxanthellae to the clam's energy requirement nee...

  3. Requirement, balance and energy efficiency under two models of cropping systems in the center-south of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Martin; Barbera, Agustin; Hansson, Alejandro; Carrasco, Natalia; Domenech, Marisa

    2017-04-01

    In a natural ecosystem, the solar energy is the main source. However, in the agro ecosystem we should use others in order to sustain specific processes or to avoid some interactions. This energy is introduced in the agro-system not only as fossil fuel but also as inputs like fertilizers and pesticides or for agricultural machines. Since February 2011, two adjacent fields were set at Barrow Experimental Station (Lat:-38.322844, Lon:-60.25572): one of them adopting agro-ecology principles (AGROE), as biodiversity increase, polyculture with legumes, less use of agrochemicals; while the other one is based on industrial model of agriculture (ACTUAL). This model is defined by its capital intensity and dependence on massive inputs like seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides. In both fields, beef cattle and agriculture production have been implemented with different intensity. The aim of this study was to compare the demand, production, balance and energy efficiency between these two agro-systems. To do this, we use tables of energy associated with different processes and inputs. For both systems, we estimate the energetic demand used in seeds, pesticides, fertilizers and labor during the crop sequence from February 2011 to December 2015; the energy production according to grains and meat yield achieved; the energetic balance calculated as the difference between inputs and outputs of energy in the system and finally, the energy efficiency which is the ratio between the energy produced and consumed. Inputs-outputs ratios of energy were transformed into equivalent units = GJ (Gigajoules). After a sequence of seven crops, ACTUAL consumed 60 GJ, which represents 158% more energy than AGROE. Particularly, ACTUAL consumed a 72% more energy in cultivation labor, 372% more in herbicides and 10 times more energy used in fertilizers than AGROE. Even though ACTUAL produced 37% more energy than AGROE (187 GJ vs 127 GJ) in grain and meat, the energetic balance was only 12% higher. However

  4. Safety requirements laid down in the Atomic Energy Law and in the Law on Immission Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with safety requirements relating to installations, laid down in the Atomic Energy Law and in the Law on Immission Control. Actually it is a matter of how the safety requirements of sect. 7 of the Atomic Energy Law can be compared with those laid down in the sections 5 and 6 of the Federal Act for the Protection Against Nuisances. In the process, three comparative levels are examined: 1. The normative conditions concerning the licencability of hazardous installations, 2. those demands that go way beyond that in order to reduce residual risks, and 3. the licensing authorities' scope of discretion. (orig./HP) [de

  5. The energy requirements of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in intensive culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, A.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Alanara, A.

    2011-01-01

    requirements of this species. The aim of this study was to develop an energy requirement model for intensive culture of Eurasian perch reared at rational temperatures. Data on growth (the thermal unit growth coefficient, TGC, 3√g ‧ (℃ ‧ days)-1) and digestible energy need (DEN, kJ DE ‧ g -1) of Eurasian perch...... at a size range of 20–180 g and at temperatures of 17–23 ℃ were used. Regression analysis revealed that both TGC and DEN were affected significantly by fish size (P 0.05). Two models including body size of the fish were developed: (i) an inverse TGC model for evaluation...

  6. Improving mine-mill water network design by reducing water and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunson, A.J.; Klein, B.; Veiga, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining is an energy-intensive industry, and most processing mills use wet processes to separate minerals from ore. This paper discussed water reduction, reuse and recycling options for a mining and mill operation network. A mine water network design was then proposed in order to identify and reduce water and system energy requirements. This included (1) a description of site water balance, (2) a description of potential water sources, (3) a description of water consumers, (4) the construction of energy requirement matrices, and (5) the use of linear programming to reduce energy requirements. The design was used to determine a site water balance as well as to specify major water consumers during mining and mill processes. Potential water supply combinations, water metering technologies, and recycling options were evaluated in order to identify the most efficient energy and water use combinations. The method was used to highlight potential energy savings from the integration of heating and cooling systems with plant water systems. 43 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. 100% energy supply coverage with renewable energy. Requirements for its implementation at the global, national and municipal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogall, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This book presents itself as a systematic, easily understandable introduction into the requirements for an energy supply based 100% on renewable energy. Its main focus is on the strategic paths that must be followed for this purpose in the realms of business, technology and governmental policy. It highlights the opportunities and impediments on the way, analysing in the process the roles of political, economic and civil society players from the global down to the municipal level. Starting out from the present state of discussion on the German energy transition it investigates the strengths and weak points of efficiency technologies and renewable energies available today and elaborates a strategic path for developing the necessary infrastructure. In awareness of the fact that 100% coverage will not come about from market mechanisms alone it explores the ecological crash barriers that need to be set up in addition. This is followed by chapters on the roles, interests and means of those players who can exert influence on the framing of the relevant political and legal instruments as well as their means of pursuing their interests. The book thus contributes to clarifying the possibilities of and impediments to achieving an energy supply system based 100% on renewable energy.

  8. IMPACT OF ENERGY GROUP STRUCTURE ON NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; H. Hiruta

    2011-06-01

    A target accuracy assessment study using both a fine and a broad energy structure has shown that less stringent nuclear data accuracy requirements are needed for the latter energy structure. However, even though a reduction is observed, still the requirements will be very difficult to be met unless integral experiments are also used to reduce nuclear data uncertainties. Target accuracy assessment is the inverse problem of the uncertainty evaluation. To establish priorities and target accuracies on data uncertainty reduction, a formal approach can be adopted by defining target accuracy on design parameters and finding out required accuracy on data in order to meet them. In fact, the unknown uncertainty data requirements can be obtained by solving a minimization problem where the sensitivity coefficients in conjunction with the constraints on the integral parameters provide the needed quantities for finding the solutions.

  9. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 ± 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 ± 0.76 and 7.39 ± 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 ± 2 and 122 ± 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 ± 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs

  10. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  11. Colloquy and workshops: regional implications of the engineering manpower requirements of the National Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segool, H. D. [ed.

    1979-05-01

    The crucial interrelationships of engineering manpower, technological innovation, productivity and capital re-formaton were keynoted. Near-term, a study has indicated a much larger New England energy demand-reduction/economic/market potential, with a probably larger engineering manpower requirement, for energy-conservation measures characterized by technological innovation and cost-effective capital services than for alternative energy-supply measures. Federal, regional, and state energy program responsibilities described a wide-ranging panorama of activities among many possible energy options which conveyed much endeavor without identifiable engineering manpower demand coefficients. Similarly, engineering manpower assessment data was described as uneven and unfocused to the energy program at the national level, disaggregated data as non-existent at the regional/state levels, although some qualitative inferences were drawn. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 16 individual presentations for the DOE Energy Data Base (EDB); 14 of these were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and 2 for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  12. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Triana, M; Aleman Mateo, H; Valencia Julleirat, M [Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Havana (Cuba); and others

    2002-07-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  13. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Aleman Mateo, H.; Valencia Julleirat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  14. Automation of Geometry Input for Building Code Compliance Check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrova, Ekaterina Aleksandrova; Johansen, Peter Lind; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of compliance with the energy performance regulations at the end of the detailed design phase is mandatory for building owners in Denmark. Therefore, besides multidisciplinary input, the building design process requires various iterative analyses, so that the optimal solutions can....... That has left the industry in constant pursuit of possibilities for integration of the tool within the Building Information Modelling environment so that the potential provided by the latter can be harvested and the processed can be optimized. This paper presents a solution for automated data extraction...... from building geometry created in Autodesk Revit and its translation to input for compliance check analysis....

  15. Assessing Energy Requirements in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Comparison Against Doubly Labeled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Klempel, Monica C; Gilmore, L Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Altazan, Abby D; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    Weight loss is prescribed to offset the deleterious consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but a successful intervention requires an accurate assessment of energy requirements. Describe energy requirements in women with PCOS and evaluate common prediction equations compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Cross-sectional study. Academic research center. Twenty-eight weight-stable women with PCOS completed a 14-day DLW study along with measures of body composition and resting metabolic rate and assessment of physical activity by accelerometry. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) determined by DLW. TDEE was 2661 ± 373 kcal/d. TDEE estimated from four commonly used equations was within 4% to 6% of the TDEE measured by DLW. Hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was associated with TDEE estimates from all prediction equations (both r = 0.45; P = 0.02) but was not a significant covariate in a model that predicts TDEE. Similarly, hyperandrogenemia (total testosterone, free androgen index, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was not associated with TDEE. In weight-stable women with PCOS, the following equation derived from DLW can be used to determine energy requirements: TDEE (kcal/d) = 438 - [1.6 * Fat Mass (kg)] + [35.1 * Fat-Free Mass (kg)] + [16.2 * Age (y)]; R2 = 0.41; P = 0.005. Established equations using weight, height, and age performed well for predicting energy requirements in weight-stable women with PCOS, but more precise estimates require an accurate assessment of physical activity. Our equation derived from DLW data, which incorporates habitual physical activity, can also be used in women with PCOS; however, additional studies are needed for model validation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  16. MEGASTAR: The Meaning of Energy Growth: An Assessment of Systems, Technologies, and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach that includes the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption for the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario. The total requirements and the energy subsystems for each scenario are assessed for their primary impacts in the areas of society, the environment, technology and the economy.

  17. Utilization of respiratory energy in higher plants : requirements for 'maintenance' and transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of both photosynthesis and respiration is required to understand plant growth and resulting crop yield. However, especially the nature of the energy demanding processes that are dependent on dark respiration in full-grown tissues is largely unknown. The main objective

  18. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  19. Comparing the energy required for fine grinding torrefied and fast heat treated pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Lauri; Tolvanen, Henrik; Hämäläinen, Kai; Raiko, Risto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare torrefaction to partial pyrolysis conducted with a fast heat treatment process. Both torrefaction and the fast heat treatment tests were performed in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The study investigated the anhydrous weight losses, the fine grinding energy requirements, and the lower heating values of the samples produced with the two methods i.e. torrefaction and the fast heat treatment. The effect of particle size to these quantities was also investigated. The measurements demonstrated that the fine grinding energy requirement decreased rapidly as a function of anhydrous weight loss. The overall energy content remaining in the solid product decreased linearly as a function of anhydrous weight loss. The study shows that there is only little difference in the final products of the two processes when using particle sizes less than 4 mm. This means that it is possible to get similar products from the fast heat treatment process that takes only seconds compared to the slower torrefaction process that takes minutes. -- Highlights: ► Fine grinding energy requirement is dependent on anhydrous weight loss. ► A fast heat treatment process of only 10 s is possible for pine wood. ► A particle size of less than 4 mm is required for the fast process.

  20. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  1. A 2nd generation static model of greenhouse energy requirements (horticern) : a comparison with dynamic models

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L

    1989-01-01

    Optimisation of a greenhouse and its components requires a suitable model permitting precise determination of its energy requirements. Existing static models are simple but lack precision; dynamic models though more precise, are unsuitable for use over long periods and difficult to handle in practice. A theoretical study and measurements from the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed the development of new static model named "HORTICERN", precise and easy to use for predicting energy consumption and which takes into account effects of solar energy, wind and radiative loss to the sky. This paper compares the HORTICERN model with the dynamic models of Bot, Takakura, Van Bavel and Gembloux, and demonstrates that its precision is comparable; differences on average being less than 5%, it is independent of type of greenhouse (e.g. single or double glazing, Hortiplus, etc.) and climate. The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and is proving to be a powerful tool for greenhouse optimisation by research work...

  2. China's economic reform and industry sector energy requirement: A forecast to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    With its GDP growing at an average rate of 9.8% for the last seventeen years, China has the world's fastest growing economy. This rapid pace of growth and industrialization has caused economic strain because fuel production cannot keep pace with demand, If China allows this situation to continue, significant oil imports will be necessary. In 1993, the industrial sector contributed 56% to China's GDP and consumed 61% of the total final energy. The industrial sector will remain the largest energy consumer in China well into the next century. According to China's Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996--2000), China will strengthen its ability to develop new products and will use technological advancement to promote industrial development. The Plan calls for special attention in four major areas: microelectronics technology, digital technology, software technology, and network technology. Given China's emphasis on developing light industries and on improving industrial sector energy efficiency, it is important to study the future energy demand of the industrial sector. Two scenarios for future energy requirements are studied through the year 2015: a Business As Usual (BASU) scenario and an Energy Efficient (EE) scenario. The study evaluates China's current economic reform policies and energy efficiency policies. The results of this evaluation are used to assign appropriate growth rates to industrial GDP and the industrial energy intensity for both scenarios. Results from the two scenarios are compared and analyzed

  3. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  4. Strategic study on energy-protein requirements for local sheep: 5. Ewes during lactation phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six Javanese thin-tail ewes in the end of late pregnancy phase were set out to study the energy and crude protein requirements during the first eight-week of lactation phase. The ewes were penned individually in doors and randomly assigned to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three levels of energy (low, medium and high and three levels of crude protein (low, medium and high diets with four ewes per treatment. The diets were pelleted and offered four times daily in approximately equal amount. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight and milk production were recorded. Results showed that, total lamb birth weights was not affected, but protein content on the ration treatments significantly altered (P0.05, while crude protein content on the ration highly significantly affected (P<0.01. Based on data recorded, the energy and protein requirements for ewes during lactation phase are highly significantly depended on ewes’ live weight, milk production and the ratio of energy metabolism and crude protein of the ration. It was concluded that in order to fulfil the crude protein and energy needs of the ewes during lactation phase, the ration given should contain crude protein and energy as much as 16% (based on dry matter and 13.4 MJ/kg dry matter respectively.

  5. Construction products performances and basic requirements for fire safety of facades in energy rehabilitation of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction product means any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works, or parts thereof, and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works. Safety in case of fire and Energy economy and heat retention represent two among seven basic requirements which building has to meet according to contemporary technical rules on planning and construction. Performances of external walls building materials (particularly reaction to fire could significantly affect to fire spread on the façade and other building parts. Therefore, façade shaping and materialization in building renewal process, has to meet the fire safety requirement, as well as the energy requirement. Brief survey of fire protection regulations development in Serbia is presented in the paper. Preventive measures for fire risk reduction in building façade energy renewal are proposed according to contemporary fire safety requirements.

  6. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the US by 1990 are presented. It is a continuation of a 1978 study (EAPA 5:3946) to perform a similar analysis on 1979 scenarios. Scenarios B, C, and D from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting Systems, as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for Scenarios B, C, and D. Total investment requirements for the three models (pipelines, railroads, waterways) and the three energy commodities (coal, petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas) are estimated to range between $35.3 and $42.7 billion by 1990 depending on the scenario.

  7. Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2013-01-01

    Household consumption requires energy to be used at all stages of the economic process, thereby directly and indirectly leading to environmental impacts across the entire production chain. The levels, structure and determinants of energy requirements of household consumption therefore constitute an important avenue of research. Incorporating the full upstream requirements into the analysis helps to avoid simplistic conclusions which would actually only imply shifts between consumption categories without taking the economy wide effects into account. This paper presents the investigation of the direct and indirect primary energy requirements of Australian households, contrasting urban, suburban and rural consumption patterns as well as inter- and intra-regional levels of inequality in energy requirements. Furthermore the spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption for different categories of energy requirements are identified and quantified. Conclusions regarding the relationships between energy requirements, household characteristics, urban form and urbanization processes are drawn and the respective policy implications are explored. - Highlights: • We statistically analyze the energy requirements of consumption in Australia. • Contrasting urban/suburban/rural consumption patterns and spatial inequality. • Energy requirements are influenced by urban form, income and demographics. • Urban households require less direct energy, but their total consumption is higher. • Significant rebound effects can be expected when direct energy use is decreased

  8. Energy Requirement and Comfort of Gas- and Electric-powered Hot-water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedemann, B.; Schmitz, G.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the continuous reduction in the specific heating energy demand of new buildings the power demand for hot-water supply increasingly dominates the heating supply of residential buildings. Furthermore, the German energy-savings-regulation 2000 (ESVO) is intended to evaluate the techniques installed such as domestic heating or hot-water supply within an overall energetic view of the building. Planning advice for domestic heating, ventilation and hot-water systems in gas-heated, low-energy buildings has therefore been developed in a common research project of the Technical University of Hamburg Harburg (TUHH) and four energy supply companies. In this article different gas-or electricity-based hot-water systems in one family houses and multiple family houses are compared with one another with regard to the aspects of comfort and power requirements considering the user's behaviour. (author)

  9. SSYST-3. Input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1983-12-01

    The code system SSYST-3 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a complete input-list for all modules and several tested inputs for a LOCA analysis. (orig.)

  10. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  11. [Requirements for a cross-location biobank IT infrastructure : Survey of stakeholder input on the establishment of a biobank network of the German Biobank Alliance (GBA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, C; Buschhüter, N; Döllinger, C; Ebert, L; Hummel, M; Linde, J; Prokosch, H-U; Proynova, R; Lablans, M

    2018-04-24

    The large number of biobanks within Germany results in a high degree of heterogeneity with regard to the IT components used at the respective locations. Within the German Biobank Alliance (GBA), 13 biobanks implement harmonized processes for the provision of biomaterial and accompanying data. The networking of the individual biobanks and the associated harmonisation of the IT infrastructure should facilitate access to biomaterial and related clinical data. For this purpose, the relevant target groups were first identified in order to determine their requirements for IT solutions to be developed in a workshop. Of the seven identified interest groups, three were initially invited to a first round of discussions. The stakeholder input expressed resulted in a catalogue of requirements with regard to IT support for (i) a sample and data request, (ii) the handling of patient consent and inclusion, and (iii) the subsequent evaluation of the sample and data request. The next step is to design the IT solutions as prototypes based on these requirements. In parallel, further user groups are being surveyed in order to be able to further concretise the specifications for development.

  12. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  13. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  14. Direct effects of ionizing radiation on integral membrane proteins. Noncovalent energy transfer requires specific interpeptide interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhun, E.; Jhun, B.H.; Jones, L.R.; Jung, C.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The 12 transmembrane alpha helices (TMHs) of human erythrocyte glucose transporter were individually cut by pepsin digestion as membrane-bound 2.5-3.5-kDa peptide fragments. Radiation-induced chemical degradation of these fragments showed an average target size of 34 kDa. This is 10-12 x larger than the average size of an individual TMH, demonstrating that a significant energy transfer occurs among these TMHs in the absence of covalent linkage. Heating this TMH preparation at 100 degree C for 15 min reduced the target size to 5 kDa or less, suggesting that the noncovalent energy transfer requires specific helix-helix interactions. Purified phospholamban, a small (6-kDa) integral membrane protein containing a single TMH, formed a pentameric assembly in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The chemical degradation target size of this phospholamban pentamer was 5-6 kDa, illustrating that not all integral membrane protein assemblies permit intersubunit energy transfer. These findings together with other published observations suggest strongly that significant noncovalent energy transfer can occur within the tertiary and quaternary structure of membrane proteins and that as yet undefined proper molecular interactions are required for such covalent energy transfer. Our results with pepsin-digested glucose transporter also illustrate the importance of the interhelical interaction as a predominating force in maintaining the tertiary structure of a transmembrane protein

  15. Energy requirements for maintenance and growth of male saanen goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A N; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A; Araújo, M J; Yáñez, E A; Ferreira, A C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of forty-one Saanen, intact male kids with initial body weight (BW) of 5.12±0.19 kg. The baseline (BL) group consisted of eight kids averaging 5.46±0.18 kg BW. An intermediate group consisted of six kids, fed for ad libitum intake, that were slaughtered when they reached an average BW of 12.9±0.29 kg. The remaining kids (n = 27) were randomly allocated into nine slaughter groups (blocks) of three animals distributed among three amounts of dry matter intake (DMI; ad libitum and restricted to 70% or 40% of ad libitum intake). Animals in a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum-treatment kid in the group reached 20 kg BW. In a digestibility trial, 21 kids (same animals of the comparative slaughter) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. The net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 417 kJ/kg(0.75) of empty BW (EBW)/d, while the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was 657 kJ/kg(0.75) of EBW/d. The efficiency of ME use for NE maintenance (km) was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 59.91 to 92.02 g/kg of EBW while body energy content varied from 6.37 to 7.76 MJ/kg of EBW, respectively, for 5 and 20 kg of EBW. The net energy for growth (NEg) ranged from 7.4 to 9.0 MJ/kg of empty weight gain by day at 5 and 20 kg BW, respectively. This study indicated that the energy requirements in goats were lower than previously published requirements for growing dairy goats.

  16. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  17. The role of input-output analysis of energy and ecologic systems. In the early development of ecological economics--a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A summary is provided of the early history of research on the flow of nonrenewable energy resources through the economy and of the flow of renewable energy resources through a natural ecosystem. The techniques are similar, and many specific applications are provided. A combined economic and ecological technique is also defined. The early history and people of the International Society Ecological Economic are cited.

  18. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  19. PLEXOS Input Data Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The PLEXOS Input Data Generator (PIDG) is a tool that enables PLEXOS users to better version their data, automate data processing, collaborate in developing inputs, and transfer data between different production cost modeling and other power systems analysis software. PIDG can process data that is in a generalized format from multiple input sources, including CSV files, PostgreSQL databases, and PSS/E .raw files and write it to an Excel file that can be imported into PLEXOS with only limited manual intervention.

  20. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  1. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  2. Remote systems requirements of the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Remote systems will be required in the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings, and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser-beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources, their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  3. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-10-01

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  4. Industry requirements for introduction of alternative energies with emphasis on hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabbio, F. [Rio Tinto, Canadian Exploration Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Starbuck, D. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Akerman, A. [CVRD-Inco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Betournay, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed issues related to the use of alternate sources of energy in underground mining applications. Hydrogen power systems were examined in relation to operational drivers, available commercial supplies, site supplies, health and safety issues, capital and operating costs, mine production, and the role of government. Hydrogen power systems are being considered for mining applications in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce cooling and ventilation requirements. This article examined a range of issues that must be addressed before alternate energy systems such as hydrogen fuel cell technology can be used in larger-scale underground mining applications. The mining industry supports the development of new technologies. However, the introduction of alternate energy technologies must proceed in steps which include proof of concept testing, the development of generic infrastructure, power systems and regulations, and whole operating system studies. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  5. MINIMIZE ENERGY AND COSTS REQUIREMENT OF WEEDING AND FERTILIZING PROCESS FOR FIBER CROPS IN SMALL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out through agricultural summer season of 2014 at the experimental farm of Gemmiza Research Station, Gharbiya governorate to minimize energy and costs in weeding and fertilizing processes for fiber crops (Kenaf and Roselle in small farms. The manufactured multipurpose unit performance was studied as a function of change in machine forward speed (2.2, 2.8, 3.4 and 4 Km/h fertilizing rates (30,45 and 60 Kg.N.fed-1,and constant soil moisture content was 20%(d.b in average. Performance of the manufactured machine was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, power and energy requirements, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency, and operational costs as a machine measurements .The experiment results reveled that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%.

  6. Considerations on the need for electricity storage requirements: Power versus energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belderbos, Andreas; Virag, Ana; D’haeseleer, William; Delarue, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • General storage principles are analyzed. • Storage units have different limitations (power versus energy). • Storage power and energy are required, dependent on residual profile. • Relationship between residual profile and optimal storage portfolio is derived. • Broadly applicable rules regarding optimal storage investments are presented. - Abstract: Different storage technologies enable an increasing share of variable renewable generation in the electricity system by reducing the temporal mismatch between generation and demand. Two storage ratings are essential to time-shift delivery of electricity to loads: electric power, or instantaneous electricity flow [W], and electric energy, or power integrated over time [Wh]. An optimal storage portfolio is likely composed of multiple technologies, each having specific power and energy ratings. This paper derives and explains the link between the shape of the time-varying demand and generation profiles and the amount of desirably installed storage capacity, both energy and power. An analysis is performed for individual storage technologies first, showing a link between the necessary power and energy capacity and the demand and generation profile. Then combinations of storage technologies are analyzed to reveal their mutual interaction in a storage portfolio. Results show an increase in desirability for storage technologies with low cost power ratings when the mismatch between generation and demand occurs in daily to weekly cycles. Storage technologies with low cost energy ratings are preferred when this mismatch occurs in monthly to seasonal cycles. The findings of this work can help energy system planners and policy makers to explain results from generation expansion planning studies and to isolate the storage benefits accountable to temporal arbitrage in broader electricity storage studies.

  7. Methods for calculating energy and current requirements for industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Farrell, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The practical problems of determining electron beam parameters for industrial irradiation processes are discussed. To assist the radiation engineer in this task, the physical aspects of electron beam absorption are briefly described. Formulas are derived for calculating the surface dose in the treated material using the electron energy, beam current and the area thruput rate of the conveyor. For thick absorbers electron transport results are used to obtain the depth-dose distributions. From these the average dose in the material, anti D, and the beam power utilization efficiency, F/sub p/, can be found by integration over the distributions. These concepts can be used to relate the electron beam power to the mass thruput rate. Qualitatively, the thickness of the material determines the beam energy, the area thruput rate and surface dose determine the beam current while the mass thruput rate and average depth-dose determine the beam power requirements. Graphs are presented showing these relationships as a function of electron energy from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV for polystyrene. With this information, the determination of electron energy and current requirements is a relatively simple procedure

  8. Neutral beam energy and power requirements for expanding radius and full bore startup of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1979-09-01

    Natural beam power and energy requirements are compared for full density full bore and expanding radius startup scenarios in an elongated plasma, The Next Step (TNS), as a function of beam pulse time and plasma density. Because of the similarity of parameters, the results should also be applicable to Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) studies. A transport model consisting of neoclassical ion conduction and anomalous electron conduction and diffusion based on ALCATOR scaling leads to average densities in the range approx. 0.8 to 1.2 x 10 14 cm -3 being sufficient for ignition. Neutral deuterium beam energies in the range 120 to 180 keV are adequate for penetration, with the required power injected into the plasma decreasing with increasing beam energy. The neutral beam power decreases strongly with increasing beam pulse length b/sub b/ until t/sub b/ exceeds a few total energy confinement times, yielding b/sub b/ approx. = 4 to 6 s for the TNS plasma

  9. The role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Flanagan, Eamonn P

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with an understanding of the role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements. Specifically, the article covers 1) the nature of elasticity and its application to human participants, 2) the role of elastic energy in activities requiring a stretch-shorten cycle such as the vertical jump, 3) the role of muscular stiffness in athletic performance, 4) the control of muscular stiffness through feedforward and feedback mechanisms, and 5) factors affecting muscular stiffness. Finally, practical applications are provided. In this section, it is suggested that the storage and reuse of elastic energy is optimized at relatively higher levels of stiffness. Because stiffness decreases as fatigue ensues as well as with stretching before an event, the article emphasizes the need for proper preparation phases in a periodized cycle and the avoidance of long static stretches before high-force activities. The importance of teaching athletes to transition from eccentric to concentric movements with minimal time delays is also proposed due to the finding that time delays appear to decrease the reuse of elastic energy. In addition to teaching within the criterion tasks, evidence is provided that minimizing transitions in plyometric training, a technique demonstrated to increase musculotendinous stiffness, can optimize power output in explosive movements. Finally, evidence is provided that training and teaching programs designed to optimize muscular stiffness may protect athletes against sports-related injuries.

  10. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Porrata Maury, C.; Jimenez Acosta, S.; Gonzalez Perez, T.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Sanchez, V.; Monterrey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  11. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  12. Input and execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.; Lane, G.; Rowling, G.

    1986-11-01

    This document describes the input procedures, input data files and operating instructions for the SYVAC A/C 1.03 computer program. SYVAC A/C 1.03 simulates the groundwater mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. (author)

  13. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  15. Experimental assessment of energy requirements and tool tip visibility for photoacoustic-guided endonasal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dagle, Alicia B.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-03-01

    Endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is an effective approach for pituitary adenoma resection, yet it poses the serious risk of internal carotid artery injury. We propose to visualize these carotid arteries, which are hidden by bone, with an optical fiber attached to a surgical tool and a transcranial ultrasound probe placed on the patient's temple (i.e. intraoperative photoacoustic imaging). To investigate energy requirements for vessel visualization, experiments were conducted with a phantom containing ex vivo sheep brain, ex vivo bovine blood, and 0.5-2.5 mm thick human cadaveric skull specimens. Photoacoustic images were acquired with 1.2-9.3 mJ laser energy, and the resulting vessel contrast was measured at each energy level. The distal vessel boundary was difficult to distinguish at the chosen contrast threshold for visibility (4.5 dB), which was used to determine the minimum energies for vessel visualization. The blood vessel was successfully visualized in the presence of the 0-2.0 mm thick sphenoid and temporal bones with up to 19.2 dB contrast. The minimum energy required ranged from 1.2-5.0 mJ, 4.2-5.9 mJ, and 4.6-5.2 mJ for the 1.0 temporal and 0-1.5 mm sphenoid bones, 1.5 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, and 2.0 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, respectively, which corresponds to a fluence range of 4-21 mJ/cm2. These results hold promise for vessel visualization within safety limits. In a separate experiment, a mock tool tip was placed, providing satisfactory preliminary evidence that surgical tool tips can be visualized simultaneously with blood vessels.

  16. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Technical Requirements For Reactors To Be Deployed Internationally For the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeks to create an international regime to support large-scale growth in the worldwide use of nuclear energy. Fully meeting the GNEP vision may require the deployment of thousands of reactors in scores of countries, many of which do not use nuclear energy currently. Some of these needs will be met by large-scale Generation III and III+ reactors (>1000 MWe) and Generation IV reactors when they are available. However, because many developing countries have small and immature electricity grids, the currently available Generation III(+) reactors may be unsuitable since they are too large, too expensive, and too complex. Therefore, GNEP envisions new types of reactors that must be developed for international deployment that are 'right sized' for the developing countries and that are based on technologies, designs, and policies focused on reducing proliferation risk. The first step in developing such systems is the generation of technical requirements that will ensure that the systems meet both the GNEP policy goals and the power needs of the recipient countries. Reactor systems deployed internationally within the GNEP context must meet a number of requirements similar to the safety, reliability, economics, and proliferation goals established for the DOE Generation IV program. Because of the emphasis on deployment to nonnuclear developing countries, the requirements will be weighted differently than with Generation IV, especially regarding safety and non-proliferation goals. Also, the reactors should be sized for market conditions in developing countries where energy demand per capita, institutional maturity and industrial infrastructure vary considerably, and must utilize fuel that is compatible with the fuel recycle technologies being developed by GNEP. Arrangements are already underway to establish Working Groups jointly with Japan and Russia to develop requirements for reactor systems. Additional bilateral and multilateral

  18. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreter, M.; Gray, M.; Falck, E.; Bonne, A.; Bell, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors and fuel cycle applications. This paper reports progress made on the identification of user requirements as they relate to the environment and environmental protection. The user requirements being formulated are intended to limit adverse environmental effects from the different facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycles to be well below maximum acceptable levels. To determine if the user requirements are met, it is necessary to identify those factors that are relevant to assessment of the environmental performance of innovative nuclear systems. To this effect, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Material Flow accounting (MFA) methodologies are being appraised for the suitability for application. This paper develops and provides the rationale for the 'users' requirements' as they are currently defined. Existing Environmental Impact Assessment and Materials Flow Accounting methodologies that can be applied to determine whether or not innovative technologies conform to the User Requirements are briefly described. It is concluded that after establishing fundamental principles, it is possible to formulate sets of general and specific users' requirements against which, the potential adverse environmental effects to be expected from innovative nuclear energy systems (INES) can be assessed. The application of these users' requirements should keep the adverse environmental effects from INES's within acceptable limits. (authors)

  19. What is required to make hydrogen a real energy carrier option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, S.; Schindler, G.; Schwab, E.; Weck, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The driver for the introduction of hydrogen as mobile energy-carrier is regulatory measures to avoid the CO{sub 2} emissions which are related to the current fossil carbon based situation. H{sub 2} is a large volume chemical product with an annual production of about 45 million tons, most of which currently is also derived from fossil sources. The German transport sector consumes 2,6.10{sup 12} MJ/a which in terms of energy is equivalent to nearly 50% of the current world hydrogen production. There is the proposal to start the ''hydrogen economy'' with ''excess H{sub 2}'' which is believed to be available as inadvertently occurring byproduct of chemical processes. A potential {proportional_to}2 million tons is estimated for this ''excess H{sub 2}'' in Europe; the proposal however does not take into account, that current uses of this H{sub 2} would have to be substituted. Therefore, an overall gain for the environment cannot be expected. Therefore, a sustainable hydrogen based energy scenario has to rely on new sources. Besides Biomass gasification which in terms of technology would resemble the conventional fossil based hydrogen production, the only other viable carbon-free hydrogen source is water, which has to be split into its constituting elements. The current paper is restricted to the latter path, the feasibility of the biomass approach needs to be discussed elsewhere. If hypothetically the above mentioned energy for the German transport sector would be provided by H{sub 2} from water electrolysis an electricity input of 4.10{sup 12} MJ would be needed. This number exceeds the currently installed German wind turbine capacity by a factor of 6 and even by a factor of 36, if the weather-based {proportional_to}16% year-round on-stream factor for onshore plants is taken into account. (orig.)

  20. Capital investment requirements in the West German energy economy and its financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, R; Radtke, G; Stoessel, R

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the order of magnitude of capital investment required in the West German energy sector in the next two decades is based on reserve, production, and consumption statistics of the 10th World Energy Conference, the Chase Manhattan Bank and a 4% inflation rate, and shows requirements of DM22 billion for 1980-85, DM52 billion for 1980-90, and DM150 billion for 1980-2000 for exploration, production, and gasification of bituminous coal; DM21.7 billion or DM33.8 billion for 1980-2000 for lignite, depending on the use of the lignite for direct electricity generation or for gasification with nuclear process heat; DM2.8 billion and DM3.0 billion for expansion and conversion of petroleum-refining capacity for 1980-90 and 1991-2000, respectively; DM75-DM90 billion for exploration and production to maintain the present oil and natural gas production level in 1980-2000; DM70 billion for the transport and distribution of natural gas in 1980-2000; DM88.4 billion for coal and nuclear power-generation plants and DM59 billion for the distribution network to 1990; and DM48 billion for regenerative energy sources to 2000. The financing structure is also discussed.

  1. Influence of energy input in friction stir welding on structure evolution and mechanical behaviour of precipitation-hardening in aluminium alloys (AA2024-T351, AA6013-T6 and Al-Mg-Sc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis Olea, Cesar Afonso [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2008-12-04

    Aluminium alloys AA2024 T351, AA6013 T6 and the recently developed Al-Mg-Sc for aircraft industry applications, which are usually considered difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding processes, demonstrate outstanding performance when joined by friction stir welding (FSW). The main feature of the process is to produce solid-state welds, where the maximum temperatures attained during the process are about 80 % that of the melting temperature of the base material. The process generates substantial plastic deformation, due to the solid-state stirring, and consequently creates a high dislocation density, which is a precursor to dynamic recrystallization, a metallurgical feature that characterizes the stir zone (weld centre). A relevant aspect considered, regarding precipitation-hardening aluminium alloys, is the deterioration of the mechanical properties in the weld zones, which are fundamentally attributed to changes in the characteristics of strengthening precipitates. Among the strengthening mechanisms acting in these aluminium alloys, the most important is basically dependent on the morphology, size and population of the precipitates. The thermal cycle and deformation generated during the FSW process alter the precipitation characteristics previously present in the base material. FSW input energy regulates the magnitude of the thermal cycle and the intensity of deformation taking place during the process, and it can be controlled by the welding parameters, affecting the precipitates evolution and consequently the mechanical properties of the joint. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of knowledge about the substructural evolution of these alloys during FSW, and its correlation with weld energy input and their respective mechanical properties, particularly for the Al-Mg-Sc alloy. The main objective of this work is to explain the micro and substructural evolution (emphasizing precipitates evolution) of AA2024- T351, AA6013-T6 and Al-Mg-Sc alloys in similar

  2. Development of world energy requirements and ways of meeting the demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valvoda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The development is described of the past and future energy demand and the possibility is discussed of using fossil and non-fossil energy sources in meeting the needs of population. The use of alternative energy sources is recommended to reduce the fossil fuel demand, such as solar energy, water energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wind energy, sea wave energy, ocean temperature gradients, photosynthesis, glacier energy and nuclear fission energy. The comparison of the possible use of the respective types of energy sources shows that only geothermal energy, tidal energy and the nuclear energy produced by thermal reactors have undergone the whole developmental stage and are industrially applicable. (Oy)

  3. Prediction of digestibility and energy concentration of winter pasture forage and herbage of low-input grassland--a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz v Boberfeld, W; Theobald, P C; Laser, H

    2003-06-01

    Regarding the estimation of the energy concentration or digestibility of herb-dominated forage and plant samples from winter pastures, it could be expected that the estimation is only reliable when in vitro methods with rumen fluid as inoculum (= gas production techniques) are used. For the verification of this thesis based on logical reflections, an in vitro-method with rumen fluid added as inoculum, as well as chemical, and enzymatic methods were applied under consideration of existing estimating functions. As a possible reason for the observed divergence of the methods, effects of fungal infections or, respectively, secondary compounds in herbs are discussed. At the present state of knowledge, it is adequate to estimate the energy concentration in vitro by gas tests, as far as fattening types like suckler cows and beef cattle are concerned, maybe in contrast to the forage evaluation for dairy cows.

  4. Energy requirements for gestation and lactation in a delayed implanter, the American badger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, H J; Miller, B; Ryder, T; Ryder, L

    1985-01-01

    1. Two adult female badgers were water-deprived and/or fasted during the last one-half to two-thirds of pregnancy while a third pregnant female received water ad libitum and was fed meat and dog food. 2. The litter size, birth weights, post partum energy consumption, growth rate, development of homeothermy, tooth eruption and date of weaning, as well as other developmental characteristics, were not significantly different between cubs born to the fed or fasted mothers. 3. The energy demands for gestation are apparently small and are accommodated by fat reserves during periods of food deprivation. However, the calculated energy for lactation is 16 times that of gestation, which is quadruple the expenditure for most mammals. 4. As a result of delayed implantation, the length of gestation and litter weights of badgers are considerably below those predicted from allometric equations. 5. The period of lactation is therefore extremely critical to the survival of both the cubs and lactating adults which require heavy fat stores and possibly torpor to ensure sufficient energy availability during prolonged winter food shortage.

  5. Selection for high and low oxygen consumption-induced differences in maintenance energy requirements of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhan, Hongyu; Kikusato, Motoi; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Sato, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2017-07-01

    Maintenance energy requirements (MER) of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) oxygen consumption (OC) were compared. Forty-four mice from H and L OC lines were weaned at 3 weeks and divided into four experimental groups: group A were sacrificed at 4 weeks; group B were fed ad libitum, and groups C and D were fed 2.8 and 2.4 g/day, respectively, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Groups B-D were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Chemical components were estimated for all groups. MER was estimated using a model that partitioned metabolizable energy intake into that used for maintenance, and protein and fat deposition. The feed conversion ratio for the B group was significantly higher in the H than in the L line. Feed intake for metabolic energy content per metabolic body size was significantly also higher in the H line, whereas accumulated energy content per metabolic body size was significantly higher in the L line. MER of the H line was greater than that of the L line (P < 0.10). These results suggest that selection for H or L OC produced differences in chemical components, feed efficiency, and MER between the H and L lines. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. EVIDENCE OF SIGNIFICANT ENERGY INPUT IN THE LATE PHASE OF A SOLAR FLARE FROM NuSTAR X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Hannah, Iain G.; Wright, Paul J. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Glesener, Lindsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Hudson, Hugh S.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 E. California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); White, Stephen M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J. [Physics Department and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We present observations of the occulted active region AR 12222 during the third Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray ( NuSTAR ) solar campaign on 2014 December 11, with concurrent Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/AIA and FOXSI-2 sounding rocket observations. The active region produced a medium-size solar flare 1 day before the observations, at ∼18 UT on 2014 December 10, with the post-flare loops still visible at the time of NuSTAR observations. The time evolution of the source emission in the SDO/ AIA 335 Å channel reveals the characteristics of an extreme-ultraviolet late-phase event, caused by the continuous formation of new post-flare loops that arch higher and higher in the solar corona. The spectral fitting of NuSTAR observations yields an isothermal source, with temperature 3.8–4.6 MK, emission measure (0.3–1.8) × 10{sup 46} cm{sup −3}, and density estimated at (2.5–6.0) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}. The observed AIA fluxes are consistent with the derived NuSTAR temperature range, favoring temperature values in the range of 4.0–4.3 MK. By examining the post-flare loops’ cooling times and energy content, we estimate that at least 12 sets of post-flare loops were formed and subsequently cooled between the onset of the flare and NuSTAR observations, with their total thermal energy content an order of magnitude larger than the energy content at flare peak time. This indicates that the standard approach of using only the flare peak time to derive the total thermal energy content of a flare can lead to a large underestimation of its value.

  7. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabalda Aegina B

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98, 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to 2 (p = 0.003 for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.

  8. Energy and pressure requirements for compression of swine solid fraction compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pig slurry spread on soil has contributed to nitrate water pollution both in surface and in ground waters, especially in areas classified as vulnerable zones to nitrate in accordance with European Regulation (91/676/CEE. Several techniques have been developed to manage livestock slurries as cheaply and conveniently as possible and to reduce potential risks of environmental pollution. Among these techniques, solid-liquid separation of slurry is a common practice in Italy. The liquid fraction can be used for irrigation and the solid fraction, after aerobic stabilization, produces an organic compost rich in humic substances. However, compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kgm–3. This makes it costly to transport composted swine solid fraction from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20- 110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJkg–1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from

  9. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan for both new and... extensive that it is regarded as a newly constructed ship, must first have an Attained Energy Efficiency...

  10. Energy and protein requirements of weaned male and female Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, F O M; Leite, R F; St-Pierre, N R; Resende, K T; Almeida, A K; Souza, A P; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth in male (castrated and intact) and female Saanen goat kids between 15 and 30 kg BW. To determine the net energy requirements for maintenance (NE m ) and the net protein requirements for maintenance (NP m ), 75 goats (25 castrated and 26 intact males and 24 females) were used. Twenty-one goats (seven castrated and eight intact males and six females) were randomly assigned for slaughter to estimate the initial empty body composition. The 54 remaining animals (18 castrated and 18 intact males and 18 females) were randomly assigned in a split-plot design using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three sexes and three levels of intake (ad libitum and restricted feed to 75% or 50% of the ad libitum intake). Within each sex, six blocks (three goats per block) were formed and one goat was randomly assigned to each level of intake. The 75% and the 50% of ad libitum rationing were determined daily, based on the DMI of the animal fed ad libitum on the previous day. All animals within block were slaughtered when the animal fed ad libitum reached 30 kg BW. The net energy requirements for gain (NE g ) and the net protein requirements for gain (NP g ) were obtained using 58 animals (20 castrated and 20 intact males and 18 females). The animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW (15, 23 or 30 kg). Sex did not affect NE g and NP m (277.8 kJ/kg 0.75  BW day and 2.98 g CP/kg 0.75  BW day respectively), as well as NP g (180.9 ± 6.48 g/kg EBW gain) in Saanen goat kids. However, castrated males and females had similar NE g (varied from 12.6 ± 0.424 to 17.9 ± 1.38 MJ/kg EBW gain), greater than intact males (varied from 9.74 ± 0.420 to 10.7 ± 0.984 MJ/kg EBW gain), as the BW increased from 15 to 30 kg. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Analytical Comparison of Dual-Input Isolated dc-dc Converter with an ac or dc Inductor for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two configurations of dualinput (DI) or three-port (TPC) isolated dc-dc converters for hybrid renewable energy systems such as photovoltaics and batteries. These two converters are derived by integrating an interleaved boost converter and a single-active bridge converter...... and control perspective, distinct in operation principles, voltage/power transfer functions, loss distributions, soft-switching constraints, and power efficiency under the same operating conditions. Moreover, the inductor design differs greatly between these two cases. In this paper, a comprehensive...

  12. Economic analysis of energy supply and national economy on the basis of general equilibrium models. Applications of the input-output decomposition analysis and the Computable General Equilibrium models shown by the example of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong-Hwan.

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de

  13. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R&D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF

  14. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeyratne, S.; Accardi, A.; Ahmed, S.; Barber, D.; Bisognano, J.; Bogacz, A.; Castilla, A.; Chevtsov, P.; Corneliussen, S.; Deconinck, W.; Degtiarenko, P.; Delayen, J.; Derbenev, Ya.; DeSilva, S.; Douglas, D.; Dudnikov, V.; Ent, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Evtushenko, P.; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Guzey, V.; Horn, T.; Hutton, A.; Hyde, C.; Johnson, R.; Kim, Y.; Klein, F.; Kondratenko, A.; Kondratenko, M.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Lin, F.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McKeown, R.; Morozov, V.; Dadel-Turonski, P.; Nissen, E.; Ostroumov, P.; Pivi, M.; Pilat, F.; Poelker, M.; Prokudin, A.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Spata, M.; Sullivan, M.; Tennant, C.; Terzic, B.; Tiefenback, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Weiss, C.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    beginning, the design studies at Jefferson Lab have focused on achieving high collider performance, particularly ultrahigh luminosities up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 per detector with large acceptance, while maintaining high polarization for both the electron and light-ion beams. These are the two key performance requirements of a future electron-ion collider facility as articulated by the NSAC Long Range Plan. In MEIC, a new ion complex is designed specifically to deliver ion beams that match the high bunch repetition and highly polarized electron beam from CEBAF. During the last two years, both development of the science case and optimization of the machine design point toward a medium-energy electron-ion collider as the topmost goal for Jefferson Lab. The MEIC, with relatively compact collider rings, can deliver a luminosity above 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at a center-of-mass energy up to 65 GeV. It offers an electron energy up to 11 GeV, a proton energy up to 100 GeV, and corresponding energies per nucleon for heavy ions with the same magnetic rigidity. This design choice balances the scope of the science program, collider capabilities, accelerator technology innovation, and total project cost. An energy upgrade could be implemented in the future by adding two large collider rings housed in another large tunnel to push the center-of-mass energy up to or exceeding 140 GeV. After careful consideration of an alternative electron energy recovery linac on ion storage ring approach, a ring-ring collider scenario at high bunch repetition frequency was found to offer fully competitive performance while eliminating the uncertainties of challenging R and D on ampere-class polarized electron sources and many-pass energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). The essential new elements of an MEIC facility at Jefferson Lab are an electron storage ring and an entirely new, modern ion acceleration and storage complex. For the high-current electron collider ring, the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF SRF linac will serve as a

  15. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies and required subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Lin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    The development and utilization of renewable energy (RE), a strategic choice for energy structural adjustment, is an important measure of carbon emissions reduction in China. High cost is a main restriction element for large-scale development of RE, and accurate cost estimation of renewable power generation is urgently necessary. This is the first systemic study on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of RE in China. Results indicate that feed-in-tariff (FIT) of RE should be improved and dynamically adjusted based on the LCOE to provide a better support of the development of RE. The current FIT in China can only cover the LCOE of wind (onshore) and solar photovoltaic energy (PV) at a discount rate of 5%. Subsidies to renewables-based electricity generation, except biomass energy, still need to be increased at higher discount rates. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Government policy should focus on solving the financing problem of RE projects because fixed capital investment exerts considerable influence over the LCOE; and (2) the problem of high cost could be solved by providing subsidies in the short term and more importantly, by reforming electricity price in the mid-and long-term to make the RE competitive. - Highlights: • Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies is systemically studied. • Renewable power generation costs are estimated based on data of 17 power plants. • Required subsidies for renewable power generation are calculated. • Electricity price reform is the long-term strategy for solving problem of high cost

  16. Opportunities and requirements for experimentation at high energy e+e/sup /minus// collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, C.; Baltay, C.; Barklow, T.L.

    1988-05-01

    Over the past fifteen years of high-energy physics, electron-positron annihilation has been the most productive of all reactions probing the fundamental interactions. The e + e/sup /minus// annihilation process is unique in offering at the same time copious production of novel particles, low backgrounds from more conventional physics, and the most efficient use of the energy which an accelerator provides. These features have allowed the detailed characterization of the charm and bottom quark-antiquark systems and the unambiguous discovery of gluon jets---the crucial ingredients in the establishment of Quantum Chromodynamics as the correct theory of the strong interactions---as well as the discovery of the tau lepton and confirmation of the weak and electromagnetic properties of all the quarks and leptons at high energy. Over the past few years, experiments will begin at SLC and LEP, and we anticipate new discoveries from the detailed study of the Z 0 resonance. It is time, then to begin to think out how one might continue this mode experimentation to still higher energies. This document is the report of a committee convened by the Director of SLAC, Burton Richter, to set out the major physics goals of an e + e/sup /minus// collider in the energy range 600 GeV-1 TeV, corresponding to the next feasible step in accelerator technology. The committee was charged with the task of outlining the main experiments that such a collider might carry out and the requirements which those experiments place on the accelerator design. 106 refs., 105 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), Part 2: Energy input, orientation, and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing-microstructure-properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a newly developed, unique geometry to allow accurate investigation of the following intra-build processing parameters: energy input, orientation, and location. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. For a wide range of energy input (speed factor 30–40), small differences in mechanical properties (2% change in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 3% change in yield strength (YS)) were measured. Vertically built parts were found to have no difference in UTS or YS compared to horizontally built parts, but the percent elongation at break (% EL) was 30% lower. The difference in % EL was attributed to a different orientation of the tensile axis for horizontal and vertical parts compared to the elongated prior-β grain and microstructural texture direction in EBM Ti–6Al–4V. Orientation within the x–y plane as well as location were found to have less than 3% effect on mechanical properties, and it is possible a second order effect of thermal mass contributed to these results.

  18. Predicting the water-drop energy required to breakdown dry soil aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.

    1995-04-01

    The raindrop energy required to breakdown dry soil aggregates is an index of structural stability which has been found very useful in modelling soil erosion process and in evaluating the suitability of tillage implements for different soils. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a model for predicting the specific water-drop energy required to breakdown aggregates (D) as influenced by soil properties. Air-dry aggregates (2-4 mm in diameter), collected from 15 surface (0-20 cm) soils in north central Italy were used for this study. The actual and natural log-transformed D values were regressed on the soil properties. Clay content, wilting point moisture content (WP) and percent water-stable aggregates (WSA) > 2.0 mm were good predictors of D. Empirical models developed from either clay content or WP predicted D in 70% of the test soils whereas the model developed from WSA > 2.0 mm predicted D in 90% of the test soils. The correlation coefficients (r) between measured and predicted D were 0.961, 0.963 and 0.997 respectively, for models developed from clay, WP and WSA > 2.0 mm. The validity of these models need to be tested on other soils with a wider variation in properties than those used to developed the models. (author). 42 refs, 5 tabs

  19. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  20. An Investigation into Energy Requirements and Conservation Techniques for Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Jad

    Traditionally, societies use to design their built environment in a way that was in line with the climate and the geographical location that they evolved in, thereby supporting sustainable lifestyles (i.e. thick walls with small windows in cold climates). With the industrial revolution and the heavy use and reliance on cheap fossil fuels, it can be argued that the built environment has become more focused on aesthetics and cost savings rather than on true sustainability. This, in turn, has led to energy intensive practices associated with the construction of homes, buildings, cities and megalopolises. Environmental concerns with regards to the future have pushed people, entities and industries to search for ways to decrease human's energy dependency and/or to supply the demand in ways that are deemed sustainable. Efforts to address this concern with respect to the built environment were translated into 'green buildings', sustainable building technologies and high performance buildings that can be rated and/or licensed by selected certifying bodies with varying metrics of building construction and performance. The growing number of such systems has brought real concerns: Do certified sustainable buildings really achieve the level of sustainability (i.e. performance) they were intended to? For the purpose of this study, buildings' energy consumption will be analysed, as it is one of the main drivers when taking into consideration greenhouse gas emissions. Heating and cooling in the residential and commercial/institutional sector, combined account for approximately a fifth of the secondary energy use in Canada. For this reason, this research aims at evaluating the main rating systems in Canada based on the efficacy of their rating systems' certification methodology and the weighting and comparison of energy requirements under each scheme. It has been proven through numerous studies that major energy savings can be achieved by focusing primarily on building designs

  1. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-01

    The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the mechanism through which elementary particles gain mass has been confirmed by the discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Studying the Higgs boson properties are of great importance to verify the Standard Model predictions. Any deviation from these predictions could uncover physics beyond the Standard Model. The mass of the Higgs boson is one of the important parameters of the Standard Model. The precise determination of the Higgs boson mass is of interest in its own right and also for other Higgs physics studies since it enters as parametric uncertainty into the extraction of the partial width from branching ratio measurements. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future polarised e + e - collider designed for precision physics studies. The Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks H→b anti b has the largest branching ratio of all Higgs decays, providing a large dataset for physics analyses. The possibility of measuring the Higgs boson mass in the e + e - →ZH→q anti qb anti b channel is investigated in this thesis for centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV. Since the Higgs boson mass is reconstructed from two b jets, the jet energy resolution hasa high impact on the measurement. A new method to estimate the jet energy resolution for each jet individually is developed in this thesis. The jet-specific energy resolution is then used in the analysis for the Higgs boson mass measurements. Various strategies for the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. For an integrated luminosity of 1000 fb -1 and a beam polarisation of (-0.8,+0.3), statistical uncertainties of 42 MeV and 89 MeV are achieved for the centre-of-mass energies of 350 GeV and 500 GeV, respectively. Various sources of systematic uncertainties are also discussed. These results are obtained using a full GEANT4-based simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept. The jet energy resolution

  2. Jet energy measurements at ILC. Calorimeter DAQ requirements and application in Higgs boson mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2017-11-15

    jet energy resolution required for the Higgs boson mass measurement can only be achieved using the particle flow approach to reconstruction. The particle flow approach requires highly-granular calorimeters and a highly efficient tracking system. The CALICE collaboration is developing highly-granular calorimeters for such applications. One of the challenges in the development of such calorimeters with millions of read-out channels is their Data Acquisition System (DAQ) system. The second part of this thesis involves contributions to development of a new DAQ system for the CALICE scintillator calorimeters. The new DAQ system fulfills the requirements for the prototypes tests while being scalable to larger systems. The requirements and general architecture of the DAQ system is outlined in this thesis. The new DAQ system has been commissioned and tested with particle beams at the CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam facility in 2014,results of which are presented here.

  3. The contribution of nuclear energy to the meeting of Italy's electric power requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses ENEL's policy in the development of nuclear energy, which assigns to this source the role of meeting almost all of Italy's additional future power requirements. This is a position taken some time ago and already outlined on the occasion of the Geneva Conference of 1971. The policy is based on a number of factors, reviewed in the paper, which differentiate, at least in quantitative terms, Italy's situation from that of most industrialized countries. Among these factors stand out the scarcity of natural resources, including energy sources available in Italy. An extensive recourse to nuclear energy is the best way to achieve that diversification of energy supplies vital to the Italian economy which, because of the very lack of natural resources, is predominantly based on processing. While the Caorso Nuclear Power Plant (840 MW) is due to go into service soon, ENEL's nuclear plan, recently approved by the Government, calls for the construction of the four 1,000-MW units already on order and of 16 additional units, of the same size, divided into two 8-units blocks, to be decided on respectively in the very near future and before the end of 1977. The necessary flexibility of the plan concerning the nuclear units that will go into service by the 1986 is ensured by the subdivision into blocks, with provision for the postponement of the second, 8-units block in the country's economy development requires a revision in electric power forecasts. The paper then considers in particular the integration between the nuclear plan and ENEL's extensive plan for pumped-storage hydro-electric power plants and the related technical and economic advantages which also extend to an international scope. The paper concludes the review of Italy's nuclear plan by stressing two essential problems: financing and the availability of sites for nuclear power plants. Upon their timely and satisfactory solution depends the actual construction of the plants by the scheduled dates

  4. A shovel with a perforated blade reduces energy expenditure required for digging wet clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harivanam, Sridhar; Marklin, Richard W; Papanek, Paula E; Cariapa, Vikram

    2010-08-01

    A shovel with a blade perforated with small holes was tested to see whether a worker would use less whole-body energy to dig wet clay than with a shovel with an opaque blade. A perforated shovel is hypothesized to require less whole-body energy on the basis of adhesion theory; a smaller surface area would require less physical effort to dig and release soil from the blade. The study involved 13 workers from an electric utility who dug wet clay with two 1.5-m long-handled point shovels, which differed only in blade design (perforated and opaque). Oxygen consumption was measured with a portable system while each worker dug wet clay at a self-regulated pace for 10 min. There was no significant difference in number of scoops dug during the 10-min sessions, but workers dug 9.5% more weight of clay with the perforated shovel than with the conventional shovel (404 kg vs. 369 kg, respectively). Furthermore, stable oxygen uptake normalized to weight of participant and to the weight of clay dug revealed that participants expended 11.7% less relative energy per kilogram of clay dug with the perforated shovel. A point shovel with a perforated blade is recommended for digging and shoveling wet clay. However, the extra weight that workers chose to dig with the perforated shovel may increase the loading on the spine and may offset the metabolic advantages. Manual shoveling is a common task, and workers may experience less whole-body and muscle fatigue when using a perforated shovel.

  5. Metrology for hydrogen energy applications: a project to address normative requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloua, Frédérique; Bacquart, Thomas; Arrhenius, Karine; Delobelle, Benoît; Ent, Hugo

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a clean and storable energy solution that could meet worldwide energy demands and reduce greenhouse gases emission. The joint research project (JRP) ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’ addresses standardisation needs through pre- and co-normative metrology research in the fast emerging sector of hydrogen fuel that meet the requirements of the European Directive 2014/94/EU by supplementing the revision of two ISO standards that are currently too generic to enable a sustainable implementation of hydrogen. The hydrogen purity dispensed at refueling points should comply with the technical specifications of ISO 14687-2 for fuel cell electric vehicles. The rapid progress of fuel cell technology now requires revising this standard towards less constraining limits for the 13 gaseous impurities. In parallel, optimized validated analytical methods are proposed to reduce the number of analyses. The study aims also at developing and validating traceable methods to assess accurately the hydrogen mass absorbed and stored in metal hydride tanks; this is a research axis for the revision of the ISO 16111 standard to develop this safe storage technique for hydrogen. The probability of hydrogen impurity presence affecting fuel cells and analytical techniques for traceable measurements of hydrogen impurities will be assessed and new data of maximum concentrations of impurities based on degradation studies will be proposed. Novel validated methods for measuring the hydrogen mass absorbed in hydrides tanks AB, AB2 and AB5 types referenced to ISO 16111 will be determined, as the methods currently available do not provide accurate results. The outputs here will have a direct impact on the standardisation works for ISO 16111 and ISO 14687-2 revisions in the relevant working groups of ISO/TC 197 ‘Hydrogen technologies’.

  6. ENERGY AND PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS OF GROWING PELIBUEY SHEEP UNDER TROPICAL CONDITIONS ESTIMATED FROM A LITERATURE DATABASE ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from previous studies were used to estimate the metabolizable energy and protein requirements for maintenance and growth and basal metabolism energy requirement of male Pelibuey sheep under tropical conditions were estimated. In addition, empty body weight and mature weight of males and female Pelibuey sheep were also estimated. Basal metabolism energy requirements were estimated with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System – Sheep (CNCPS-S model using the a1 factor of the maintenance equation. Mature weight was estimated to be 69 kg for males and 45 kg for females. Empty body weight was estimated to be 81% of live weight. Metabolizable energy and protein requirements for growth were 0.106 Mcal MEm/kg LW0.75 and 2.4 g MP/kg LW0.75 for males. The collected information did not allowed appropriate estimation of female requirements. The basal metabolism energy requirement was estimated to be 0.039 Mcal MEm/kg LW0.75. Energy requirements for basal metabolism were lower in Pelibuey sheep than those reported for wool breeds even though their total requirements were similar.

  7. Diffusion of energy-saving innovations in industry and the built environment: Dutch studies as inputs for a more integrated analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, C.; Brand, I.; Vermeulen, W.

    2004-01-01

    The need to improve eco-efficiency is indisputable, and the way forward is through widespread application of environmental innovations. Yet research into the dissemination of such innovations in the Netherlands has been limited in scope. Most studies tend to focus on the feasibility of a particular technology. Few try to explain how technology spreads throughout society. The explanatory factors discerned in these studies are often not related to each other. In this contribution the authors try to integrate different partial explanations for the diffusion of energy-saving technologies in industry and the built environment into one conceptual framework. This integration is based on a secondary analysis of relatively well-elaborated studies dealing with the diffusion of heat pumps, combined heat and power and condensing boilers in industry and the built environment. Core of the framework is the decision-making process of the potentially adapting actor. Characteristics of the actor and the networks in which the actor participates (government, market, society) could have impact on this decision-making process. Technological and economic characteristics of the innovation and more general context factors are also relevant as factors that influence the considerations made in the decision-making process. This conceptual framework can be used both in more elaborate research projects and in brainstorming projects to improve policymaking

  8. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites.

    Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity.

    A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model

  9. Demeter high resolution observations of the ionospheric thermal plasma response to magnetospheric energy input during the magnetic storm of November 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Demeter plasma and wave observations were available during one of the geomagnetic storms of November 2004 when the ionospheric footprint of the plasmasphere was pushed below 64 degrees in the midnight sector. We report here onboard observations of thermal/suprathermal plasma and HF electric field variations with a temporal resolution of 0.4 s, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 3 km. Local perturbations of the plasma parameters at the altitude of 730 km are analysed with respect to the variation of the field-aligned currents, electron and proton precipitation and large-scale electric fields, measured in-situ by Demeter and by remote optical methods from the IMAGE/Polar satellites. Flow monitoring in the 21:00 and 24:00 MLT sectors during storm conditions reveals two distinct regions of O+ outflow, i.e. the region of the field-aligned currents, which often comprises few layers of opposite currents, and the region of velocity reversal toward dusk at sub-auroral latitudes. Average upward O+ velocities are identical in both local time sectors and vary between 200 and 450 m s−1, with an exception of a few cases of higher speed (~1000 m s−1 outflow, observed in the midnight sector. Each individual outflow event does not indicate any heating process of the thermal O+ population. On the contrary, the temperature of the O+, outflowing from auroral latitudes, is found to be even colder than that of the ambient ion plasma. The only ion population which is observed to be involved in the heating is the O+ with energies a few times higher than the thermal energy. Such a population was detected at sub-auroral latitudes in the region of duskward flow reversal. Its temperature raises up to a few eV inside the layer of sheared velocity. A deep decrease in the H+ density at heights and latitudes, where, according to the IRI model, these ions are expected to comprise ~50% of the positive charge, indicates that the thermospheric balance

  10. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  11. Input parameters to codes which analyze LMFBR wire-wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-12-01

    This report provides a current summary of recommended values of key input parameters required by ENERGY code analysis of LMFBR wire wrapped bundles. This data is based on the interpretation of experimental results from the MIT and other available laboratory programs

  12. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  13. Performance requirements of an inertial-fusion-energy source for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of an inertial fusion system for the production of hydrogen is compared to a tandem-mirror-system hydrogen producer. Both systems use the General Atomic sulfur-iodine hydrogen-production cycle and produce no net electric power to the grid. An ICF-driven hydrogen producer will have higher system gains and lower electrical-consumption ratios than the design point for the tandem-mirror system if the inertial-fusion-energy gain eta Q > 8.8. For the ICF system to have a higher hydrogen production rate per unit fusion power than the tandem-mirror system requires that eta Q > 17. These can be achieved utilizing realistic laser and pellet performances

  14. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  15. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  16. Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos: energia Nutritional requirements of zebu cattle: energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de energia e as eficiências de utilização da energia metabolizável para ganho de peso e mantença de zebuínos, foi desenvolvido um experimento envolvendo 19 novilhos anelorados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg. Quatro animais foram abatidos ao início do experimento, para servirem de referência para estudos posteriores, três foram alimentados ao nível de mantença e os 12 restantes foram alocados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos: 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado na base da matéria seca total. O volumoso foi constituído de pré-secado de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas e os animais foram alimentados ad libitum. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença (ELm foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, bem como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a PC e o CEM dos animais do tratamento com 35% de concentrado e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho elevaram-se com o aumento do peso vivo (PV dos animais. O teste de identidade dos modelos de regressão demonstrou não haver diferenças entre os tratamentos. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 68,60 kcal/PV0,75. A k m estimada foi de 0,66 e as k g calculadas foram de 0,26; 0,41 e 0,46, respectivamente, para concentrações de EM de 2,31; 2,47 e 2,62 Mcal/kg de MS, correspondentes aos teores de 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado na dieta. Os requisitos diários de EM e NDT para mantença de um animal de 400 kg de PV foram de 9,30 Mcal e 2,57 kg, respectivamente.A trial involving nineteen zebu steers with initial live weight of 270 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements and the efficiency of utilization of

  17. Prediction Equations Overestimate the Energy Requirements More for Obesity-Susceptible Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Gray, Andrew R; Jones, Lynnette M; Taylor, Rachael W; Skidmore, Paula M L; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-09-13

    Predictive equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) are often used in dietary counseling and by online apps to set energy intake goals for weight loss. It is critical to know whether such equations are appropriate for those susceptible to obesity. We measured RMR by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast in 26 obesity susceptible (OSI) and 30 obesity resistant (ORI) individuals, identified using a simple 6-item screening tool. Predicted RMR was calculated using the FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation/United Nations University), Oxford and Miflin-St Jeor equations. Absolute measured RMR did not differ significantly between OSI versus ORI (6339 vs. 5893 kJ·d -1 , p = 0.313). All three prediction equations over-estimated RMR for both OSI and ORI when measured RMR was ≤5000 kJ·d -1 . For measured RMR ≤7000 kJ·d -1 there was statistically significant evidence that the equations overestimate RMR to a greater extent for those classified as obesity susceptible with biases ranging between around 10% to nearly 30% depending on the equation. The use of prediction equations may overestimate RMR and energy requirements particularly in those who self-identify as being susceptible to obesity, which has implications for effective weight management.

  18. Metabolic flexibility as an adaptation to energy resources and requirements in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Reuben L; Soeters, Maarten R; Wüst, Rob C I; Houtkooper, Riekelt H

    2018-04-24

    The ability to efficiently adapt metabolism by substrate sensing, trafficking, storage and utilization, dependent on availability and requirement is known as metabolic flexibility. In this review, we discuss the breadth and depth of metabolic flexibility and its impact on health and disease. Metabolic flexibility is essential to maintain energy homeostasis in times of either caloric excess or caloric restriction, and in times of either low or high energy demand, such as during exercise. The liver, adipose tissue and muscle govern systemic metabolic flexibility and manage nutrient sensing, uptake, transport, storage and expenditure by communication via endocrine cues. At a molecular level, metabolic flexibility relies on the configuration of metabolic pathways which is regulated by key metabolic enzymes and transcription factors, many of which interact closely with the mitochondria. Disrupted metabolic flexibility, or metabolic inflexibility, however, is associated with many pathological conditions including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Multiple factors like dietary composition and feeding frequency, exercise training, and use of pharmacological compounds influence metabolic flexibility and will be discussed here. Lastly, we outline important advances in metabolic flexibility research and discuss medical horizons and translational aspects.

  19. Changes in energy requirements of the residential sector in India between 1993–94 and 2006–07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Aparna; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A substantial amount of primary and secondary energy is consumed by the residential sector. Residential energy consumption includes energy required for construction activity and household consumption. Hence there is a need to quantify energy consumption, its significance and causes. Calculating energy intensity of goods and services is the first step towards quantifying the causes. This research is based on the 115 sector classification input–output tables for India, for 1993–94, 1998–99 and 130 sector classification input–output tables for 2003–04 and 2006–07. Energy intensity of sectors related to household consumption has been calculated to analyze the trend between 1993–94 and 2006–07. Indirect energy requirements of Indian households have been assessed in this study from calculations of total primary energy intensity along with private final consumption expenditure. Results indicate that energy consumption has increased for all categories except “medical care and hygiene”. Percentage increase in indirect primary energy consumed by households is maximum for “house building” and “recreation” categories. Finally a complete decomposition analysis of indirect primary energy consumed by households has been carried out based on changing structural composition of the private final consumption expenditure, energy intensity patterns, per capita expenditures on energy and population. - Highlight: ► Energy intensity trend of goods and services between 1993–94 and 2006–07 presented. ► Analysis of energy consumption by sectors constituting residential use highlighted. ► Per capita and residential indirect energy consumption for main categories presented. ► Decomposition of changes into structure, intensity, activity and population done. ► Percentage increase of embodied energy maximum for house building and recreation.

  20. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Requirements and expectations of utilities and consumer organisations in the European energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Skytte, K.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous EU greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed on an overall target of 21.7% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project aimed at providing insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving targets for electricity from renewable sources (RES-E), compared to strictly national implementation measures. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets) and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, the project has paid special attention to the participation of stakeholders such as utilities, traders, and consumers of electricity. What is their opinion on the target setting, on the design of a trading system and its practical implementation and monitoring aspects? Utilities and consumer organisations in Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom have been asked to comment on these issues. This report is a result of a series of interviews with these stakeholders on their reaction to different burden sharing proposals, and on the socio-economic and financial impacts they foresee. The utilities take a critical view of their position in the renewable energy market and possible future international trading scheme. The main conclusions from the interviews are: Generally, target setting and burden sharing are regarded political questions, on which governments should decide; Stakeholders emphasise

  1. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  2. Mitochondrial energy metabolism is required for lifespan extension by the spastic paraplegia-associated protein spartin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ring

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegias, a group of neurodegenerative disorders, can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in the protein spartin. However, the physiological role of spartin remains largely elusive. Here we show that heterologous expression of human or Drosophila spartin extends chronological lifespan of yeast, reducing age-associated ROS production, apoptosis, and necrosis. We demonstrate that spartin localizes to the proximity of mitochondria and physically interacts with proteins related to mitochondrial and respiratory metabolism. Interestingly, Nde1, the mitochondrial external NADH dehydrogenase, and Pda1, the core enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, are required for spartin-mediated cytoprotection. Furthermore, spartin interacts with the glycolysis enhancer phospo-fructo-kinase-2,6 (Pfk26 and is sufficient to complement for PFK26-deficiency at least in early aging. We conclude that mitochondria-related energy metabolism is crucial for spartin’s vital function during aging and uncover a network of specific interactors required for this function.

  3. Energy transport requirements for tokamak reactors in the second ballooning stability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potok, R.E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of ignition confinement constraints on a tokamak reactor operating in the second regime of ballooning stability. This regime is characterized by flat plasma pressure profiles, with a sharp pressure gradient near a conducting first wall at the plasma edge. The energy confinement time is determined by transport processes across the pressure gradient region. The authors have found that the required transport needed for ignition in the edge region is very close to the value predicted by neoclassical ion conductivity scaling. Only by carefully tailoring the conductivity scaling across the flux coordinate were the authors able to match both the kink stability and ignition requirements. With optimistic assumptions, R/sub o/ ≅ 7 m appears to be the minimum major radius for an economical tokamak reactor in the second ballooning stability regime. This paper presents a base design case at R/sub o/ = 7 m, and shows how the reactor design varies with changes in major radius, ion transport scaling, and electron transport scaling

  4. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  5. FLUTAN input specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Baumann, W.; Willerding, G.

    1991-05-01

    FLUTAN is a highly vectorized computer code for 3-D fluiddynamic and thermal-hydraulic analyses in cartesian and cylinder coordinates. It is related to the family of COMMIX codes originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, USA. To a large extent, FLUTAN relies on basic concepts and structures imported from COMMIX-1B and COMMIX-2 which were made available to KfK in the frame of cooperation contracts in the fast reactor safety field. While on the one hand not all features of the original COMMIX versions have been implemented in FLUTAN, the code on the other hand includes some essential innovative options like CRESOR solution algorithm, general 3-dimensional rebalacing scheme for solving the pressure equation, and LECUSSO-QUICK-FRAM techniques suitable for reducing 'numerical diffusion' in both the enthalphy and momentum equations. This report provides users with detailed input instructions, presents formulations of the various model options, and explains by means of comprehensive sample input, how to use the code. (orig.) [de

  6. GARFEM input deck description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.; Soederberg, M. (Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The input card deck for the finite element program GARFEM version 3.2 is described in this manual. The program includes, but is not limited to, capabilities to handle the following problems: * Linear bar and beam element structures, * Geometrically non-linear problems (bar and beam), both static and transient dynamic analysis, * Transient response dynamics from a catalog of time varying external forcing function types or input function tables, * Eigenvalue solution (modes and frequencies), * Multi point constraints (MPC) for the modelling of mechanisms and e.g. rigid links. The MPC definition is used only in the geometrically linearized sense, * Beams with disjunct shear axis and neutral axis, * Beams with rigid offset. An interface exist that connects GARFEM with the program GAROS. GAROS is a program for aeroelastic analysis of rotating structures. Since this interface was developed GARFEM now serves as a preprocessor program in place of NASTRAN which was formerly used. Documentation of the methods applied in GARFEM exists but is so far limited to the capacities in existence before the GAROS interface was developed.

  7. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  8. Congressional interest and input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    While congressional interest in nonproliferation policy has been evident since the 1940s, the 1970s were propitious for efforts by Congress to exert influence in this sphere. Its suspicions of the executive branch had been stirred by controversies over Vietnam and Watergate at the beginning of the decade; by the end of the decade, Congress was able to curtail the unrestrained freedom of the executive branch to carry out the vaguely stated policies of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Congressional nonproliferation interests were further amplified during the decade by pressures from the expanding environmental movement, which included a strong antinuclear plank. This was to bring down the powerful Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 abolished the AEC and divided its responsibilities between the new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), later to become the Department of Energy (DOE), and the new Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  9. New model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjeld, C R; Schoeller, D A; Brown, K H

    1989-05-01

    Energy partitioned to maintenance plus activity, tissue synthesis, and storage was measured in 41 children in early recovery (W/L (wt/length) less than 5th percentile) from severe protein-energy malnutrition and in late recovery (W/L = 25th percentile) to determine energy requirements during catch-up growth. Metabolizable energy intake was measured by bomb calorimetry and metabolic collections. Energy expended (means +/- SD) for maintenance and activity estimated by the doubly labeled water method was 97 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM (fat-free mass) in early recovery and 98 +/- 12 kcal/kg FFM in late recovery (p greater than 0.5). Energy stored was 5-6 kcal/g of wt gain. Tissue synthesis increased energy expenditure by 1 +/- 0.7 kcal/g gain in both early and late recovery. From these data a mathematical model was developed to predict energy requirements for children during catch-up growth as a function of initial body composition and rate and composition of wt gain. The model for predicting metabolizable energy requirements is ((98 x FFM) + A (11.1 B + 2.2 C)), kcal/kg.d, where FFM is fat-free mass expressed as a percentage of body wt, A is wt gain (g/kg.d), B and C are percentage of wt gain/100 as fat and FFM, respectively. The model was tested retrospectively in separate studies of malnourished children.

  10. Foraging plasticity of breeding Northern Rockhopper Penguins, Eudyptes moseleyi, in response to changing energy requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Booth, Jenny Marie

    2018-04-02

    During the breeding season, seabirds must balance the changing demands of self- and off-spring provisioning with the constraints imposed by central-place foraging. Recently, it was shown that Northern Rockhopper Penguins at Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean switch diet from lower to higher trophic level prey throughout their breeding cycle. Here, we investigated if this switch is reflected in their foraging behaviour, using time-depth recorders to study the diving behaviour of 27 guard and 10 crèche birds during the breeding season 2010 at Tristan da Cunha and obtaining complementary stomach contents of 20 birds. While no significant effects of breeding stage were detected on any foraging trip or dive parameters, stage/prey had a significant effect on feeding dive parameters, with dive duration, bottom time, and maximum depth explaining the majority of the dissimilarity amongst categories. We verified the previously shown dietary shift from zooplankton and cephalopods during the guard stage to a higher-energy fish-based diet during the crèche stage, which was reflected in a change in dive behaviour from shorter, shallower to longer, deeper dives. This prey switching behaviour may reflect preferential selection to account for the increased physiological needs of chicks or simply mirror changes in local prey abundance. Nonetheless, we show that Northern Rockhopper Penguins demonstrate behavioural plasticity as a response to their changing energy requirements, which is a critical trait when living in a spatio-temporally heterogeneous environment. This ability is likely to be particularly important under extrinsic constraints such as long-term environmental change.

  11. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  12. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  13. Agrobacterium VirB10, an ATP energy sensor required for type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Eric; Christie, Peter J

    2004-12-07

    Bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SS) to translocate DNA and protein substrates to target cells of phylogenetically diverse taxa. Recently, by use of an assay termed transfer DNA immunoprecipitation (TrIP), we described the translocation route for a DNA substrate [T-DNA, portion of the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 T4SS in terms of a series of temporally and spatially ordered substrate contacts with subunits of the secretion channel. Here, we report that the bitopic inner membrane protein VirB10 undergoes a structural transition in response to ATP utilization by the VirD4 and VirB11 ATP-binding subunits, as monitored by protease susceptibility. VirB10 interacts with inner membrane VirD4 independently of cellular energetic status, whereas the energy-induced conformational change is required for VirB10 complex formation with an outer membrane-associated heterodimer of VirB7 lipoprotein and VirB9, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. Under these conditions, the T-DNA substrate is delivered from the inner membrane channel components VirB6 and VirB8 to periplasmic and outer membrane-associated VirB2 pilin and VirB9. We propose that VirD4 and VirB11 coordinate the ATP-dependent formation of a VirB10 "bridge" between inner and outer membrane subassemblies of the VirB/D4 T4SS, and that this morphogenetic event is required for T-DNA translocation across the A. tumefaciens cell envelope.

  14. Cardiovascular and Energy Requirements of Parents Watching Their Child Compete: A Pilot Mixed-Methods Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lochbaum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Researchers have extensively documented the cardiovascular and metabolic demands for sports participation. To date, researchers have ignored the same requirements of competitor’s parents. Hence, our purpose was to document parent cardiovascular and metabolic responses to watching their child compete while also paying particular attention to their thoughts before and after the competition. Achievement Goal Theory (AGT drove interpretation of parent thoughts. Materials: Parents wore a device, made by Firstbeat Technologies, which continuously monitored heart rate. The parents wore the device the night before the competition to be acclimated to the technology and during the event until later in the day. Parents also completed two open-ended questions, one before the tournament and one after the contest. Results: Before the contest, the dad expected that his son won the event (Croatian National Championships for juniors. Conversely, the mother’s expectations centered more on her son’s enjoyment and competing to the best of his abilities. Parents had differing cardiovascular and energy requirement responses to watching their son compete. In addition, post-competition reflections differed as the father expressed disappointment whereas the mother expressed sadness. Conclusions: The data presented are unique and a first in the sports literature. The parents varied in the intensity of their cardiovascular responses and calories burned while watching their son compete. The father’s cardiovascular response over the course of watching was that of an aerobic workout. Whether this pattern is unique or universal are a critical research question. Last, AGT appears relevant when assessing the parent’s expectations.

  15. Predicted versus measured resting energy expenditure in patients requiring home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławiński, Michał; Singer, Pierre; Gradowski, Łukasz; Gradowska, Aleksandra; Bzikowska, Agnieszka; Majewska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines from the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) recommend between 20 and 35 kcal/kg daily for patients requiring home parenteral nutrition (PN). Other guidelines use predictive equations. However, these equations have not been validated. Indirect calorimetry is recommended as the gold standard for determining resting energy expenditure (REE). The aim of this study was to compare the frequently used equations with measured REE. Seventy-six hospitalized patients suffering from intestinal failure (ages 21-85 y) were enrolled between January 2012 and May 2014. They were eligible for implementation of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) due to short bowel syndrome (54%), intestinal fistulae (24%), cancer obstruction (16%), and radiation-induced intestinal injury (6%). REE measurements were compared with predictive equations by Harris and Benedict (HB), Owen, Ireton-Jones, and Mifflin, as well as recommendations from ESPEN. In all, 152 calorimetry measurements (two per patient) were performed in 76 patients, after total PN administrations. An average result of REE measurement by indirect calorimetry was 1181 ± 322 kcal/d. Variability in momentary energy expenditure (MEE) from one measurement to the other was 8% ± 7%. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of -192 ± 300 kcal/d between MEE and estimated energy expenditure using the HB equation, which means that the equation increased the score on average by 192 ± 300 kcal/d. Limits of agreement (LoA) between the two methods was -780 to +396 kcal/d. Estimation energy expenditure using the Ireton-Jones equation gave a mean bias of -359 ± 335 kcal/d. LoA between the two methods was -1015 to +297 kcal/d. For Owen equation, Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of -208 ± 313 kcal/d and the LoA between the two methods was -822 to +406 kcal/d. Using the Mifflin equation, estimation energy expenditure gave a mean bias of -172 ± 312 kcal/d and the LoA between the

  16. 75 FR 652 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Requirements for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...; Comment Request; Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Requirements for Consumer Products and Certain...: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Requirements for Certain Consumer Products and Commercial and... certification, compliance, and enforcement requirements for various consumer products and commercial and...

  17. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  18. Energy Research - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  19. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  20. Radioactive inputs to the North Sea and the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (radioactivity; radioisotopes; discharges from nuclear establishments); data sources (statutory requirements); sources of liquid radioactive waste (figure showing location of principal sources of radioactive discharges; tables listing principal discharges by activity and by nature of radioisotope); Central Electricity Generating Board nuclear power stations; research and industrial establishments; Ministy of Defence establishments; other UK inputs of radioactive waste; total inputs to the North Sea and the Channel (direct inputs; river inputs; adjacent sea areas); conclusions. (U.K.)

  1. Energy Contents of Frequently Ordered Restaurant Meals and Comparison with Human Energy Requirements and US Department of Agriculture Database Information: A Multisite Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Weber, Judith L.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Schichtl, Rachel L.; Verstraete, Sofia; Lowery, Nina S.; Das, Sai Krupa; Schleicher, Molly M.; Rogers, Gail; Economos, Christina; Masters, William A.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ~50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non–chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. Objective To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals in non–chain restaurants in three US locations, and compare with the energy content of meals from large-chain restaurants, energy requirements, and food database information. Design A multisite random-sampling protocol was used to measure the energy contents of the most frequently ordered meals from the most popular cuisines in non–chain restaurants, together with equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants. Setting Meals were obtained from restaurants in San Francisco, CA; Boston, MA; and Little Rock, AR, between 2011 and 2014. Main outcome measures Meal energy content determined by bomb calorimetry. Statistical analysis performed Regional and cuisine differences were assessed using a mixed model with restaurant nested within region×cuisine as the random factor. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences between non–chain and chain meals, human energy requirements, and food database values. Results Meals from non–chain restaurants contained 1,205±465 kcal/meal, amounts that were not significantly different from equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants (+5.1%; P=0.41). There was a significant effect of cuisine on non–chain meal energy, and three of the four most popular cuisines (American, Italian, and Chinese) had the highest mean energy (1,495 kcal/meal). Ninety-two percent of meals exceeded typical energy requirements for a single eating occasion. Conclusions Non–chain restaurants lacking nutrition information serve amounts of energy that are typically far in excess of human energy requirements for single eating occasions, and are equivalent to amounts served by the large-chain restaurants that have previously been criticized

  2. Energy Contents of Frequently Ordered Restaurant Meals and Comparison with Human Energy Requirements and U.S. Department of Agriculture Database Information: A Multisite Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Weber, Judith L; Heyman, Melvin B; Schichtl, Rachel L; Verstraete, Sofia; Lowery, Nina S; Das, Sai Krupa; Schleicher, Molly M; Rogers, Gail; Economos, Christina; Masters, William A; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-04-01

    Excess energy intake from meals consumed away from home is implicated as a major contributor to obesity, and ∼50% of US restaurants are individual or small-chain (non-chain) establishments that do not provide nutrition information. To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals in non-chain restaurants in three US locations, and compare with the energy content of meals from large-chain restaurants, energy requirements, and food database information. A multisite random-sampling protocol was used to measure the energy contents of the most frequently ordered meals from the most popular cuisines in non-chain restaurants, together with equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants. Meals were obtained from restaurants in San Francisco, CA; Boston, MA; and Little Rock, AR, between 2011 and 2014. Meal energy content determined by bomb calorimetry. Regional and cuisine differences were assessed using a mixed model with restaurant nested within region×cuisine as the random factor. Paired t tests were used to evaluate differences between non-chain and chain meals, human energy requirements, and food database values. Meals from non-chain restaurants contained 1,205±465 kcal/meal, amounts that were not significantly different from equivalent meals from large-chain restaurants (+5.1%; P=0.41). There was a significant effect of cuisine on non-chain meal energy, and three of the four most popular cuisines (American, Italian, and Chinese) had the highest mean energy (1,495 kcal/meal). Ninety-two percent of meals exceeded typical energy requirements for a single eating occasion. Non-chain restaurants lacking nutrition information serve amounts of energy that are typically far in excess of human energy requirements for single eating occasions, and are equivalent to amounts served by the large-chain restaurants that have previously been criticized for providing excess energy. Restaurants in general, rather than specific categories of restaurant, expose patrons to

  3. Modeling and generating input processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  4. Energy Data Visualization Requires Additional Approaches to Continue to be Relevant in a World with Greater Low-Carbon Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Wilson, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualization diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind- or solar-based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement, rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors, such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity, can all be displayed together. This, in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  5. Energy data visualisation requires additional approaches to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Grant Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  6. Energy Data Visualization Requires Additional Approaches to Continue to be Relevant in a World with Greater Low-Carbon Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Wilson, I. A., E-mail: grant.wilson@sheffield.ac.uk [Environmental and Energy Engineering Group, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-31

    The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualization diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind- or solar-based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement, rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors, such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity, can all be displayed together. This, in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  7. The daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources – a required condition for the operation of the new energy market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpachka, Gergana; Kalpachki, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The report presented the new energy market model in Bulgaria and the main attention is directed to a daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources. The need of development of a methodology and the development of the most precise methods for predicting is reviewed and some of the used methods at the moment are presented. An analysis of the problems related to the daily hour forecasting is done using data from the producers of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in the territory of western Bulgaria. Keywords: Renewable energy sources, daily hour forecasting, electrical energy

  8. A Fourth Party Energy Provider for the Construction Value Chain: Identifying Needs and Establishing Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalieri , Sergio; Ierace , Stefano; Pedrali , Nicola; Pinto , Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Part V: Product and Asset Lifecycle Management; International audience; Today’s building and energy management market is heterogeneous and complex. Most of the players in the construction market are not in possession of the managerial capabil