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Sample records for energy induced decoloration

  1. Kinetics of γ-rays induced decoloration of textile dye aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Ledakowicz, S.; Nowicki, L.

    1987-01-01

    The γ-rays induced decoloration of aqueous solutions of commercial dyes has been studied. Four chemical classes of dyes were applied. The initial dye concentration and the irradiation dose rate ranged from 0.025 to 0.250 g/dm 3 and 0.014 to 2.0 Gy/s respectively. On the base of obtained experimental data the kinetic paramaters in the proposed rate equation were calculated. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  2. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters.

  3. Rapid Decolorization of Cobalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah H. Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was carried out in aqueous solution of different types of catalysts including ZnO, TiO2 (Degussa P25, TiO2 (Hombikat UV100, TiO2 (Millennium PC105, and TiO2 (Koronose 2073 by using UVA source of irradiation. The effect of various parameters such as photocatalyst amount, cobalamin concentration, type of catalyst, pH of aqueous solution, light intensity, addition of H2O2, flow rate of O2, type of current gas, and temperature on photocatalytic oxidation was investigated. The results indicated that the photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was well described by pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The effect of temperature on the efficiency of photodecolorization of cobalamin was also studied in the range 278–298 K. The activation energy was calculated according to Arrhenius plot and was found equal to  kJ·mol−1 for ZnO and  kJ·mol−1 for TiO2 (Degussa P25. The results of the total organic carbon (TOC analysis indicate that the rate of decolorization of dye was faster than the total mineralization. Decolorization and mineralization of cobalamin in the absence of light and/or catalyst were performed to demonstrate that the presence of light and catalyst is essential for the decolorization of this cobalamin. The results show that the activity of different types of catalysts used in this study was of the sequence: ZnO > TiO2 (Degussa P25 > TiO2 (Hombikat UV100 > TiO2 (Millennium PC105 > TiO2 (Koronose 2073.

  4. The radiation-induced decoloration of azo dye in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobutake; Nagai, Takeshi; Hotta, Hiroshi; Washino, Masamitsu

    1975-01-01

    The decoloration yield of an Acid Red 265 neutral aqueous solution, G(-Dye), equaled 1.00+-0.04, regardless of the dose rate and the initial dye concentration in the early stage. The G(-Dye) increased to 1.46 in the presence of nitrous oxide, but was independent of the presence of oxygen and acetone. In nitrogen-saturated solutions, the G(-Dye) increased markedly upon the addition of alcohols - for example, up to 1.83 upon the addition of 2 mM n-butyl alcohol. On the other hand, in oxygen-saturated solutions, the G(-Dye) decreased markedly upon the addition of even a small amount of alcohols. The effects of alcohols, namely, the G(-Dye) in both the solutions were in the order of their reactivity with OH radicals. The decoloration is attributable to the attack of the OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of water to the dye. The increase in the G(-Dye) for the nitrogen-saturated solutions containing alcohols is attributable to the attack of the alcohol radicals (RC HOH)( : radical) formed by the reactions of alcohols with OH radicals. In the oxygen-saturated solutions, the RC HOH radicals are converted to the peroxides, which do not react with the dye. The rate constant for the reaction of the OH radical with Acid Red 265, obtained by using various additives from the competition reaction method, is 9.3+-1.4x10 9 M -1 s -1 . The effects of CNS - , glucose, and phenol were also examined. (auth.)

  5. The effects of halide ions on the radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobutake; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Washino, Masamitsu

    1978-01-01

    The radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes was studied in N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions containing halide ions. In the N 2 O-saturated solutions, the decoloration yield, G(-Dye), increased markedly upon the addition of Br - and I - , which are efficient scavengers of the OH radical. In the nitrogen-saturated solutions, however, the G(-Dye) decreased upon the addition of Br - and I - . Such an increase in the G(-Dye) upon the addition of Br - and I - in the N 2 O-saturated solutions is mainly attributable to the attacks of the halide radical anions, Br 2 - and I 2 - , on the ring structure of the dyes. On the other hand, the G(-Dye) was not changed upon the addition of Cl - in the N 2 O-saturated solution. This may be attributable to the very slow rate of the formation of Cl 2 - in a neutral solution. (auth.)

  6. The effect of NCS- on the radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobutake; Hotta, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    The radiation-induced decoloration of azo and anthraquinone dyes was studied in N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions containing NCS - . In the N 2 O-saturated solutions, the decoloration yield, G(-Dye), increased markedly upon the addition of NCS - , which is an efficient scavenger of the OH radical-that is, from 1.46 up to 2.10 for Acid Red 265 and from 0.51 up to 1.51 for Acid Blue 40 upon the addition of 1 mM NCS - . In the nitrogen-saturated solutions, however, the G(-Dye) decreased upon the addition of NCS - . It is concluded that the increase in the G(-Dye) upon the addition of NCS - in the N 2 O-saturated solutions is mainly attributable to the attack of the radical anion (NCS) 2 - on the ring structure of the dyes. This radical anion is formed through the following path: NCS - +OH → NCS+OH - and NCS+NCS - reversible (NCS) 2 - . At low NCS - concentrations, the G(-Dye) decreased for Acid Red 265 and increased for Acid Blue 40. This may be attributable to the larger reactivity of (NCS) 2 - on Acid Blue 40 than on Acid Red 265. (auth.)

  7. Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles using parallel nanosecond pulsed laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yan P; Liu, Xian H; Du, Xi W; Lu, Yi R; Wang, Mei Y; Wang, Guang Y

    2013-01-01

    Using 532 nm parallel nanosecond pulsed laser, the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, laser energy, and initial MB concentration on the decolorization rate were investigated. Experiments using real samples of textile dyeing wastewater were also carried out to examine the effectiveness of the method in more complex samples. From the results, the following conclusions may be drawn: (i) Under the optimum conditions (pH 7.19, 135 mJ laser energy, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 11.6 mg/L GNP concentration), the rate of MB decolorization could reach 94% in 15 min. The decolorization follows pseudo-first-order kinetics; (ii) The amount of MB decreased rapidly during the decolorization. No intermediates of the decolorization could be detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. These observations indicate that MB was decolorized through a very rapid degradation mechanism; (iii) The rate of MB decolorization increased with the increase in laser energy (at laser energies of 0 to 135 mJ); and, (iv) The efficient decolorization of MB in real samples of textile dyeing wastewater was achieved at a decolorization rate of about 85% in 15 min.

  8. DECOLORIZATION AND CHEMICAL REGENERATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GAC) was studied and an improved chemical regeneration method of the exhausted GAC by the color of CAF liquor was investigated. The effects of the GAC dosage, time and temperature on the decoloring efficiency (DE %) were studied.

  9. Laser induced energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two related methods of rapidly transferring stored energy from one excited chemical species to another are described. The first of these, called a laser induced collision, involves a reaction in which the energy balance is met by photons from an intense laser beam. A collision cross section of ca 10 - 17 cm 2 was induced in an experiment which demonstrated the predicted dependence of the cross section on wavelength and power density of the applied laser. A second type of laser induced energy transfer involves the inelastic scattering of laser radiation from energetically excited atoms, and subsequent absorption of the scattered light by a second species. The technique of producing the light, ''anti-Stokes Raman'' scattering of visible and infrared wavelength laser photons, is shown to be an efficient source of narrow bandwidth, high brightness, tunable radiation at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths by using it to excite a rare gas transition at 583.7 A. In addition, this light source was used to make the first measurement of the isotopic shift of the helium metastable level at 601 A. Applications in laser controlled chemistry and spectroscopy, and proposals for new types of lasers using these two energy transfer methods are discussed

  10. Characterization of the decolorizing activity of azo dyes by Bacillus subtilis azoreductase AzoR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The product of the Bacillus subtilis gene azoR1 is annotated as a putative azoreductase, production of which isinduced in response to thiol-reactive compounds. Here we report on the decolorization of four azo dyes by azoreductaseactivity. The ability of overexpressed AzoR1 strain ORB7106 to catalyze decolorization of azo dyes was investigated on agarplates and in liquid cultures. The decolorization efficacy of a mutant, ORB7106, which has lost negative control of azoR1expression, was significantly better than the parental strain (JH642, providing evidence that the azoR1 gene product isan azoreductase with the ability to decolorize azo dyes. ORB7106 showed 40-98% azo dye decolorization within 48 h. Thebacterium exhibited a remarkable color removal capability over a wide range of Methyl Red concentrations (10-200 mg l-1, pH(5-9 and temperatures (25-45°C. A significant increase in the decolorization activity was observed after induction of AzoR1production. The results suggested that AzoR1 production could be induced by Methyl Red. The decolorizing activity isprimarily associated with the cytosolic fraction and requires NADH as a cofactor.

  11. Optimal decolorization and kinetic modeling of synthetic dyes by Pseudomonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, X; Yue, P L

    2001-10-01

    Pseudomonas spp were isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic dyeing house wastewater treatment facility as the most active azo-dye degraders. Decolorization of azo dyes and non-azo dyes including anthraquinone, metal complex and indigo was compared with individual strains and a bacterial consortium consisting of the individual strain and municipal sludge (50 50wt). The consortium showed a significant improvement on decolorization of two recalcitrant non-azo dyes, but little effect on the dyes that the individual strains could degrade to a great or moderate extent. Decolorization of Acid violet 7 (monoazo) by a Pseudomonas strain GM3 was studied in detail under various conditions. The optimum decolorization activity was observed in a narrow pH range (7-8), a narrow temperature range (35-40 degrees C), and at the presence of organic and ammonium nitrogen. Nitrate had a severe inhibitory effect on azo dye decolorization: 10 mg/L led to 50% drop in decolorization activity and 1000 mg/L to complete activity depression. A kinetic model is established giving the dependence of decolorization rate on cell mass concentration (first-order) and dye concentration (half order). The rate increased with temperature from 10 to 35 C, which can be predicted by Arrhenius equation with the activation energy of 16.87 kcal/mol and the frequency factor of 1.49 x 10(11) (mg L)1/2/g DCM min.

  12. Decolorization of reactive textile dyes using water falling film dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojcinovic, Biljana P.; Roglic, Goran M.; Obradovic, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.; Kostic, Mirjana M.; Nesic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Dragan D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Decolorization of four reactive textile dyes using non-thermal plasma reactor. → Influence of applied energy on decolorization. → Effects of initial pH and addition of homogeneous catalysts. → Toxicity evaluation using the brine shrimp as a test organism. - Abstract: Decolorization of reactive textile dyes Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 52, Reactive Yellow 125 and Reactive Green 15 was studied using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Used initial dye concentrations in the solution were 40.0 and 80.0 mg/L. The effects of different initial pH of dye solutions, and addition of homogeneous catalysts (H 2 O 2 , Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ) on the decolorization during subsequent recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor, i.e. applied energy density (45-315 kJ/L) were studied. Influence of residence time was investigated over a period of 24 h. Change of pH values and effect of pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation on the decolorization was also tested. It was found that the initial pH of dye solutions and pH adjustments of dye solution after each recirculation did not influence the decolorization. The most effective decolorization of 97% was obtained with addition of 10 mM H 2 O 2 in a system of 80.0 mg/L Reactive Black 5 with applied energy density of 45 kJ/L, after residence time of 24 h from plasma treatment. Toxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as a test organism.

  13. Effects of the addition of Co, Ni or Cr on the decolorization properties of Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqin; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Haifeng

    2017-11-01

    Fe-based amorphous alloys show great potential in degrading azo dyes and other organic pollutants, and are widely investigated as a kind of environmental-friendly materials for wastewater remediation. In this paper, the effects of Co, Ni or Cr addition on the decolorization properties of Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys were studied, and the mechanism of their different effects was analyzed. Co addition could lower the activation energy of Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys in decolorizing azo dyes, and had no weakening effect on the decolorization capability of Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys. Ni addition led to partial crystallization of Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys, and the decolorization mechanism at low temperatures changed from chemical degradation to physical adsorption. Cr addition could enhance the corrosion resistance of Fe-Si-B amorphous alloys, but the amorphous alloys completely lost the decolorization capability no matter at lower or higher temperatures. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the addition of Co, Ni or Cr could generate different surface structures that had significant influences on the decolorization process. Our work demonstrated that the effiecient decolorization of azo dyes by Fe-based alloys could be realized only when amorphous nature and incompact surface structure were simultaneously achieved for the alloys.

  14. Decolorization of reactive black 5 using dielectric barrier discharge in the presence of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic salts improve the coloration of textiles, which increase pollution load on dyehouse effluent in general. Decolorization of reactive textile dye C.I. Reactive Black 5 was studied using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD. Initial dye concentration in the solution was 40.0 mg L-1. The effects of addition of inorganic salt different high concentrations (NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 on the degree of decolorization were studied. Recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor with applied energy density 45-315 kJ L-1 was used. The influence of residence time was investigated after 5 minutes and 24 hours of plasma treatment. Decolorization of the dyes was monitored by spectrophotometric measurement. Changes of pH values and the conductivity of dye solution after each recirculation were tested. The most effective decolorization of over 90% was obtained with the addition of NaCl (50 g L-1, applied energy density of 135 kJ L-1 and after residence time of 24 hours of plasma treatment. Decolorization of solutions containing inorganic salts Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 were lower than for the solution without salt.

  15. Evaluation of Bacillus sp. MZS10 for decolorizing Azure B dye and its decolorization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixing; Zhang, Ruijing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate decolorization and detoxification of Azure B dye by a newly isolated Bacillus sp. MZS10 strain, the cultivation medium and decolorization mechanism of the isolate were investigated. The decolorization was discovered to be dependent on cell density of the isolate and reached 93.55% (0.04 g/L) after 14 hr of cultivation in a 5 L stirred-tank fermenter at 2.0 g/L yeast extract and 6.0 g/L soluble starch and a small amount of mineral salts. The decolorization metabolites were identified with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS). A mechanism for decolorization of Azure B was proposed as follows: the C=N in Azure B was initially reduced to -NH by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent quinone dehydrogenase, and then the -NH further combined with -OH derived from glucose to form a stable and colorless compound through a dehydration reaction. The phytotoxicity was evaluated for both Azure B and its related derivatives produced by Bacillus sp. MZS10 decolorization, indicating that the decolorization metabolites were less toxic than original dye. The decolorization efficiency and mechanism shown by Bacillus sp. MZS10 provided insight on its potential application for the bioremediation of the dye Azure B. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Poly R decolorization and APPL production by Streptomyces violaceoruber and Streptomyces spiroverticillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abou-Dobara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two mesophilic streptomycetes (S. violaceoruber and S. spiroverticillatus were selected to study their Poly R-478 decolorization ability and lignocellulose solubilizing activity. Both strains were able to degrade Poly R-478 dye and ferulic acid during growth on a minimal salts medium. The Poly R-478 decolorizing activities of both strains were induced by adding different carbon sources to the culture media. S. violaceoruber could decolorize 63% of Poly R-478 after 24 h. Both strains could solubilize straw and produce acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL with different efficiency. From the major extracellular enzymes recovery of both strains on rice and wheat straw, we can predicate that the biodegradation process was partial indicating a possible utilization in biological delignification.

  17. Decolorization of reactive dyes under batch anaerobic condition by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, decolorization was lower for the dye of RB 49 than other two dyes in all concentrations despite 72 h incubation period by mixed anaerobic culture. All of the three dyes correlated with 1st order reaction kinetic with respect to decolorization kinetics. The results of the study demonstrated that high decolorization was ...

  18. DECOLORIZATION OF DENIM DYESTUFF BY LACCASE ENZYME

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    Serap GEDİKLİ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of dyes used in the textile industry are discharged to recipient environment during manufacture. This situation is beginning of a process which is difficult to recovery and relevant toenvironment and human health. Therefore, pollution of dyestuff produced textile industry will be reduced by cleaning of polluted area and integrating biological approaches with technologies havingpolluting potential. In scope of this study, commercial denim dye was decolorized by using high laccase activity culture supernatant of Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 pellets grown in potato dextrose broth including wheat bran and determined optimum conditions. In the result of experiments done, pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and incubation time were selected 4.0, 75 mg/l, 55 oCand 120 minutes, respectively. 68.02 % of decolorization was obtained at the determined optimum conditions. Furthermore, adding different metal ions to find in textile wastewater and supplementarychemical materials used fabric dyeing process to reaction medium, potential of decolorization copied with improvement was investigated effects of these. When the obtained data were examined, pollutantswhich tested at optimum conditions were observed not affected negatively decolorization. Even in the presence of Tween 80 detected the maximum inhibitor effect, 54.68 % of decolorization was obtained.

  19. Influence of pulse width on decolorization efficiency of organic dye by discharge inside bubble in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, S; Wada, K; Kakuta, T; Takaki, K; Satta, N; Takahashi, K

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of an organic dye by discharge in high conductive water using a pulsed power generator and a discharge reactor was investigated. The discharge reactor consisted of a glass tube and a tungsten wire inserted into the glass tube, which was immersed in the water. Room air was injected into the glass tube to generate bubbles in the water. High voltage pulses were generated by an inductive-energy storage system using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) and by a magnetic pulse compression circuit. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diode in the inductive-energy storage system. The pulse width was changed in range from 10 to 1200 ns. The high voltage was applied to the tungsten wire. Indigo carmine was employed as a specimen to evaluate decolorization efficiency. Potassium nitrate was used to adjust the solution conductivity. The dye solution was successfully decolorized at 7 mS/cm conductivity. Energy efficiency for decolorization increased from 0.680 to 55.6 mg/Wh with decreasing the pulse width from 1200 to 10 ns owing to the reduction of ohmic loss.

  20. Influence of pulse width on decolorization efficiency of organic dye by discharge inside bubble in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, S.; Wada, K.; Kakuta, T.; Takaki, K.; Satta, N.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    Decolorization of an organic dye by discharge in high conductive water using a pulsed power generator and a discharge reactor was investigated. The discharge reactor consisted of a glass tube and a tungsten wire inserted into the glass tube, which was immersed in the water. Room air was injected into the glass tube to generate bubbles in the water. High voltage pulses were generated by an inductive-energy storage system using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) and by a magnetic pulse compression circuit. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diode in the inductive-energy storage system. The pulse width was changed in range from 10 to 1200 ns. The high voltage was applied to the tungsten wire. Indigo carmine was employed as a specimen to evaluate decolorization efficiency. Potassium nitrate was used to adjust the solution conductivity. The dye solution was successfully decolorized at 7 mS/cm conductivity. Energy efficiency for decolorization increased from 0.680 to 55.6 mg/Wh with decreasing the pulse width from 1200 to 10 ns owing to the reduction of ohmic loss.

  1. Laser-Induced Energy Transfer in Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, J.B.W.; Rullmann, Johan; Wiersma, Douwe

    1981-01-01

    Laser-induced energy transfer was observed and studied in the system pentacene doped into naphthalene. The transfer spectrum shows a remarkable correspondence with the host density of states function. The rate for laser-induced energy transfer is given and it is concluded that most likely,

  2. Study on decolorization of dyeing wastewater by electrochemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Xiaohui, Wang; Hao, Wu; Qi, Jiang

    2018-02-01

    In view of the decolorization of dyeing wastewater, three different kinds of simulated dyeing wastewater were treated by electrochemical method. The effects of current density, initial pH, electrolyte concentration and initial concentration of dye on the treatment effect were investigated, and the decolorization mechanism and color reversion were studied. The experimental results show that the decolorization rate of the three kinds of dyeing wastewater is more than 90% after 60min treatment. And the decolorization process is mainly chromogenic groups gradually destroyed, the dye molecules are gradually degraded. Moreover, in the natural conditions, aeration conditions, heating conditions, almost no phenomenon of color reversion occured.

  3. Effects of operational parameters of process UV radiation/hydrogen peroxide on decolorization of anthraquinone textile dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Miljana D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of textile dye Reactive Blue 19, an anionic anthraquinone dye of reactive class, was investigated using UV radiation in the presence of H2O2 in UV reactor with low-pressure mercury lamps, with maximum energy output at the wavelength 254 nm. The effects of experimental variables, namely initial pH, initial dye concentration and concentration of peroxide were studied. The change of concentration of RB19 was followed by UV/vis spectrophotometric measurement of absorbance at 592 nm. The increase of the initial pH resulted in the efficiency increase of dye decolorization. The total decolorization was achieved in about 15 min. Results show that with the increase of dye concentration from 10 to 100 mg dm-3 the efficiency of process decreases. With the increase of the initial concentration of H2O2 from 10 to 30 mmol dm-3, the decolorization rate constant increased from 0.083 to 0.120 min1, with the decrease of process rate at the concentrations above. The highest decolorization rates were achieved at peroxide concentration of approx. 30 mmol dm-3, above which decolorization was inhibited by scavenging effect of peroxide. This study shows that UV/H2O2 process is promising treatment for dye RB 19 degradation in water and wastewater.

  4. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine. 24.241 Section 24.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and...

  5. Decolorization of reactive red-120 by using macrofungus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growths of fungi were measured every 3 days by using spectrophotometer at 540 nm. ... Furthermore, pH of 5, 7 and 9 were used to determine the optimum pH for dye decolorization. The 10 mg/L ... Keywords: aspergillus sp.; dye decolorization; mycoremediation; pleurotus sp.; reactive red – 120; synthetic dye.

  6. Comparison of synthetic dye decolorization by whole cells and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four azo compounds (Amaranth, Cibacron Brilliant Red 3B-A, Direct Blue 71 and Reactive Black 5), and the indigo molecule (Indigo Carmine), showed a higher resistance to decolorization (<10% in 6 h), although of them (Amaranth, Reactive Black 5 and Indigo Carmine) were efficiently decolorized by T. versicolor in ...

  7. Decolorization of azo dyes by Pycnoporus sanguineus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decolorization of azo dyes by Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes membranacea. ESL Da Paz, FB Paz Júnior, BB Neto, MAQ Cavalcanti. Abstract. In the present work, decolorization of dyes Orange II and Black V by the fungi Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes membranacea was assessed at six, 12 and 18 days, ...

  8. Decolorization of the azo dye reactive black 5 using laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase mediator system (LMS) has been widely used in various fields. In this study, we tested the capacity of LMS in the decolorization of a recalcitrant azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Both acetosyringone and syringaldehyde demonstrated high mediating ability for RB5 decolorization and acetosyringone was proved to ...

  9. Immobilization of TiO2 nanopowder on glass beads for the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye C.I. Direct Red 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, N; Salari, D; Niaei, A; Rasoulifard, M H; Khataee, A R

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 supported on glass beads was prepared and its photocatalytic activity was determined by photooxidation of the commercial textile dye, C.I. Direct Red 23, in aqueous solution illuminated by a UV-C lamp (30 W). The progress of photocatalytic decolorization of the C.I. Direct Red 23 was studied by measuring the absorbance at lambda(max) = 507 nm by UV Vis spectrophotometer. The experiments indicated that both UV light and TiO2 were needed for the effective destruction of the dye. The effect of pH on the rate of decolorization efficiency was followed in the pH range 2-12. Acidic pH range was found to favor the decolorization rate. The addition of a proper amount of hydrogen peroxide improved the decolorization, whereas the excess hydrogen peroxide quenched the formation of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). The electrical energy consumption per order of magnitude for photocatalytic decolorization of the dye was lower in the UV/TiO2/H2O2 process than that in the UV/TiO2 process. In the real wastewater sample the efficiency of the method was determined by measuring the changes in the absorption spectra of the dye solution during photodegradation. Our results indicated that during the photooxidation process, the decolorization efficiency was more than 80% at irradiation time of 3 h.

  10. Inducement and responsibility in the energy turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The book includes several contributions concerning the Bonn discussion on energy legislation (volume 7): inducement and responsibility -in terms of constitutional law; between Europe and re-regulation - what is the regulation framework? Continuity requirement as legislative action directive; the future of the nuclear fuel tax after the nuclear phaseout - problems of the constitutional finance and the European tax legislation, strategy and energy markets; regulatory challenges in the realization of the energy turnaround policy.

  11. Decolorization of direct dyes using peroxidase from raphanus sativus (F04 SL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, H.N.; Kalsoom, U.; Habib, A.

    2012-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was isolated and partially purified from Raphanus sativus. The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of kinetics and thermodynamic aspects. Finally the enzyme was assessed to see its potential for decolorization of direct dyes. The specific activity of Raphanus sativus peroxidase increased from 44.77 to 65.20 U/mg of protein using 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme was 4 and 55 deg. C respectively. The activation energy of Raphanus sativus peroxidase was 25.44 kJ/mol and average value of Km was 0.25 mM. The activation energy of thermal denaturation of Raphanus sativus peroxidase was 17.79 kJ/mol. It was observed that with an increase in temperature, there was decrease in a half life and enthalpy, which showed that the enzyme was unstable at higher temperature. A maximum decolorization of 97 and 77 % was observed for Solar Blue A and Solar Flavine 5G at pH 4 and temperature 50 deg. C respectively. It was observed that % decolorization of both the dyes increased with an increase in enzyme units and incubation time. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ dose of 0.8 mM for Solar Blue A and 0.7 mM for Solar Flavine 5G was sufficient for the maximum dye degradation. (author)

  12. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  13. Screening of freshwater fungi for decolorizing multiple synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Panpan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Hongkai; Liu, Hongmei

    The biodegradation of synthetic dyes by fungi is emerging as an effective and promising approach. In the present study, freshwater fungal strains isolated from submerged woods were screened for the decolorization of 7 synthetic dyes. Subsequently, 13 isolates with high decolorization capability were assessed in a liquid system; they belonged to 9 different fungal species. Several strains exhibited a highly effective decolorization of multiple types of dyes. New absorbance peaks appeared after the treatment with 3 fungal strains, which suggests that a biotransformation process occurred through fungal biodegradation. These results showed the unexploited and valuable capability of freshwater fungi for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. The ability of certain fungi to decolorize dyes is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser therapy in plastic surgery: decolorization in port wine stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Wolf, Leszek

    1996-03-01

    For the first time laserotherapy is described as a method of port wine stain decolorization in plastic surgery. The authors present their 20-year experience in the treatment of port wine stains with the argon laser and dye laser.

  15. Decolorization and Degradation of Batik Dye Effluent using Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Diah; Indrianingsih, A. W.; Darsih, Cici; Hernawan

    2017-12-01

    Batik is product of traditional Indonesia culture that developed into a large textile industry. Synthetic dyes which widely used in textile industries including batik. Colour can be removed from wastewater effluent by chemical, physical, and biology methods. Bioremediation is one of the methods that used for processing colored effluent. Isolated White-rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum was used for bioremediation process for batik effluent. G. lucidum was developed by G. lucidum cultivation on centers of mushroom farmer Media Agro Merapi Kaliurang, Yogyakarta. The batik effluent was collected from a private small and medium Batik enterprises located at Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul Regency. The aim of the study were to optimize decolorization of Naphtol Black (NB) using G. lucidum. The effect of process parameters like incubation time and dye concentration on dye decolorization and COD degradation was studied. G. lucidum were growth at pH 5-6 and temperature 25°C at various Naphtol Black dye with concentration 20 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm for 30 day incubation time. The result from this study increased decolorization in line with the increasing of COD degradation. Increasing percentage of decolorization and COD degradation gradually increased with incubation time and dye concentration. The maximum decolorization and COD reduction were found to be 60,53% and 81,03%. G. lucidum had potential to decolorized and degraded COD for NB dye effluent on higher concentration.

  16. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  17. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  18. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of metal oxides/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposites for decoloration of Rhodamine B dye under solar light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, Subramanian; Pitchaimuthu, Sakthivel; Kannan, Nagarathinam; Velusamy, Ponnusamy

    2017-03-01

    We present the photocatalytic decoloration of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye with the nanocomposites such as TiO2, ZnO, TiO2/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ZnO/β-CD. Band gap energy of nanocomposites was calculated by UV-DRS analysis and the results showed that the band gap energy of ZnO/β-CD nanocomposite is lower than that of other catalysts. The microstructures of the nanocomposites have been characterized by PXRD and FE-SEM analyses. The results showed that crystallinity and surface morphology of metal oxides (MO) (say, TiO2 and ZnO) are not changed in MO/β-CD nanocomposite systems. GC-MS results showed that the photocatalytic decoloration of RhB follows the steps such as N-deethylation, cleavage of chromophore and mineralization of dye.

  20. A horizontal plug-flow baffled bioelectrocatalyzed reactor for the reductive decolorization of Alizarin Yellow R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Zhiling; Wang, Youzhao; Cui, Dan; Liang, Bin; Thangavel, Sangeetha; Chung, Jong Shik; Wang, Aijie

    2015-11-01

    An application-oriented membrane-free, continuous plug-flow baffled bioelectrocatalyzed reactor (PFB-BER), was designed and testified for the decolorization of Alizarin Yellow R. Decolorization efficiency (DE) with an external power source of 0.5 V was higher than without electrolysis, i.e. 93.4% versus 73.6% (HRT of 24 h). Product formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine and 5-aminosalicylic acid were above 95% and 50%, respectively. When HRT decreased to 8 h and 4 h, DE reduced to 69.9% and 44.9%, respectively. An additional electrode assembly improved DE to 96.4% (HRT of 8 h) and 80% (HRT of 4 h), while energy consumption (HRT of 4 h) was lower than that of HRT of 12 h with single electrode assembly under comparable DE. The PFB-BER with higher removal capacity, lower internal resistance and energy consumption provides a new solution to treat the high loading azo dye-containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Decolorization of skin and hair-derived melanin by three ligninolytic enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, F; Lei, T C; Su, M Y; Yi, W J; Jiang, S; Xu, S Z

    2017-11-21

    Objective: To compare the decolorization efficiency of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase on eumelanin and pheomelanin, and to investigate the effect of topical administration of LiP solution on hyperpigmented guinea pigs skin induced by 308 nm excimer light. Methods: Pheomelanin-enriched specimens were prepared from human hair and cutaneous melanoma tissue using alkaline lysis method.Synthetic eumelanin was purchased from a commercial supplier.The same amount (0.02%) of melanin was incubated with the equal enzyme activity (0.2 U/ml) of ligninolytic enzymes for 3 h respectively.The absorbance at 475 nm ( A (475)) in the enzyme-catalyzed solution was measured using ELISA microplate reader.The experimental hyperpigmentation model was established in the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs using 308 nm excimer light radiation.LiP and heat-inactivated LiP solution were topically applied at each site.Meanwhile, 3% hydroquinone and vehicle cream were used as control.The skin color (L value) was recorded using a CR-10 Minolta chromameter.Corneocytes were collected using adhesive taping method.The amount and distribution of melanin in the corneocytes and skin tissues was visualized by Fontana-Masson staining. Results: All three ligninolytic enzymes showed various degree of eumelanin and pheomelanin decolorization activity.The decolorization activity of LiP, MnP and laccase was 40%-70%, 22%-42% and 9%-21%, respectively.The similar lightening was shown in the skin treated with LiP solution and 3% hydroquinone.The amount of melanin granules in the corneocytes was 199±11 by LiP, which was less than that in untreated control (923±12) and heat-inactive control (989±13). The amount of melanin was decreased in the whole epidermis treated with hydroquinone, the epidermis thickness was increased as well. In contrast, melanin of LiP group was decreased only in the superficial epidermis, the epidermis thickness seemed to be normal. Conclusion: LiP exerts

  2. Decolorization of laundry effluent by filamentous fungi | Miranda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to select fungi with the potential to decolorize effluent and optimize culture conditions using the methodology of experimental design. Twenty fungi were inoculated into flasks containing the liquid synthetic medium every 24 h; aliquots were over 10 days. The culture conditions and stationary stirring of 130 ...

  3. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  4. Decolorization efficiency of Funalia trogii under static condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PO4, starch-urea, sucrose-NH4H2PO4 and sucrose-urea containing media. Maximum decolorization was found as 9.61 and 7.77 mg dye/g dry mycelium weight in media containing no extra carbon and nitrogen sources. Kinetic studies were also ...

  5. 27 CFR 24.321 - Decolorizing material record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... juice or wine; (b) The type (e.g. grape variety or kind of wine) and volume of juice or wine treated... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing material record. 24.321 Section 24.321 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  6. Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

    2012-09-01

    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L⁻¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L⁻¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L⁻¹ AC₀). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC₀), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H₂), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na₂S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena.

  7. Degradation of a monoazo dye Alizarin Yellow GG in aqueous solutions by gamma irradiation: Decolorization and biodegradability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Lujun; Tian, Jinping; Wang, Jianlong; He, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    The irradiation-induced degradation of an azo dye, Alizarin Yellow GG (AY-GG), was investigated in aqueous solution under gamma irradiation using a 60 Cobalt source at a dose rate of 113 Gy/min. The decolorization percentage of AY-GG reached 65% when its initial concentration was 100 mg/l and the absorbed dose was 9 kGy. The decolorization process could be described by first-order kinetic equation. In addition, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR, mg O 2 (g MLVSS) −1 h −1 ) of activated sludge using the irradiated azo dye solutions was 8.1 mg O 2 (g MLVSS) −1 h −1 after 9 kGy irradiation, indicating that the biodegradability of AY-GG could be enhanced by 30%. However, toxic intermediates including heterocyclic aromatic amines and cyanides were detected during the irradiation process, which inhibited the complete biological degradation of azo dye. Fortunately, the inhibition could be eliminated by further irradiation. The azo dye solution became amenable to biodegradation and can be further treated by biological treatment process. - Highlights: ► Decolorization process by radiation conformed to first-order kinetics. ► Biodegradability of AY-GG could be enhanced 30% after 9 kGy radiation. ► Radiation can be used as a pretreatment technology for azo dye-containing wastewater. ► Combining radiation with aerobic biological treatment is a feasible strategy.

  8. Preparation of Kissiris/TiO2/Fe3O4/GOx Biocatalyst: Feasibility study of MG decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahide Elhami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Fe3O4 magnetite particles were coated on spherical Kissirises; glucose oxidase (GOx enzyme was immobilized on Kissiris/Fe3O4/TiO2 by physical adsorption. This catalyst was analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX measurements. The performance of the prepared biocatalyst in the decolorization of Malachite Green dye was investigated. The optimal operation parameters were 20 mg/L, 20 mM, 5.5 and 40 ̊C for initial dye concentration, initial glucose concentration, pH and temperature, respectively. Under these conditions, a 95% Malachite Green decolorization efficiency was obtained after 150 min of reaction by using 1 g of prepared heterogeneous bio-Fenton catalyst. In this process, in contrast to a conventional Fenton’s reaction, external hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion sources were not used. The effect of various reaction parameters such as initial concentration of dye, amount of catalyst, concentration of glucose, pH value and temperature on MG decolorization efficiency was studied.

  9. Efficiency comparison of ozonation, photolysis, photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis methods in real textile wastewater decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juliano Carvalho; Bessegato, Guilherme Garcia; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of real effluents from industries using AOPs stands to be an imperative task of crucial importance yet quite huge a challenge largely given the nature of complexity of these wastewaters. The present work sought to develop a versatile system aimed at the treatment of real wastewater using a bubbling annular reactor, which enables us to test the efficiency of photolysis; photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and direct ozonation using oxygen or ozone as gas flow. A TiO2 nanotubes electrode was used as photocatalyst in photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic measurements with and without coupling with ozonation under pH 3.0 and pH 8.0 leading to 50% of color removal after 60 min reaction. However, the results indicated 90% of color removal upon the bubbling of ozone after 15 min of treatment. A synergistic effect was observed in all experiments using the AOPs in the presence of ozone under both pH values. Interestingly though, 85% of decolorization was obtained through direct ozonation without any change in the effluent following 10 min of treatment. The results were discussed in terms of electric energy per order and were compared to those reported previously. For real textile wastewater, ozonation appears to be a promising candidate for full-scale effluent decolorization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photo-decolorization and detoxification of toxic dyes using titanium dioxide impregnated chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, M Hasmath; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    The removal of three different dyes namely Reactive Red 2 (RR), Methylene Blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) using titanium dioxide impregnated chitosan beads (TCB) by photocatalytic method has been studied. The TCB was characterized by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectral studies and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The photocatalytic activity of TCB for the decolorization of the three dyes is much higher than that of bare titanium dioxide, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 and chitosan. The chitosan adsorbs dye molecule which continuously supplies, dye molecule for degradation by TiO2 thereby preventing the electron-hole recombination. The photocatalytic experiment was carried out by varying different parameters such as irradiation time, dosage, pH, substrate concentration and co-ions. The kinetics of decolorization of dyes are explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The mineralization of dyes has also been confirmed by COD measurements. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [Decoloration of reactive turquoise blue by acidified sludge-bentonite granule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qin-Yan; Yuan, Ai-Juan; Li, Qian; Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Jing

    2009-05-15

    Using sludge as pore-forming agent, bentonite granule was acidified by sulfuric acid solution as a decolorant. The specific surface area and SEM were performed to characterize the structure of samples, and the new acidified sludge-bentonite granule was applied to the decoloration of reactive turquoise blue. The influencing factors of pH value, dosage, reaction time and reaction temperature were studied on the removal of the dyes. The important thermodynamics parameters (DeltaH0, DeltaS0, DeltaG) and the activation energy Ea were also acquired by experiment data processing. The results indicated that the adsorption isotherm fitted the isothermal adsorption equations of Langmuir better than Freundlich. The adsorption dynamics followed the law of the pseudo-second order kinetic equation, while the adsorption rate is 313 K > 303 K > 293 K. The low value of Ea which is 5.52 kJ x mol(-1) shows that physical adsorption is primary. And DeltaH0 > TDeltaS0 means that the influence of enthalpy is more remarkable than the entropy in the activation reaction. DeltaG > 0 also means the chemical reactions are not spontaneous.

  12. Decolorization of synthetic melanins by crude laccases of Lentinus polychrous Lév.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are complex natural pigments that darken the skin and are difficult to degrade. This study evaluated synthetic melanin decolorization by the crude laccase from fungus Lentinus polychrous in the absence and presence of selected redox mediators. The greatest melanin decolorization activity was 87 % at pH 6.5 within 3 h in the presence of 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), whereas only about 22 % melanin decolorized at pH 5.0 in case of no mediator. The optimum temperatures for melanin decolorization in the absence and presence of ABTS were 55 and 35°C, respectively. Using a natural redox mediator, 1.0 mmol/L vanillin leads to 45 % melanin decolorization. Our results suggest the possibility of applying vanillin for L. polychrous laccase-catalyzed decolorization of melanin.

  13. Fed-batch decolorization of Poly R-478 by Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira María Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological aspects were evaluated to determine optimal conditions for the decolorization of a synthetic dye, Poly R-478, by white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor # 52J. The decolorization experiments were carried out in semicontinuous operation during three cycles to improve the process efficiency. The best decolorization efficiencies (65% to 80% were obtained in fungal cultures performed in nitrogen limited conditions under aerobic conditions.

  14. Effect Of Metal Ions On Triphenylmethane Dye Decolorization By Laccase From Trametes Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmelová Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Laccase activity was inhibited by monovalent ions (Li+, Na+, K+ and Ag+ but the presence of divalent ions increased laccase activity at the concentration of 10 mmol/l. The effect of metal ions on decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes with different structures namely Bromochlorophenol Blue, Bromophenol Blue, Bromocresol Blue and Phenol Red was tested. The presence of metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ slightly decreased triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from T. versicolor except Na+ and Mg2+, which caused the increase of decolorization for all tested dyes. Decolorization of selected dyes showed that the presence of low-molecular-weight compounds is necessary for effective decolorization. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT is the most frequently used. Although HBT belongs to most frequently used redox mediator and generally increase decolorization efficiency, so its presence decreased decolorization percentage of Bromophenol Blue and Bromochlorophenol Blue, the influence of metal ions to dye decolorization by laccase has the similar course with or without presence of redox mediator HBT.

  15. Deciphering synergistic characteristics of microbial fuel cell-assisted dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Yueh, Pei-Lin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Hsueh, Chuan-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study provided a novel evaluation scheme to quantitatively reveal "synergistic" stimulation of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted dye decolorization for industrial practicability. This work also disclosed why dye decolorization was more electrochemically favorable during simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization (SBG&DD). Quantitative assessment upon stimulating effects of different decolorized metabolites on BG and DD alone was also implemented for conclusive remarks. Apparently, using MFC as the method of dye decontamination could considerably increase ca. 40-70% of electron transfer capabilities for SBG&DD, thereby significantly improving the performance of dye decontamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decolorization and toxicity of municipal waste by horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellamatrice Priscila Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Station of Americana, SP, Brazil, treats a volume of 400 l s-1 of effluent, of domestic and textile origin, and produces about 20 t of sludge per day. The plant horseradish, which contains high amount of peroxidases, was able to decolorize this effluent in 2 h and the solid waste in 2 days, at concentrations of 10 and 50%, respectively. However, there was an increase in the toxicity for the bioassays with Hydra attenuatta, Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds, indicating formation of more toxic substances. Since horseradish showed the ability to decolorize these residues, it can be used as pre-treatment resulting in a sludge of less complex composition.

  17. Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Pycnoporus sanguineus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User1

    Decolorization of synthetic dyes by basidiomycetes isolated from woods of the Atlantic Forest (PE), Brazil. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25: 1-5. Kamida HM, Durrant LR (2005). Biodegradação de efluentes têxtil por. Pleurotus sajor-caju. Química Nova 28: 629-632. Minatti E (2005). Corantes-a química das cores. Revista ...

  18. Decolorization of synthetic dyes and textile effluents by basidiomycetous fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwaniyan, S.; Kharb, D.; Raghukumar, C.; Kuhad, R.C.

    pollution. Most of these dyes are stable to light, temperature, and highly resistant to degradation (O’Neill et al. 1999). Several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, pre- cipitation, chemical oxidation, photodegradation, or membrane filtration have...), which are toxic, mutagenic, and possibly carcinogenic (Pinheiro et al. 2004). Several actinomycetes have been reported to decolor- ize reactive dyes, including anthraquinone, phthalo- cyanine, and azo dyes, through adsorption of the dyes to the cellular...

  19. Decolorization of brilliant green dye using immersed lamp sonophotocatalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vitthal L.; Priya, Astha; Danao, Sanjay P.

    2017-12-01

    The textile and dye industries require an enormous amount of water for processing and produce a large volume of wastewater. Generated wastewater had potential hazards and a threat to the aquatic biota. The present work investigates the decolorization of brilliant green dye using a combination of two advanced oxidation techniques viz sonocatalysis and photocatalysis (immersed lamp) known as sonophotocatalysis (3 L capacity). The efficiency of decolorization is further improved in the presence of various additives viz. copper oxide, zinc oxide, and sodium chloride. The maximum decolorization of brilliant green (BG) (94.8% in 120 min) obtained in the presence of zinc oxide. The total organic carbon of the treated samples was measured to monitor complete mineralization of BG. The sonophotocatalytic process (in the presence of zinc oxide) shows maximum mineralization. Synergic combination of two oxidation processes increased the production of oxidizing radicals. Continuous cleaning of catalyst surface (due to sonolysis effect) improves the activity of the catalyst for photolysis operation. The present work is highly useful for the development of a sonophotocatalytic process.

  20. Simultaneous decolorization and desalination of dye wastewater through electrochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaxin; Zhang, Baogang; Liang, Shuai; Li, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhijun

    2018-03-01

    Salt-containing dye wastewater discharged from textile industries causes serious environmental problems. Simultaneous decolorization and desalination of dye wastewater in a laboratory scale electrochemical cell are realized for the first time with boron-doped diamond anode. With initial methyl orange (MO) and NaCl of 50 and 3000 mg L -1 , decolorization and desalination efficiencies of 70.2 and 88.7% were achieved after 6-h treatment with applied voltage of 6 V. Increasing applied voltages resulted in the improvements of both color and salt removal, while higher MO concentrations suppressed decolorization and higher NaCl concentration accelerated desalination rate. MO dissociated into anions transferred through the anion exchange membrane into the anode compartment and reacted with the active species as ·OH, H 2 O 2 , and ClO - generated in anode compartment, leading to color removal. Component analysis confirmed the destruction of MO, with generation of low molecular weight compounds such as phenol and indole. Ions balance analysis indicated that Cl - and Na + moved to the anode and the cathode compartments respectively through the employed membranes driven by external voltage, realizing salt removal. This study has collectively demonstrated an efficient alternative for satisfactory treatment of salt-containing dye wastewater based on electrochemical technology.

  1. Photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange dye using nano-photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amin ahmadpour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination, which is growing around the world, is a serious problem can not to be neglected. Among all contaminations, water pollution is a major problem. Azo dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants found in the drinking water, coming from, and the food and textile industries. TiO2/Fe3O4 and TiO2/Fe2O3 nanocomposites with various ratios were synthesized by an ultrasonic-assisted deposition-precipitation method and their UV-light decolorization of methyl orange (MO dye was investigated. The effect of Fe3O4/TiO2 and Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites ratio on the photocatalytic activity and magnetic property of the nanocomposites was studied by comparing their decolorization curves and magnetism in the presence of magnet, respectively. The results revealed that the decolorization efficiency of 1 wt% Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposite reached about 40% within 60 min UV irradiation at room temperature. However, this sample showed the least magnetism. Also, the ability of synthesized nanocomposites in holding the adsorbed methyl orange dye on their surface and the effect of pH were investigated.

  2. Decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude and purified laccases from Coprinus comatus grown under different cultures: the role of major isoenzyme in dyes decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Man; Ten, Zhen; Ding, Shaojun

    2013-01-01

    Coprinus comatus laccase isoenzyme induction and its effect on decolorization were investigated. The C/N ratio, together with aromatic compounds and copper, significantly influenced laccase isoenzyme profile and enzyme activity. This fungus produced six laccase isoenzymes in high-nitrogen low-carbon cultures but much less in low-nitrogen high-carbon (LNHC) cultures. The highest laccase level (3.25 IU/ml), equivalent to a 12.6-fold increase compared with unsupplemented controls (0.257 IU/ml), was recorded after 13 days in LNHC cultures supplemented with 2.0 mM 2-toluidine. Decolorization of twelve synthetic dyes belonging to anthraquinone, azo, and triphenylmethane dyes, by crude laccases with different proportion of isoenzymes produced under selected culture conditions, illustrated that the LacA is the key isoenzyme contributed to dyes decolorization especially in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazol, which was further confirmed by dyes decolorization with purified LacA in the same condition. The crude laccase only was able to decolorize over 90 % of Reactive Brilliant Blue K-3R, Reactive Dark Blue KR, and Malachite Green, and higher decolorization for broader spectrum of synthetic dyes was obtained in presence of redox mediator, suggesting that C. comatus had high potential to decolorize various synthetic dyes as well as the recalcitrant azo dyes.

  3. Tunneling-induced self-energy shift of energy levels of a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainutdinov, R Kh; Khamadeev, M A; Mohebbifar, M R; Mutygullina, A A

    2015-01-01

    The self-interaction of a quantum dot tunnel with Coulomb interaction coupled to two noninteracting leads is investigated. The self-energy function describing this interaction is added to a bare energy of a dot state. In the standard way of determining the self-interaction (tunneling-induced) corrections to bare energies of emitters (atoms, quantum dots, etc) the variations of the self-energy functions with energy are ignored, and these corrections are considered to be equal to the values of the self-energy functions for bare energies of states. We show that actually in the case of quantum dots the variations of the self-energy functions in the energy interval between the bare and true energies can be strong, and this can have a significant effect on the values of the tunneling-induced shifts of energy levels of quantum dots. (paper)

  4. Decolorization of textile dyes and their effluents using white rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactive dyes are important chemical pollutants from textile industries .The two species of white rot fungi were evaluated for their ability to decolorize Blue CA, Black B133, Corazol Violet SR. Trametes hirsuta and Pleurotus florida displayed the greatest extent of decolorization. Laccase is the ligneolytic enzyme from these ...

  5. Decolorization of dyes by recombinase CotA from Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CotA laccase could efficiently decolorize anthraquinone and azo dyes in 24 h. The decolourization capacity of this recombinant laccase suggested that it could be a useful biocatalyst for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. Key words: Recombinant CotA laccase, Escherichia coli, purification, dye decolorization.

  6. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Decolorization and purification of total leaves saponins of panax notoginseng with ion exchange resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yun-Ge; Shi, Rong-Fu

    2008-10-01

    The total leaves saponins of panax notoginseng decoloring by adsorption with exchange resins was studied and the decoloring capacity of six anions resins as adsorbent material was evaluated. The decoloring capacity of the selected resins (D296 and Dt) was compared by the dynamic adsorption decolorization experiments. Removel of coloured compounds in rew solution takes place in two serially coupled different ionic exchange columns, one packed column was D72 cation resin, another anion resin. The results showed that macroporous anion exchange resin Dt was the best resin to decolorization of the total leaves saponins of panax notoginseng. The total saponin products with higher purity and quality were obtained. The results of this work shows that the method proposed is convenient, high efficcient and steady one.

  9. Decolorization of turbid sugar juice from sugar factory using waste powdered carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Hind; Ahmed, Youssef; El-Shafey, Ola; El-Shafey, Shaymaa; Fouad, Rasha; Shoueir, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Waste management of powdered activated carbon from cyclone of some sugar factories was used for decolorization of sugar mud juice (SMJ) in this study. The presence of powdered activated carbon waste (PACW) was admitted again for their use in SMJ decolorization. The determined specific surface area are typically S BET = 613.887 m2/g and the pore distribution lies in mesoporous domain. Color removal (CR%) and decolorization capacity (DC) of the characterized PACW are similar to those of decolorants used at this time for sugar refining. The CR% with PACW reached 81.03% at pH7.0 and dosed in the amount 0.5 g/50 ml of SMJ. There are two acceptable mechanisms illustrates the attachments between phenols and carboxylate ions. In this paper, we put a simple and rapid dark liquid decolorization by controlling rejected carbon waste, which will be useful for treatment of dark liquid sugar.

  10. Nuclear fission induced by high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Shmakov, S.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The fission of 203 Pb, 232 Th, 238 U, 239 Pu, 209 Br nuclei in the energy region T approximately equal to 0.1-2 GeV is considered on the basis of intranuclear cascade model. The competition between fission and evaporation of excited nuclei remaining after the cascade phase of the interaction is taken into account. Fong's model is used to calculate the fission process. The multiplicity of produced particles (d, t, 3 He, α), the energy spectra of neutrons, the distributions of residual nuclei are discussed. The calculated results are compared with the experiment and with the known theoretical data

  11. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under special circumstances, electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low-energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can – under appropriate ...

  12. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  13. Decolorization of malachite green, decolorization kinetics and stoichiometry of ozone-malachite green and removal of antibacterial activity with ozonation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusvuran, Erdal; Gulnaz, Osman; Samil, Ali; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify degradation intermediates and to investigate the stoichiometry of decolorization and degradation, decolorization kinetics, and removal of antibacterial activity of malachite green (MG) using ozonization processes. The decolorization of MG was optimal at an acidic pH value of 3 based on molecular ozone attack on MG molecules. The stoichiometric ratio of decolorization between ozone and MG was calculated to be 7.0 with a regression coefficient of 0.995, whereas the ratio for degradation was calculated as 13.1 with a regression coefficient of 0.998. With MG concentrations in the range of 0.30-1.82 mM, the concentration of decolorized MG increased with higher initial concentrations of MG, whereas the ozonolytic decolorization rates of MG, decreased with increasing initial concentration. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants (k') decreased with the initial concentration and ranged from 0.769 to 0.223 min -1 . Twelve different intermediates were produced during the ozonation of MG with ozonation times between 5 min and 30 min and were identified by GC-MS. Although 86% of MG in the reaction mixture was removed by ozonation after 10 min, the decrease of antibacterial activity was very low (10%) for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis because the degradation intermediates, phenol and benzoic acid, also have antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of both MG and its intermediates were removed successfully with ozonation times above 26 min.

  14. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  15. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sludge (AS, capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  16. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-10-28

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N , N -dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N , N -dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  17. Decolorization potential of mixed microbial consortia for reactive and disperse textile dyestuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, H N; Shah, S A H; Asad, M Javaid; Legge, R L

    2007-06-01

    Four different aerobic mixed consortia collected from basins of wastewater streams coming out of dying plants of Crescent Textile (CT), Sitara Textile (ST), Chenab Fabrics (CF) and Noor Fatima Textile (NF), Faisalabad, Pakistan were applied for decolorization of Drimarene Orange K-GL, Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL, Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN for 10 days using the shake flask technique. CT culture showed the best decolorization potential on all dyestuffs followed by ST, NF and CF, respectively. CT could completely decolorize all dyes within 3-5 days. ST cultures showed effective decolorization potential on Foron Yellow SE4G and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL but complete color removal was achieved after 4 and 7 days, respectively. NF culture showed 100% decolorization efficiencies on Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN but it took comparatively longer time periods (5-7 days). Where as, the NF culture had decolorized only 40% and 50% of Drimarene orange and red, respectively, after 10 days. CF caused complete decolorization of Foron Blue RDGLN and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL after 4 and 8 days, respectively but it showed poor performance on other two dyes.

  18. Bacterial dye-decolorizing peroxidases: biochemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In biorefineries, processing biomass begins with separating lignin from cellulose and hemicellulose. The latter two are depolymerized to give monosaccharides (e.g. glucose and xylose), which can be converted to fuels or chemicals. In contrast, lignin presents a challenging target for further processing due to its inherent heterogeneity and recalcitrance. Therefore, it has only been used in low-value applications. For example, lignin is burnt to recover energy in cellulosic ethanol production. Valorization of lignin is critical for biorefineries as it may generate high revenue. Lignin is the obvious candidate to provide renewable aromatic chemicals. As long as it can be depolymerized, the phenylpropane units can be converted into useful phenolic chemicals, which are currently derived from fossil fuels. This is a survey of an emerging group of enzymes that may have applications in lignin valorization.

  19. A REVIEW ON EFFICACIOUS METHODS TO DECOLORIZE REACTIVE AZO DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Vijayaraghavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the intensive review of reactive azo dye, Reactive Black 5. Various physicochemical methods namely photo catalysis, electrochemical, adsorption, hydrolysis and biological methods like microbial degradation, biosorption and bioaccumulation have been analyzed thoroughly along with the merits and demerits of each method. Among these various methods, biological treatment methods are found to be the best for decolorization of Reactive Black 5. With respect to dye biosorption, microbial biomass (bacteria, fungi, microalgae, etc, and outperformed macroscopic materials (seaweeds, crab shell, etc. are used for decolorization process. The use of living organisms may not be an option for the continuous treatment of highly toxic organic/inorganic contaminants. Once the toxicant concentration becomes too high or the process operated for a long time, the amount of toxicant accumulated will reach saturation. Beyond this point, an organism's metabolism may be interrupted, resulting in death of the organism. This scenario is not existed in the case of dead biomass, which is flexible to environmental conditions and toxicant concentrations. Thus, owing to its favorable characteristics, biosorption has received much attention in recent years.

  20. The multihued palette of dye-decolorizing peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs; EC 1.11.1.19) are heme enzymes that comprise a family of the dimeric α+β barrel structural superfamily of proteins. The first DyP, identified relatively recently in the fungus Bjerkandera adusta, was characterized for its ability to catalyze the decolorization of anthraquinone-based industrial dyes. These enzymes are now known to be present in all three domains of life, but do not appear to occur in plants or animals. They are involved in a range of physiological processes, although in many cases their roles remain unknown. This has not prevented the development of their biocatalytic potential, which includes the transformation of lignin. This review highlights the functional diversity of DyPs in the light of phylogenetic, structural and biochemical data. The phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of at least five classes of DyPs. Their potential physiological roles are discussed based in part on synteny analyses. Finally, the considerable biotechnological potential of DyPs is summarized. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon/Attapulgite Composites as Recycled Palm Oil-Decoloring and Dye Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangyan; Wang, Wenbo; Zhu, Yongfeng; Zong, Li; Kang, Yuru; Wang, Aiqin

    2018-01-06

    Activated clay minerals have been widely used in the edible oil refining industry for decolorization of crude oil by adsorption, and so far many methods have been used to improve their decolorization efficiency. Herein, we successfully prepared a series of carbon/attapulgite (C/APT) composite adsorbents by a one-step in-situ carbonization process with natural starch (St) as the carbon source. It has been revealed that the adsorbent had better decolorization efficiency for crude palm oil than acid-activated APT. However, more than a million tons of decolorized waste is produced every year in the oil-refining industry, which was often treated as solid waste and has not yet been reutilized effectively. In order to explore a viable method to recycle and reuse the decolorant, the waste decolorant was further prepared into new C/APT adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater, and then the dyes adsorbed on the adsorbent were used as the carbon sources to produce new C/APT adsorbents by a cyclic carbonization process. The results showed that the adsorbents prepared from the decolorized waste could remove more than 99.5% of the methylene blue (MB), methyl violet (MV), and malachite green (MG) dyes from the simulated wastewater with the dye concentration of 200 mg/L, and the C/APT-Re adsorbent consecutively regenerated five times using the adsorbed dyes as a carbon source still exhibit good adsorption efficiency for dyes. As a whole, this process opens a new avenue to develop efficient decolorants of palm oil and achieves recyclable utilization of decolored waste.

  2. Carbon/Attapulgite Composites as Recycled Palm Oil-Decoloring and Dye Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated clay minerals have been widely used in the edible oil refining industry for decolorization of crude oil by adsorption, and so far many methods have been used to improve their decolorization efficiency. Herein, we successfully prepared a series of carbon/attapulgite (C/APT composite adsorbents by a one-step in-situ carbonization process with natural starch (St as the carbon source. It has been revealed that the adsorbent had better decolorization efficiency for crude palm oil than acid-activated APT. However, more than a million tons of decolorized waste is produced every year in the oil-refining industry, which was often treated as solid waste and has not yet been reutilized effectively. In order to explore a viable method to recycle and reuse the decolorant, the waste decolorant was further prepared into new C/APT adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater, and then the dyes adsorbed on the adsorbent were used as the carbon sources to produce new C/APT adsorbents by a cyclic carbonization process. The results showed that the adsorbents prepared from the decolorized waste could remove more than 99.5% of the methylene blue (MB, methyl violet (MV, and malachite green (MG dyes from the simulated wastewater with the dye concentration of 200 mg/L, and the C/APT–Re adsorbent consecutively regenerated five times using the adsorbed dyes as a carbon source still exhibit good adsorption efficiency for dyes. As a whole, this process opens a new avenue to develop efficient decolorants of palm oil and achieves recyclable utilization of decolored waste.

  3. Screening of micro-organisms for decolorization of melanins produced by bluestain fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rättö, M; Chatani, M; Ritschkoff, A C; Viikari, L

    2001-03-01

    A total of 17 fungi and four bacteria were screened for their ability to decolorize melanin, using isolated extracellular melanin of the bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans as substrate. On agar media, decolorization was observed by four fungal strains: Bjerkandera adusta VTT-D-99746, Galactomyces geotrichum VTT-D-84228, Trametes hirsuta VTT-D-95443 and Trametes versicolor VTT-D-99747. The four fungi were more efficient on nitrogen-limited medium than on complete medium. The melanin-decolorizing activity of G. geotrichum appeared to be located on the mycelium and could be liberated into the medium enzymatically.

  4. Induction of a laccase Lcc9 from Coprinopsis cinerea by fungal coculture and its application on indigo dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kai; Zhao, Nannan; Yin, Qiang; Zhang, Tianwei; Xu, Xiaolan; Fang, Wei; Hong, Yuzhi; Fang, Zemin; Xiao, Yazhong

    2014-06-01

    A fungal coculture system comprised of Coprinopsis cinerea Okayama 7 (#130) and Gongronella sp. w5 produced 900 times higher laccase activity than that in pure culture. A fungal laccase named Lcc9 was induced from C. cinerea for the first time by coculture. Lcc9 was purified, characterized, and found to have high activity toward phenolic substrates at the optimum pH of 6.5 and temperature of 60°C. The laccase was stable at alkaline pH values, and its activity was not significantly affected by cations and organic solvents. Lcc9 showed decolorization capability toward indigo dye in the presence of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonate), with 75% of indigo was decolorized by 50 U/L enzyme after 1h of incubation under optimal catalytic conditions. These results showed that fungal coculture could active silent laccase gene, and the unusual properties make Lcc9 a candidate for specific industrial and environmental applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate: 1997-2006?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hua; Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    China is the second largest energy consumer in the world. During 1997-2002, China's energy intensity declined by 33%. However, it rose by 10.7% over 2003-2005, and declined by 1.2% in 2006. What induced China's energy intensity to fluctuate so drastically? Industry accounts for approximately 70% of the total energy consumption in China. In this paper, we decompose China's industrial energy intensity changes between 1997 and 2002 into sectoral structural effects and efficiency effects (measured by sectoral energy intensities at two-digit level and including the shifts of product mix in the sub-sector or firm level), using Toernqvist and Sato-Vartia Index methods. The results show that in this period, efficiency effects possibly contributed to a majority of the decline, while the contribution from structural effects was less. During 2003-2005, the excessive expansion of high-energy consuming sub-sectors and the high investment ratio were foremost sources of the increasing energy intensity. Attributed to the government efforts, the energy intensity has started to decline slightly since July 2006. In future, to save more energy, in addition to technical progress, China should attach more importance to optimizing its sectoral structure, and lowering its investment ratio

  6. Investigations on a vortex induced vibration based energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Krishna; Bose, Chandan; Ali, Shaikh Faruque; Sarkar, Sunetra; Gupta, Sayan

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates energy harvesting from vortex induced vibrations of a flexible cantilevered flapper placed in the wake of a rigid circular cylinder. The effect of the gap between the cylinder and the flapper on the energy harvested is investigated through wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. As the flow speed is varied, a transition in the flapper dynamics is observed, which in turn affects the power extracted by the harvester. Numerical investigations reveal that the flapper dynamics is different depending on whether the vortices are shed ahead or behind the flapper. This study concludes that the choice of the gap influences the energy harvesting potential of such harvesters.

  7. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based on a ...

  8. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic quantum system. HARINDER PAL1 and M S SANTHANAM2,∗. 1Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. 2Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pashan Road, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding author.

  9. Electrochemical Decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 Textile Dye using Pt/Ir Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır K. Körbahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical decolorization of textile dyeing wastewater containing Reactive Violet 5 (RV5 were investigated at Pt/Ir electrodes in the presence of 75%NaCl+25%Na2CO3 (w/w supporting electrolyte mixture in a batch electrochemical reactor. Experimental parameters were operated in the range of 300-1500 mg/L textile dye concentration, 4-20 g/L 75%NaCl+25%Na2CO3 electrolyte concentration, 5-15 mA/cm2 current density, and 20-60°C reaction temperature in 15 min electrolysis time. Reactive Violet 5 decolorization increased with increasing current density and electrolyte concentration, and decreasing the textile dye concentration. Although a slight increase obtained in color removal efficiency, the temperature was not show much significant effect on decolorization. Depending on electrochemical reaction conditions, Reactive Violet 5 textile dye decolorization were obtained between 42.8-100%.

  10. Decolorization and degradation of reactive dye during the dyed cotton fabric rinsing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Deng-Hong; Zheng, Qing-Kang; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Qing-Shu; Wang, Xiu-Xing; Guan, Yu; Pu, Zong-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Dyeing process of textile consumes large quantities of water, which results in huge amounts of colored wastewater. Most of the dye wastewater treating methods focused on the treatment of wastewater after the rinsing process of dyed textile. In this paper, tetraacetylethylenediamine/hydrogen peroxide (TAED/H₂O₂) active oxidation (AO) system was developed to rinse dyed textile and decolorize the rinsing wastewater simultaneously. The results indicated that the decolorization ratio of the rinse effluent obtained by AO method were in the range of 51.72%-84.15% according to different dyes and the COD value decreased more than 30% compared with that of traditional rinsing process. The decolorization kinetics investigation showed that the decolorization of dyes during AO rinsing process followed the law of pseudo-first order kinetics. The result of UV-Vis and UPLC-MS analysis demonstrated that the dye was degraded into colorless organic molecular fragments and partly mineralized during the AO rinsing process.

  11. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moldes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

  12. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

  13. Decolorization and biodegradation of Indigo carmine by a textile soil isolate Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Mohandass; Anusha, Bhaskar; Kalavathy, S

    2008-04-01

    The potential of recently isolated bacteria Paenibacillus larvae for the effective decolorization of Indigo carmine was evaluated. The effects of operational parameters (temperature, pH, dye concentration, shaking/non shaking) were tested. Maximum extent of decolorization was observed when the medium was incorporated with 10 g/l of yeast extract and peptone. Decolorization was strongly inhibited at non-shaken conditions as well as incorporation of inorganic sources (sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride) in the medium. Maximum decolorization was observed at 30 degrees C (100%) and 40 degrees C (92%) at 8 h of incubation. The LC-MS and NMR analysis confirms the oxidation of Indigo carmine . The primary degradation products were found to be Isatin sulfonic acid and anthranilicacid.

  14. Low Head, Vortex Induced Vibrations River Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernitsas, Michael B.; Dritz, Tad

    2006-06-30

    Vortex Induced Vibrations Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) is a novel, demonstrated approach to extracting energy from water currents. This invention is based on a phenomenon called Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV), which was first observed by Leonardo da Vinci in 1504AD. He called it ‘Aeolian Tones.’ For decades, engineers have attempted to prevent this type of vibration from damaging structures, such as offshore platforms, nuclear fuel rods, cables, buildings, and bridges. The underlying concept of the VIVACE Converter is the following: Strengthen rather than spoil vortex shedding; enhance rather than suppress VIV; harness rather than mitigate VIV energy. By maximizing and utilizing this unique phenomenon, VIVACE takes this “problem” and successfully transforms it into a valuable resource for mankind.

  15. Decolorization of acid, disperse and reactive dyes by Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Ok; Sodaneath, Hong; Lee, Jung-In; Jung, Hyekyeng; Choi, Jin-Hee; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-07-29

    The mycoremediation has been considered as a promising method for decolorizing dye wastewater. To explore new bioresource for mycoremediation, a new white-rot fungus that could decolorize various dyes commonly used in textile industries was isolated, and its ligninolytic enzyme activity and decolorization capacity were characterized. The isolated CBR43 was identified as Trametes versicolor based on the morphological properties of its fruit body and spores, as well as through partial 18S rDNA gene sequences. Isolated CBR43 displayed high activities of laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase, whereas its lignin peroxidase activity was relatively low. These ligninolytic enzyme activities in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium were enhanced by the addition of yeast extract (1-10 g L -1 ). In particular, lignin peroxidase activity was increased more than 5 times in the PDB medium amended with 10 g L -1 of yeast extract. The CBR43 decolorized more than 90% of 200 mg L -1 acid dyes (red 114, blue 62 and black 172) and reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16 and black 5) within 6 days in the PDB medium. CBR43 decolorized 67% of 200 mg L -1 acid orange 7 within 9 days. The decolorization efficiencies for disperse dyes (red 1, orange 3 and black 1) were 51-80% within 9 days. The CBR43 could effectively decolorize high concentrations of acid blue 62 and acid black 172 (500-700 mg L -1 ). The maximum dye decolorization rate was obtained at 28°C, pH 5, and 150 rpm in the PDB medium. T. versicolor CBR43 had high laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activities, and could decolorize a wide variety of dyes such as acid, disperse and reactive textile dyes. This fungus had decolorizing activities of azo-type dyes as well as anthraquinone-type dyes. T. versicolor CBR43 is one of promising bioresources for the decolorization of textile wastewater including various dyes.

  16. An Experimental Study of Pile-Supported OWC-Type Breakwaters: Energy Extraction and Vortex-Induced Energy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wave energy converters with breakwaters is a promising concept for wave energy utilization. On the basis of fulfilling the wave protection demands, pile-supported Oscillating Water Column (OWC-type breakwaters can also meet the local needs of electricity far from the lands. In the present study, the wave energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were analyzed based on a two-point measurement method. The importance of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss on the wave energy dissipation of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were experimentally investigated. It was found that the trends of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss were generally correlated. The effects of the pneumatic damping induced by top opening affected the vortex-induced energy loss more than the energy extraction. Results showed that a larger pneumatic damping was preferable for the purpose of increasing energy extraction, whereas for a smaller pneumatic damping the vortex-induced energy loss was more important to the energy dissipation. With increasing draft, the energy extraction decreased, but the vortex-induced energy loss complementally contributed to the total energy dissipation and made the energy dissipation at the same level as that for a shallower draft.

  17. Log-Euclidean Metrics for Contrast Preserving Decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiegen; Shao, Guangpu; Wang, Yuhao; Gao, Junbin; Leung, Henry

    2017-08-25

    This paper presents a novel Log-Euclidean metric inspired color-to-gray conversion model for faithfully preserving the contrast details of color image, which differs from the traditional Euclidean metric approaches. In the proposed model, motivated by the fact that Log-Euclidean metric has promising invariance properties such as inversion invariant and similarity invariant, we present a Log-Euclidean metric based maximum function to model the decolorization procedure. The Gaussian-like penalty function consisting of the log-Euclidean metric between gradients of the input color image and transformed grayscale image is incorporated to better reflect the degree of preserving feature discriminability and color ordering in color-to-gray conversion. A discrete searching algorithm is employed to solve the proposed model with linear parametric and non-negative constraints. Extensive evaluation experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  18. Preparation of Laccase Immobilized Cryogels and Usage for Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Uygun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate (poly(MMA-co-GMA cryogels were synthesized by radical cryopolymerization technique. Then, laccase enzyme was covalently attached to the cryogel and characterized by using swelling studies and SEM and EDX analyses. Kinetic properties and optimum conditions of the immobilized and free laccase were studied and it was found that of the immobilized laccase was lower than that of free laccase. of the immobilized laccase was increased upon immobilization. Optimum pH was found to be 4.0 for each type of laccase, while optimum temperature was shifted to the warmer region after the immobilization. It was also found that thermal stability of the immobilized laccase was higher than that of free laccase. Immobilized laccase could be used for 10 times successive reuse with no significant decrease in its activity. Also, these laccase immobilized cryogels were successfully used for the decolorization of seven different dyes.

  19. Decolorization and degradation of melanoidins in wastewater by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Tanabe, T.; Sawai, T.

    1995-01-01

    Decolorization and degradation of molasses pigments (melanoidins) in wastewater from yeast factories by ionizing radiation were investigated. In the case of samples with the same value of chromaticity (4000), the reduction degree of chromaticity of dialyzed sample reached 27.5% and 75% at a dose of 4.5 kGy and 14 kGy, respectively, and was greater than that of non-dialyzed sample. Organic acids such as oxalic acid, formic acid and glycolic acid were formed with increasing dose, and the biodegradability (BOD/COD) of wastewater was increased with decrease in pH. The relationships between the value of chromaticity/TOC and molecular weight of molasses pigments, were obtained from subsequent experiments using dialyzed and non-dialyzed samples with the same value of TOC. (author)

  20. Photocatalysis applied in the studies of decolorization and COD removal of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselma Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper photocatalysis processes on titanium dioxide suspension in aqueous solution illuminated with UV light are described for decolorization and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal of landfill leachate. Several operational parameters to achieve optimum efficiency are presented. The properties of the decolorization and COD removal were enhanced and studied by spectrophotometer methods. The results indicate that the process can be used as a pretreatment to the conventional processes.

  1. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-11-01

    A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  2. Statistical Optimization of Conditions for Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 Using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir; Kaur, Navneet

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant). The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively. PMID:25722980

  3. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Bergsten-Torralba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198, Reactive Blue 214 (RB214, Reactive Blue 21 (RB21 and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50. P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments.

  4. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gikal, K. B., E-mail: kgikal@mail.ru; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Piasecki, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University (Poland); Rubchenya, V. A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Sahiev, S. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Trzaska, W. H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Vardaci, E. [INFN Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell’Università di Napoli (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  5. Decolorization of Distillery Spent Wash Using Biopolymer Synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles David

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain was isolated from tannery effluent which can tolerate high concentrations of potassium dichromate up to 1000 ppm. The isolated microorganism was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by performing biochemical tests and molecular characterization. In the presence of excess of carbohydrate source, which is a physiological stress, this strain produces Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. This intracellular polymer, which is synthesized, is primarily a product of carbon assimilation and is employed by microorganisms as an energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are limitedly available. Efforts were taken to check whether the PHB has any positive effect on spent wash decolorization. When a combination of PHB and the isolated bacterial culture was added to spent wash, a maximum color removal of 92.77% was found which was comparatively higher than the color removed when the spent wash was treated individually with the PHB and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PHB behaved as a support material for the bacteria to bind to it and thus develops biofilm, which is one of the natural physiological growth forms of microorganisms. The bacterial growth in the biofilm and the polymer together acted in synergy, adsorbing and coagulating the pollutants in the form of color pigments.

  6. Dynamics of Low-Energy Electron Induced Reactions in Condensed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Michael; Soe, Chanmyaemyae; Chamberlain, Kristal; Shyur, Yomay; Arumainayagam, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    We present insights into the dynamics of low-energy electron-induced reactions in thin films of methanol (CH3 OH). Low-energy electrons in matter can initiate chemical reactions though electron impact ionization of a molecule, electron impact excitation of a molecule, or through dissociation of a transient negative ion formed by electron attachment to a molecule. Our studies focus on the dynamics by which low-energy electron interaction with condensed methanol initiates chemical reactions which lead to the formation of methoxymethanol (CH3 O CH2 OH) and ethylene glycol (HO CH2 CH2 OH). The results of our post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption experiments indicate that both products can form from irradiating methanol with electrons at subionization energies. In addition, we find evidence that dissociative electron attachment plays a role in the formation of methoxymethanol but not in ethylene glycol.

  7. A facility for low energy charged particle induced reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Singkarat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Intarasiri, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2000-01-01

    In Chiang Mai, a highly stable low energy ion accelerator (0 - 350 kV) facility is being established. A subnano-second pulsing system will be incorporated into the beam transport line. The detecting system will consist of a time-of-flight charged particle spectrometer and a high resolution gamma-ray system. The new facility will be used in the studies of low energy heavy ion backscattering and charged particle induced cross section measurement in the interests of material characterization and nucleosynthesis. (author)

  8. Productivity effects of technology diffusion induced by an energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the political discussion, the economy-wide effects of an energy tax have gained considerable attention. So far, macroeconomic analyses have focused on either (positive or negative) costs triggered by an energy tax, or on the efficiency gains resulting from new energy taxes combined with lower distortionary taxes. By contrast, the innovative effects of climate protection measures have not yet been thoroughly analysed. This paper explores the productivity effects of a 50 per cent energy tax in the German industry sector employing a technology-based, three-step bottom-up approach. In the first step, the extensive IKARUS database is used to identify the technological adjustments arising from an energy tax. In the second step, the technologies are classified into different clusters. In the third step, the productivity effects generated by the technological adjustments are examined. The results imply that an energy tax induces mainly sector-specific and process-integrated technologies rather than add-on and cross-cutting technologies. Further, it is shown that the energy-saving technologies tend to increase productivity. This is particularly the case for process-integrated, sector specific technologies. (author)

  9. Decolorization of textile dyes in an air-lift bioreactor inoculated with Bjerkandera adusta OBR105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodaneath, Hong; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Seung-Ok; Jung, Hyekyeng; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-09-19

    A new decolorizing white-rot fungus, OBR105, was isolated from Mount Odae in South Korea and identified by the morphological characterization of its fruit body and spores and partial 18s rDNA sequences. The ligninolytic enzyme activity of OBR105 was studied to characterize their decolorizing mechanism using a spectrophotometric enzyme assay. For the evaluation of the decolorization capacity of OBR105, the isolate was incubated in an erlenmeyer flask and in an airlifte bioreator with potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium supplemented with each dye. In addition, the decolorization efficiency of real textile wastewater was evaluated in an airlift bioreactor inoculated with the isolate. The isolate was identified as Bjerkandera adusta and had ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP). Its LiP activity was higher than its MnP and laccase activities. B. adusta OBR105 successfully decolorized reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16, and black 5) and acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, orange 7, and black 172). B. adusta OBR105 decolorized 91-99% of 200 mg L -1 of each dye (except acid orange 7) within 3 days in a PDB medium at 28°C, pH 5, and 150 rpm. This fungus decolorized only 45% of 200 mg L -1 acid orange 7 (single azo-type dye) within 3 days, and the decolorization efficiency did not increase by prolonging the cultivation time. In the air-lift bioreactor, B. adusta OBR105 displayed a high decolorization capacity, greater than 90%, for 3 acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, and black 172) and 1 reactive dye (blue 4) within 10-15 h of treatment. B. adusta OBR105 could decolorize real textile wastewater in the air-lift bioreactor. This result suggests that an air-lift reactor employing B. adusta OBR105 is a promising bioreactor for the treatment of dye wastewater.

  10. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  11. Reactions induced by low energy electrons in cryogenic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, A.D.; Sanche, L.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent research on reactions (including dissociation) initiated by low-energy electron bombardment of monolayer and multilayer molecular solids at cryogenic temperatures. With incident electrons of energies below 20 eV, dissociation is observed by the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) of anions from target films and is attributed to the processes of dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and to dipolar dissociation. It is shown that DEA to condensed molecules is sensitive to environmental factors such as the identity of co-adsorbed species and film morphology. The effects of image-charge induced polarization on cross-sections for DEA to CH3Cl are also discussed. Taking as examples, the electron-induced production of CO within multilayer films of methanol and acetone, it is shown that the detection of electronic excited states by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy can be used to monitor electron beam damage. In particular, the incident energy dependence of the CO indicates that below 19 eV, dissociation proceeds via the decay of transient negative ions (TNI) into electronically excited dissociative states. The electron induced dissociation of biomolecular targets is also considered, taking as examples the ribose analog tetrahydrofuran and DNA bases adenine and thymine, cytosine and guanine. The ESD of anions from such films also show dissociation via the formation of TNI. In multilayer molecular solids, fragment species resulting from dissociation, may react with neighboring molecules, as is demonstrated in anion ESD measurements from films containing O 2 and various hydrocarbon molecules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reported for electron irradiated monolayers of H 2 O and CF 4 on a Si - H passivated surface further show that DEA is an important initial step in the electron-induced chemisorption of fragment species

  12. Stimulation of laccases from Trametes pubescens: Use in dye decolorization and cotton bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Federica; Junghanns, Charles; Donelli, Ilaria; Nair, Rakesh; Demarche, Philippe; Romagnolo, Alice; Freddi, Giuliano; Agathos, Spiros N; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-10-02

    The production of laccases from Trametes pubescens was investigated along with the role of nutrients and elicitors. Copper proved to be a fundamental inducer, although productivity yields were consistently enhanced only in the presence of additional compounds (textile dyes). Using a central composite design, the optimal culture condition was examined, by taking into consideration the three distinct variables and their combinatorial effect. The 290 U ml(-1) of laccases were produced after setting nitrogen, copper, and reactive blue 19 concentration; in a bioreactor, activity recovery was lower (90 U ml(-1)) and pellet morphology was different. The activity of the laccase crude extract was maximal at 60°C and stable for 14 h at 50°C and for 2 months at pH 6 and room temperature. The biotechnological potential was assessed, confirming the capacity to decolorize single or mixed solutions of textile dyes and to enhance the whitening yield of raw cotton fibers, working in synergism with the conventional H2O2-based method.

  13. Decolorization of two azo dyes using marine Lysobacter sp. T312D9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouloud M. I. B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Novel azo dye-degrading bacterium T312D9 strain has been isolated from Abou Quir Gulf, Alexandria, Egypt. Methodology and Results: The identification of the isolate by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed to be Lysobacter sp. This marine ecofriendly isolate was exploited for its ability to degrade two synthetic azo dyes considered as detrimental pollutants from industrial effluents: congo red and methyl red. Using different dye concentrations showed the highest metabolic activity for complete degradation obtained from 100 to 500 mg/L within 30 h under static condition, also, sustaining higher dye loading of 1 g/L was carried out. The significant induction of enzymes NADH - 2,6-dichloroindophenol (NADH-DCIP reductase and tyrosinaseindicated their prominent role in dye degradation. The biodegradation of two azo dyes were analyzed by gas chromatographicmass spectrum analysis (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR before and after treatment. Toxicity study revealed the much less toxic nature of the metabolites produced after complete decolorization. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Lysobacter sp T312D9 represent an inexpensive and promising marine bacteria for removal of both methyl and congo red. High sustainable metabolic activity for biodegradation under static condition. NADHDCIPreductase and tyrosinase were significantly induced during biodegradation of dyes. The obtained metabolites revealed to beless toxic in nature which offers a practical biological treatment.

  14. DECOLORIZATION OF BROMOCRESOL PURPLE (BCP PHOTOINDUCED BY A Fe (III OXYHYDROXYDE (GOETHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S BELATTAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the decolorization of bromocresol purple (BCP using Fe (III oxyhydroxide (Goethite as an inducer. The mixture dye- Goethite in dark condition and ambient temperature, shows a reaction between the dye and the Fe (III oxyhydroxide. Indeed, the tracking of the reaction using UV-visible spectrophotometry showed a low decrease in the principal band of the dye. This reveal the existence of an interaction between the substrate and the Goethite whitch is important in acidic medium. The irradiation at 365 nm of mixture Goethite-BCP (1g.L-1- 10-4 M leads to a transformation of substrate. The decrease of the band at 432nm and the presence of an isosbestic point at 508 nm support the transformation of BCP.  The substrate kinetics disappearances are improved in acidic medium. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (5.10-3 mol.L-1 in a suspension of Goethite, accelerate significantly the rate of disappearance of the dye. Natural radiation tests showed that the degradation was faster than artificial one at 365 nm. Studies on mineralization using COD method certify that this method, compatible with the environment, may be considered in the treatment of wastewater.

  15. Decolorization of a recalcitrant organic compound (Melanoidin by a novel thermotolerant yeast, Candida tropicalis RG-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Soni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane distilleries use molasses for ethanol production and generate large volume of effluent containing high biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD along with melanoidin pigment. Melanoidin is a recalcitrant compound that causes several toxic effects on living system, therefore, may be treated before disposal. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing yeast from natural resources, and optimized different physico-chemical and nutritional parameters. Results Total 24 yeasts were isolated from the soil samples of near by distillery site, in which isolate Y-9 showed maximum decolorization and identified as Candida tropicalis by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC Chandigarh, India. The decolorization yield was expressed as the decrease in the absorbance at 475 nm against initial absorbance at the same wavelength. Uninoculated medium served as control. Yeast showed maximum decolorization (75% at 45°C using 0.2%, glucose; 0.2%, peptone; 0.05%, MgSO4; 0.01%, KH2PO4; pH-5.5 within 24 h of incubation under static condition. Decolorizing ability of yeast was also confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Conclusion The yeast strain efficiently decolorized melanoidin pigment of distillery effluent at higher temperature than the other earlier reported strains of yeast, therefore, this strain could also be used at industrial level for melanoidin decolorization as it tolerated a wide range of temperature and pH with very small amount of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  16. Proton-induced fission at ultra sub-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Fernandez, P.B.; Gehring, J.C.; Henderson, D.J.; Nagame, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Cross sections for proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U have been measured at seven proton energies ranging from 3.0 to 4.45 MeV using two position sensitive parallel-grid avalanche counters in a kinematic coincidence. In addition, an upper limit for the fission cross section was established at extreme sub-barrier energies down to a level of {approx equal}20 pb at 3 MeV. This result is in contradiction to recent findings of Ajitanand et al., who found that the fission excitation function exhibited a plateaux at about 1000 pb in the energy range from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from flow-induced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D-A; Ko, H-H

    2010-01-01

    A new piezoelectric energy harvester for harnessing energy from flow-induced vibration is developed. It converts flow energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric conversion with oscillation of a piezoelectric film. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the generated voltage of the piezoelectric laminate subjected to a distributed load. Prototypes of the energy harvester are fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that an open circuit output voltage of 2.2 V pp and an instantaneous output power of 0.2 µW are generated when the excitation pressure oscillates with an amplitude of 1.196 kPa and a frequency of about 26 Hz. The solution of the generated voltage based on the finite element model agrees well with the experiments. Based on the finite element model, the effects of the piezoelectric film dimensions, the fluid pressure applied to the harvester and types of piezoelectric layer on the output voltage of the harvester can be investigated.

  18. Novel Castellaniella denitrificans SA13P as a Potent Malachite Green Decolorizing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Chawla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triphenylmethane dyes represent a major group of dyes causing serious environmental hazards. Malachite Green is one of the commonly and extensively used triphenylmethane dyes although it is carcinogenic and mutagenic in nature. Various physicochemical methods have been employed for its elimination but are highly expensive, coupled with the formation of huge amount of sludge. Hence, biological methods being ecofriendly are good alternatives. In the present study, the novel bacterial isolate SA13P was isolated from UASB tank of tannery effluent treatment plant. Phylogenetic characterization of 1470 bp fragment of SA13P has revealed its similarity with Castellaniella denitrificans. This strain has been found to decolorize the dye (malachite green at a concentration of 100 mg L−1 (80.29%. Decolorization was done by living bacterial cells rather than adsorption. Growth conditions have also been optimized for the decolorization. Maximum decolorization was observed at a temperature of 37°C and pH 8.0. Also, it has been found that bacterization of seeds of Vigna radiata with Castellaniella denitrificans SA13P increases germination rate. We have reported for the first time that Castellaniella denitrificans SA13P may be used as a novel strain for dye decolorization (malachite green and biological treatment of tannery effluent.

  19. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Fajriati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  20. Decolorization of azo dyes with Enterobacter agglomerans immobilized in different supports by using fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaouakkil, Adnane; Zeroual, Youssef; Dzayri, Fatima Zohra; Talbi, Mohamed; Lee, Kangmin; Blaghen, Mohamed

    2004-02-01

    Immobilized cells of Enterobacter agglomerans, able to reduce azo dyes enzymatically, were used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic medium containing the toxic azo dye methyl red (MR). This bacterial strain exhibits high ability to completely decolorize 100 mg/L of MR after only 6 h of incubation under aerobic conditions. Cells of E. agglomerans were immobilized in calcium alginate, polyacylamide, cooper beech, and vermiculite, and were used for the decolorization of MR from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when E. agglomerans was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and was of about 3.04 mg MR/g cell/h with a 50% conversion time ( t(1/2)) of about 1.6 h. Moreover, immobilized cells in calcium alginate continuously decolorized MR even after seven repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-, cooper beech-, and vermiculite-immobilized cells retained only 62, 15, and 13% of their original activity, respectively.

  1. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31 by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvine Lalnunhlimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151 and Direct Red 31 (DR 31. The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L. The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment.

  2. Decolorization pathways of anthraquinone dye Disperse Blue 2BLN by Aspergillus sp. XJ-2 CGMCC12963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiran; Xu, Xiaolin; Wen, Zhu; Kang, Yanshun; Wang, Xinhao; Ren, Youshan; Huang, Danqi

    2017-09-03

    Anthraquinone dye represents an important group of recalcitrant pollutants in dye wastewater. Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 showed broad-spectrum decolorization ability, which could efficiently decolorize and degrade various anthraquinone dyes (50 mg L -1 ) under microaerophilic condition. And the decolorization rate of 93.3% was achieved at 120 h with Disperse Blue 2BLN (the target dye). Intermediates of degradation were detected by FTIR and GC-MS, which revealed the cleavage of anthraquinone chromophoric group and partial mineralization of target dye. In addition, extracellular manganese peroxidase showed the most closely related to the increasing of decolorization rate and biomass among intracellular and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Given these results, 2 possible degraded pathways of target dye by Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 were proposed first in this work. The degradation of Disperse Blue 2BLN and broad spectrum decolorization ability provided the potential for Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 in the treatment of wastewater containing anthraquinone dyes.

  3. Decolorization of industrial wastewater by ozonation followed by adsorption on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konsowa, A.H.; Ossman, M.E.; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The decolorization of industrial wastewater containing direct dye (Drimarene Red CL-3B) by advanced oxidation process using ozonation in a semi-batch bubble column reactor followed by granule activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process was studied. The effect of initial dye concentration, ozone concentration, pH and ozone-air flow rate on the rate of dye decolorization were investigated. It was found that the rate of dye decolorization increases with increasing ozone concentration, ozone-air flow rate, and pH but decreases with increasing initial dye concentration. This study is a hybrid system conducted in combination between ozonation process and GAC adsorption to reveal higher and efficient removal of color and TOC. The process started with ozonation for efficient and rapid decolorization of dyeing wastewater, followed by GAC adsorption process to gain efficient removal of color and TOC. The adsorption process was found to be very efficient in removal of ozonation residual TOC, in view of high TOC removal, up to 37% TOC removal was obtained. Numerical correlation using regression analysis for decolorization time with the operating conditions of the ozonation process were presented.

  4. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Decoloration Conditions for Tea Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun CUI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To optimize alkaline method for extracting proteins from tea residue (TR, the effect of extraction conditions on tea protein extraction rate (TPER was investigated. Single factor experiment showed the extraction temperature 80 °C, extraction time 100 min, pH value 13 and liquid–solid ratio 40:1 as the optimal extraction conditions. The orthogonal test revealed that the maximum TPER reached 29.71% under the following optimal combination of conditions: extraction temperature 70 °C, extraction time 60 min, pH 12 and liquid–solid ratio 50:1. For optimizing the purification of tea residue proteins, isoelectric point precipitation (pI, ammonium sulfate precipitation (aS and isoelectric point plus ammonium sulfate precipitation (iPAS were compared. The result showed that the highest protein precipitation rate (PPR was 89.70% which was generated by using iPAS. Furthermore, powdered activated carbon was chosen as the most suitable decolorant for the extracted proteins.

  5. Energy demand, economic growth, and energy efficiency - the Bakun dam-induced sustainable energy policy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In embarking on a dynamic course of economic development and industrial modernism, Malaysia sees the need to increase its electricity generation capacity through the development of a mega-dam project - the Bakun dam. Although hydroelectricity generation offers one of the benign options in accommodating the increasing energy consumption per capita in Malaysia, it is argued that the construction of Bakun's dam which involves a complete and irreversible destruction of 69,640 ha of old forest ecosystem remains a difficult and uncertain endeavour. It is further argued that apart from mega-dam technology, there are also other means to orchestrate a sustainable energy system in Malaysia. These include the implementation of demand and supply initiatives, such as the deployment of energy saving technology or influencing behavioral change towards a sustainable energy consumption pattern

  6. Energy and particle densities from oxygen-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garpman, S.; Albrecht, R.; Awes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity and pseudo-rapidity distributions observed in 16 O induced nuclear collisions at 60 and 200 A GeV are presented in conjunction with forward and transverse energy distributions. From the measurements estimates of the supreme energy density obtained in central 16 O + 197 Au collisions at 200 A GeV yield a value of about 3 GeV/fm 3 seemingly enough to fulfill the presumptions for chiral symmetry restoration. The target mass dependence on the pseudo-rapidity densities is examined using a power law parametrization. The data are also compared to simulations from the Lund model (Fritiof) for nucleus-nucleus collisions. 15 refs., 7 figs

  7. Fenton oxidative decolorization of the azo dye Direct Blue 15 in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Shi, Shao-Hui; Lee, Yi-Fan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the application of Fenton oxidation process for the decolorization of an azo dye Direct Blue 15 (DB15) in aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of initial pH, dosage of H2O2, H2O2/Fe2+ and H2O2/dye ratios and the reaction temperature on the decolorization efficiency...... and kinetic of the DB15 were studied, the operating parameters were preferred by changing one factor at one time while the other parameters were kept constant. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of DB15 were determined as pH=4.0, [H2O2] = 2.8x10(-3) mol/L, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio = 100: 1, H2O2/dye ratio...

  8. Immobilization of laccase in alginate-gelatin mixed gel and decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl(2) solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.

  9. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  10. Decolorization of Azo, Triphenyl Methane, Heterocyclic, and Polymeric Dyes by Lignin Peroxidase Isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Ollikka, Pauli; Alhonmäki, Kirsi; Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Glumoff, Tuomo; Raijola, Timo; Suominen, Ilari

    1993-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzyme system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizes several recalcitrant dyes. Three isolated lignin peroxidase isoenzymes (LiP 4.65, LiP 4.15, and LiP 3.85) were compared as decolorizers with the crude enzyme system from the culture medium. LiP 4.65 (H2), LiP 4.15 (H7), and LiP 3.85 (H8) were purified by chromatofocusing, and their kinetic parameters were found to be similar. Ten different types of dyes, including azo, triphenyl methane, heterocyclic, and polymeric dyes...

  11. Experimental Study on Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations and Wake-Induced Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached on has been tested through vortex-induced vibrations (VIV and wake-induced vibrations (WIV by installing a big cylinder fixed upstream, in order to study the influence of the different flow-induced vibrations (FIV types. The VIV test shows that the output voltage increases with the increases of load resistance; an optimal load resistance exists for the maximum output power. The WIV test shows that the vibration of the small cylinder is controlled by the vortex frequency of the large one. There is an optimal gap of the cylinders that can obtain the maximum output voltage and power. For a same energy harvesting device, WIV has higher power generation capacity; then the piezoelectric output characteristics can be effectively improved.

  12. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  13. Recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

  14. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

  15. Energy strategy for averting a CO2-induced climatic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.

    1983-01-01

    Mankind is faced with a number of major world problems, amongst which the risk of a CO 2 -induced climatic change ranks very high. To cope effectively with this problem a safety strategy is proposed, namely to conduct vigorous research to narrow uncertainties in our knowledge, but, at the same time, to use the already available information to take precautionary measures. These include the more efficient use of energy, which reduces the demand for fossil fuels, which, in turn, saves the irreplaceable non-recombustion, and which futhermore permits the rapid deployment of pollution-free renewables, all of which leads to at least a lessening, if not altogether a prevention, of the CO 2 /climatic risk. Many of the world's problems are interrelated, notably the CO 2 and the acid hazards, in that they not only have the same common cause but also related effective control strategies. This and many other studies show that nuclear power is clearly unsuitable to solve these problems. Economics is the key to a solution showing that the cheapest and fastest energy sources are efficiency improvements, then renewables, and last, costliest and slowest, fossil fuel and nuclear fuel power plants. This finding does not guarantee the implementation of this rational energy policy. Institutional barriers and influential lobbies must also be overcome. (orig.)

  16. Calculation of Bremsstrahlung energy spectrum induced by beta ray

    CERN Document Server

    Fukano, S

    2003-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung energy spectra induced by beta ray from radionuclides sup 3 H, sup 6 sup 3 Ni, sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Pm, sup 9 sup 0 Sr, sup 3 sup 2 P and sup 9 sup 0 Y are calculated by using numerical data of radiation yield published by Berger et. al. and compared with those obtained from classical approximate expressions of Wu and Segre. The results for sup 3 H, sup 6 sup 3 Ni, sup 1 sup 4 C and sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Pm are in good agreement with those from Segre's, while spectra from such as sup 3 sup 2 P and sup 9 sup 0 Y are similar to those obtained by using Wu's expression. The result for sup 9 sup 0 Sr is in fair agreement with those from Wu's and Segre's.

  17. Low-Energy Electron Induced Reactions in Condensed Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Michael; Boamah, Mavis; Chamberlain, Kristal; Myae Soe, Chanmaye; Bass, Andrew; Sanche, Leon; Arumainayagam, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of low-energy electron-induced reactions in condensed thin films of methanol (CH3OH) through electron stimulated desorption (ESD) and post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. ESD experiments indicate that the anions which desorb from the methanol thin film during electron irradiation are predominantly formed through the dissociation of temporary negative ions formed by electron capture by methanol molecules, a process known as dissociative electron attachment (DEA). However, based on investigation of reaction products remaining in the methanol thin film post-irradiation through TPD experiments, DEA is not the obvious primary mechanism by which methoxymethanol (CH3OCH2OH) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) are formed. Evidence indicates formation of these molecules may be driven by both DEA and electron impact excitation.

  18. Use of active consortia of constructed ternary bacterial cultures via mixture design for azo-dye decolorization enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Wang, Mei-Yun; Lu, Wei-Bin; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2007-07-16

    This first-attempt study used constructed bacterial consortia containing Escherichia coli DH5alpha (a weak decolorizer) and its UV-irradiated mutants (E. coli UVT1 and UV68; strong decolorizers) via equilateral triangle diagram and mixture experimental design to assess color removal during species evolution. The results showed that although strain DH5alpha was not an effective decolorizer, its presence might still played a significant role in affecting optimal color removal capabilities of mixed consortia (e.g., E. coli DH5alpha, UVT1 and UV68) for two model azo dyes; namely, reactive red 22 (RR22) and reactive black 5 (RB5). Contour analysis of ternary systems also clearly showed that decolorization of RR22 and RB5 by DH5alpha-containing active mixed consortia was more effective than mono-cultures of the stronger decolorizer alone (e.g., UVT1). The optimal composition of the mixed consortium (UV68, UVT1, DH5alpha) achieving the highest specific decolorization rate was (13%:58%:29%) and (0%:74%:26%) for decolorization of RR22 and RB5, respectively, with initial total cell density fixed at OD(600)=3.5+/-0.28.

  19. Optimization for decolorization of azo dye acid green 20 by ultrasound and H2O2 using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanmei; Zheng Huaili

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to the optimization of the operating conditions in decolorization of acid green 20 (AG 20) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of H 2 O 2 . The effects of three operating variables, ultrasonic power density, initial pH value of dye solution and H 2 O 2 concentration on the decolorization efficiency of AG 20 were evaluated. A quadratic model for AG 20 decolorization was proposed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the proposed quadratic model could be used to navigate the design space. The proposed model was approximately in accordance with the experimental case with correlation coefficients R 2 and R adj 2 of 0.9995 and 0.9984, respectively. The optimum operating conditions for AG 20 decolorization were found to be 1.08 W/mL of ultrasonic power density, 4.85 of initial pH and 1.94 mM of H 2 O 2 concentration, respectively. The predicted decolorization rate under the optimum conditions determined by RSM was 96.8%. Confirmatory tests were carried out under the optimum conditions and the decolorization rate of 96.3% was observed, which closely agreed with the predicted value. The results confirmed that RSM based on Box-Behnken design was an accurate and reliable method to optimize the operating conditions of AG 20 decolorization.

  20. Standoff high energy laser induced oxidation spectroscopy (HELIOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, J.-F.; Pudo, D.; Théberge, F.

    2017-11-01

    High Energy Lasers (HELs) used for defense applications require operational distances ranging from few hundred meters to several kilometers. As the distance increases, the incident beam properties and, consequently, the anticipated effect delivered to the sample become less predictable. Therefore, the direct observation of the event induced by the laser can become an asset. In this paper, we propose a novel spectroscopic method that analyses in real time the spectral components present in the flames produced during the interaction of a HEL with a metallic piece at a long distance. This method was used on aluminum and carbon steel samples placed 200 m away from the laser system. It was discovered that the aluminum and iron oxides created as a by-product of the HEL reaction with the samples emitted clear fingerprint signatures that could be detected remotely using a spectroscopic receiver placed beside the HEL beam director. The real-time assessment of the laser-induced effect can be achieved by monitoring the temporal evolution of the oxide signatures, hence providing information to the operator about the reaction and the nature of the sample illuminated.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF REACTIVE BLUE 19 DECOLORIZATION BY GANODERMA SP. USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1M. Mohammadian Fazli, *1A. R. Mesdaghinia, 1K. Naddafi, 1S. Nasseri , 1M. Yunesian, 2M. Mazaheri Assadi, 3S. Rezaie, 4H. Hamzehei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are extensively used in different industries. Dyes have adverse impacts such as visual effects, chemical oxygen demand, toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. White rot fungi, due to extracellular enzyme system, are capable to degrade dyes and various xenobiotics. The aim of this study was to optimize decolorization of reactive blue 19 (RB19 dye using Ganoderma sp. fungus. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to study the effect of independent variables, namely glycerol concentration (15, 20 and 25 g/L, temperature (27, 30 and 33 oC and pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 on color removal efficiency in aqueous solution. From RSM-generated model, the optimum conditions for RB19 decolorization were identified to be at temperature of 27oC, glycerol concentration of 19.14 mg/L and pH=6.3. At the optimum conditions, predicted decolorization was 95.3 percent. The confirmatory experiments were conducted and confirmed the results by 94.89% color removal. Thus, this statistical approach enabled to improve reactive blue 19 decolorization process by Ganoderma sp. up to 1.27 times higher than non-optimized conditions.

  2. Decolorization of dyeing wastewater in continuous photoreactors using tio2 coated glass tube media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a decolorization development of malachite green (MG dyeing wastewater using TiO2 thin films coated glass tube media in photoreactor. The TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by three methods: TTIP sol-gel, TiO2 powder-modified sol, and TiO2 powder suspension coating on raschig ring glass tube media and was investigated crystallinity phase by SEM, XRD, and AFM. Degradation kinetics of the dyeing wastewater by photocatalytic was carried out under UV light irradiation. The Langmuir first-order model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The catalyst prepared by powder suspension technique and coated on glass tube had given the highest of decolorization kinetics and efficiency. Continuous photoreactor packed with the TiO2 coating media was designed and proven to be the high effectiveness for MG dyeing degradation and stable throughout the recyclability test. The light intensity, dye solution flow rate, and TiO2 loading were the most important parameters that response to decolorization efficiency. The optimum condition of photo decolorization of MG dye solution can be obtained from RSM model. Effectiveness of the synthesized TiO2 thin films using suspension technique and the continuous photoreactor design were obtained with a great potential to be proven for wastewater treatment at industrial scale.

  3. Photocatalytic decolorization of basic dye by TiO2 nanoparticle in photoreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn1

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B (RB and malachite green (MG basic dyes in aqueous solution wasevaluated using TiO2 powder as a semiconductor photocatalyst under UV black light irradiation. A 0.5 L batch photoreactorcontaining dyeing solution was installed in a stainless steel chamber with air cooling under irradiation. The TiO2 powder wascharacterized by XRD observation and it was shown that the nanoparticles could be identified as 73 nm anatase crystals. Theeffects of operational parameters such as light intensity (0-114 W/m2, initial dye concentration (10-30 mg/L, and TiO2 powderloading (0.5-1.5 g/L on the decolorization of dye samples were examined. The photocatalytic decolorization rate depended onthe pollutant’s structure, such that the MG dye could be removed faster than the RB dye. Decolorization efficiency (% of thephotocatalytic system increased with increasing TiO2 loading and light intensity; however, it decreased with increasing initialdye concentration. A loading of 1.5 g TiO2/L, initial dye concentration of 20 mg/L, and light intensity of 114 W/m2 were foundto yield the highest removal efficiency of dye solution based on time requirement. The kinetics are of first order and dependon the TiO2 powder loading and dye structure. The research had a perfect application foreground.

  4. Catalytic decolorization of Acid blue 29 dye by H2O2 and a heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Salem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The montmorillonite K10-Cu(IIethylenediamine (MMTK10-Cu(en2 catalyst has been prepared by intercalation of copper-ethylenediamine [Cu(en2]2+ complex onto the montmorillonite K10. The intercalation process is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements. The decolorization of the Acid blue29 was conducted using MMTK10-Cu(en2 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The effect of reactants concentrations and the temperature on the decolorization efficiency was studied. It was found that the efficiency of decolorization process increases with increasing the concentration of H2O2 and the dye and the temperature. The results indicated that complete removal of AB29 was achieved in 15 min when the concentrations of H2O2 and AB29 were 0.4 and 5 × 10−5 M respectively and 0.1 g of the catalyst at 30 °C. The activation parameters of the decolorization process were determined. Two possible mechanisms were proposed.

  5. Decolorization of Congo Red by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: the role of biosorption and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca; Mollea, Chiara; Ruggeri, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    The degradation of Congo Red by means of Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 is reported in this work. Solid and liquid cultures have been prepared to evaluate in vivo biodegradation as well as the role of biosorption phenomena on mycelium. Moreover, in vitro tests have been performed to define the influence of MnP on dye decolorization. P. chrysosporium, cultivated on Malt Extract Agar in the presence of Congo Red 0.005% (w/v), has shown good growth and the ability to decolorize the dye in the 25-39°C temperature range. It has also been cultivated in a low NMM liquid medium with the aforementioned dye concentration in immobilized stationary cultures inducted for Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) production. Congo Red was absorbed on the biomass and then decolorized (93% and 85% for the LiP and MnP cultures, respectively). The cultures with added Congo Red have shown a higher MnP synthesis rate than a control without the dye. The enzymatic degradation of Congo Red has also been investigated by means of the extracellular fluid for different MnP activities (0-300 IU/l); the decolorization percentage has been found to be clearly related to the enzyme concentration up to a value of about 200 IU/l.

  6. Decolorization of dyehouse effluent and biodegradation of Congo red by Bacillus thuringiensis RUN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukanni, Olumide David; Osuntoki, Akinniyi A; Awotula, Ayodeji Olushola; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gbenle, George Olabode; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-06-28

    A dye-decolorizing bacterium was isolated from a soil sample and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequencing. The bacterium was able to decolorize three different textile dyes, namely, Reactive blue 13, Reactive red 58, and Reactive yellow 42, and a real dyehouse effluent up to 80-95% within 6 h. Some non-textile industrially important dyes were also decolorized to different extents. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of Congo red dye and its metabolites showed that the bacterium could degrade it by the asymmetric cleavage of the azo bonds to yield sodium (4- amino-3-diazenylnaphthalene-1-sulfonate) and phenylbenzene. Sodium (4-amino-3-diazenylnaphthalene-1-sulfonate) was further oxidized by the ortho-cleavage pathway to yield 2- (1-amino-2-diazenyl-2-formylvinyl) benzoic acid. There was induction of the activities of laccase and azoreductase during the decolorization of Congo red, which suggests their probable role in the biodegradation. B. thuringiensis was found to be versatile and could be used for industrial effluent biodegradation.

  7. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by litter-decomposing fungi and their ability to decolorize synthetic dyes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Šnajdr, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2006), s. 1023-1029 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : synthetic dyes * decomposing fungi * decolorization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of reactive industrial dyes by immobilized fungi Trametes pubescens and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caiseri, L.; Varese, G.C.; Anastasi, A.; Prigione, V.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Marchisio, V.F.; Novotný, Čeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2008), s. 44-52 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6020411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : decolorization * detoxification * trametes pubescens Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  9. Decolorization of Remazol Black-B azo dye in soil by fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Khalid*, Sadia Batool, Muhammad Tariq Siddique, Zilli Huma Nazli, Riffat Bibi, Shahid Mahmood and Muhammad Arshad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is known to release huge amount of dyes in the water and soil environments during the dyeingprocess. The present study was planned with the aim to remove azo dye toxicants from the soil using fungal strains.The fungi were isolated by using Remazol Black-B azo dye as the sole source of C and N. Ten isolates were initiallyselected for testing their decolorization potential in the liquid medium. Three most effective strains were used tostudy the decolorization of Remazol Black-B in soil. The strain S4 was found to be very effective in removing thedye Remazol Black-B from liquid medium as well as in soil suspension. More than 95% decolorization by the strainS4 was observed in soil under optimal incubation conditions. Overall, the dye decolorization was maximum at 100mg dye kg-1 soil at pH 7-8 under static conditions. Glucose, moisture and aeration also affected the decolorizationefficacy of the fungal strain in soil. This study implies that fungi could be used for bioremediation of dyecontaminatedsites.

  10. The Enzymatic Decolorization of Textile Dyes by the Immobilized Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Gulnur; Usluoglu, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga) leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents. PMID:24587743

  11. The implication of Dichomitus squalens laccase isoenzymes in dye decolorization by immobilized fungal cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šušla, Martin; Novotný, Čeněk; Svobodová, Kateřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 98, - (2007), s. 2109-2115 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/06/P102; GA AV ČR IAA6020411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : decolorization * dichotomitus squalens * laccase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.103, year: 2007

  12. Capacity of Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus for decolorization of chemically different dyes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Rawal, B.; Bhatt, M.; Patel, M.; Šašek, Václav; Molitoris, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 89, - (2001), s. 113-122 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1303; GA ČR GA526/99/0519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : dye decolorization * screening * white rot fungi Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.651, year: 2001

  13. The Enzymatic Decolorization of Textile Dyes by the Immobilized Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnur Arabaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color its products. In this work, polyphenol oxidase enzyme from quince (Cydonia Oblonga leaves immobilized on calcium alginate beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme was extracted from quince (Cydonia Oblonga leaves and immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The kinetic properties of free and immobilized PPO were determined. Quince leaf PPO enzyme stability was increased after immobilization. The immobilized and free enzymes were employed for the decolorization of textile dyes. The dye solutions were prepared in the concentration of 100 mg/L in distilled water and incubated with free and immobilized quince (Cydonia Oblonga leaf PPO for one hour. The percent decolorization was calculated by taking untreated dye solution. Immobilized PPO was significantly more effective in decolorizing the dyes as compared to free enzyme. Our results showed that the immobilized quince leaf PPO enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents.

  14. Decolorization characteristics and mechanism of Victoria Blue R removal by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus YC210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiing-Chang; Chen, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Teng, Pei-Yi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2011-11-30

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus YC210 has been isolated and its ability to remove Victoria Blue R (VBR) from aqueous solution was assessed. The effects of various factors on decolorization efficiency were investigated in a batch system. The decolorization efficiency was found to be optimal within a pH of 5-7 and increased with VBR concentration up to 450 mg/l with high efficiency (94.5%) in a short time. The decolorization efficiency was significantly affected by cell concentrations. The decolorization of VBR by A. calcoaceticus YC210 followed first order kinetics. The apparent kinetic parameters of the Lineweaver-Burk equation, R(VBR,max) and K(m), were calculated as 6.93 mg-VBR/g-cell/h and 175.8 mg/l, respectively. Based on the biodegradation products, VBR degradation by A. calcoaceticus YC210 involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. To our knowledge, this is the first report using microbes to remove VBR. It clearly demonstrates the dealkylation pathway of VBR degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ABTS-Modified Silica Nanoparticles as Laccase Mediators for Decolorization of Indigo Carmine Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient reuse and regeneration of spent mediators are highly desired for many of the laccases’ biotechnology applications. This investigation demonstrates that a redox mediator 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS covalently attached to silica nanoparticles (SNPs effectively mediated dye decolorization catalyzed by laccase. Characteristics of ABTS-modified silica nanoparticles (ABTS-SNPs were researched by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. When ABTS and ABTS-SNPs were used as laccase mediators, the decolorization yields of 96 and 95% were, respectively, obtained for indigo carmine dye. The results suggest that ABTS immobilized on SNPs can be used as laccase mediators as they retain almost the same efficiency as the free ABTS. The oxidized ABTS-SNPs were regenerated by their reduction reaction with ascorbic acid. Decolorization efficiency of regenerated ABTS-SNPs and their initial forms were found to be almost equivalent. Six reuse cycles for spent ABTS-SNPs were run for the treatment of indigo carmine, providing decolorization yields of 96–77%. Compared with free mediator, the immobilized mediators have the advantage of being easily recovered, regenerated, and reused making the whole process environmentally friendly.

  16. Radiation induced degradation of dyes-An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.A.; Ashraf, S. Salman

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as ·H, ·OH and e aq - are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e aq - is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by ·OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  17. Radiation induced degradation of dyes--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, M A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2009-07-15

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as H, OH and e(aq)(-) are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e(aq)(-) is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  18. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD) was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ) anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG) 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR) 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l) with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h) and 97.1% (18 h), as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l) by 80.5% (3 h) and 89.0% (18 h), was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l). No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved via a subsequent 4-h

  19. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  20. Porcine placenta mitigates protein-energy malnutrition-induced fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Kyu-Yeop; Kim, Myong-Jo; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue can be caused by a deficiency of nutrition or immune function. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) and its constituents, amino acids (glutamic acid, glycine, arginine, and proline), on protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)-induced fatigue. Mice were administered a PEM diet and came to immunodeficient status. Simultaneously, the mice were administered PPE or amino acids and a forced swimming test (FST) was performed. We analyzed the levels of fatigue-related factors in serum, splenocytes, and muscles. In the FST, PPE or amino acids significantly decreased immobility times compared with the PEM diet. PPE or amino acids also significantly decreased the serum levels of fatigue-related factors after the FST. Additionally, PPE significantly decreased the levels of fatigue-related muscle parameters after the FST. In this in vitro study, PPE increased the mRNA and protein expression of Ki-67 and promoted the proliferation of splenocytes. PPE or amino acids significantly increased the levels of intracellular calcium and the translocation into the nucleus of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic in stimulated splenocytes. PPE or amino acids significantly decreased the production of fatigue-related inflammatory cytokines in the stimulated splenocytes. Additionally, the translocated levels of nuclear factor-κB in the nucleus and the degradation of the inhibitory protein, IκBα, in the cytosol were inhibited by PPE or amino acids. These results demonstrate that PPE and its constituents regulate PEM-induced fatigue through improving levels of immunity and decreasing fatigue-related factors. PPE may be a potential agent for a recovery from fatigue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of PVA-alginate as a matrix for enzymatic decolorization of textile dye in bioreactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Zahara, Syifa; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Anita, Sita Heris; Oktaviani, Maulida; Sari, Fahriya Puspita

    2017-01-01

    An immobilization technique using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) crosslinked with sodium alginate as a matrix has been developed for textile dyes decolorization. Textiles use dye as an addition to the aesthetic value of the product. Dyes are generally used is a textile dye where the waste will be released directly into the waters around 2-20%. Therefore, it is important to develop an enzyme immobilization method using PVA-Alginate as a matrix. Based on the results of the study showed that the PVA-Alginate beads produced high decolorization percent compared to beads which contains only Ca-alginate alone and formula matrix is optimum at PVA 6% and alginate 1.5%. Encapsulation with boric acid at 7% showed optimum decolorization and reduction for enzyme leakage during decolorization. This study suggested that immobilization of enzymes into PVA-alginate matrix might be used as a biodecolorating agent.

  2. Decolorization of humic acids and alkaline lignin derivative by an anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta E59 strain isolated from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornillowicz-Kowalska, T.; Ginalska, G.; Belcarz, A.; Iglik, H. [University of Life Sciences, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    An anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta R59 strain, isolated from soil, was found to decolorize post-industrial lignin alkaline fraction, humic acids isolated from two kinds of soil and from brown coal. The drop of methoxyphenolic compound levels in liquid B. adusta cultures containing lignin or humic acids was correlated with decolorization of studied biopolymers, which suggests their partial biodegradation. It was shown that this process was Coupled with the induction of secondary metabolism (idiophase), and highest peroxidase activity in culture medium and appearance of aerial mycelium. Decolorization of lignin and humic acids from lessive soil and brown coal depended on glucose presence (cometabolism). Decolorization of humic acid from chernozem was related partially to adsorption by fungal mycelium.

  3. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Rivonkar, G.

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50...

  4. Azo dye decolorization by a laccase/mediator system in a membrane reactor: enzyme and mediator reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Laura; Jonstrup, Maria; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2011-10-10

    This paper presents the use of a membrane-integrated reactor system with recycling of laccase and mediator for azo dye decolorization. From initial screening of different laccases and mediators, Trametes versicolor laccase and syringaldehyde provided the best system for decolorization. Decolorization yields of 98, 88, 80 and 78% were obtained for Red FN-2BL, Red BWS, Remazol Blue RR and Blue 4BL, respectively. The reaction parameters were optimized and a membrane reactor was set up for dye decolorization in batch mode with reuse of the enzyme. Between 10 and 20 batches could be run with decolorization yields from 95 to 52% depending on the dye type. To study the possibility of reusing both enzyme and mediator, the reactor was run using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Nine batches were run for the treatment of Remazol Blue RR, providing decolorization yields of 96-78%. Cost analysis of the processes showed that the costs of laccase/syringaldehyde or laccase/TEMPO were almost equal when running 20 batches, but the cost for the PEG-TEMPO was higher. However, the advantages associated with reuse of the mediator should motivate further development of the concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of Basidiomycetous Fungi Isolated from Gunung Barus Forest North Sumatera in Decolorization of Wastewater of Textile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, E.; Priyani, N.; Suryanto, D.; Naimah, Z.

    2017-03-01

    A study of basidiomycetous fungi in decolorization of wastewater of textile industry has been started in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to obtain potential isolates and to examine their decolorization acitity. The fungi were isolated from local forest, Gunung Barus Forest, in North Sumatera and screened their ligninolytic activity qualitatively by bavendam method and the waste was obtained from local textile industry in Medan. Nineteen fungal isolates grew on plate agar medium containing 100% of waste supplemented with 2% glucose, and 6 of those exhibited good growth when glucose in the media was reduced to 1%. Surprisingly, these six potential isolates grew, although relatively at lower rate, when glucose was not included in the media. Meanwhile, there was no substantial decolorization of media could be observed on all plates cultures. Analyses of decolorization on liquid condition containing 25% of wastewater and no glucose showed that fungal grew at the bottom culture flask. All 6 isolates exhibited decolorization activity. Interestingly, mass of mycelia growth at the bottom absorbed dyes and dissolved suspended solid which was seemingly separated from very clean solution medium surrounding. These results indicated that the cultures utilized carbon source from waste and the extracellular matrixes produced by fungal isolates might involve in decolorization of textile wastewater.

  6. DECOLORIZATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY NEWLY ISOLATED TRAMETES VERSICOLOR STRAIN Sevil PİLATİN, Buket KUNDUHOĞLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket KUNDUHOĞLU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this century, the amount of industrial produces and their consumption has increased tremendously. Along with this increase, accumulation of industrial waste and its effect on nature has causedserious problems. Because of including various chemicals and especially dye, textile waste water is one of the most hazardous industrial wastes. Color is the most important pollutant in waste water and it should be decolorized. Decolorization is more important than degradation of organic substances from waste water. Even a small amount of dye found changes the color of rivers, lakes and other waterresources, and reduces the penetration of light and solubility of gases. White rot fungus are used as a biological system in degradation and decolorizing of textile dyes.In this study, parameters for decolorization of several textile dyes (Blue 49, Orange 12, Orange 13, Red 31, Black 5, RBBR by newly isolated Trametes versicolor M96was studied.It has been determined that pH, amount of inoculum, shaking speed (rpm, dye concentration and temperature are important factors in decolorization of the studied dyes. The maximum decolorization was found pH 4.5, amount of inoculums 50 ml, shaking speed 200 rpm, dye concentration 50 mg/l and heat 30 °C.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization Of CaMgO2 Nanoparticles Photocatalyst For the Decolorization Of Orange G Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheel Alwash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of heterogeneous basic catalysts of CaO, MgO and CaMgO2 at different calcination temperature were synthesized via solution combustion method. Different characterization techniques have been carried out to investigate the structure of the produced catalysts i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD, particle size analyzer, morphology by atomic force microscope (AFM and reflection using UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra. The particles size analyzer revealed that the mixed oxide catalysts calcined at different calcination temperature possess smaller nano size particles compared to pure CaO. Moreover, the energy band gap was calculated based on the results of diffuse reflectance spectra. The energy band gap was reduced from 4.1 to 3.6 eV for the CaMgO2 catalyst calcined at 400 and 600 °C respectively compared to pure oxide catalysts. The higher decolorization efficiency was 100% after 60 min of photocatalytic reaction for CaMgO2 calcined at 600 °C compared to CaO and MgO with catalytic activity of 58% and 27% respectively.

  8. Electronic energy loss effects on chemical modification of polyimide induced by high energy xenon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Youmei; Zhu Zhiyong; Jin Yunfan; Wang Zhiguang; Hou Mingdong

    2004-01-01

    Stacked polyimide (PI) films of about 25 μm in thickness were irradiated with 1.755 GeV xenon ions under vacuum at room temperature. The chemical changes of modified PI films were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The FTIR results show that the absorbance of the typical function groups decreases exponentially as a function of fluence. Under 8.8 keV/nm (minimum) and 11.5 keV/nm (maximum) electronic energy loss of 136 Xe irradiation, the mean degradation radius of all function groups in PI is 3.6 and 4.1 nm, respectively. The alkyne end group was found after irradiation and its formation radius was 5.6 nm and 5.9 nm corresponding to 8.8 keV/nm and 11.5 keV/nm, respectively. the UV/Vis analysis indicates the radiation induced absorbance change follows a linear relation with fluence, and the production efficiency of chromospheres depends strongly on the electronic energy loss (dE/dX) e . (authors)

  9. Effects of glucose on the Reactive Black 5 (RB5 decolorization by two white rot basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hadibarata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacities of glucose in the decolorization process of an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by two white rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 were investigated. The results indicated that the dye degradation by the two fungi was extremely correlated with the presence of glucose in the culture and the process of fungi growth. Decolorization of 200 mg dye/l was increased from 62% and 69% to 100% within 20–25 h with the increase of glucose from 5 to 15 g/l, and the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP increased by 2–9 fold in this case. Hydrogen peroxide of 0.55 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l were detected in 10 h in Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 cultures.

  10. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue utilizing ZnO/rectorite nanocomposite under simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi-qian, E-mail: shiqianli04@tom.com [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Zhou, Pei-jiang; Zhang, Wan-shun [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Sheng [Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Peng, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO inserted in rectorite as photocatalyst in methylene blue photodegradation. • The ZnO/rectorite can be used as adsorbents and photocatalysts. • The ZnO/rectorite system was easy to be gathered and recycled. • Inferred ZnO/rectorite the photocatalytic degradation methylene blue of aqueous micro mechanism. - Abstract: Preparation of a nanometer zinc oxide/rectorite (ZnO/REC) composites photocatalyst based on natural rectorite was conducted using a hydrothermal intercalation method. The structure, thermal property, and surface morphology of ZnO/REC were characterized by X-ray diffractor (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/REC was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under simulated sunlight irradiation. The HRTEM results revealed that well-dispersed and uniform ZnO/REC nanocomposites with diameters of 10 nm were embedded in rectorite. The ZnO/REC nanocomposite exhibited high photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation. After 2 h of irradiation by simulated solar light, over 99% of methylene blue solution (15 mg/L) was decolorized with 0.9 g/L of the photocatalyst. The ZnO/REC was reusable, which meant that the adsorption photocatalytic decolorization process could be operated at a relatively low cost. Since this process does not require the addition of hydrogen peroxide but uses sunlight, it can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using solar.

  11. Decolorization of dyes with copper(II)/organic acid/hydrogen peroxide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, Vishal; Verma, P.; Stopka, Pavel; Gabriel, Jiří; Baldrian, Petr; Nerud, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2003), s. 287-292 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/0915; GA ČR GA203/01/0944 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : copper * decolorization * free radicals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.476, year: 2003

  12. Panus tigrinus as a potential biomass source for Reactive Blue decolorization: Isotherm and kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monawar Munjid Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The biosorption process provided vital information on the process parameters required to obtain the optimum level of dye removal. The isotherm study indicated the homogeneous distribution of active sites on the biomass surface, and the kinetic study suggested that chemisorption is the rate-limiting step that controlled the biosorption process. According to the obtained results, P. tigrinus biomass can be used effectively to decolorize textile dyes and tackle the pollution problems in the environment.

  13. Purification and characterization of extracellular laccase produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelová, Daniela; Ondrejovič, Miroslav

    2016-11-01

    Laccases of white-rot fungi provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. The aim of this study was production, characterization, and application of laccases from the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora ATCC 90467 for decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes that could remain persistent in wastewater. Laccase was purified from a C. subvermispora culture by a four-step method resulting high specific activity of 2,571 U g -1 , 88-fold higher than crude laccase. Purified laccase (molecular weight 45 kDa) had the optimum activity at pH 2.0 and the optimum temperature 50 °C using ABTS as chromogenic substrate. Laccases efficiently decolorized triphenylmethane dyes such as Malachite Green (87.8%), Bromocresol Purple (71.6%), and Methyl Violet (68.1%) without redox mediator. However, decolorization percentage of hardly degradable triphenylmethane dyes such as Phenol Red, Bromophenol Blue, and Brilliant Blue R-250 was increased the presence of some low-molecular weight compounds (natural or synthetic redox mediators). Purified laccases were resistant to Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Sn 2+ (10 mmol L -1 ). These findings suggest that laccases from C. subvermispora are able to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes without the negative influence of metal ions that can be found in wastewater. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Design and Application of Electrochemical Processes for Decolorization Treatment of Nylanthrene Red dye Bearing Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Marmanis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the capability of electrochemical methods, such as electrocoagulation, electrooxidation and electro-Fenton for decolorization and degradation of synthetic aqueous solutions and actual dye house effluents containing nylanthrene red reactive dye. All electrochemical experiments with the synthetic dye solutions were conducted in electrochemical cell of volume 500 ml containing 200 mL of dye solution at concentration 50 mg/L and interelectrode distance of 1 cm. The three different electrochemical processes were analyzed, and their removal efficiencies were measured and evaluated. In addition, a flow diagram is designed for a continuously operated electrochemical process for remediation of synthetic and actual dye house effluents laden with nylanthrene dye. In the electrocoagulation process with aluminum electrodes, the colored aqueous dye solution was treated at the applied current densities of 5, 10 and 15 mA/cm2 and was quantitatively decolorized in 11, 9 and less than 6 minutes of electroprocessing time respectively. The electrooxidation process conducted with Ti/Pt and boron doped diamond (BDD electrodes, at the applied current density of 10 mA/cm2 led to the quantitative decolorization and destruction of the dye in 25 and 15 min respectively. In the electro-Fenton process with iron electrodes, supply of added hydrogen peroxide and applied current density of 10 mA/cm2, complete decolorization and degradation of the nylanthrene red dye occurred in 6 min. The actual polyamide textile dyeing effluent of same volume 200 mL with initial turbidity of 114 NTU and COD of 1755 mg/L was treated by electrocoagulation at the same applied current density of 10 mA/cm2. The turbidity was quantitatively eliminated in only 10 min, while COD was reduced by 74.5 % in 40 minutes of electrolysis time.

  15. Decolorization of synthetic dyes using a copper complex with glucaric acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verma, Pradeep; Shah, Vishal; Baldrian, Petr; Gabriel, Jiří; Stopka, Pavel; Trnka, T.; Nerud, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2004), s. 291-295 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/0915; GA ČR GA203/01/0944 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : advanced oxidation processes * copper * decolorization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2004

  16. Decolorization of indigo carmine by laccase displayed on Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Seo, Jiyoung; Lee, Dong-Woo; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2011-06-10

    Blue multicopper oxidases, laccases displayed on the surface of Bacillus spores were used to decolorize a widely used textile dyestuff, indigo carmine. The laccase-encoding gene of Bacillus subtilis, cotA, was cloned and expressed in B. subtilis DB104, and the expressed enzyme was spontaneously localized on Bacillus spores. B. subtilis spores expressing laccase exhibited maximal activity for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) at pH 4.0 and 80°C, and for the decolorization of indigo carmine at pH 8.0 and 60°C. The displayed enzyme retained 80% of its original activity after pre-treatment with organic solvents such as 50% acetonitrile and n-hexane for 2h at 37°C. The apparent K(m) of the enzyme displayed on spores was 443±124 μM for ABTS with a V(max) of 150 ± 16 U/mg spores. Notably, 1mg of spores displaying B. subtilis laccase (3.4 × 10(2)U for ABTS as a substrate) decolorized 44.6 μg indigo carmine in 2h. The spore reactor (0.5 g of spores corresponding to 1.7×10(5)U in 50 mL) in a consecutive batch recycling mode decolorized 223 mg indigo carmine/L to completion within 42 h at pH 8.0 and 60°C. These results suggest that laccase displayed on B. subtilis spores can serve as a powerful environmental tool for the treatment of textile dye effluent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability...

  18. The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminium chloride for the decolorization of reactive dyeing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng Yuan Shing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a new environmental-friendly coagulant that can partially replace conventional polyaluminium chloride (PAC which was shown to be toxic to aquatic environment, gum extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula Linn. (CF was investigated in decolorization of reactive dyes Blue 19 (RB19 and Black 5 (RB5 using jar-test experiments. The optimal results showed that crude CF gum (at pH 10, initial dye concentrations (IDC of 100 and 50 mg L-1, gum dosages 200 and 300 mg L-1, reaction time 30 and 45 min, and agitation speed 60 rpm did not achieve high degrees of decolorization in RB5 and RB19 (55.7 and 62.0 %, respectively as compared with PAC coagulant (97.2 and 94.4 %, respectively at the same IDC and reaction time. Whereas when CF gum was used in combination with PAC, decolorization efficiencies of both dyes reached over 92 % at 40 % volume fraction of gum. These results indicated the potential of using CF gum as a “green” coagulant or as a contributing factor to color removal of textile wastewater.

  19. Synthesis of a novel water-soluble chitosan derivative for flocculated decolorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xue; Cai Ke; Zhang Jing; Shen Yan; Wang Shugen; Tian Xiuzhi

    2011-01-01

    To increase the water solubility and cationic charges at pH 7, cationic moieties were introduced onto both the C 6 -OH and C 2 -NH 2 groups in the chitosan (CTS) matrix by graft modification. The chemical structure of the obtained copolymer was demonstrated by characterizations of FT-IR, 13 C NMR, WXRD, SEM. Its excellent decolorization properties as a novel flocculant were evaluated with the C.I. Reactive Orange 5 (RO 5) and C.I. Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19) solutions using a jar test method. Both the nature of the anionic dyes and the pH of the initial dye solutions had effects on the decolorization properties. Charge neutralization played a dominant role for the color removal at pH 4, while polymer bridging contributed mainly to the color removal at pH 7. For the given flocculant/dye solutions, added salt was not in favor of the flocculated decolorization. At 25 deg. C, the flocculant needed for the highest color removal at pH 4 was 60 wt% of the dye (RO 5 or RB 19), but that at pH 7 were 100 wt% of RB 19 and 120 wt% of RO 5, respectively.

  20. Decolorization of Acid Orange 7 solution by gas-liquid gliding arc discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, ChangMing; Shi, TaiHong; Sun, YuWei; Zhuang, XiaoFeng

    2008-06-15

    The decolorization of 180 microM aqueous solutions of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by means of a non-thermal plasma technique (i.e., the gas-liquid gliding arc discharge, which is generated between at least two metal electrodes with AC high voltage) was investigated in this paper. The effects of the plasma treatment time and the type of feeding gas, including air, oxygen, nitrogen and argon of the dye removal were determined. It is found that the voltage cycles of the gas-liquid gliding arc discharge are characterized by a moderate increase in the tension which is represented by a peak followed by an abrupt decrease and a current peak in the half period (10 ms); the concentration of AO7 solution decreases exponentially to reach 58.9, 77.4, 89.1, 95.1 and 99% in 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 min, respectively, and the ln(Ct/C0) varies linearly with the treatment time t, indicating that decolorization reaction follow first pseudo-order kinetics with a constant rate of 0.03327 min(-1) when air was used as feeding gas; the decolorization rate during the plasma treatment is the greatest for oxygen as the feeding gas, in turn followed by air and argon, and was the least when using nitrogen. The variations of pH and conductivity and the formations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone are measured.

  1. Decoloration and degradation of Reactive Red-120 dye by electron beam irradiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jhimli; Rawat, K.P.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-01-01

    The decoloration and degradation of aqueous solution of the reactive azo dye viz. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) was carried out by electron beam irradiation. The change in decoloration percentage, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), solution pH and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) were investigated with respect to the applied dose. However, the concentration of the dye in the solution showed a great influence on all these observables. During the radiolysis process, it was found that the decoloration of dye was caused by the destruction of the chromophore group of the dye molecule, whereas COD and TOC removal were depended on the extent of mineralization of the dye. The decrease in pH during the radiolysis process indicated the fragmentation of the large dye molecule into smaller organic components mostly like smaller organic acids. The BOD 5 /COD ratio of the unirradiated dye solution was in the range of 0.1-0.2, which could be classified as non-biodegradable wastewater. However, the BOD 5 /COD ratio increased upon irradiation and it indicated the transformation of non-biodegradable dye solution into biodegradable solution. This study showed that electron beam irradiation could be a promising method for treatment of textile wastewater containing RR-120 dye.

  2. Insights into the Synergistic Effect of Fungi and Bacteria for Reactive Red Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is a prevalent problem in fungal dye wastewater decolorization that prevents the development of this technology in practical engineering. New insight into the relationship between fungi and bacteria is given in terms of settleability, bioadsorption, and biodegradation, which all confirm their synergistic effect. Sterilization is implied to be not the only mechanism for fungi decolorization. When the fungi and bacteria isolated from the activated sludge were cocultured, fungi removed more than 70% of the reactive red through sole bioadsorption in 5 min and enhanced the settleability of the bacteria group from 7.7 to 18.4 in the aggregation index. Subsequently, the bacteria played a more significant role in dye biodegradation according to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. They further enhanced the decolorization efficiency to over 80% when cocultured with fungi. Therefore, the advanced bioadsorption and settleability of fungi, combined with the good dye biodegradation ability of bacteria, results in the synergistic effect of the coculture microorganisms.

  3. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  4. Decoloration and degradation of an anthraquinone dye aqueous solution in flow system using an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Miyata, T.; Suzuki, N.; Kawakami, W.

    1979-01-01

    A study on the decoloration and degradation of a commercial anthraquinone dye (Acid Blue 40) was carried out by electron-beam irradiation. Experiments were done in a flow system using a five-stage, dual-tube bubbling column reactor. The oxygen contents of the gas bubbled into the inner tubes of the columns were varied from 0 to 100%. The inlet dye concentration, the solution feed rate and the dose rate were also varied from 50 to 100 ppm, 1.5 to 101/min and 0.1 to 0.15 Mrad/s, respectively. The degree of decoloration and degradation of aromatic rings increased with the oxygen content and became close to those for pure oxygen bubbling system at about 25% of oxygen content. The amount of degraded aromatic rings was proportional to that of consumed oxygen. The rate expression of the decoloration and degradation of the dye and the oxygen consumption were derived according to a reaction scheme. (author)

  5. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  6. Facile Preparation of Phosphotungstic Acid-Impregnated Yeast Hybrid Microspheres and Their Photocatalytic Performance for Decolorization of Azo Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotungstic acid (HPW-impregnated yeast hybrid microspheres were prepared by impregnation-adsorption technique through tuning pH of the aqueous yeast suspensions. The obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, respectively. FE-SEM and EDS ascertain that the HPW has been effectively introduced onto the surface of yeast, and the resulting samples retain ellipsoid shape, with the uniform size (length 4.5 ± 0.2 μm, width 3.0 ± 0.3 μm and good monodispersion. XRD pattern indicates that the main crystal structure of as-synthesized HPW@yeast microsphere is Keggin structure. TG-DTA states that the HPW in composites has better thermal stability than pure HPW. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR elucidates that the functional groups or chemical bonds inherited from the pristine yeast cell were critical to the assembling of the composites. UV-Vis shows that the obtained samples have a good responding to UV light. The settling ability indicates that the hybrid microspheres possess an excellent suspension performance. In the test of catalytic activity, the HPW@yeast microsphere exhibits a high photocatalytic activity for the decoloration of Methylene blue and Congo red dye aqueous solutions, and there are a few activity losses after four cycles of uses.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of gold graphene composite with dyes as model substrates for decolorization: A surfactant free laser ablation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Siddhardha, R. S.; Lakshman Kumar, V.; Kaniyoor, Adarsh; Sai Muthukumar, V.; Ramaprabhu, S.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2014-12-01

    A facile surfactant free laser ablation mediated synthesis (LAMS) of gold-graphene composite is reported here. The material was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powdered X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurements and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. The as-synthesized gold-graphene composite was effectively utilized as catalyst for decolorization of 4 important textile and laser dyes. The integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high surface area graphene has enhanced the catalytic activity of AuNPs. This enhanced activity is attributed to the synergistic interplay of pristine gold's electronic relay and π-π stacking of graphene with the dyes. This is evident when the Rhodamine B (RB) reduction rate of the composite is nearly twice faster than that of commercial citrate capped AuNPs of similar size. In case of Methylene blue (MB) the rate of reduction is 17,000 times faster than uncatalyzed reaction. This synthetic method opens door to laser ablation based fabrication of metal catalysts on graphene for improved performance without the aid of linkers and surfactants.

  8. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bor-Yann, E-mail: bychen@niu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes - Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141) and non-naphthol type azo dyes - Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup -} in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para > ortho > meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of

  9. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    -effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...... ionization sources - as opposed to expensive accelerator beams - can be used for investigations of ion-induced nucleation....

  10. Public perceptions and acceptance of induced earthquakes related to energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, Katherine A.; Lu, Hang; Keranen, Katie M.; Furtney, Maria A.; Song, Hwansuck

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of the potential for some energy-related activities to induce earthquakes has created a need to understand how the public evaluates the risks of induced earthquakes versus the benefits of energy development. To address this need, this study presents a web survey that used a between-subjects factorial experimental design to explore the views of 325 U.S. adults, who were asked about their experiences with earthquakes; risk perceptions related to different causes of earthquakes (e.g., natural versus induced); and acceptability of earthquakes depending on the benefits, beneficiaries, and decision making process. The results found that participants had more negative feelings toward induced versus naturally occurring earthquakes. Although they judged no earthquake as “acceptable,” participants rated induced earthquakes significantly less acceptable than naturally occurring ones. Attributing the benefits to the provision of renewable energy or climate change mitigation did not increase induced earthquake acceptability, and no particular beneficiary made earthquakes more acceptable, although private companies as beneficiaries made earthquakes less acceptable. Finally, induced earthquake acceptability was significantly higher when people believed that people like them had a voice in the decision to implement the technology that caused the earthquake, underscoring the importance of public engagement in the development of energy technologies. - Highlights: • Human induced earthquakes were perceived as more negative than natural earthquakes. • Attributing benefits to renewable energy did not increase earthquake acceptability. • Acceptability was highest after a procedurally fair decision making process. • Acceptability was lowest following an expert-driven decision.

  11. Free energy in plasmas under wave-induced diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1993-05-01

    When waves propagate through a bounded plasma, the wave may be amplified or damped at the expense of the plasma kinetic energy. In many cases of interest, the primary effect of the wave is to cause plasma diffusion in velocity and configuration space. In the absence of collisions, the rearrangement of the plasma conserves entropy, as large-grain structures are mixed and fine-grain structures emerge. The maximum extractable energy by waves so diffusing the plasma is a quantity of fundamental interest; it can be defined, but it is difficult to calculate. Through the consideration of specific examples, certain strategies for maximizing energy extraction are identified

  12. The kinetics, current efficiency, and power consumption of electrochemical dye decolorization by BD-NCD film electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Ervin; Juang, Yaju; Huang, Chihpin

    2017-06-01

    Diamond film electrode has been known as a material with very wide potential window for water electrolysis which leads to its applicability in numerous electrochemical processes. Its capability to produce hydroxyl radicals, a very strong oxidants, prompts its popular application in wastewater treatment. Batch and batch recirculation reactor were applied to perform bulk electrolysis experiments to investigate the kinetics of dye decolorization under different operation conditions, such as pH, active species, and current density. Furthermore, COD degradation data from batch recirculation reactor operation was used as the basis for the calculation of current efficiency and power consumption in the decolorization process. The kinetics of decolorization process using boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BD-NCD) film electrode revealed that acidic condition is favored for the dye degradation, and the presence of chloride ion in the solution was found to be more advantageous than sulfate active species, as evidenced by the higher reaction rate constants. Applying different current density of 10, 20 and 30 mA cm-2, it was found that the higher the current density the faster the decolorization rate. General current efficiency achieved after nearly total decolorization and 80% COD removal in batch recirculation reactor was around 74%, with specific power consumption of 4.4 kWh m-3 (in terms of volume of solution treated) or 145 kWh kg-1(in terms of kg COD treated).

  13. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  14. Kinetics of decolorization of azo dye by bipolar pulsed barrier discharge in a three-phase discharge plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruobing; Zhang Chi; Cheng Xingxin; Wang Liming; Wu Yan; Guan Zhicheng

    2007-01-01

    Removal of amaranth, a commercial synthetic azo dye widely used in the dye and food industry, was examined as a possible remediation technology for treating dye-contaminated water. Effects of various parameters such as gas flow rate, solution conductivity, pulse repetition frequency, etc., on decolorization kinetics were investigated. Experimental results show that an aqueous solution of 24 mg/l dye is 81.24% decolorized following 30 min plasma treatment for a 50 kV voltage and 0.75 m 3 /h gas flow rate. Decolorization reaction of amaranth in the plasma reactor is a pseudo first order reaction. Rate constant (k) of decolorization increases quickly with increasing the applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency and the gas flow rate. However, when the applied voltage is beyond 50 kV and increases further, increase rate of k decreases. In addition, k decreases quickly when the solution conductivity increases from 200 to 1481 μS/cm. The decolorization reaction has a high rate constant (k = 0.0269 min -1 ) when the solution pH is beyond 10. Rate constant k decreases with the decrease of pH and reaches minimum at a pH of about 5 (k min = 0.01603 min -1 ), then increases to 0.02105 min -1 when pH decreases to 3.07. About 15% of the initial TOC can be degraded only in about 120 min non-thermal plasma treatment

  15. Kinetics of the decoloration of reactive dyes over visible light-irradiated TiO2 semiconductor photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Patnam, Vidya Rupini; Sikdar, Anindita; Joshi, Priyanka; Misra, Rohit; Rao, Nageswara N.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic decoloration kinetics of triazine (Reactive Red 11, Reactive Red 2, and Reactive Orange 84) and vinylsulfone type (Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Black 5) of reactive dyes have been studied spectrophotometrically by following the decrease in dye concentration with time. At ambient conditions, over 90-95% decoloration of above dyes have been observed upon prolonged illumination (15 h) of the reacting system with a 150 W xenon lamp. It was found that the decoloration reaction followed first-order kinetics. The values of observed rate constants were found to be dependent of the structure of dyes at low dye concentration, but independent at higher concentration. It also reports for the first time the decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst. Rate of decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst is governed by the adsorptivity of the particular dye onto the surface of the TiO 2 photocatalyst

  16. Decolorization and biodegradation of congo red dye by a novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Samayita; Basak, Bikram; Dutta, Subhasish; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dey, Apurba

    2013-11-01

    A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600 mg/L congo red within 48 h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25 °C, pH 5 and 150 rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21 mg/L h) at 25 °C, pH 5, 150 rpm and 800 mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetics of decolorization of azo dye by bipolar pulsed barrier discharge in a three-phase discharge plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Zhang, Chi; Cheng, XingXin; Wang, Liming; Wu, Yan; Guan, Zhicheng

    2007-04-02

    Removal of amaranth, a commercial synthetic azo dye widely used in the dye and food industry, was examined as a possible remediation technology for treating dye-contaminated water. Effects of various parameters such as gas flow rate, solution conductivity, pulse repetition frequency, etc., on decolorization kinetics were investigated. Experimental results show that an aqueous solution of 24 mg/l dye is 81.24% decolorized following 30 min plasma treatment for a 50 kV voltage and 0.75 m(3)/h gas flow rate. Decolorization reaction of amaranth in the plasma reactor is a pseudo first order reaction. Rate constant (k) of decolorization increases quickly with increasing the applied voltage, pulse repetition frequency and the gas flow rate. However, when the applied voltage is beyond 50 kV and increases further, increase rate of k decreases. In addition, k decreases quickly when the solution conductivity increases from 200 to 1481 microS/cm. The decolorization reaction has a high rate constant (k=0.0269 min(-1)) when the solution pH is beyond 10. Rate constant k decreases with the decrease of pH and reaches minimum at a pH of about 5 (k(min)=0.01603 min(-1)), then increases to 0.02105 min(-1) when pH decreases to 3.07. About 15% of the initial TOC can be degraded only in about 120 min non-thermal plasma treatment.

  18. Decolorization and biodegradation of Rubine GFL by microbial consortium GG-BL in sequential aerobic/microaerophilic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kurade, Mayur B; Lade, Harshad S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the development of a new batch method by consortium GG-BL using two microbial cultures viz., Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 and Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298, by varying environmental conditions for the decolorization and biodegradation of Rubine GFL. Consortium was found to give better decolorization and degradation of Rubine GFL as compared to the individual microorganism at aerobic/microaerophilic process. The consortial metabolic activity of these strains lead to 100% decolorization of Rubine GFL (50 mg/L) within 30 h with significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (79%) and total organic carbon (68%). Induction in the activities of laccase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, and riboflavin reductase suggested their role in the decolorization process. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed differential induction pattern of oxidoreductive enzymes during decolorization of the dye at different incubation temperatures. The degradation of Rubine GFL into different metabolites by individual organism and in consortium was confirmed using high performance thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. Phytotoxicity studies revealed nontoxic nature of the metabolites of Rubine GFL.

  19. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. E-mail: ... some of their electric energy to an electron so that the following reaction was kinematically allowed: ... tube disintegrate it generated electric fields strong enough to accelerate electrons and protons toward each other ...

  20. Decolorization and Mineralization of Reactive Dyes, by the H2O2/UV Process With Electrochemically Produced H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeric, T.; Bisselink, R.J.M.; Tongeren, W. van; Marechal. A.M. Le

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of

  1. Improvement of Catalytic Efficiency, Thermo-stability and Dye Decolorization Capability of Pleurotus ostreatus IBL-02 laccase by Hydrophobic Sol Gel Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgher Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    gel entrapped laccase presented potential efficiency as a biocatalyst when applied for decolorization of different dyes and effluents. The main benefits of the Sol–gel matrix immobilization processes are the eco-friendly approach, chemical free and energy saving reaction conditions.

  2. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  3. An Energy Conservation Approach to Adsorbate-Induced Surface Stress and the Extraction of Binding Energy Using Nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [ORNL; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [ORNL; Fernando, G. W. [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Hawk, J. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wijewardhana, L.C. R. [University of Cincinnati; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Microcantilevers are ideally-suited for the study of surface phenomena due to their large surface-to-volume ratios, which amplify surface effects. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. When the excess energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such experiments were conducted for three binding processes in vapor phase experiments: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. To our knowledge, such an energy conservation approach has not been taken into account in adsorbate-induced surface effect investigations. Furthermore, these experiments illustrate that detailed molecular-level information on binding energies can be extracted from this simple micromechanical sensor.

  4. New insights gained on mechanisms of low-energy proton-induced SEUs by minimizing energy straggle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Dodd, Paul E.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Sexton, Frederick W.; Martinez, Marino J.; Black, Jeffrey D.; Marshall, P. W.; Reed, R. A.; McCurdy, M. W.; Weller, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present low-energy proton single-event upset (SEU) data on a 65 nm SOI SRAM whose substrate has been completely removed. Since the protons only had to penetrate a very thin buried oxide layer, these measurements were affected by far less energy loss, energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering than previous datasets. The minimization of these common sources of experimental interference allows more direct interpretation of the data and deeper insight into SEU mechanisms. The results show a strong angular dependence, demonstrate that energy straggle, flux attrition, and angular scattering affect the measured SEU cross sections, and prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for low-energy proton-induced SEUs in these circuits

  5. [Decolorization of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-hong; Ma, Lu-ming; Wang, Hong-wu; Wu, De-li

    2008-06-01

    The decoloration mechanism and kinetics of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system were investigated by measuring the dye removal, the TOC removal and the aniline concentration, and by adding EDTA as control experiments. The results showed the colority removal rate of X-3B reached 83% in the near neutral pH medium for 30 min and 96.4% for 120 min, in which, about 34% was due to the X-3B reduced to aniline, and about 20% and 30% was due to the flocculating of aluminum ions and surface adsorption of aluminum-fillings respectively. The decolorization of dyeing wastewater is a gradual reaction process, which first adsorbs a large number of dyeing ingredients and then carries out inner electrolysis reduction, improved effectively by the flocculating action of aluminum ions. The decolorization reaction appears to be a pseudo first-order reaction and increases with rising temperature.

  6. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g-1. The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity.

  7. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO 2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g -1 . The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity. (paper)

  8. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Boiadjiev, Vassil I.; Hawk, John E.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.

    2008-03-01

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  9. An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Boiadjiev, Vassil I; Hawk, John E; Gehl, Anthony C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6122 (United States); Fernando, Gayanath W [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Wijewardhana, L C Rohana [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2008-03-12

    Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading to a metastable state where the excess energy on the surface is manifested as an increase in surface stress leading to the bending of the microcantilever. The released binding energy appears to be almost exclusively channeled to the surface energy, and energy distribution to other channels, including heat, appears to be inactive for this micromechanical system. When this excess surface energy is released, the microcantilever relaxes back to the original state, and the relaxation time depends on the particular binding process involved. Such vapor phase experiments were conducted for three binding processes: physisorption, hydrogen bonding, and chemisorption. Binding energies for these three processes were also estimated.

  10. A nonlinear flow-induced energy harvester by considering effects of fictitious springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangcheng; Lin, Yueh-Jaw

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a newly proposed energy harvesting approach involving nonlinear coupling effects is demonstrated by utilizing a pair of inducing bluff bodies that are put on both sides of the flag-shaped cantilever beam, and placed in a side-by-side configuration to harvest the energy of the flow. One patch of macro fiber composite is attached to the fixed end of the cantilever beam to facilitate converting the kinetic energy into electric power. It is the first time in recent literature that two fluid dynamic phenomena (i.e. the vortex shedding and the Bernoulli effect) are considered simultaneously in the flow-induced energy harvesting field. The fictitious springs are introduced to explain the nonlinear characteristics of the proposed structure. With the effect of the fictitious springs, the speed range of the flow-induced energy harvester is extended. The proposed structure not only improves the output of the induced-based energy harvester compared to one that has just one cylinder, but can also be utilized in an actual hostile ambient environment. The experimental results for the energy harvester prototype are also investigated. The output power of the energy harvester with two cylinders (D = 25 mm) is measured to be 1.12 μW when the flow speed is 0.325 m s‑1 and the center-to-center transverse spacing is 45 mm. This research also delves into the geometric variations of the proposed structure and its optimization.

  11. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experiments with Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) in traps and speckle potentials have explored the dynamical regime in which the evolving BEC clouds localize due to the influence of classical dynamics. The growth of their mean energy is effectively arrested. This is in contrast with the well-known localization ...

  12. High fat diet induced disturbances of energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Sjoerd Adrianus Antonius van den

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are multifactorial pathologies, characterized by a complex etiology. In addition to genetics, age and sex, environmental factors such as dietary composition and lifestyle have profound effects on the development of both pathologies. Excess dietary energy intake

  13. Classically induced suppression of energy growth in a chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ically kicked particles evolve from a confined region of the potential, (2) to show that the energy growth of these evolving particles, under certain circumstances, is suppressed. This system does not obey the Kolmogorov–Arnold–Moser (KAM) theorem [6]. In addition, the momentum-dependent boundary conditions due to ...

  14. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in .... which reached Earth. Our theoretical flux agrees quite nicely with the experimental data from the L3+C Collaboration at LEP through their observation of high- .... For a cylindrical geometry, we can again rewrite it in a useful form.

  15. Low-energy deuteron-induced reactions on Nb-93

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, Pavel; Fischer, U.; Honusek, Milan; Koning, A.J.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Šimečková, Eva; Štefánik, Milan; Závorka, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), 014612 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron-induced reactions * cross sections * breakup mechanism Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.881, year: 2013 http://prc. aps .org/pdf/PRC/v88/i1/e014612

  16. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  17. Decolorization kinetics of Procion H-exl dyes from textile dyeing using Fenton-like reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntampegliotis, K; Riga, A; Karayannis, V; Bontozoglou, V; Papapolymerou, G

    2006-08-10

    The decolorization kinetics of three commercially used Procion H-exl dyes was studied using a Fenton-like reagent. The effect of the major system parameters (pH, concentration of H(2)O(2) and Fe(3+) and initial dye concentration) on the kinetics was determined. For comparison, the effect of the use of UV irradiated Fenton-like reagent and of Fenton reagent on the kinetics was also examined. In addition, mineralization rates and the biodegradability improvement as well as the effect of the addition of Cl(-), CO(3)(2-) or HCO(3)(-) on the decolorization rates was studied. The reactions were carried out in a 300 ml stirred cylindrical reactor with the capability of UV irradiation. The dye half-life time goes through a minimum with respect to the solution pH between 3 and 4. It also exhibits a broad minimum with respect to Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) at molar ratios of H(2)O(2)/Fe(3+) from about 100 to 10. The addition of CO(3)(2-) and HCO(3)(-) substantially reduces the decolorization rates, while this effect is significantly less pronounced with Cl(-). At an optimum range of parameters, the mineralization rate (TOC reduction) is very slow for the Fenton-like process (TOC decrease from an initial 49.5 to 41.1 mg/l after 30 min and to only 35.2 mg/l after 600 min), but it increases significantly for the photo-Fenton-like process (to TOC values of 39.7 and 11.4 mg/l, respectively). The biodegradability, as expressed by the BOD/COD ratio, increases significantly from an initial value of 0.11-0.55 for the Fenton-like and to 0.72 for the photo-Fenton-like processes.

  18. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ž. Šekuljica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C. The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes.

  19. Decolorization of reactive azo dyes using a sequential chemical and activated sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerbergen, Ken; Crauwels, Sam; Willems, Kris A; Dewil, Raf; Van Impe, Jan; Appels, Lise; Lievens, Bart

    2017-12-01

    Textile wastewater contains high concentrations of organic substances derived from diverse dyes and auxiliary chemicals, some of which are non-biodegradable and/or toxic. Therefore, it is essential that textile wastewater is treated and that these substances are removed before being discharged into the environment. A combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to obtain partial dye degradation followed by a biological treatment has been suggested as a promising method for cost-effective decolorization of wastewater. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a combined method of partial Fenton's oxidation and biological treatment using activated sludge for decolorization of azo dyes, which represent an important group of recalcitrant, toxic textile dyes. Using Reactive Violet 5 (RV5) as a model dye, color removal was significantly higher when the combined Fenton treatment/activated sludge method was used, as opposed to separate application of these treatments. More specifically, pretreatment with Fenton's reagent removed 52.9, 83.9 and 91.3 % of color from a 500 mg l -1  RV5 aqueous solution within 60 min when H 2 O 2 concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mM were used, respectively. Subsequent biological treatment was found to significantly enhance the chemical treatment, with microbial decolorization removing 70.2 % of the remaining RV5 concentration, on average. Molecular analysis of the microbial community within the activated sludge revealed that exposure to RV5 shifted the community composition from diverse towards a highly-specialized community harboring taxa with azo dye degrading activity, including Trichosporon, Aspergillus and Clostridium species. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A High Redox Potential Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: Potential Application for Dye Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. R. L. Zimbardi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15 grown in wheat bran and corncob under solid-state fermentation was optimized by response surface methodology using a Central Composite Rotational Design. A laccase (Lacps1 was purified and characterized and the potential of the pure Lacps1 and the crude culture extract for synthetic dye decolorization was evaluated. At optimal conditions (eight days, 26 °C, 18% (w/w milled corncob, 0.8% (w/w NH4Cl and 50 mmol·L−1 CuSO4, initial moisture 4.1 mL·g−1, the laccase activity reached 138.6 ± 13.2 U·g−1. Lacps1 was a monomeric glycoprotein (67 kDa, 24% carbohydrate. Optimum pH and temperature for the oxidation of 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS were 4.4 and 74.4 °C, respectively. Lacps1 was stable at pH 3.0–8.0, and after two hours at 55–60 °C, presenting high redox potential (0.747 V vs. NHE. ABTS was oxidized with an apparent affinity constant of 147.0 ± 6.4 μmol·L−1, maximum velocity of 413.4 ± 21.2 U·mg−1 and catalytic efficiency of 3140.1 ± 149.6 L·mmol−1·s−1. The maximum decolorization percentages of bromophenol blue (BPB, remazol brilliant blue R and reactive blue 4 (RB4, at 25 or 40 °C without redox mediators, reached 90%, 80% and 60%, respectively, using either pure Lacps1 or the crude extract. This is the first study of the decolorization of BPB and RB4 by a P. sanguineus laccase. The data suggested good potential for treatment of industrial dye-containing effluents.

  1. A High Redox Potential Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: Potential Application for Dye Decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardi, Ana L R L; Camargo, Priscila F; Carli, Sibeli; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Meleiro, Luana P; Rosa, Jose C; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Jorge, João A; Furriel, Rosa P M

    2016-05-05

    Laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15 grown in wheat bran and corncob under solid-state fermentation was optimized by response surface methodology using a Central Composite Rotational Design. A laccase (Lacps1) was purified and characterized and the potential of the pure Lacps1 and the crude culture extract for synthetic dye decolorization was evaluated. At optimal conditions (eight days, 26 °C, 18% (w/w) milled corncob, 0.8% (w/w) NH₄Cl and 50 mmol·L(-1) CuSO₄, initial moisture 4.1 mL·g(-1)), the laccase activity reached 138.6 ± 13.2 U·g(-1). Lacps1 was a monomeric glycoprotein (67 kDa, 24% carbohydrate). Optimum pH and temperature for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) were 4.4 and 74.4 °C, respectively. Lacps1 was stable at pH 3.0-8.0, and after two hours at 55-60 °C, presenting high redox potential (0.747 V vs. NHE). ABTS was oxidized with an apparent affinity constant of 147.0 ± 6.4 μmol·L(-1), maximum velocity of 413.4 ± 21.2 U·mg(-1) and catalytic efficiency of 3140.1 ± 149.6 L·mmol(-1)·s(-1). The maximum decolorization percentages of bromophenol blue (BPB), remazol brilliant blue R and reactive blue 4 (RB4), at 25 or 40 °C without redox mediators, reached 90%, 80% and 60%, respectively, using either pure Lacps1 or the crude extract. This is the first study of the decolorization of BPB and RB4 by a P. sanguineus laccase. The data suggested good potential for treatment of industrial dye-containing effluents.

  2. Peroxide decoloration of CI Acid Orange 7 catalyzed by manganese chlorophyll derivatives at the surfaces of micelles and lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigure, Shuichi; Mitsui, Tatsuro; Ito, Shingo; Kondo, Yuji; Kawabe, Shigeki; Kondo, Masaharu; Dewa, Takehisa; Mino, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Shigeru; Nango, Mamoru

    2010-06-01

    Manganese-substituted chlorophyll a derivatives (MnChls) were synthesized. We first report peroxidative oxidation of an azo dye, CI Acid Orange 7, catalyzed by MnChls at the surfaces of micelles and lipid bilayers with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) under mild conditions (pH 8.0, 25 degrees C). Peroxide decoloration depended upon the structures of MnChls, surfactants, lipids, and the presence of imidazole. Surprisingly, a largest decoloration rate was observed for MnChls dimer, MnPChlide a-K(MnPChlide a)-His 5 in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution, especially when imidazole was present: this observation is analogous to the decoloration using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Interestingly, the dimer complexes showed enhanced decoloration in comparison to the corresponding MnChls monomer in the micellar solution. In contrast, the MnChls monomer showed enhanced decoloration in comparison with the MnChls dimer in liposomal suspensions. Further, the imidazole residue covalently linked to the MnChls plays an important role in increasing the decoloration in both micellar and liposomal suspensions as well as in addition of imidazole into the solutions. It is interesting that the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of MnPChlide a ME 2, MnPChlide a-His 3, and MnMPMME-His 7 have 16 peaks around g = 2 in Egg PC or DMPC liposomal suspension with H(2)O(2), which is typical of a mixed-valence Mn(III)-Mn(IV) complex with coupling between two ions. The higher decoloration performance obtained by the monomer porphyrin compounds at the surface of the lipid bilayers appears to be related to the stability of this mixed-valence Mn(III)-Mn(IV) species formed in the lipid bilayers. This finding should provide useful information to note that MnChls, which are easily found in a number of biological systems, are involved in functions such as hydrogen peroxide decomposition in bacteria and the oxidation of water during photosynthesis as well as the peroxidases

  3. Accelerated decolorization of azo dye Congo red in a combined bioanode-biocathode bioelectrochemical system with modified electrodes deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanying; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Haoyi; Liang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, BES with bioanode and biocathode was applied to decolorize an azo dye Congo red (CR). Results showed that the Congo red decolorization efficiency (CR-DE) within 23 h in a combined bioanode-biocathode single chamber BES was 98.3±1.3%, significantly higher than that of mixed solution in a dual chamber BES (67.2±3.5%) (PCongo red, which would be great potential for the application of bioelectrochemical technology in azo dye wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of organic solvents and inhibitors on the decolorization activity of TpmD expressed in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peipei; Ren, Suizhou; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping

    2009-09-01

    We studied the effects of different organic solvents and inhibitors on the decolorization of recombinant triphenylmethane dyes decolorization enzyme (TpmD), expressed extracellularly from Pichia pastoris. The recombinant TpmD was purified by ultrafiltration and Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The decolorization activity for malachite green was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. We studied the effects of some organic solvents and inhibitors on TpmD activity through the rate of decolorization decreased using malachite green as the substance. We also compared the difference between dithicthreitol (DTT) and NADH as the cofactor in assisting the decolorization by monitoring the dissolved oxygen consumption and the end products. The effect of methanol on the enzymatic activity was weak since TpmD still retained its high activity in the reaction environment containing 10% - 20% methanols. The ethanol and acetone made the enzymatic activity fade away quickly. Dimethylsulfoxide in low concentration was propitious to keep the TpmD activity, although 30% dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the enzymatic activity lost in a half. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of low concentration, L-cysteine and NaN3 all exhibited only weakly inhibitory effects; higher concentrated (25 mmol/L) EDTA could strongly inhibit enzymatic activity and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) inhibited the activity completely. The effect of DTT on TpmD activity was beyond the expectation. It could substitute of coenzyme NADH to assist and accelerate the enzyme in decolorizing reaction. We found that the dissolved oxygen consumption behaviors and reaction end products measuring by UV-Visible full wave-scan were completely different between the reactions assisted with DTT or NADH. This is the first report about DTT which can act as a cofactor for a decolorization enzyme. The effects of different organic solvents and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity of TpmD are very different. By the dissolved oxygen

  5. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  6. [Ochrobactrum intermedium ANKI, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to decolorize azobenzene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkerov-Kouzova, N D

    2007-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical properties of the nitrogen-fixing strain Ochrobactrum intermedium ANKI, intensely growing on media with azo compounds, and its resistance to various common xenobiotics were investigated. The kinetics of azobenzene conversion by O. intermedium ANKI was studied. Under cometabolism conditions, up to 40 mg of azobenzene per liter of medium were decolorized within one week. It was shown that the strain possessed molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase activity, and its nitrogenase system was sensitive to oxygen and fixed nitrogen in the medium.

  7. Nucleus fragmentation induced by a high-energy hadron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, P.

    1982-10-01

    The author presents a review about the spallation in hadron reactions. Especially he considers proton-proton correlations at low relative momentum, angular distributions of 30-100 MeV protons, emission of fast deuterons, the vanishing of the Coulomb barrier, fission-like processes, the rise of the heavy fragment yield with energy transfer, proton-deuteron breakup reactions, and the backward emission of fast protons. (HSI)

  8. Effects induced by LHC high energy beam in copper structures

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Dallocchio, A

    2011-01-01

    This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on copper components due to the impact of a 7 TeV proton beam in the Large Hadron Collider. The case study represents an accidental case consequent to an abnormal release of the beam, in which eight bunches impact directly the copper. The energy delivered on the components is calculated by the FLUKA Team at CERN using their Monte-Carlo code for calculation of particle transport and interactions with matter. The energy maps are used by the authors as input for the structural simulations carried out via the FEM code LS-DYNA. The evolution of the phenomenon is quite similar to what might happen during an explosion. The impacted part of the component reaches extremely high values of pressure and temperature and undergoes changes of state. The sudden increase in pressure originates outgoing shockwaves that, travelling through the component, lead to a substantial density reduction in the impacted part. The energy delivered on the component is sufficient to sev...

  9. High energy instanton induced processes in electroweak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that in electroweak theory, baryon plus lepton number is conserved by the classical equations of motion. This is of course consistent with the lack of experimental observation of such processes. It is a little less well known that when quantum corrections are included in electroweak theory, baryon plus lepton number is not conserved. This was first discovered as a consequence of the Adler-Bardeen-Bell-Jackiw triangle anomaly. It is perhaps most easily understood as a consequence of vacuum degeneracy, fermion energy level crossing and filling of the negative energy Dirac sea upon second quantization. To understand how baryon plus lepton number is not conserved upon second quantization, consider the situation shown in the energy of the system is shown as a function of a parameter which characterizes the gauge fields, the Chern-Simons charge. The Chern-Simons charge is a function only of the gauge fields, and the B + L change is equal to the change in Chern-Simons charge, ΔQ B+L = ΔQ CS

  10. Fragment formation in GeV-energy proton and light heavy-ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Haga, M.; Haseno, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated similarities and differences among the fragment formation processes in GeV-energy light-ion and light heavy-ion induced reactions. We have newly measured inclusive and exclusive energy spectra of intermediate mass fragments (3 ≤ Z ≤ 30; IMFs) for 8-GeV 16 O and 20 Ne and 12-GeV 20 Ne induced target multifragmentations (TMFs) in order to compare them with those previously measured for 8- and 12-GeV proton induced TMFs. We fond noticeable difference in their spectrum shapes and magnitudes but all of them clearly indicate the existence of sideward-peaked components, indicating fragment formations are mainly dictated not by a incident energy per nucleon but by a total energy of the projectile. (author)

  11. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1979-01-01

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  12. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangwijit, K.; Yu, L.D.; Sarapirom, S.; Pitakrattananukool, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  13. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  14. Sawdust waste as a low-cost support-substrate for laccases production and adsorbent for azo dyes decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Hela; Frikha, Fakher; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2016-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidases with high potential for environmental and industrial applications. Low-cost laccase production could be achieved by solid state fermentation on agro-industrial by-products. A number of agro-industrial solid wastes were tested as support-substrate for laccase production by Coriolopsis gallica under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the medium composition for laccase production. Initial screening by Plackett-Burman design was performed to select the major variables out of 20 tow medium components fellowing this Central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the level of the selected variables. Sawdust waste was shown to be the best support-substrate for laccase production by the C. gallica. Peptone as source of organic nitrogen, Cd(2+) as laccase inducer and liquid/solid (L/S) ratio were found to have significant effects on laccase production. Operating at optimum concentrations of the most significant variables (peptone, 4.5 g L(-1), L/S ratio, 5.0 and Cd(+2) 1.0 mM) extracellular laccase activity was enhanced from 1480 U L(-1) (60.5 U g(-1)), to 4880 U L(-1) (200 U g(-1)) which meant a 3.2-fold increase in laccase activity. On the other hand, sawdust waste was studied as a low cost adsorbent to remove the azo dyes Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Acid Orange 51 (AO51). Decolorization percentages around 67 and 75 % were obtained in 24 h for RB5 and AO51, respectively. When used as a support substrate, sawdust yielded the highest laccase production which was increased 3.2 times using RMS optimization.

  15. White-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to decolorize and tolerate the anthraquinone, indigo and triphenylmethane dye with high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruoying; Ma, Li; He, Feng; Yu, Dong; Fan, Ruozhi; Zhang, Yangming; Long, Zheping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 to decolorize different kinds of dyes widely applied in the textile and dyeing industry, including the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), indigo dye indigo carmine and triphenylmethane dye methyl green, was evaluated in this study. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability of decolorizing high concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. Obvious reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand was observed after decolorization of different dyes. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to tolerate RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green with high concentrations. High concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green could also be efficiently decolorized by the crude enzyme of Ganoderma sp.En3. Different redox mediators such as syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone could enhance the decolorization capability for higher concentration of indigo carmine and methyl green. Different metal ions had little effect on the ability of the crude enzyme to decolorize indigo carmine and methyl green. Our study suggested that Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability for decolorizing and tolerating high concentrations of different types of dyes such as RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green.

  16. Electrochemical characteriztion of the bioanode during simultaneous azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation in an air-cathode single chambered microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian; Hu Yongyou; Hou Bin

    2011-01-01

    To achieve high power output based on simultaneously azo dye decolorization using microbial fuel cell (MFC), the bioanode responses during decolorization of a representative azo dye, Congo red, were investigated in an air-cathode single chambered MFC using representative electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the maximum stable voltage output was delayed due to slowly developed anode potential during Congo red decolorization, indicating that the electrons recovered from co-substrate are preferentially transferred to Congo red rather than the bioanode of the MFC and Congo red decolorization is prior to electricity generation. Addition of Congo red had a negligible effect on the Ohmic resistance (R ohm ) of the bioanode, but the charge-transfer resistance (R c ) and the diffusion resistance (R d ) were significantly influenced. The R c and R d firstly decreased then increased with increase of Congo red concentration, probably due to the fact that the Congo red and its decolorization products can act as electron shuttle for conveniently electrons transfer from bacteria to the anode at low concentration, but result in accelerated consumption of electrons at high concentration. Cyclic voltammetry results suggested that Congo red was a more favorable electron acceptor than the bioanode of the MFC. Congo red decolorization did not result in a noticeable decrease in peak catalytic current until Congo red concentration up to 900 mg l -1 . Long-term decolorization of Congo red resulted in change in catalytic active site of anode biofilm.

  17. Enzymatic decolorization of anthraquinone and diazo dyes using horseradish peroxidase enzyme immobilized onto various polysulfone supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mithat; Kaya, Mehmet Arif; Altikatoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Huseyin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, covalent immobilization of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto various polysulfone supports was investigated. For this purpose, different polysulfones were methacrylated with methacryloyl chloride, and then, nonwoven fabric samples were coated by using solutions of these methacrylated polysulfones. Finally, support materials were immersed into aquatic solution of HRP enzyme for covalent immobilization. Structural analysis of enzyme immobilization onto various polysulfones was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Decolorization of textile diazo (Acid Black 1) and anthraquinone (Reactive Blue 19) dyes was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Covalently immobilized enzyme has been used seven times in freshly prepared dye solutions through 63 days. Dye decolorization performance of the immobilized systems was observed that still remained high (70%) after reusing three times. Enzyme activities of immobilized systems were determined and compared to free enzyme activity at different conditions (pH, temperature, thermal stability, storage stability). Enzyme activities of immobilized systems and free enzyme were also investigated at the different temperatures and effects of temperature and thermal resistance for different incubation time at 50 °C. In addition, storage activity of free and immobilized enzymes was determined at 4 °C at different incubation days.

  18. Grape stalks as substrate for white rot fungi, lignocellulolytic enzyme production and dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Laura; Diorio, Luis; Grassi, Emanuel; Forchiassin, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of grape stalks, an agroindustrial waste, for growth and lignocellulolytic enzyme production via solid-state fermentation, using the following three white rot fungi: Trametes trogii, Stereum hirsutum and Coriolus antarcticus. The decolorization of several dyes by the above mentioned cultures was also investigated. Similar values of dry weight loss of the substrate were measured after 60 days (33-43 %). C. antarcticus produced the highest laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities (33.0 and 1.6 U/g dry solid). The maximum endoglucanase production was measured in S. hirsutum cultures (10.4 U/g), while the endoxylanase peak corresponded to T. trogii (14.6 U/g). The C. antarcticus/grape stalk system seems potentially competitive in bioremediation of textile processing effluents, attaining percentages of decolorization of 93, 86, 82, 82, 77, and 58% for indigo carmine, malachite green, azure B, remazol brilliant blue R, crystal violet and xylidine, respectively, in 5 h.

  19. Decolorization Treatment of Copper Phthalocyanine Textile Dye Wastewater by Electrochemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dermentzis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical decolorization and degradation treatment of aqueous copper phthalocyanine reactive dye solutions was comparatively studied by electrocoagulation, electrooxidation and electro-Fenton processes. In the electrocoagulation process with aluminum electrodes the colored aqueous solutions of initial pH 6.4 containing 50 mg L-1 copper phthalocyanine and 6 g L-1 NaCl were treated at applied current densities of 2.5 and 5 mA cm-2. Fast and 100% decolorization was achieved in 4 and 2 minutes of electroprocessing respectively. The indirect electrooxidation process was conducted in acidic electrolyte solutions containing 50 mg L-1 copper phthalocyanine and 6 g L-1 NaCl with Ti/Pt and graphite plate electrodes at the applied current density of 10 mA cm-2. Even after 90 minutes of electrolysis time the dye remained by 23 and 18.8 % respectively undegradable. By the direct and indirect electrooxidation with the same amount of Na2SO4 electrolyte and added H2O2 respectively and using the same electrodes, the copper phthalocyanine dye was not or was only barely degraded respectively. In the electro-Fenton process with Fe electrodes and added amounts of H2O2 at pH 3 and an applied current density of 5 mA/cm2 complete degradation of copper phthalocyanine occurred in 15 minutes.

  20. Fungal Waste-Biomasses as Potential Low-Cost Biosorbents for Decolorization of Textile Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Anastasi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption potential of three fungal waste-biomasses (Acremonium strictum, Acremonium sp. and Penicillium sp. from pharmaceutical companies was compared with that of a selected biomass (Cunninghamella elegans, already proven to be very effective in dye biosorption. Among the waste-biomasses, A. strictum was the most efficient (decolorization percentage up to 90% within 30 min with regard to three simulated dye baths; nevertheless it was less active than C. elegans which was able to produce a quick and substantial decolorization of all the simulated dye baths (up to 97% within 30 min. The biomasses of A. strictum and C. elegans were then tested for the treatment of nine real exhausted dye baths. A. strictum was effective at acidic or neutral pH, whereas C. elegans confirmed its high efficiency and versatility towards exhausted dye baths characterised by different classes of dyes (acid, disperse, vat, reactive and variation in pH and ionic strength. Finally, the effect of pH on the biosorption process was evaluated to provide a realistic estimation of the validity of the laboratory results in an industrial setting. The C. elegans biomass was highly effective from pH 3 to pH 11 (for amounts of adsorbed dye up to 1054 and 667 mg of dye g−1 biomass dry weight, respectively; thus, this biomass can be considered an excellent and exceptionally versatile biosorbent material.

  1. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chicatto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  2. Characterization and decolorization applicability of xerogel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    A novel manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from solid state culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was immobilized using xerogel matrix composed of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and propyltetramethoxysilane (PTMS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the successful entrapment of MnP into the xerogel matrix. An immobilization efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with a purified active fraction containing 2 mg/mL MnP. After 24 h incubation at varying pH and temperatures, the immobilized MnP retained 82 and 75% activity at pH 4 and 80°C, respectively. Xerogel matrix immobilization enhanced the catalytic efficiency of entrapped MnP. Metal ions including Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ stimulated enzyme activity while cysteine, EDTA and Ag+ inhibited the activity. MnP preserved 82% of its initial activity during oxidation of MnSO4 in 10 consecutive cycles, demonstrating the reusability of xerogel entrapped MnP. The immobilized MnP could be stored for up to 75 days at 4°C without significant activity loss. To explore the industrial applicability of MnP, the immobilized MnP was tested for decolorization of textile industry effluent in a Packed Bed Reactor System (PBRS). After five consecutive cycles, 98.8% decolorization of effluent was achieved within 5 h. The kinetic properties, storage stability and reusability of entrapped MnP from T. versicolor IBL-04 reflect its prospects as biocatalyst for bioremediation and other industrial applications.

  3. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicatto, J A; Rainert, K T; Gonçalves, M J; Helm, C V; Altmajer-Vaz, D; Tavares, L B B

    2018-02-15

    In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  4. Low energy proton induced single event upset in 65 nm DDR and QDR commercial SRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, T. Q.; Maaz, K.; Luo, J.; Wang, B.; Yin, Y. N.; Ji, Q. G.; Sun, Y. M.; Hou, M. D.

    2017-09-01

    The single event upset (SEU) response of 65 nm commercial double data rate static random access memory (SRAM) and quad data rate SRAM was investigated by using proton beams with energies in the range of 0.15 MeV to 8.0 MeV. Experimental results show that a significant number of SEU occurrences can be triggered when the energy of incident proton is below 1 MeV. For the low energy protons, the SEU cross section measured in these SRAMs was found to increase with increasing proton energy, attaining a peak value, and then decreases as the proton energy was further increased. While in case of quad data rate SRAMs, it seems that they are more sensitive to SEU occurrences as compared with double data rate SRAMs. The bias voltage and data pattern dependence on SEU cross section induced by the low energy protons were also investigated in this work. In addition, the over-layer thickness of the SRAMs and the impact of degrader use in proton induced SEU test were also analyzed in detail. Monte Carlo simulations results indicate that the use of degrader in case of low energy proton induced SEU test results in a significant reduction of the SEU cross section.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in presence of iron with eriochrome cyanine R. Essays with a decolorated reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-01-01

    The behaviour of the extinction coefficient of aqueous solutions of Eriochrome Cyanine R is studied. It is found that at pH 5-6 the diluted acid solutions decolorate rapidly according to an exponential law (538 mμ). The fact that the decoloree solutions go on still reacting with the aluminium has. (Author) 12 refs

  6. Decolorization of textile dye RB19 using volcanic rock matrix immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis cells with surface displayed laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juan; Sun, Xiaowen; Liu, Cheng; Tang, Mengjun; Li, Lin; Ni, Hong

    2017-06-01

    A triplicate volcanic rock matrix-Bacillus thuringiensis-laccase WlacD (VRMs-Bt-WlacD) dye decolorization system was developed. WlacD was displayed on the B. thuringiensis MB174 cell surface to prepare a whole-cell laccase biocatalyst by using two repeat N-terminal domains of autolysin Mbg (Mbgn) 2 as the anchoring motif. Immunofluorescence microscopic assays confirmed that the fusion protein (Mbgn) 2 -WlacD was anchored on the surface of the recombinant B. thuringiensis MB174. After optimization by a single factor test, L 9 (3 4 )-orthogonal test, Plackett-Burman test, steepest ascent method, and Box-Behnken response surface methodology, the whole-cell specific laccase activity of B. thuringiensis MB174 was improved to 555.2 U L -1 , which was 2.25 times than that of the primary culture condition. Optimized B. thuringiensis MB174 cells were further adsorbed by VRMs to prepare VRMs-Bt-WlacD, an immobilized whole-cell laccase biocatalyst. Decolorization capacity of as-prepared VRMs-Bt-WlacD toward an initial concentration of 500 mg L -1 of an textile dye reactive blue 19 (RB19) aqueous solution reached 72.36% at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 10 g-100 mL. Repeated decolorization-activation operations showed the high decolorization capacity of VRMs-Bt-WlacD and have the potential for large-scale or continuous operations.

  7. 27 CFR 24.242 - Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine. 24.242 Section 24.242 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.242...

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of Synozol red HF-6BN azo dye, by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Ilyas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation the fungi, Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were employed for decolorization of Synazol red HF-6BN. Decolorization study showed that Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. were able to decolorize 88% and 96% Synazol red 6BN, respectively, in 24 days. It was also studied that 86% and 90% Synazol red containing of dye effluent was decolorized by Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. after 28 days of incubation at room temperature. A fungal-based protein with relative molecular mass of 70 kDa was partially purified and examined for enzymatic characteristics. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at temperature ranging from 40-50[degree sign]C and at pH=6.0. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of metal cations. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that these fungal strains are capable to degrade Synazol red dye into metabolites. No zones of inhibition on agar plates and growth of Vigna radiata in the presence of dye extracted sample, indicated that the fungal degraded dye metabolites are nontoxic to beneficial micro-flora and plant growth. Aspergillus niger and Nigrospora sp. have promising potential in color removal from textile wastewater-containing azo dyes.

  9. DECOLORIZATION OF AZO DYES AND MINERALIZATION OF PHENANTHRENE BY TRAMETES SP. AS03 ISOLATED FROM INDONESIAN MANGROVE FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Hidayat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry contributes the most disposals of synthetic dyes, and about 40% of textile dyes has been generating high amount of colored wastewater. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, such as phenanthrene, is a group of organic compounds, that structurally comprised of two or more benzene rings, which persist in air, water, and soil. The organic pollutants of dyes and PAHs have adversely effects the food chain and are potentially toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic to the environment. The objective of this research is to screen and investigate the potential fungus from mangrove forest to degrade azo dyes and phenanthrene.  In this study, fungi were collected from mangrove forest in Riau Province – Sumatra – Indonesia. Previously, Trametes sp. AS03 is one of the fungi isolated from mangrove forest in Riau Province, that was able to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR. The capability of Trametes sp. AS03 to decolorize four azo dyes, Remazol B. Violet (V5, Levafix Orange E3GA (Or64, Levafix B. Red E-6BA (R159, and Sumifix S. Scarlet 2GF (R222, were further evaluated. The result shows that Trametes sp. AS03 decolorized 91, 60, 48, and 31 of V5, R222, R159, and Or64, respectively. By showing its capability to decolorize some of the dyes, Trametes sp. AS03 was used to break down phenanthrene. AS03 degraded more than 70% of phenanthrene in 15 days.

  10. Enhanced bio-decolorization of azo dyes by co-immobilized quinone-reducing consortium and anthraquinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, YY; Zhang, Yifeng; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the accelerating effect of co-immobilized anthraquinone and quinone-reducing consortium was investigated in the bio-decolorization process. The anthraquinone and quinone-reducing consortium were co-immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate. The co-immobilized beads...

  11. Multiple approaches towards decolorization and reuse of a textile dye (VB-B) by a marine bacterium Shewanella decolorationis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SatheeshBabu, S.; Mohandass, C.; VijayRaj, A.S.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Dhale, M.A.

    Textile dye Victoria Blue-B (VB-B) was approached in two different ways: one to get rid of the color for its easy disposal to the environment, and the other is to reuse the decolorized water for coloring the same dye. Shewanella decolorationis (MBTD...

  12. Comparison of ultraviolet radiation/hydrogen peroxide, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes for the decolorization of reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Miljana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectivness of UV/H2O2 process, Fenton and photo-Fenton process at decolorization of commercially important textile dyes Reactive Orange 4 (RO4 and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19 was evaluated. The effect of operational condition such as initial pH, initial H2O2 concentration, initial Fe2+ concentration and initial dye concentration on decolorization of RO4 and RB19 was studied. The photo-Fenton process is found to be more efficient than UV/H2O2 and Fenton process for decolorization of simulated dye bath effluent and solutions of the dyes in water alone under optimum conditions. In simulated dye bath the removal efficiency was slightly lower than for the solutions of the dyes in water alone for both dyes types. The results revealed that the tested advanced oxidation processes were very effective for decolorization of RO4 and RB19 in aqueous solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34008

  13. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of indigo carmine dye in Moroccan natural phosphate-TiO2 aqueous suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciri, Nouâma; Farahi, Abdelfettah; Rafqah, Salah; Nasrellah, Hamid; El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim; Lançar, IbnToumaret; Bakasse, Mina

    2016-02-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a significant green technology for application in water purification. In this study, the photocatalytic activity of NP-TiO2 based on Moroccan natural phosphate (NP) doped by titanium dioxide TiO2 was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of indigo carmine (IC) dye in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under UV light. The NP-TiO2 catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR and surface area. The effect of the calcination temperature of NP-TiO2, catalyst concentration, initial concentration of the IC, initial pH, initial hydrogen peroxide H2O2 concentration and coexisting ions on the photocatalytic decolorization of IC was investigated. The NP-TiO2 showed a significantly higher rate of degradation of IC, when compared to TiO2. After 125 min of irradiation using a low intensity of UV-lamp (15 W ∗ 3 lamps = 45 W), 99% of IC solution (20 mg L-1) was decolorized with 0.5 g L-1 of the NP-TiO2 calcined at 600 °C at pH = 11. Therefore, this process can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using sunlight.

  14. Chemical modification of polypropylene induced by high energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-06-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energy using 3 MV Pelletron. The spectral changes owing to ion bombardment were investigated by UV-VIS and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A gradual increase in absorbance was observed around visible and near visible region with increase in fluence of bombarding ions. The difference absorption spectra show formation of chromophoric groups with wavelength maximum near 380 nm at lower fluence, but at high fluence a shift in peak is observed. The chromophoric groups are likely to be the extended conjugated polyene system and the red shift in peak position at high fluence may be attributed to the greater degree of conjugation. The formation of unsaturated linkage is confirmed by the FTIR spectra with observed stretching band around 1650 cm{sup -1} and its intensity was found to increase with increase in ion fluence studied. The gases (in the range 2-80 amu) which were evolved due to interaction of polypropylene with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions were measured with Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). A large number of gaseous components were detected. This shows that polymer chains break into some smaller fragments which concomitantly leads to extended conjugation.

  15. Unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Osamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    For an accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation system, it is very important to estimate sub-criticality of core system for feasibility and design study of the system. The fission cross section in the intermediate energy range has an important role. A program FISCAL has been developed to calculate neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in the energy region from several tens of MeV to 3 GeV. FISCAL adopts the systematics considering experimental data for Ag- 243 Am. It is found that unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections is available. (author)

  16. Generation of microwave-induced plasmas in automotive exhaust gas mixtures using pulsed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destefani, Carlos A; Siores, Elias; Murphy, Anthony B

    2003-01-01

    Microwave energy at 2.45 GHz was applied to a mixture of exhaust gases from a petrol engine at atmospheric pressure. It was found that by pulsing the microwave energy with a 50% duty cycle, the average power required to sustain a microwave-induced plasma discharge was decreased by about 40%. The ratio of absorbed to incident power was unaffected. These findings were confirmed for pulse frequencies from 10 to 300 Hz.

  17. Purification and immobilization of laccase from Trichoderma harzianum strain HZN10 and its application in dye decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabin K. Bagewadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the purification of laccase produced by Trichoderma harzianum strain HZN10 (using wheat bran under solid state fermentation and its application in decolorization of synthetic dyes. Extracellular laccase was purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography with specific activity of 162.5 U/mg and 25-fold purification. Purified laccase was immobilized in various entrapments like calcium alginate, copper alginate, calcium alginate–chitosan beads and sol–gel matrix. Optimization results revealed that the laccase immobilized in sol–gel was optimally active in wide pH range (4.0–7.0 and thermo-stable (50–70 °C than free enzyme which was optimum at 50 °C and pH 6.0. Kinetic analysis showed Km of 0.5 mM and 2.0 mM and Vmax of 285 U/mg and 500 U/mg by free laccase and sol–gel immobilized laccase respectively with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid [ABTS] substrate. Free and immobilized laccase was employed for decolorization of three different synthetic dyes (malachite green, methylene blue and congo red. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis results revealed that approximately 100% of malachite green, 90% of methylene blue and 60% of congo red dyes at initial concentration of 200 mg/L were decolorized within 16, 18 and 20 h, respectively by laccase immobilized in sol–gel matrix in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT mediator. During the decolorization all three synthetic dyes showed various peaks on HPLC chromatogram indicating different by-products formation. Finally, phytotoxicity analysis results revealed that the by-products of synthetic dyes (formed during decolorization showed less toxicity against Phaseolus mungo compared to untreated synthetic dyes.

  18. Investigation on the correlation between energy deposition and clustered DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liming; Champion, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the correlation between energy deposition and clustered DNA damage, based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrum of direct DNA damage induced by low-energy electrons including the dissociative electron attachment. Clustered DNA damage is classified as simple and complex in terms of the combination of single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs) and adjacent base damage (BD). The results show that the energy depositions associated with about 90% of total clustered DNA damage are below 150 eV. The simple clustered DNA damage, which is constituted of the combination of SSBs and adjacent BD, is dominant, accounting for 90% of all clustered DNA damage, and the spectra of the energy depositions correlating with them are similar for different primary energies. One type of simple clustered DNA damage is the combination of a SSB and 1-5 BD, which is denoted as SSB + BD. The average contribution of SSB + BD to total simple clustered DNA damage reaches up to about 84% for the considered primary energies. In all forms of SSB + BD, the SSB + BD including only one base damage is dominant (above 80%). In addition, for the considered primary energies, there is no obvious difference between the average energy depositions for a fixed complexity of SSB + BD determined by the number of base damage, but average energy depositions increase with the complexity of SSB + BD. In the complex clustered DNA damage constituted by the combination of DSBs and BD around them, a relatively simple type is a DSB combining adjacent BD, marked as DSB + BD, and it is of substantial contribution (on average up to about 82%). The spectrum of DSB + BD is given mainly by the DSB in combination with different numbers of base damage, from 1 to 5. For the considered primary energies, the DSB combined with only one base damage contributes about 83% of total DSB + BD, and the average energy deposition is about 106 eV. However, the

  19. Beam energy spread in FERMI(at)elettra gun and linac induced by intrabeam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, Alexander A; Zholents, Alexander A; Zolotorev, Max S.; Penco, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Intrabeam scattering (IBS) of electrons in the pre-cathode area in the electron guns know in the literature as Boersh effect is responsible for a growth of the electron beam energy spread there. Albeit most visible within the electron gun where the electron beam density is large and the energy spread is small, the IBS acts all along the entire electron beam pass through the Linac. In this report we calculate the energy spread induced by IBS in the FERMI(at)elettra electron gun

  20. Nutritional compensation to exercise- vs. diet-induced acute energy deficit in adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Doucet, Eric; Julian, Valérie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Boirie, Yves; Duclos, Martine

    2017-07-01

    To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12-15years old obese adolescents completed three experimental conditions (08:00am to 07:30pm) in a randomized crossover design: i) control session (CON); ii) diet-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EI), iii) and an exercise-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EX). The sessions order was either CON/Def-EI/Def-EX or CON/Def-EX/Def-EI as the deficit corresponded to 25% of the energy ingested at lunch on the control day (CON) and was imposed either by exercise (Def-EX) or diet (Def-EI). Ad libitum EI and macronutrients preferences were assessed at dinner and appetite sensations assessed using visual analogue scales. Mean BMI was 36.6±5.0kg/m 2 (z-BMI: 2.40±0.29). The individually calibrated 25% energy deficit represented 254±92kcal. Ad libitum EI was significantly higher during both Def-EX (971±225kcal) and Def-EI (949±246kcal) compared with CON (742±297) (pexercise and the control session (EI Def-EX - EI CON) (r=-0,643 pexercise- or diet-induced energy deficits could lead to similar EI compensation in obese adolescents but this EI compensation might be influenced by the magnitude of the deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  2. Decolorization of reactive dyes in solar pond reactors: Perspectives and challenges for the textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaco, L C; Arcos, C A; Prato-Garcia, D

    2017-08-01

    In the past three decades, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes have been the subject of a large number of research studies aimed at developing a low-cost and robust alternative to treat complex wastewater. Aspects such as installation and operating costs and technical complexity of reactors have limited the commercial applications of Fenton processes. In this study, we evaluated the potential of solar pond reactors to carry out degradation of the dye reactive orange 16 (RO16). Decolorization (D = 99 ± 0.6%), chemical oxygen demand reduction (COD = 55 ± 2%), total organic carbon removal (TOC = 28 ± 0.5%), and biocompatibilization can be accomplished using 15% peroxide (0.6 mg H 2 O 2 /mg RO16), which is theoretically required to mineralize the dye. Under dark conditions, decolorization and aromatic removal were scarcely affected (2%), whereas COD and TOC removal were reduced to 37% and 16%, respectively. The application of multivariable analysis and the use of low-cost reactors may lead to a reduction in annual treatment costs of colored effluents to 0.76 (US/m 3 ). Furthermore, the treatment capacity can be increased from 0.6 m 3 wastewater/m 2 reactor surface to 1.7 m 3 wastewater/m 2 reactor surface without compromising process efficiency or the biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD ratio) of the effluent. Dyeing auxiliaries, mainly NaCl, appreciably reduced the decolorization performance in Fenton (13 ± 0.4%) and photo-Fenton (83 ± 0.5%) processes due to the formation of iron-chloride complexes and less powerful oxidants. To reduce the impact of auxiliary agents on process performance and treatment capacity, the Fe 2+ concentration should be increased from 5 mg/L to 15 mg/L. The results seem promising; however, additional studies at pilot and semi-industrial scales should be conducted to demonstrate the potential of low-cost reactors to carry out colored wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A.; Rodríguez, Rosa M.; Brillas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quicker degradation of Allura Red AC in the order EO-H 2 O 2 < EF < PEF with Pt or BDD anode. • Almost total mineralization achieved by the most powerful PEF process with BDD. • Similar decolorization and mineralization rate in SO 4 2− , ClO 4 − and NO 3 − media. • In Cl − medium, only slightly larger decolorization rate but strong inhibition of mineralization. • Identification of aromatic products, carboxylic acids and released NH 4 + , NO 3 − and SO 4 2− ions. - Abstract: The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L −1 of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 (EO-H 2 O 2 ), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H 2 O 2 . The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between H 2 O 2 and added Fe 2+ . The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H 2 O 2 < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO 4 2− , ClO 4 − and NO 3 − media, whereas in Cl − medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC–MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO 4 2− medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl − solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH 4 + , NO 3 − and SO 4 2− ions were released during the mineralization

  4. Decolorization kinetics of Procion H-exl dyes from textile dyeing using Fenton-like reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntampegliotis, K. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece); Riga, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece); Karayannis, V. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece); Bontozoglou, V. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, T.K 383 34 Volos (Greece); Papapolymerou, G. [Department of Physical Sciences, Technological and Educational Institute of Larisa, T.K 411 10 Larisa (Greece)]. E-mail: papapoly@teilar.gr

    2006-08-10

    The decolorization kinetics of three commercially used Procion H-exl dyes was studied using a Fenton-like reagent. The effect of the major system parameters (pH, concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup 3+} and initial dye concentration) on the kinetics was determined. For comparison, the effect of the use of UV irradiated Fenton-like reagent and of Fenton reagent on the kinetics was also examined. In addition, mineralization rates and the biodegradability improvement as well as the effect of the addition of Cl{sup -}, CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} or HCO{sub 3} {sup -} on the decolorization rates was studied. The reactions were carried out in a 300 ml stirred cylindrical reactor with the capability of UV irradiation. The dye half-life time goes through a minimum with respect to the solution pH between 3 and 4. It also exhibits a broad minimum with respect to Fe{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at molar ratios of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 3+} from about 100 to 10. The addition of CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3} {sup -} substantially reduces the decolorization rates, while this effect is significantly less pronounced with Cl{sup -}. At an optimum range of parameters, the mineralization rate (TOC reduction) is very slow for the Fenton-like process (TOC decrease from an initial 49.5 to 41.1 mg/l after 30 min and to only 35.2 mg/l after 600 min), but it increases significantly for the photo-Fenton-like process (to TOC values of 39.7 and 11.4 mg/l, respectively). The biodegradability, as expressed by the BOD/COD ratio, increases significantly from an initial value of 0.11-0.55 for the Fenton-like and to 0.72 for the photo-Fenton-like processes.

  5. Comparison of two laccases from Trametes versicolor for application in the decolorization of dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Ge, Lin; Cai, Junli; Pei, Jianjun; Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Linguo

    2014-04-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries.

  6. Influence of pH on the growth, laccase activity and RBBR decolorization by tropical basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Moreira Neto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungi Lentinus crinitus and Psilocybe castanella are being evaluated in a bioremediation process of soils contaminated with organochlorine industrial residues in the Baixada Santista, São Paulo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of pH on the fungal growth, in vitro decolorization of anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR and laccase activity. The pH of the culture medium influenced the growth of L. crinitus and P. castanella, which presented less growth at pH 5.9 and pH 2.7, respectively. The fungi were able to modify the pH of the culture medium, adjusting it to the optimum pH for growth which was close to 4.5. Decolorization of the RBBR was maximal at a pH of 2.5 to 3.5. Higher laccase activity was observed at pH 3.5 and pH 4.5 for L. crinitus and P. castanella, respectively. pH was found to be an important parameter for both the growth of these fungi and the enzymatic system involved in RBBR decolorization.Os fungos basidiomicetos Lentinus crinitus e Psilocybe castanella estão sendo avaliados em processo de biorremediação de solos contaminados com resíduos industriais organoclorados, na Baixada Santista, SP. O presente estudo avaliou a influência do pH no crescimento, na descoloração in vitro do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R (RBBR e na atividade de lacase durante cultivo destes fungos, de forma a subsidiar a otimização do processo. O pH do meio influenciou o crescimento de L. crinitus e de P. castanella, com menor biomassa em pH 5,9 e pH 2,7, respectivamente. Os fungos foram capazes de modificar o pH inicial do meio de cultura, de modo a ajustá-lo ao valor ótimo de crescimento, próximo a 4,5. Descoloração in vitro do RBBR foi máxima em pH 2,5 e 3,5. Maiores atividades de lacase foram obtidas em pH 3,5 e em pH 4,5 para L. crinitus e P. castanella, respectivamente. Evidenciou-se que o pH é um parâmetro importante para o crescimento destes fungos, atividade de lacase

  7. Modeling Proton- and Light Ion-Induced Reactions at Low Energies in the MARS15 Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gudima, K. K. [National Academy of Sciences, Cisineu (Moldova)

    2015-04-25

    An implementation of both ALICE code and TENDL evaluated nuclear data library in order to describe nuclear reactions induced by low-energy projectiles in the Monte Carlo code MARS15 is presented. Comparisons between results of modeling and experimental data on reaction cross sections and secondary particle distributions are shown.

  8. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Tong, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  9. Low-energy neutron-induced single-event upsets in static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoqiang; Guo Hongxia; Wang Guizhen; Ling Dongsheng; Chen Wei; Bai Xiaoyan; Yang Shanchao; Liu Yan

    2009-01-01

    The visual analysis method of data process was provided for neutron-induced single-event upset(SEU) in static random access memory(SRAM). The SEU effects of six CMOS SRAMs with different feature size(from 0.13 μm to 1.50 μm) were studied. The SEU experiments were performed using the neutron radiation environment at Xi'an pulsed reactor. And the dependence of low-energy neutron-induced SEU cross section on SRAM's feature size was given. The results indicate that the decreased critical charge is the dominant factor for the increase of single event effect sensitivity of SRAM devices with decreased feature size. Small-sized SRAM devices are more sensitive than large-sized ones to single event effect induced by low-energy neutrons. (authors)

  10. Investigation of nucleon-induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain within the microscopic DYWAN model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebille, F.; Bonilla, C. [SUBATECH, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, 44 - Nantes (France); Blideanu, V.; Lecolley, J.F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France)

    2004-06-01

    A microscopic investigation of nucleon-induced reactions is addressed within the DYWAN model, which is based on the projection methods of out of equilibrium statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Due to a strongly compressed representation of the fermionic wave-functions, the numerical simulations of the nucleon transport in target are therefore able to preserve the quantum nature of the colliding system, as well as a least biased many-body information needed to keep track of the cluster formation. A special attention is devoted to the fingerprints of the phase space topology induced by the fluctuations of the self-consistent mean-field. Comparisons be ween theoretical results and experimental data point out that ETDHF type approaches are well suited to describe reaction mechanisms in the Fermi energy domain. The observed sensitivity to physical effects shows that the nucleon-induced reactions provide a valuable probe of the nuclear interaction in this range of energy. (authors)

  11. Effect of nutrient nitrogen on laccase production, its isozyme pattern and effluent decolorization by the fungus NIOCC No. 2a, isolated from mangrove wood

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Verma, A.K.; Mathew, M.; Raghukumar, C.

    -degrading enzymes namely laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase as well as on the decolorization of industrial effluents like black liquor, molasses spent wash and textile mill effluents was studied using the basidiomycetous fungus NIOCC No.2a isolated...

  12. Rotational Energy Transfer and Collisional Induced Raman Linewidths in N2 Gas. 1; Energy Transfer Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Green, Sheldon; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotationally inelastic transitions of N2 have been studied in the coupled state (CS) and infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximations, using the N2-N2 rigidrotor potential of van der Avoird et al. For benchmarking purposes, close coupling (CC) calculations have also been carried out over a limited energy range. The CC and CS cross sections have been obtained both with and without identical molecule exchange symmetry, whereas exchange was neglected in the IOS calculations. The CS results track the CC cross sections rather well; between 113 - 219 cm(exp -1) the average deviation is 14%. Comparison between the CS and IOS cross sections at the high energy end of the CS calculation, 500 - 680 cm(exp -1), shows that IOS is sensitive to the amount of inelasticity and the results for large DELTA J transitions are subject to larger errors. It is found that the state-to-state cross sections with even and odd exchange symmetry agree to better than 2% and are well represented as a sum of direct and exchange cross sections for distinguishable molecules, an indication of the applicability of a classical treatment for this system. This result, however, does not apply to partial cross sections for given total J, but arises from a near cancellation in summing over partial waves. In order to use rigid-rotor results for the calculation of effective rotational excitation rates of N2 in the v=1 vibrational level colliding with bath N2 molecules in the v=0 level, it is assumed that exchange scattering between molecules in different vibrational levels is negligible and direct scattering is independent of Y. Good agreement with room temperature experimental data is obtained. The effective rates determined using the IOS and energy corrected sudden (ECS) approximations are also in reasonable agreement with experiment, with the ECS results being somewhat better. The problem with a degeneracy factor in earlier cross section expressions for collisions between identical molecules is pointed out

  13. Decolorization of reactive violet 5 dye in textile wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav N. Malinovic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The textile dyeing industry consumes large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the dyeing and finishing processes. Wastewater from printing and dyeing units is often rich in color, containing residues of reactive dyes and chemicals, such as complex components. This study investigates the decolorization of synthetic dye wastewater containing textile dye Reactive Violet 5 (RV5 by electrocoagulation. A laboratory batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of various operating parameters using aluminium (Al, iron (Fe and stainless steel (SS anode. The effect of dye concentration, current density, supporting electrolyte, sup­porting electrolyte concentration, electrolysis duration, and material of anode of the systems were evaluated. Color removal efficiency was 22, 91.5 and 99.8 % in 15 minutes using Al, Fe and SS anode, respectively (j = 10 mA/cm2, cNaCl = 0.171 M.

  14. Comparative isocline analysis upon microbial decolorization in immobilized cell bioreactor using biocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun-Ming; Jiang, Jie-Shan; Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2013-10-01

    This study used various biocarriers (e.g., porites corals, Biolite™, porous ceramic filter media (PCFM)) to immobilize cells in fixed bed bioreactor (FBB) for wastewater decolorization. As prior studies proposed, an innovative graphical method of constant-slope isoclines to determine maximal allowable treatment capacity (MATC) was used as screening criteria for feasibility of packing matrices of immobilized cell systems (ICSs). Moreover, detailed inspection upon physical and chemical characteristics of packing matrices was also carried out to confirm the consistency of MTAC. The result of isocline analysis was in parallel with physical characteristics of biocarriers (i.e., porites coral>Biolite™>PCFM). This first-attempt study successfully provided perspective in general terms to assess how the selected supporting materials were suitable to be packing matrices of ICSs for industrial applications (e.g., wastewater treatment). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystas, Wioletta; Zablocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabinska-Sota, Elzbieta

    2015-06-01

    Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), RWP17 (Polyporus picipes) and Fusarium oxysporum (G1) was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus) were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH), which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the elimination of dye

  16. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Przystas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB, Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa, RWP17 (Polyporus picipes and Fusarium oxysporum (G1 was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH, which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the

  17. Biochemical responses of Gammarus pulex to malachite green solutions decolorized by Coriolus versicolor as a biosorbent under batch adsorption conditions optimized with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Tanyol, Mehtap; Yildirim, Numan; Serdar, Osman; Tatar, Sule

    2018-03-08

    The current study was aimed to investigate the detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme response of Gammarus pulex exposed to malachite green (MG) after decolorization by Coriolus versicolor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the decolorization conditions of MG synthetic solutions by C. versicolor. Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GP X ), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activities in G. pulex exposed to undecolorized (A1) and decolorized (A2) MG synthetic solution during 24 and 96 h were tested by using ELISA method. SOD and GP X enzyme activity was increased after decolorization (p > 0.05). CAT enzyme activity was increased in A2 group during 24 h (p > 0.05) but decreased during 96 h (p < 0.05). GSH levels were increased in A2 group during 24 and 96 h (p < 0.05). GST, CYP1A1 enzyme activity and MDA levels were decreased after decolorization during 96 h (p < 0.05). In this study, GSH levels, CAT, GST and CYP1A1 activities in G. pulex approved the capability of C. versicolor in MG decolorization, optimized with RSM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study on decolorization of reactive azo and indigoid dyes by free/immobilized pellets of Trametes versicolor and Funalia trogii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Seval Cing; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate decolorization of Acid Blue 74 and Reactive Blue 198 dyes by free and immobilized white rot fungal pellets in order to confirm the possibility of practical application via repeated-batch cultivation. Decolorization studies were conducted using free pellets (FP), fungal cells immobilized on activated carbon (IFCAC) and pinewood (IFCP), and also fungal cells entrapped in alginate beads (FCEAB). No additional nitrogen and carbon source was used and high decolorization rates were achieved in only dye-contained media without pH adjustment. Acid Blue 74 was decolorized 96 and 94% within 2 hr by Trametes versicolor and Funalia trogii free pellets, respectively. These values were 87 and 84% for Reactive Blue 198, in this respect. Immobilization of fungal cells on pinewood increased the usability of pellets and the average decolorization efficiency of both dyes. The micro environment changed in the presence of pinewood and increased the stability of immobilized pellets. Decolorization was performed rapidly and efficiently. Laccase activity enhanced with availability of pinewood, and high laccase production with F. trogii was obtained. After separation by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the molecular weight of T versicolor and F. trogii laccase bands was determined 64 and 61 kDa approximately. Green bands were obtained by the activity staining process with laccase substrate (ABTS) after gel renaturation step.

  19. Dynamic molecular structure retrieval from low-energy laser-induced electron diffraction spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh-Duy T.; Phan, Ngoc-Loan T.; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang

    2017-12-01

    A recently developed quantitative rescattering theory showed that a laser-free elastic cross section can be separated from laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) spectra. Based upon this idea, Blaga et al investigated the possibility of reconstructing molecular structure from LIED spectra (2012 Nature 483 7388). In the above study, an independent atoms model (IAM) was used to interpret high-energy electron–molecule collisions induced by a mid-infrared laser. Our research aims to extend the application range of this structural retrieval method to low-energy spectra induced by more common near-infrared laser sources. The IAM is insufficient in this case, so we switch to a more comprehensive model—the multiple scattering (MS) theory. From the original version concerning only neutral targets, we upgrade the model so that it is compatible with electron–ion collisions at low energy. With available LIED experiment data of CO2 and O2, the upgraded MS is shown to be greatly effective as a tool for molecular imaging from spectra induced by a near-infrared laser. The captured image is at about 2 fs after the ionization, shorter than the period 4–6 fs by using the mid-infrared laser in Blaga’s experiment.

  20. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangwijit, K. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Bang Khen, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Pitakrattananukool, S. [School of Science, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  1. Research and design of underwater flow-induced vibration energy harvester based on Karman vortex street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Wang, Hai; Yang, Chunlai; Wen, Li

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing development of wireless sensor network (WSN), power supply for WSN nodes had attracted increasing attention, and the energy harvesting system based on Karman vortex street has been widely used in underwater WSN. But the research of the influences of affecting factors towards the energy harvesting system is yet to be completed. So, in this paper, an underwater flow-induced vibration energy harvesting system based on Karman vortex street was proposed and tested. The influence of bluff body geometry and flow velocity towards the performance of the energy harvesting has been researched. The results showed that the output voltage increased as the diameter of bluff body and the water velocity increase. The power generation efficiency was the best when the shape of bluff body was circular.

  2. Transient energy deficit induced by exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation in young trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kurihara, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Hibi, Masanobu; Oishi, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Koichi; Ogata, Hitomi; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Whole body fat oxidation increases during exercise. However, 24-h fat oxidation on a day with exercise often remains similar to that of sedentary day, when energy intake is increased to achieve an energy-balanced condition. The present study aimed to examine a possibility that time of the day when exercise is performed makes differences in 24-h fat oxidation. As a potential mechanism of exercise affecting 24-h fat oxidation, its relation to exercise-induced transient energy deficit was examined. Nine young male endurance athletes underwent three trials of indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber, in which they performed a session of 100 min of exercise before breakfast (AM), after lunch (PM), or two sessions of 50 min of exercise before breakfast and after lunch (AM/PM) at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Experimental meals were designed to achieve individual energy balance. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was similar among the trials, but 24-h fat oxidation was 1,142 ± 97, 809 ± 88, and 608 ± 46 kcal/24 h in descending order of its magnitude for AM, AM/PM, and PM, respectively (P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour carbohydrate oxidation was 2,558 ± 110, 2,374 ± 114, and 2,062 ± 96 kcal/24 h for PM, AM/PM, and AM, respectively. In spite of energy-balanced condition over 24 h, exercise induced a transient energy deficit, the magnitude of which was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). Similarly, transient carbohydrate deficit after exercise was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.40, P < 0.05). The time of the day when exercise is performed affects 24-h fat oxidation, and the transient energy/carbohydrate deficit after exercise is implied as a factor affecting 24-h fat oxidation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses. (paper)

  4. Electric field induced strain, switching and energy storage behaviour of lead free Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badapanda, T.; Chaterjee, S.; Mishra, Anupam; Ranjan, Rajeev; Anwar, S.

    2017-09-01

    There is a huge demand of lead-free high performance ceramics with large strain, low hysteresis loss and high-energy storage ability at room temperature. In this context, we investigated the large electric field induced strain, switching behaviour and energy storage properties of BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 ceramic (BZT) prepared by high energy ball milling technique, reportedly exhibiting a triple point transition near the room temperature. The X-ray diffraction of the BZT ceramic confirms orthorhombic symmetry with space group Amm2 at room temperature. The room temperature dielectric study reveals that there is a negligible variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss with frequency. The polarization behaviour at various applied electric fields was studied and the energy storage densities were obtained from the integral area of P-E loops. Electric field induced strain behaviour has been studied with due emphasis on the electrostrictive response at room temperature. The ferroelectric and electromechanical properties derived from the P-E and S-E loops suggest that the present ceramic encompass the properties of actuation and energy storage simultaneously.

  5. Investigation of flow-induced vibration for energy harvesting using a model soap-film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Stremler, Mark; Virginia Tech Team

    2017-11-01

    One way to extract energy from geophysical flows is to take advantage of flow-induced vibration (FIV) caused by vortices being shed from a bluff body. Wake-induced vibration of the downstream cylinder in a tandem pair is a promising design for a FIV energy harvesting system, especially suitable for low Reynolds number flows. For this design, the upstream cylinder is fixed in place, while the downstream cylinder is free to oscillate like a pendulum that is driven by interactions with the flow, including the wake of the upstream cylinder. We use a flowing soap film system, with behavior that resembles two-dimensional hydrodynamics, to experimentally investigate the wake interaction between a stationary upstream circular disk and a free downstream circular disk, which acts as a swinging pendulum. The wake flow generates thickness variations in the thin soap film, allowing direct observation of wake patterns through visualization of interference fringes. With the ability to tie together the wake structure and the object motion, we investigate the relationship between energy generation and flow structure in the simplified model energy harvesting system for Re =150. The research results find the optimal efficiency of the energy harvesting system by a parametric study.

  6. Conquer the Challenges: Study of Charged-particle-induced Reactions at Stellar Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaodong; Cerrone, Daniel; Davies, Paul; Martin, Ed; Notani, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Charged-particle-induced reactions, such as the (p,γ), (α,γ), (α,p) and heavy ion fusion reactions, play important roles in stellar evolution. Due to the Coulomb barrier penetration effect, the cross sections decrease exponentially as the incident energy approaches the interesting astrophysical energy regions, which makes these experiments very challenging. In this talk, I will discuss two challenging problems in experimental nuclear astrophysics, the 12 C(α,γ) 16 O reaction and the heavy ion fusion reactions.

  7. Induced gravity and the attractor dynamics of dark energy/dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Putter, Roland de; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Attractor solutions that give dynamical reasons for dark energy to act like the cosmological constant, or behavior close to it, are interesting possibilities to explain cosmic acceleration. Coupling the scalar field to matter or to gravity enlarges the dynamical behavior; we consider both couplings together, which can ameliorate some problems for each individually. Such theories have also been proposed in a Higgs-like fashion to induce gravity and unify dark energy and dark matter origins. We explore restrictions on such theories due to their dynamical behavior compared to observations of the cosmic expansion. Quartic potentials in particular have viable stability properties and asymptotically approach general relativity

  8. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  9. Preliminary screening of Ni(II metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing by Nocardiopsis sp. SD8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Thangaraj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the screening of metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing of Nocardiopsis sp. Methods: NiSO4 and Congo red dye were used for evaluating the metal tolerance and dyedecolorizing of the randomly selected actinobacterial isolates. Results: Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 showed a better efficiency in Ni(II tolerance, though a longer lag phase was observed for this microorganism grown for 7 days in integrated mismatch negativity. Interestingly, we also found that Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 had dye-decolorizing, hemolytic, lipase and protease activity. Conclusions: The present results revealed the bioremediation of metal resistant and diverse properties of Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 and further investigations are needed to extract and identify the potent molecule.

  10. Application of Vortex Induced Vibration Energy Generation Technologies to the Offshore Oil and Gas Platform: The Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Zahari; S. S. Dol

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for continuous and eco-friendly renewable energy as alternative to fossils fuels is large and ever growing in nowadays. This paper will focus on capability of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) phenomenon in generating alternative energy for offshore platform application. In order to maximize the potential of energy generation, the effects of lock in phenomenon and different geometries of cylinder were studied in this project. VIV is the motion induced on bl...

  11. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  12. Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-II E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on 241Am, 238U, and 237Np targets and the Bremmstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on 232Th and 238U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments.

  13. Critical energy for direct initiation of detonation induced by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, S.; Suzuki, K.; Inoue, H.; Ishii, K.; Kataoka, H.

    2016-09-01

    This study describes experimental work examining the critical energy for direct initiation of detonation by laser ablation in a stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen mixture. The amount of input energy, the target material, and the surface roughness of the target were varied to study their effects on shock wave generation. Aluminum and stainless steel were used as target materials. The propagating shock wave induced by laser ablation was observed using high-speed shadow imaging. The critical energy for direct initiation of detonation was calculated using the strong blast wave theory. The critical input energy for aluminum was found to be lower than that for stainless steel. Because the thermodynamic critical temperature of aluminum is lower than that of stainless steel, aluminum caused a phase explosion more easily than stainless steel, thus resulting in direct initiation of detonation with a lower amount of input energy. The effects of surface roughness on critical input energy and shock wave generation were negligibly small. The critical initiation energy was estimated to be 10.3 ± 0.2 mJ, which is in agreement with the experimental data obtained in previous work. The estimated critical initiation energy was independent of the target material. However, other predictions of the critical initiation energy by using the cell size overestimated this value because of the scatter in cell size data of an unstable cellular structure. Furthermore, interaction between plasma plumes formed by laser ablation and those formed by breakdown near the target surface might have contributed to requiring a lower amount of energy for initiating detonation.

  14. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lili [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangy_msn@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao, Min [College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Song, Jinzhu [School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing [College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. • Novel magnetic microspheres were prepared by load hollow spore microspheres with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • CotA multicopper oxidase was immobilized on the magnetic spore microspheres for indigo carmine decolorization. • The immobilized CotA displayed higher decolorization capability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75 mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2 mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1 h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10 mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  15. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lili; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Song, Jinzhu; Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. • Novel magnetic microspheres were prepared by load hollow spore microspheres with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • CotA multicopper oxidase was immobilized on the magnetic spore microspheres for indigo carmine decolorization. • The immobilized CotA displayed higher decolorization capability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75 mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2 mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1 h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10 mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  16. Implication of Dichomitus squalens manganese-dependent peroxidase in dye decolorization and cooperation of the enzyme with laccase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šušla, Martin; Novotný, Čeněk; Erbanová, Pavla; Svobodová, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2008), s. 479-485 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/06/P102; GA AV ČR IAA6020411 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) FRVŠ G4 359/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : decolorization * white-rot fungi * dichotomitus squalens Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  17. Evaluation of three reagent dosing strategies in a photo-Fenton process for the decolorization of azo dye mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato-Garcia, D.; Buitrón, Germán

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dosing strategies for a photo-Fenton process were evaluated. ► The dosing strategy had no effect of on the decolorization. ► The type of strategy influenced SUVA index, toxicity reduction and biodegradability. ► A continuous reagents supply was found to be the most adequate strategy. ► Decolorization as well as a less toxic and biodegradable effluent was produced. - Abstract: Three reagent dosing strategies used in the solar photo-assisted decolorization of a mixture of sulfonated dyes consisting of acid blue 113, acid orange 7 and acid red 151 were evaluated. Results demonstrated that the dosing strategy influenced both reagent consumption and the biodegradability and toxicity of the effluent. In one strategy (E 1 ), the Fenton's reactants were dosed in a punctual mode, while in the other two strategies (E 2 an E 3 ), the reactants were dosed continuously. In the E 2 strategy the reactants were dosed by varying the duration of the injection time. In the E 3 strategy, the reactants were dosed during 60 min at a constant rate, but with different concentrations. All cases showed that feeding the reactor between 40% and 60% of the maximal dose was sufficient to decolorize more than 90% of the mixture of azo dyes. The E 1 strategy was less effective for aromatic content reduction. Conversely, the continuous addition of the reagents (E 2 and E 3 strategies) improved the aromatic content removal. E 3 strategy was substantially more appropriate than E 1 strategy due to improved the effluent quality in two key areas: toxicity and biodegradability.

  18. Defect production and subsequent effects induced by electronic energy loss of swift heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Sun Youmei; Yin Jingmin; Yao Huijun; Duan Jinglai; Mo Dan; Zhang Ling; Chen Yanfeng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2008-01-01

    Swift heavy ion in matter is one of forfront fields of nuclear physics in the world. A series of new phenomena were discovered in recent years. The history and sta- tus on the development of this field were reviewed. Electronic energy loss effects induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, such as defect production and evolution, ion latent track formation, phase transformation and anisotropy plastic deformation were introduced emphatically. A trend of future investigation was explored. (authors)

  19. Measurements and simulation of induced activity at the CERN-EU high- energy reference field facility

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, M; Mitaroff, W A; Roesler, S

    2003-01-01

    Samples of aluminum, copper, stainless steel, iron, boron nitride, carbon composite and water were irradiated by the stray radiation field produced by interactions of high-energy hadrons in a copper target. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. Results of the simulation are in reasonable agreement with the measured activities. 7 Refs.

  20. Circular dichroism of luminous energy, induced by the dissipation in light scattering by aligned atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.

    1996-01-01

    A compact expression for the cross section of light scattering by aligned atomic systems is derived. It is shown that in above-threshold or resonant scattering, when the channel of luminous energy dissipation is open, circular dichroism effects can be observed in the angular distribution and the degree of polarization of the scattered light. In such cases circular polarization of the scattered light is also induced when the incident light has no circular polarization

  1. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaneda-Sceppa Carmen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metabolism are mitigated by increased dietary protein. Methods Nineteen men ([mean ± SD] 23 ± 2 y, VO2peak 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 were divided into three groups, two consuming moderate (MP; 0.9 g protein kg-1 d-1, and one high (HP; 1.8 g protein kg-1 d-1 protein diets (55% energy from carbohydrate for 11 days. Following 4 days of energy balance (D1-4, energy expenditure was increased for 7 days (D5-12 in all groups. Energy intake was unchanged in two, creating a 1000 kcal d-1 deficit (DEF-MP, DEF-HP; n = 6, both groups, whereas energy balance was maintained in the third (BAL-MP, n = 7. Biochemical markers of substrate metabolism were measured during fasting rest on D4 and D12, as were GP and contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production (fgng using 4-h primed, continuous infusions of [6,6-2H2]glucose (dilution-method and [2-13C]glycerol (MIDA technique. Glycogen breakdown (GB was derived from GP and fgng. Results Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased, and plasma glucose and insulin declined from D4 to D12, regardless of group. DEF-MP experienced decreased plasma GP from D4 to D12 ([mean change ± SD] 0.24 ± 0.24 mg·kg-1·min-1, due to reduced GB from D4 (1.40 ± 0.28 mg·kg-1·min-1 to D12 (1.16 ± 0.17 mg·kg-1·min-1, P -1·min-1, respectively by maintaining GB. Conclusion Exercise-induced energy deficit decreased GP and additional dietary protein mitigated that effect.

  2. Preparation and characterization of intrinsically coloured polymers using high energy radiation induced processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, J.T.

    1978-07-01

    Information on the development in research is given in the utilization of high energy radiation sources in polymerizations and on polymer characterization in the following three areas: studies on the nitrile-styrene system, studies on the radiation induced polymerization of 2-vinyl anthraquinone and the graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto cellulose in the DMSO/HCHO/cellulose system. Within the framework of research in radiation induced polymerization, samples of 2-vinyl anthraquinone were subjected to X-ray diffraction and e.s.r. examinations and the kinetics and mechanism of γ-ray induced solution polymerization of 2-vinyl anthraquinone in methylene chloride and dimethyl sulfoxide was investigated. Methylene chloride was found to be an efficient solvent for poly(2-vinyl anthraquinone). The rate of polymerization in methylene chloride was 10 3 times greater than that obtained using dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent

  3. Decolorization of crystal violet over TiO2 and TiO2 doped with zirconia photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasic Marija B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania based catalyst and TiO2 doped with zirconia were prepared by modified sol–gel method. The synthesized catalysts samples were characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and FTIR techniques. Photocatalytic activity was tested in the reaction of crystal violet (CV dye decolorization/decomposition under UV light irradiation. The effect of several operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial dye concentrations, duration of UV irradiation treatment and number of reaction cycles were also considered. The obtained results indicated faster dye decolorization with the increase of the catalyst amount and a decrease of initial CV concentrations. An influence of doping with zirconia on the physico-chemical properties of bare titania was studied. The doping procedure had affected photocatalytic properties of the final catalytic material, and had improved photocatalytic performances of doped catalyst on crystal violet decolorization/degradation in comparison to bare titania. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 1612008, Grant no. 45012 and Grant no. 172061

  4. Identification of the potential of microbial combinations obtained from spent mushroom cultivation substrates for use in textile effluent decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajender; Ahlawat, O P; Rajor, Anita

    2012-12-01

    The study presents variation in microbial population of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea spent substrates (SMS) along with ligninolytic enzymes activity and textile effluent decolorization potential of microorganisms isolated from these. The effect of temperature, pH, carbon sources and immobilizing agents on effluent decolorization using different combinations of these microorganisms has also been studied. SMS of P. sajor-caju harbored highest population and diversity of bacteria and fungi compared to other SMSs. Schizophyllum commune and Pezizomycotina sp. from P. sajor-caju SMS, exhibited highest activities of laccase (11.8 and 8.32U mL(-1)) and lignin peroxidase (339 and 318 UL(-1)), while Pseudomonas fluorescens of Manganese peroxidase. Highest decolorization was in presence of glucose and sucrose at 30°C, and microbial consortium comprised of the immobilized forms of S. commune and Pezizomycotina sp. on wheat straw and broth cultures of P. fluorescens, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of the mixture design to optimise the formulation of active consortia to decolorize azo-dye methyl red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Lamia; Harbi, Besma; Cheref, Abdelkrim; Bakhrouf, Amina; Achour, Sami

    2010-01-01

    With the aid of analysis software (Minitab 14.0), the formulation of pure culture in Mineral Salts Medium (MSM) can be optimized for several responses and the best formulation can be obtained. The influence of the different mixtures of three strains in the pure culture in MSM on the flavor components in decolorization of Methyl Red (with initial total cell density fixed at OD600 = 1 and in addition of 750 ppm of dye) was studied using equilateral triangle diagram and mixture experimental design to assess color and COD removal during species evolution. The regression model on microorganism composition and main metabolites was established. The results suggested that the highest predictable specific decolorization rate and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were 77.97 and 93.77%. Based on these, the response values that satisfied all expectations were optimized, and the optimal composition of the mixed consortium for the dedolorization and COD removal were (Sphingomonas paucimobilis 45.20%, Bacillus sp 61.94% and Staphylococcus epidermidis 80.00%) and (Sphingomonas paucimobilis 77.03%, Bacillus sp 86.42% and Staphylococcus epidermidis 71.74%) respectively. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the responses: decolorization and COD removal were respectively R(2)=0.96 and 0.81 indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data by polynomial regression model.

  6. Biosurfactant production from Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011 and its application in accelerating the chemical and biological decolorization of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; You, Yanting; Zhao, Ruofei; Sun, Di; Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Jihong; Zhu, Aihua; Liu, Weijie

    2017-11-01

    Dye dispersion and the interaction efficiency between azoreductases and dye molecules are rate-limiting steps for the decolorization of azo dyes. In this study, a biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011, was isolated from crude oil. To increase the yield of the biosurfactant BS-L1011 from P. taiwanensis L1011, culture conditions were optimized including temperature, initial pH, carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio. A maximum yield of 1.12g/L of BS-L1011 was obtained using D-mannitol as carbon source and yeast extract/urea as compound nitrogen source with C/N ratio of 10/4, pH 7.0 and 28°C. BS-L1011 exhibited a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 10.5mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to 25.8±0.1 mN/m. BS-L1011 was stable over a wide range of temperatures, pH values and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant is reported for the first time to accelerate chemical decolorization of Congo red by sodium hypochlorite, and biological decolorization of Amaranth by Bacillus circulans BWL1061, thus showing a potential in the treatment of dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzymatic in-situ generation of H2O2 for decolorization of Acid Blue 113 by fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Afzal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of Acid Blue 113 in an aqueous medium by bio-Fenton process has been investigated in this research. Enzymatic oxidation of glucose was performed to in-situ generation of H2O2 which was employed to react with Fe2+ for producing hydroxyl radicals. The effect of various parameters include concentrations of 113, glucose, and FeSO4, activity of glucose oxidase (GOx and the effect of pH were assessed. The highest decolorization of AB 113 were achieved at Fe2+ concentration of 0.2 mmol/L, pH =4.0, glucose concentration of 0.018 mol/L, and glucose oxidase activity of 2500 U/L in the constant temperature (23 ±0.1ºC and constant shaking rate (160 r/min, while the concentration of 113 was 40 mg/L. In these conditions, 113 decolorization efficiency after 60 min was obtained about 95%.

  8. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Jiang, Jian; Han, Xianwei; Tan, Chang; Wei, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  9. High energy diets-induced metabolic and prediabetic painful polyneuropathy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xie

    Full Text Available To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals.

  10. High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical, but not thermal, pain hypersensitivity is reflected by severe damage to LMF, but mild damage to SMF and UMF. Moreover, dietary sodium (high-salt) deteriorates the neuropathic pathological process induced by high energy diets, but paradoxically high salt consumption, may reduce, at least temporarily, chronic pain perception in these animals. PMID:23451227

  11. Silver nanoparticles induced reactive oxygen species via photosynthetic energy transport imbalance in an aquatic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong Sheng; Yin, Li Yan; Ren, Na Na; Zhao, Su Ting; Li, Zhi; Zhi, Yongwei; Shao, Hui; Li, Wei; Gontero, Brigitte

    2017-03-01

    The rapid growth in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) commercialization has increased environmental exposure, including aquatic ecosystem. It has been reported that the AgNPs have damaging effects on photosynthesis and induce oxidative stress, but the toxic mechanism of AgNPs is still a matter of debate. In the present study, on the model aquatic higher plant Spirodela polyrhiza, we found that AgNPs affect photosynthesis and significantly inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) and effective quantum yield (Φ PSII ). The changes of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ), light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching [Y(NPQ)] and non-light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching [Y(NO)] showed that AgNPs inhibit the photo-protective capacity of PSII. AgNPs induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are mainly produced in the chloroplast. The activity of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) was also very sensitive to AgNPs. The internalized Ag, regardless of whether the exposure was Ag +  or AgNPs had the same capacity to generate ROS. Our results support the hypothesis that intra-cellular AgNP dissociate into high toxic Ag + . Rubisco inhibition leads to slowing down of CO 2 assimilation. Consequently, the solar energy consumption decreases and then the excess excitation energy promotes ROS generation in chloroplast.

  12. Low energy electron induced damage to plasmid DNA pQE30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. V. K.; Pota, Tasneem; Peri, Dinakar; Dongre, Anushka D.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

    2012-07-01

    Low energy electrons (LEEs) are produced in copious amounts by the primary radiation used in radiation therapy. The damage caused to the DNA by these secondary electrons in the energy range 5-22 eV has been studied to understand their possible role in radiation induced damage. Electrons are irradiated on dried films of plasmid DNA (pQE30) and analysed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Single strand breaks (SSBs) induced by LEE to supercoiled plasmid DNA show resonance structures at 7, 12, and 15 eV for low doses and 6, 10, and ˜18 eV at saturation doses. The present measurements have an overall agreement with the literature that LEEs resonantly induce SSBs in DNA. Resonant peaks in the SSBs induced by LEEs at 7, 12, and 15 eV with the lowest employed dose in the current study are somewhat different from those reported earlier by two groups. The observed differences are perhaps related to the irradiation dose, conditions and the nature of DNA employed, which is further elaborated.

  13. Cadmium toxicity induces ER stress and apoptosis via impairing energy homoeostasis in cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-yan; Zhang, Shao-li; Liu, Zhi-yong; Tian, Yong; Sun, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a highly toxic environmental pollutant, is reported to induce toxicity and apoptosis in multiple organs and cells, all possibly contributing to apoptosis in certain pathophysiologic situations. Previous studies have described that cadmium toxicity induces biochemical and physiological changes in the heart and finally leads to cardiac dysfunctions, such as decreasing contractile tension, rate of tension development, heart rate, coronary flow rate and atrioventricular node conductivity. Although many progresses have been made, the mechanism responsible for cadmium-induced cellular alternations and cardiac toxicity is still not fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that cadmium toxicity induced dramatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impaired energy homoeostasis in cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, cadmium toxicity may inhibit protein kinase B (AKT)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway to reduce energy productions, by either disrupting the glucose metabolism or inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory gene expressions. Our work will help to reveal a novel mechanism to clarify the role of cadmium toxicity to cardiomyocytes and provide new possibilities for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases related to cadmium toxicity. PMID:26182376

  14. Forecasting of Energy Expenditure of Induced Seismicity with Use of Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Tomasz; Banka, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Coal mining in many Polish mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is accompanied by high levels of induced seismicity. In mining plants, the methods of shock monitoring are improved, allowing for more accurate localization of the occurring phenomena and determining their seismic energy. Equally important is the development of ways of forecasting seismic hazards that may occur while implementing mine design projects. These methods, depending on the length of time for which the forecasts are made, can be divided into: longterm, medium-term, short-term and so-called alarm. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful for the design of seam exploitations. The paper presents a method of predicting changes in energy expenditure of shock using a properly trained artificial neural network. This method allows to make long-term forecasts at the stage of the mine’s exploitation design, thus enabling the mining work plans to be reviewed to minimize the potential for tremors. The information given at the input of the neural network is indicative of the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation occurring in the selected, thick, resistant rock layers (tremor-prone layers). Energy changes, taking place in one or more tremor-prone layers are considered. These indicators describe only the specific energy changes of the elastic deformation accumulating in the rock as a consequence of the mining operation, but does not determine the amount of energy released during the destruction of a given volume of rock. In this process, the potential energy of elastic strain transforms into other, non-measurable energy types, including the seismic energy of recorded tremors. In this way, potential energy changes affect the observed induced seismicity. The parameters used are characterized by increases (declines) of specific energy with separation to occur before the hypothetical destruction of the rock and after it. Additional input information is an index characterizing the rate of

  15. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research

  16. Electrophoresis examination of strand breaks in plasmid DNA induced by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Tan Zheng; Du Yanhua; Qiu Guanying

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect on plasmid DNA of heavy ion in the energy range of keV where nuclear stopping interaction becomes more important or even predominant, thin film of plasmid pGEM-3Zf(-) DNA was prepared on aluminum surface and irradiated in vacuum ( -3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with energy of 30 keV (LET=285 keV/μm) at various fluence ranging from 2 x 10 10 to 8.2 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. Low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation induced single-, double- and multiple double-strand breaks (DSB) and multiple DSB as the dominating form of DNA damages. Moreover, the linear fluence-response relationship at a low fluence range suggests that DSBs are induced predominantly by single ion track. However, strand break production is limited to a short range in the irradiated samples

  17. Aerobic decolorization and degradation of Acid Orange G (AOG) by suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a yeast strain Candida tropicalis TL-F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Li, Hua; Ning, Shuxiang; Hao, Jia

    2014-10-01

    In this study, aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dye Acid Orange G (AOG) by both suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a yeast strain Candida tropicalis TL-F1 were studied. The effects of different parameters on decolorization of AOG by both growing suspended and immobilized strain TL-F1 were investigated. Furthermore, a possible decolorization mechanism of AOG was proposed through analyzing metabolic intermediates using UV-vis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Strain TL-F1 could decolorize AOG in both liquid and solid mediums through degradation. The optimal conditions for decolorization with suspended growing cells of strain TL-F1 were as follows: 6-10 g/L sucrose, 5-7 g/L urea, ≥6 % (v/v) inoculation size, ≥160 rpm, 35-40 °C, and pH 5.0-6.0; and those for immobilized cells, the conditions were as follows: 4-6 g/L glucose, 0.2-0.4 g/L urea, 6-10 g/L (wet cell pellets) inoculation size, ≥160 rpm, 35-40 °C, and pH 5.0-7.0. Results of UV-vis scanning spectra suggested that AOG was decolorized through biodegradation, and the possible pathway was proposed through the results of HPLC-MS analysis and related literature. This is a systematic research on aerobic decolorization and degradation of AOG by both suspended and immobilized cells of a C. tropicalis strain.

  18. Characterization of a salt resistant bacterial strain Proteus sp. NA6 capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in presence of multi-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naila; Hussain, Sabir; Azeem, Farrukh; Shahzad, Tanvir; Bhatti, Sajjad Haider; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Maqbool, Zahid; Abid, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Microbial biotechnologies for the decolorization of textile wastewaters have attracted worldwide attention because of their economic suitability and easiness in handling. However, the presence of high amounts of salts and metal ions in textile wastewaters adversely affects the decolorization efficiency of the microbial bioresources. In this regard, the present study was conducted to isolate salt tolerant bacterial strains which might have the potential to decolorize azo dyes even in the presence of multi-metal ion mixtures. Out of the tested 48 bacteria that were isolated from an effluent drain, the strain NA6 was found relatively more efficient in decolorizing the reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the similarity of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its position in a phylogenetic tree, this strain was designated as Proteus sp. NA6. The strain NA6 showed efficient decolorization (>90 %) of RY2 at pH 7.5 in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl under static incubation at 30 °C. This strain also had the potential to efficiently decolorize other structurally related azo dyes in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Moreover, Proteus sp. NA6 was found to resist the presence of different metal ions (Co(+2), Cr(+6), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2), Cd(+2)) and was capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of different levels of the mixtures of these metal ions along with 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the findings of this study, it can be suggested that Proteus sp. NA6 might serve as a potential bioresource for the biotechnologies involving bioremediation of textile wastewaters containing the metal ions and salts.

  19. Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1996-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  20. Loss of Akt1 in mice increases energy expenditure and protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Easton, Rachael M; Gleason, Catherine E; Monks, Bobby R; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C Ronald; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2012-01-01

    Akt is encoded by a gene family for which each isoform serves distinct but overlapping functions. Based on the phenotypes of the germ line gene disruptions, Akt1 has been associated with control of growth, whereas Akt2 has been linked to metabolic regulation. Here we show that Akt1 serves an unexpected role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as mice deficient for Akt1 exhibit protection from diet-induced obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Although skeletal muscle contributes most of the resting and exercising energy expenditure, muscle-specific deletion of Akt1 does not recapitulate the phenotype, indicating that the role of Akt1 in skeletal muscle is cell nonautonomous. These data indicate a previously unknown function of Akt1 in energy metabolism and provide a novel target for treatment of obesity.

  1. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  2. Determination of low-energy ion-induced electron yields from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, Frederic; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Wurz, Peter; Bochsler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ion beams crossing thin carbon foils can cause electron emission from the entrance and exit surface. Thin carbon foils are used in various types of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers to produce start pulses for TOF measurements. The yield of emitted electrons depends, among other parameters, on the energy of the incoming ion and its mass, and it has been experimentally determined for a few projectile elements. The electron emission yield is of great importance for deriving abundance ratios of elements and isotopes in space plasmas using TOF mass spectrometers. We have developed a detector for measuring ion-induced electron yields, and we have extended the electron yield measurements for oxygen to energies relevant for solar wind research. We also present first measurements of the carbon foil electron emission yield for argon and iron in the solar wind energy range

  3. Flow induced motion and energy harvesting of bluff bodies with different cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Lin; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chunmei; Mao, Xinru; Jiang, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Code for FIM and power harvesting of different cross-section cylinders is developed. • VIV appears combined with galloping for PTC-cylinder and quasi-trapezoid cylinder. • Vortex structures of cylinder in VIV and galloping are predicted accurately. • Power can be harnessed over the high-lift TrSL3 regime when Re > 30,000. - Abstract: The flow induced motion (FIM) and energy conversion of cylinders with different cross sections are investigated using two-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations in the Reynolds number range of 10,000 < Re < 130,000. The model for energy harvesting in FIM is established and verified by experimental measurements. For the PTC-cylinder (circular cylinder with passive turbulence control), square cylinder, Q-trapezoid I (quasi-trapezoid cylinder with the long edge as the windward side), and triangular prism, energy can be obviously harvested when Re > 30,000. The initial and upper branches of vortex induced vibration (VIV), transition from VIV to galloping, and galloping branch are clearly observed in the amplitude and frequency responses. The FIM responses of PTC-cylinder and Q-trapezoid I are stronger than the other cylinders. The maximum amplitude of 3.5D is achieved and 16 vortices are captured in one cycle in the fully-developed galloping branch. The optimum regime for energy harvesting is the VIV upper branch. And the PTC-cylinder and Q-trapezoid I have better performance on energy harvesting in FIM than other cylinders. The maximum energy efficiencies of 45.7% and 37.9% are achieved for Q-trapezoid I and PTC-cylinder respectively. Contrarily, the vibration of Q-trapezoid II (quasi-trapezoid cylinder with the short edge as the windward side) displays a quite different character with low amplitude and high frequency, and the vortex pattern is a constant 2S in the test Re range

  4. Dye decolorization and detoxification potential of Ca-alginate beads immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-12-10

    In view of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental legislation, an eco-friendly treatment technology of industrial dyes and effluents is a major environmental challenge in the color industry. In present study, a promising and eco-friendly entrapment approach was adopted to immobilize purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 on Ca-alginate beads. The immobilized MnP was subsequently used for enhanced decolorization and detoxification of textile reactive dyes). MnP isolated from solid-state culture of G. lucidum IBL-05, presented highest immobilization yield (83.9 %) using alginate beads prepared at optimized conditions of 4 % (w/v) sodium alginate, 2 % (w/v) Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.5 mg/ml enzyme concentration. Immobilization of MnP enhanced optimum temperature but caused acidic shift in optimum pH of the enzyme. The immobilized MnP showed optimum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C as compared to pH 5.0 and 35 °C for free enzyme. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of MnP were significantly improved by immobilization. The enhanced catalytic potential of immobilized MnP led to 87.5 %, 82.1 %, 89.4 %, 95.7 % and 83 % decolorization of Sandal-fix Red C4BLN, Sandal-fix Turq Blue GWF, Sandal-fix Foron Blue E2BLN, Sandal-fix Black CKF and Sandal-fix Golden Yellow CRL dyes, respectively. The insolubilized MnP was reusable for 7 repeated cycles in dye color removal. Furthermore, immobilized MnP also caused a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (94.61-95.47 %), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (91.18-94.85 %), and total organic carbon (TOC) (89.58-95 %) of aqueous dye solutions. G. lucidum MnP was immobilized in Ca-alginate beads by entrapment method to improve its practical effectiveness. Ca-alginate bound MnP was catalytically more vigorous, thermo-stable, reusable and worked over wider ranges of pH and temperature as compared to its free counterpart. Results of cytotoxicity like

  5. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to ΔE/E∼10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION registered ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to ΔE/E 2,3 VV-transition with PAES. Thus, within this thesis two objectives were achieved: Firstly, the PAES spectrometer was renewed and improved by at least one order of magnitude with respect to the signal to noise ratio, the measurement time and the energy resolution. Secondly, several measurements have been carried out, demonstrating the high performance of the spectrometer. Amongst them are first dynamic PAES measurements and a high resolution measurement of the CuM 2,3 VV

  6. Low-energy electron diffraction and induced damage in hydrated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Oh, Doogie; Chen Yanfeng; Aleksandrov, Alexandr B.

    2008-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 5-30 eV electrons within the B-DNA 5 ' -CCGGCGCCGG-3 ' and A-DNA 5 ' -CGCGAATTCGCG-3 ' DNA sequences is calculated using the separable representation of a free-space electron propagator and a curved wave multiple scattering formalism. The disorder brought about by the surrounding water and helical base stacking leads to a featureless amplitude buildup of elastically scattered electrons on the sugar and phosphate groups for all energies between 5 and 30 eV. However, some constructive interference features arising from diffraction are revealed when examining the structural waters within the major groove. These appear at 5-10, 12-18, and 22-28 eV for the B-DNA target and at 7-11, 12-18, and 18-25 eV for the A-DNA target. Although the diffraction depends on the base-pair sequence, the energy dependent elastic scattering features are primarily associated with the structural water molecules localized within 8-10 A spheres surrounding the bases and/or the sugar-phosphate backbone. The electron density buildup occurs in energy regimes associated with dissociative electron attachment resonances, direct electronic excitation, and dissociative ionization. Since diffraction intensity can be localized on structural water, compound H 2 O:DNA states may contribute to energy dependent low-energy electron induced single and double strand breaks

  7. Low energy helium ion irradiation induced nanostructure formation on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J.K.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the low energy helium ion irradiation induced surface morphology changes on tungsten (W) surfaces under extreme conditions. Surface morphology changes on W surfaces were monitored as a function of helium ion energy (140–300 eV), fluence (2.3 × 10 24 –1.6 × 10 25 ions m −2 ), and flux (2.0 × 10 20 –5.5 × 10 20 ion m −2 s −1 ). All the experiments were performed at 900° C. Our study shows significant effect of all the three ion irradiation parameters (ion flux, fluence, and energy) on the surface morphology. However, the effect of ion flux is more pronounced. Variation of helium ion fluence allows to capture the very early stages of fuzz growth. The observed fuzz growth and morphology changes were understood in the realm of various possible phenomena. The study has relevance and important impact in the current and future nuclear fusion applications. - Highlights: •Reporting formation of W nanostructure (fuzz) due to low energy He ion beam irradiation. •Observing the very early stages for the W-Fuzz formation. •Tracking the surface morphological evolution during the He irradiation. •Discussing in depth our observation and drawing a possible scenario that explain this phenomenon. •Studying various ions irradiation parameters such as flux, fluence, and ions energy.

  8. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  9. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkaline. Stored energy, thermoluminescence and coloration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminescence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminescence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KC1 samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose.Capacity of alkali halides to store energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. (Author) 51 refs

  10. Radiation-induced energy migration within solid DNA: The role of misonidazole as an electron trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kazwini, A.T.; O'Neill, P.; Adams, G.E.; Fielden, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The in-pulse luminescence emission from solid DNA produced upon irradiation with electron pulses of energy below 260 keV has been investigated in vacuo at 293 K to gain an insight into the existence of radiation-induced charge/energy migration within DNA. The DNA samples contained misonidazole in the range 3 to 330 base pairs per misonidazole molecule. Under these conditions greater than 90% of the total energy is deposited in the DNA. The in-pulse radiation-induced luminescence spectrum of DNA was found to be critically dependent upon the misonidazole content of DNA. The luminescence intensity from the mixtures decreases with increasing content of misonidazole, and at the highest concentration, the intensity at 550 nm is reduced to 50% of that from DNA only. In the presence of 1 atm of oxygen, the observed emission intensity from DNA in the wavelength region 350-575 was reduced by 35-40% compared to that from DNA in vacuo. It is concluded that electron migration can occur in solid mixtures of DNA over a distance of up to about 100 base pairs

  11. Simultaneous decolorization of sulfonated azo dyes and reduction of hexavalent chromium under high salt condition by a newly isolated salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Cong; Liu, Liang; You, Yanting; Jiang, Jihong; Zhou, Zhengkun; Dong, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    The co-existence of dyes, Cr(VI) and high concentration of salt in dyeing wastewater causes serious and complex environmental problems. In this study, a salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061 was reported to simultaneously remove 50mg/L methyl orange and 50mg/L Cr(VI) under the anaerobic condition with 60g/L NaCl. During the decolorization process, the Cr(VI) reduction occurred preferentially over the dye decolorization due to the dominate utilization of electron by Cr(VI). The analysis of enzyme activities suggested that azoreductase, NADH-DCIP reductase, and laccase were associated with decolorization of methyl orange. A possible degradation pathway was proposed based on the metabolites analysis. The decolorization of methyl orange is involved in the symmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed N,N-dimethyl p-phenylenediamine and 4-amino sulfonic acid, or the asymmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed 4-(dimethylamino) phenol and 4-diazenylbenzene sulfonic acid. Phytotoxicity assays showed that strain BWL1061 could decrease the toxicity of methyl orange to Triticum aestivum, Pogostemon cablin and Isatis indigotica Fort during the decolorization process. In this study, Bacillus circulans is reported for the first time that could simultaneously remove azo dyes and Cr (VI) under high salt condition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Bioaugmentation on decolorization of C.I. Direct Blue 71 by using genetically engineered strain Escherichia coli JM109 (pGEX-AZR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Ruofei; Yang Hua; Zhang Aili; Wang Jing [School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Liu Guangfei [School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: guangfeiliu@yahoo.com.cn

    2009-04-30

    The study showed that Escherichia coli JM109 (pGEX-AZR), the genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) with higher ability to decolorize azo dyes, bioaugmented successfully the dye wastewater bio-treatment systems to enhance C.I. Direct Blue 71 (DB 71) decolorization. The control and bioaugmented reactors failed at a around pH 5.0. However, the bioaugmented one succeeded at around pH 9.0, the influent DB 71 concentration was 150 mg/L, DB 71 concentration was decreased to 27.4 mg/L in 12 h. The 1-3% NaCl concentration of bioaugmented reactors had no definite influence on decolorization, DB 71 concentration was decreased to 12.6 mg/L in 12 h. GEM was added into anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) to enhance DB 71 decolorization. Continuous operations of the control and bioaugmented AnSBRs showed that E. coli JM109 (pGEX-AZR) could bioaugment decolorization. The concentrations of activated sludge and GEM were still more than 2.80 g/L and 1.5 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL, respectively, in the bioaugmented AnSBR. All the microbial communities changed indistinctively with time. The microbial community structures of the control AnSBR were similar to those of the bioaugmented one.

  13. Redox-mediated decolorization of Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 80 catalyzed by bioaffinity-based immobilized tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of concanavalin A (Con A)-cellulose-bound tomato peroxidase for the decolorization of direct dyes. Cellulose was used as an inexpensive material for the preparation of bioaffinity support. Con A-cellulose-bound tomato peroxidase exhibited higher efficiency in terms of dye decolorization as compared to soluble enzyme under various experimental conditions. Both Direct Red 23 and Direct Blue 80 dyes were recalcitrant to the action of enzyme without a redox mediator. Six compounds were investigated for redox-mediating property. Immobilized peroxidase decolorized both dyes to different extent in the presence of all the used redox mediators. However, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole emerged as a potential redox mediator for tomato peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of direct dyes. These dyes were maximally decolorized at pH 6.0 and 40 degrees C by soluble and immobilized peroxidase. The absorption spectra of the untreated and treated dyes exhibited a marked difference in the absorption at various wavelengths. Immobilized tomato peroxidase showed a lower Michaelis constant than the free enzyme for both dyes. Soluble and immobilized tomato peroxidase exhibited significantly higher affinity for Direct Red 23 compared to Direct Blue 80.

  14. A hierarchical assembly of flower-like hybrid Turkish black radish peroxidase-Cu2+nanobiocatalyst and its effective use in dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaynak, Cevahir; Tavlasoglu, Sureyya; Kalin, Ramazan; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Ozdemir, Hasan; Ocsoy, Ismail; Özdemir, Nalan

    2017-09-01

    Effective dye decolorization in wastewater still shows a big challenge. Although the biological methods, especially using enzymes, offer alternative and effective process for dye degradation and overcome the limitations of chemical and physical methods such as the instability, lack of reusability and high cost of free enzymes strictly, which limit their use in many scientific and technical applications. Enzymes rapidly lose their activities in aqueous solutions and against environmental changes due to their very susceptibility and unfavorable conformations. Herein, we report preparation of the enzyme-inorganic hybrid nanostructures with flower-like shape consisting of Turkish black radish peroxidase and Cu 2+ metal ions using an encouraging enzyme immobilization approach. The peroxidase-Cu 2+ hybrid nanoflowers (NFs) exhibited enhanced stability and activity towards various pH values and provided excellent dye decolorization efficiency for Victoria blue (VB) dye with more than 90% within 1 h. The NFs were also repeatedly used in efficient and caused 77% VB decolorization efficiency even at tenth cycles. However, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we prepared peroxidase enzyme isolated from Turkish black radish incorporated NFs and used them for dye decolorization. We believe that the NFs can be promising materials for dye decolorization in real wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum. This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents.

  16. Effects of certain heavy metals on the growth, dye decolorization, and enzyme activity of Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Nóra; Mécs, Imre

    2003-06-01

    Various physiological parameters of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) in the presence of nine heavy metal salts were investigated. The mycelial growth was highly sensitive to cadmium and mercury, but less sensitive to zinc, copper, and lead. This resistance can be particularly dangerous to humans in the case of edible fungi such as Shiitake because of the possible heavy metal accumulation during growth and fruiting body production. All of the tested heavy metals inhibited decolorization of the dye Poly R-478 and the production of manganese peroxidase to a greater extent than they inhibited growth. Interestingly, with the exception of iron, the addition of all heavy metal salts investigated led to the increase of laccase production. Apart from cadmium and iron, none of the heavy metals inhibited the in vitro enzyme activities in concentrations up to 3mM. The results of this study indicated the applicability of L. edodes in biosorption technologies used in the removal of toxic metals from contaminated effluents and in bioremediation technologies designed to treat complex wastes contaminated with heavy metals in addition to other xenobiotics.

  17. Decolorization of Ionic Dyes from Synthesized Textile Wastewater by Nanofiltration Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farhadian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of aqueous solutions containing ionic dyes (Reactive Blue 19 and Acid Black 172 by a TFC commercial polyamide nanofilter (NF in a spiral wound configuration was studied. The effect of operating parameters including feed concentration (60-180 mg/l, pressure (0.5-1.1 MPa and pH (6-10 on dye removal efficiency was evaluated. The response surface method (RSM was utilized for the experimental design and statistical analysis to identify the impact of each factor. The results showed that an increase in the dye concentration and pH can significantly enhance the removal efficiency from 88% and 87% up to 95% and 93% for Reactive and Acid dye, respectively. The effect of pressure on the removal efficiency showed different behavior such that by the raise of pressure from 0.5 to 0.8 MPa, the removal efficiency increased to its maximum, then reduction in removal efficiency was observed by further increases in pressure above the optimum range. The maximum dye removal efficiencies which were predicted at the optimum conditions by Design Expert software were 97 % and 94 % for Reactive Blue 19 and Acid Black 172, respectively. According to the results of this study, NF processes can be used at a significantly lower pressure and fouling issue for reuse applications as an alternative to the widely used RO process.

  18. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  19. Effects of energy deprivation induced by fluorocitrate in immortalised rat brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, R J; Romero, I A; Chan, M W; Abbott, N J

    1996-08-19

    The effects of the mitochondrial aconitase inhibitor, fluorocitrate on the immortalised rat brain endothelial cell line (RBE4) were investigated. Treatment with different concentrations of fluorocitrate (0-1 mM) for 24 h induced a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the MTT reduction (an index of mitochondrial function), intracellular ATP content, glucose consumption and lactate production by RBE4 cell monolayers but did not alter the glucose to lactate ratio at concentrations lower than 0.5 mM. At all concentrations, fluorocitrate induced a significant decrease in the protein content per well. Fluorocitrate treatment of confluent RBE4 cells induced a marked redistribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton from a characteristic marginal band to a more diffuse cytosolic pattern. This redistribution of the cytoskeleton coincided with a reduction in the total cellular F-actin content of the RBE4 cells at fluorocitrate concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. Treatment of confluent RBE4 cells with fluorocitrate had no significant effect on RBE4 cell monolayer permeability measured by FITC-dextran or [14C]sucrose. These results show that whilst energy deprivation following fluorocitrate treatment induces significant changes in the RBE4 cell F-actin cytoskeleton and cellular metabolism, it does not have any significant effect on endothelial cell monolayer permeability. These results demonstrate that profound toxic effects on endothelial cell structure and metabolism are not necessarily accompanied by changes in endothelial cell monolayer permeability.

  20. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  2. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-15

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three

  3. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three essays is to posit

  4. Heart energy metabolism impairment in Western-diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabiana A; Cortez, Erika; Bernardo, Amélia F; Mattos, Ana B M; Vieira, Anatalia K; Malafaia, Tayanne de O; Thole, Alessandra A; Rodrigues-Cunha, Alessandra C de S; Garcia-Souza, Erica P; Sichieri, Rosely; Moura, Anibal S

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional transition has contributed to growing obesity, mainly by changing eating habits of the population. The mechanisms by which diet-induced obesity leads to cardiac injury are not completely understood, but it is known that obesity is associated to impaired cardiac function and energy metabolism, increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying cardiac metabolism impairment related to Western diet-induced obesity. After weaning, male Swiss mice were fed a Western diet for 16 weeks in order to induce obesity. After this period, the content of proteins involved in heart energy metabolism GLUT1, cytosolic lysate and plasma membrane GLUT4, AMPK, pAMPK, IRβ, IRS-1, PGC-1α, CPT1 and UCP2 was evaluated. Also, the oxidative phosphorylation of myocardial fibers was measured by high-resolution respirometry. Mice in the Western diet group (WG) presented altered biometric parameters compared to those in control group, including higher body weight, increased myocardial lipid deposition and glucose intolerance, which demonstrate the obesogenic role of Western diet. WG presented increased CPT1 and UCP2 contents and decreased IRS-1, plasma membrane GLUT4 and PGC-1α contents. In addition, WG presented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced biogenesis, demonstrating a lower capacity of carbohydrates and fatty acid oxidation and also decreased coupling between oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Cardiac metabolism impairment related to Western diet-induced obesity is probably due to damaged myocardial oxidative capacity, reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondria uncoupling, which compromise the bioenergetic metabolism of heart. © 2014.

  5. Thrombocytopenia induced by a taurine-containing energy drink: an adverse reaction to herbal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pasin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a well-recognized adverse effect of many drugs. The association of thrombocytopenia with herbal remedies, nutritional supplements, foods and beverages, complementary or alternative medicines, has been rarely described. There are reports of thrombocytopenia caused by quinine-containing beverages, cow�s milk, cranberry juice, Jui, a Chinese herbal tea, Lupinus termis bean and tahini. A definite evidence of a causal association with thrombocytopenia is warranted; nevertheless not always there is provided probable or possible evidence in the association with thrombocytopenia. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of thrombocytopenia induced by taurine, present in an energy drink prescribed to our patient as tonic treatment.

  6. Axial Colocalization of Single Molecules with Nanometer Accuracy Using Metal-Induced Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Karedla, Narain; Kaminska, Izabela; Ruhlandt, Daja; Raab, Mario; Bohlen, Johann; Chizhik, Alexey; Gregor, Ingo; Tinnefeld, Philip; Enderlein, Jörg; Tsukanov, Roman

    2018-03-27

    Single-molecule localization based super-resolution microscopy has revolutionized optical microscopy and routinely allows for resolving structural details down to a few nanometers. However, there exists a rather large discrepancy between lateral and axial localization accuracy, the latter typically three to five times worse than the former. Here, we use single-molecule metal-induced energy transfer (smMIET) to localize single molecules along the optical axis, and to measure their axial distance with an accuracy of 5 nm. smMIET relies only on fluorescence lifetime measurements and does not require additional complex optical setups.

  7. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, B.; Mignerey, A.C.; Madani, H.; Marchetti, A.A.; Colonna, M.; DiToro, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in lanthanum-induced reactions utilizing inverse kinematics has been studied from E/A = 35 to 55 MeV. At each bombarding energy studied, the probability for the multiple emission of complex fragments has been found to be independent of target. Global features (total charge, source velocity) of the reaction La + Al at E/A = 45 MeV have been reproduced by coupling a dynamical model to study the collision stage of the reaction to a statistical model of nuclear decay

  8. Radiation induced synthesis of gold/iron-oxide composite nanoparticles using high-energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kojima, Takao; Taniguci, Ryoichi; Okuda, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2008-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of gold and iron oxide were synthesized in aqueous solution systems by using a high-energy electron beam. The electron irradiation induces radiation-chemical reaction to form metallic gold nanoparticles. These gold nanoparticles were firmly immobilized on the surface of the support iron oxide nanoparticles. Surface of the support iron oxide nanoparticles are almost fully coated with fine gold nanoparticles. The size of these gold nanoparticles depended on the concentrations of gold ions, polymers and iron oxide nanoparticles in the solutions before the irradiation.

  9. Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monoatomic solids at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Tawara, Hiro.

    1995-03-01

    The yields of the ion-induced sputtering from monoatomic solids at normal incidence for various ion-target combinations are presented graphically as a function of the incident ion energy. In order to fill the lack of the experimental data, the sputtering yields are also calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows available experimental data points and the ACAT data, together with the sputtering yields calculated by the present empirical formula, whose parameters are determined by the best-fit to available data. (author)

  10. Effect of free-particle collisions in high energy proton and pion-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of free-particle collisions in simple ''knockout'' reactions of the form (a,aN) and in more complex nuclear reactions of the form (a,X) was investigated by using protons and pions. Cross sections for the 48 Ti(p,2p) 47 Sc and the 74 Ge(p,2p) 73 Ga reactions were measured from 0.3 to 4.6 GeV incident energy. The results indicate a rise in (p,2p) cross section for each reaction of about (25 +- 3) percent between the energies 0.3 and 1.0 GeV, and are correlated to a large increase in the total free-particle pp scattering cross sections over the same energy region. Results are compared to previous (p,2p) excitation functions in the GeV energy region and to (p,2p) cross section calculations based on a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation model. Cross section measurements for (π/sup +-/, πN) and other more complex pion-induced spallation reactions were measured for the light target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F from 45 to 550 MeV incident pion energy. These measurements indicate a broad peak in the excitation functions for both (π,πN) and (π,X) reactions near 180 MeV incident energy. This corresponds to the large resonances observed in the free-particle π + p and π - p cross sections at the same energy. Striking differences in (π,πN) cross section magnitudes are observed among the light nuclei targets. The experimental cross section ratio sigma(π - ,π - n)/sigma(π + ,πN) at 180 MeV is 1.7 +- 0.2 for all three targets. The experimental results are compared to previous pion and analogous proton-induced reactions, to Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semi-classical nucleon charge exchange model. (108 references) (auth)

  11. Low-energy electron irradiation induced top-surface nanocrystallization of amorphous carbon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Xue; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-10-01

    We report a low-energy electron irradiation method to nanocrystallize the top-surface of amorphous carbon film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. The nanostructure evolution of the carbon film as a function of electron irradiation density and time was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the electron irradiation gave rise to the formation of sp2 nanocrystallites in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. The formation of sp2 nanocrystallite was ascribed to the inelastic electron scattering in the top-surface of carbon film. The frictional property of low-energy electron irradiated film was measured by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The sp2 nanocrystallized top-surface induced a lower friction coefficient than that of the original pure amorphous film. This method enables a convenient nanocrystallization of amorphous surface.

  12. An ionization chamber with Frisch grids for studies of high-energy neutron-induced fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutin, G. A.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Eismont, V. P.; Kireev, A. V.; Condé, H.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.-U.

    2001-01-01

    A gridded ionization chamber for fission fragment detection is described. The chamber has been specially designed for use at the quasi-monoenergetic 7Li(p, n) neutron source at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden. The detector permits measurements of fission fragment energy and emission angle for two targets with diameter of up to 10 cm. The time response of the chamber (⩽5 ns FWHM) is adequate to apply time-of-flight discrimination against background events induced by non-peak neutrons. Results of angular anisotropy measurements for the 232Th (n, f) and 238U(n, f) reactions in the 20-160 MeV energy range are given.

  13. Neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering with nuclei in low and high neutrino energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki, E-mail: cheoun@ssu.ac.kr; Ha, Eunja; Yang, Ghil-Seok [Department of Physics and OMEG institute, Soongsil Univ., Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. S. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We reviewed present status regarding theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. We also discussed that one step-process estimated by the DWBA is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data.

  14. Design and Numerical Simulations of a Flow Induced Vibration Energy Converter for Underwater Mooring Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited battery energy restricts the duration of the underwater operation of underwater mooring platforms (UMPs. In this paper, a flow-induced vibration energy converter (FIVEC is designed to produce power for the UMPs and extend their operational time. The FIVEC is equipped with a thin plate to capture the kinetic energy in the vortices shed from the surface of the UMP. A magnetic coupling (MC is applied for the non-contacting transmission of the plate torque to the generators so that the friction loss can be minimized. In order to quantify and evaluate the performance of the FIVEC, two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are performed. Simulations are based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations and the shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulent model is utilized. The CFD method is firstly validated using existing experimental data. Then the influences of plate length and system damping on the performance of the FIVEC are evaluated. The results show that the device has a maximum averaged power coefficient of 0.0520 (13.86 W in the considered situations. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of this energy converter plan.

  15. Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

    Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: pnutrition or both (pnutrition in ambulatory and HDBR phases. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

  16. Influence of Energy and Temperature in Cluster Coalescence Induced by Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jiménez-Sáez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence induced by deposition of different Cu clusters on an epitaxial Co cluster supported on a Cu(001 substrate is studied by constant-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. The degree of epitaxy of the final system increases with increasing separation between the centres of mass of the projectile and target clusters during the collision. Structure, roughness, and epitaxial order of the supported cluster also influence the degree of epitaxy. The effect of energy and temperature is determinant on the epitaxial condition of the coalesced cluster, especially both factors modify the generation, growth and interaction among grains. A higher temperature favours the epitaxial growth for low impact parameters. A higher energy contributes to the epitaxial coalescence for any initial separation between the projectile and target clusters. The influence of projectile energy is notably greater than the influence of temperature since higher energies allow greater and instantaneous atomic reorganizations, so that the number of arisen grains just after the collision becomes smaller. The appearance of grain boundary dislocations is, therefore, a decisive factor in the epitaxial growth of the coalesced cluster.

  17. Decolorization of anthraquinone dye intermediate and its accelerating effect on reduction of azo acid dyes by Sphingomonas xenophaga in anaerobic-aerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Ai, Haixin; Zheng, Chunli; Yang, Yusuo

    2008-09-01

    Decolorization of 1-aminoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (ASA-2) and its accelerating effect on the reduction of azo acid dyes by Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY were investigated. The study showed that ASA-2 could be efficiently decolorized by strain QYY under aerobic conditions according to the analysis of total organic carbon removal and UV-VIS spectra changes. Moreover, strain QYY was able to reduce azo acid dyes under anaerobic conditions. The effects of various operating conditions such as carbon sources, temperature, and pH on the reduction rate were studied. It was demonstrated that ASA-2 used as a redox mediator could accelerate the reduction process. Consequently the reduction of azo acid dyes mediated by ASA-2 and the decolorization of ASA-2 with strain QYY could be achieved in an anaerobic-aerobic process.

  18. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  19. Decolorization and degradation of azo dye--Reactive Violet 5R by an acclimatized indigenous bacterial mixed cultures-SB4 isolated from anthropogenic dye contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kunal; Shah, Varun; Chapla, Digantkumar; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-04-30

    Azo dyes an important group of synthetic compounds are recalcitrant xenobiotics. Conventional technologies are unsuccessful to efficiently remove these compounds from contaminated environment. However, consorted metabolic functioning of innate microbial communities is a promising approach for bioremediation of polluted environment. Bacterial mixed cultures SB4 proficient in complete decolorization of azo dye - Reactive Violet 5R was developed through culture enrichment technique. Bacterial community composition based on 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that mixed cultures SB4 composed of six bacterial strains namely Bacillus sp. V1DMK, Lysinibacillus sp. V3DMK, Bacillus sp. V5DMK, Bacillus sp. V7DMK, Ochrobacterium sp. V10DMK, Bacillus sp. V12DMK. SB4 grew well in minimal medium containing low amount of glucose and yeast extract (YE) (1 g/L) and decolorized 200mg/L of RV5 within 18 h under static condition. Mixed cultures SB4 decolorized wide range of azo dyes and maximum rate of decolorization was observed at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Decolorization efficiency was found to be unaltered under high RV5 and salt concentration where 1500 mg/L of RV5 was decolorized in presence of 20 g/L NaCl. We propose the asymmetric cleavage of RV5 and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the formation of four intermediatory compounds 1-diazo-2-naphthol, 4-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid, 2-naphthol and benzenesulphonic acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Directs POMC Gene to Mediate Hypothalamic Glucose Sensing and Energy Balance Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Guo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Park, Sung-min; Cai, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a nuclear transcription factor that responds to environmental and pathological hypoxia to induce metabolic adaptation, vascular growth, and cell survival. Here we found that HIF subunits and HIF2α in particular were normally expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus of mice. Hypothalamic HIF was up-regulated by glucose to mediate the feeding control of hypothalamic glucose sensing. Two underlying molecular pathways were identified, including suppression of PHDs by glucose metabolites to prevent HIF2α degradation and the recruitment of AMPK and mTOR/S6K to regulate HIF2α protein synthesis. HIF activation was found to directly control the transcription of POMC gene. Genetic approach was then employed to develop conditional knockout mice with HIF inhibition in POMC neurons, revealing that HIF loss-of-function in POMC neurons impaired hypothalamic glucose sensing and caused energy imbalance to promote obesity development. The metabolic effects of HIF in hypothalamic POMC neurons were independent of leptin signaling or pituitary ACTH pathway. Hypothalamic gene delivery of HIF counteracted overeating and obesity under conditions of nutritional excess. In conclusion, HIF controls hypothalamic POMC gene to direct the central nutrient sensing in regulation of energy and body weight balance. PMID:21814490

  1. Enhancement of wind energy harvesting by interaction between vortex-induced vibration and galloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuefeng; Yang, Xiaokang; Jiang, Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Most wind energy harvesters (WEHs) that have been reported in the literature collect wind energy using only one type of wind-induced vibration, such as vortex-induced vibration (VIV), galloping, and flutter or wake galloping. In this letter, the interaction between VIV and galloping is used to improve the performance of WEHs. For a WEH constructed by attaching a bluff body with a rectangular cross-section to the free end of a piezoelectric cantilever, the measures to realize the interaction are theoretically discussed. Experiments verified the theoretical prediction that the WEHs with the same piezoelectric beam may demonstrate either separate or interactive VIV and galloping, depending on the geometries of the bluff bodies. For the WEHs with the interaction, the wind speed region of the VIV merges with that of the galloping to form a single region with high electrical outputs, which greatly increases the electrical outputs at low wind speeds. The interaction can be realized even when the predicted galloping critical speed is much higher than the predicted VIV critical speed. The proposed interaction is thus an effective approach to improve the scavenging efficiencies of WEHs operating at low wind speeds.

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor directs POMC gene to mediate hypothalamic glucose sensing and energy balance regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF is a nuclear transcription factor that responds to environmental and pathological hypoxia to induce metabolic adaptation, vascular growth, and cell survival. Here we found that HIF subunits and HIF2α in particular were normally expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus of mice. Hypothalamic HIF was up-regulated by glucose to mediate the feeding control of hypothalamic glucose sensing. Two underlying molecular pathways were identified, including suppression of PHDs by glucose metabolites to prevent HIF2α degradation and the recruitment of AMPK and mTOR/S6K to regulate HIF2α protein synthesis. HIF activation was found to directly control the transcription of POMC gene. Genetic approach was then employed to develop conditional knockout mice with HIF inhibition in POMC neurons, revealing that HIF loss-of-function in POMC neurons impaired hypothalamic glucose sensing and caused energy imbalance to promote obesity development. The metabolic effects of HIF in hypothalamic POMC neurons were independent of leptin signaling or pituitary ACTH pathway. Hypothalamic gene delivery of HIF counteracted overeating and obesity under conditions of nutritional excess. In conclusion, HIF controls hypothalamic POMC gene to direct the central nutrient sensing in regulation of energy and body weight balance.

  3. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  4. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako; Kume, Shinji; Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakzu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding

  5. Determination of uranium in complex matrices using radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is the principal fuel for nuclear reactors and the main raw material for nuclear weapons. Uranium is a very heavy metal which can be used as an abundant source of concentrated energy. Uranium occurs in most rocks with concentrations ranging from 2 to 4 parts per million and is as common in the Earth’s crust as tin, tungsten and molybdenum. Uranium occurs in seawater, and can be recovered from the oceans. Uranium also occurs in rock phosphate used as fertilizers. Uranium can be determined in all these sources by Radioisotope Induced Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (RIEDXRF). In the light of the above facts I want to bring out the potential of RIEDXRF in determining U in many of the applications. In my talk application of RIEDXRF for the determination of U in sea water, in rock phosphates, in resins, and how EXAFS has been used in studying UL3 chemical shifts of U in elemental form and compounds will be presented. The experimental set up consists of an annular radioisotope source whose photon output falls on the sample kept directly opposite the source. X-rays in reflection geometry falls on the Be window of the Liq N 2 cooled X-ray Semiconductor Si(Li) detector of a resolution of 170 eV at 5.9 keV X-ray and U L-X-rays are detected, determined and stored in a PCA for off-line analysis. The methodology developed, the results obtained and the conclusions will be detailed in the presentation and will review all the work carried out by me in NPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for determination of uranium by Radioisotope Induced Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence and related techniques. (author)

  6. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emilia Rios-Del Toro, E.; Celis, Lourdes B.; Cervantes, Francisco J.; Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO 3 to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents

  7. Enhanced microbial decolorization of methyl red with oxidized carbon fiber as redox mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emilia Rios-Del Toro, E. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [División de Geociencias Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene, E-mail: rene@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) act as redox mediator. • Electron accepting capacity increased with oxidation time of ACF. •ACFs increased 8-fold the reduction of methyl red in biological assays. •Biofilm formed on the ACFs partly blocked their redox mediator capacity. -- Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions is possible but at a slow rate. Redox mediators (quinones, activated carbon) are used to improve the reduction rate. The aim of this work was to use activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a redox mediator for the anaerobic reduction of the azo dye methyl red. ACF was chemically modified with 8 M HNO{sub 3} to increase its redox-mediating capacity and used in chemical and anaerobic biological batch assays for the reduction of methyl red. ACF increased its redox-mediating capacity up to 3-fold in chemical assays; in biological assays ACF increased the reduction rate up to 8-fold compared to controls without ACF. However, since the ACF served as support for biomass, a biofilm formed on the fiber significantly reduced its redox-mediating capacity; substrate consumption suggested that the electron transport from ACF to methyl red was the rate-limiting step in the process. These results are the first evidence of the role of ACF as a redox mediator in the reductive decolorization of methyl red, in addition to the effect of biofilm attached to ACF on methyl red reduction. Due to the versatile characteristics of ACF and its redox-mediating capacity, carbon fibers could be used in biological wastewater treatment systems to accelerate the reductive transformation of pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents.

  8. Mechanistic Insights into Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase Revealed by Solvent Isotope and Viscosity Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ruben [Department; Huang, Gaochao [Department; Meekins, David A. [Department; Geisbrecht, Brian V. [Department; Li, Ping [Department

    2017-08-18

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) are a family of H2O2-dependent heme peroxidases that have shown potential applications in lignin degradation and valorization. However, the DyP kinetic mechanism remains underexplored. Using structural biology and solvent isotope (sKIE) and viscosity effects, many mechanistic characteristics have been determined for the B-class ElDyP from Enterobacter lignolyticus. Its structure revealed that a water molecule acts as the sixth axial ligand and two channels at diameters of ~3.0 and 8.0 Å lead to the heme center. A conformational change of ERS* to ERS, which have identical spectral characteristics, was proposed as the final step in DyPs’ bisubstrate Ping-Pong mechanism. This step is also the rate-determining step in ABTS oxidation. The normal KIE of wild-type ElDyP with D2O2 at pD 3.5 suggested that compound 0 deprotonation by the distal aspartate is rate-limiting in the formation of compound I, which is more reactive under acidic pH than under neutral or alkaline pH. The viscosity effects and other biochemical methods implied that the reducing substrate binds with compound I instead of the free enzyme. The significant inverse sKIEs of kcat/KM and kERS* suggested that the aquo release in ElDyP is mechanistically important and may explain the enzyme’s adoption of two-electron reduction for compound I. The distal aspartate is catalytically more important than the distal arginine and plays key roles in determining ElDyP’s optimum acidic pH. The kinetic mechanism of D143H-ElDyP was also briefly studied. The results obtained will pave the way for future protein engineering to improve DyPs’ lignolytic activity.

  9. Evaluation of the individuality of white rot macro fungus for the decolorization of synthetic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Priyanka; Singh, Ram Praksh; Singh, Kailash Nath; Manisankar, Paramasivam

    2013-01-01

    A biosorbent was developed by simple dried Agaricus bisporus (SDAB) and effectively used for the biosorption of cationic dyes, Crystal Violet and Brilliant Green. For the evaluation of the biosorbent system, all the batch equilibrium parameters like pH, biomass dose, contact time, and temperature were optimized to determine the decolorization efficiency of the biosorbent. The maximum yields of dye removal were achieved at pH 4.0 for Crystal Violet (CV) and pH 5.0 for Brilliant Green (BG), which are closer to their natural pH also. Equilibrium was established at 60 and 40 min for CV and BG, respectively. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intraparticle-diffusion kinetic models were studied at different temperatures. Isotherm models such as Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich were also studied. Biosorption processes were successfully described by Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The biosorption capacity of A. bisporus over CV and BG were found as 21.74 and 12.16 mg gm(-1). Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the CV and BG dye adsorption onto A. bisporus is spontaneous and exothermic in the single and ternary systems. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for the surface morphology, crystalline structure of biosorbent, and dye-biosorbent interaction, respectively. This analysis of the biosorption data confirmed that these biosorption processes are ecofriendly and economical. Thus, this biomass system may be useful for the removal of contaminating cationic dyes.

  10. Decolorization of certain reactive dye from aqueous solution using Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Baker’s yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a synthetic dye aqueous solution and real industry effluent from Giza spinning and weaving company, Giza, Egypt. The removal of color from one of the azo dyes, ramazole blue (Vinyl sulfone, had been carried out by Baker’s yeast using repeated-batch process. Factors such as solution pH, dye concentration and biomass dosage at different interval times were experimentally tested. The effect of pH on dye bioremoval was investigated at a pH range from 1 ± 0.02 to 6 ± 0.02. The optimum pH values were 2 ± 0.02, 1 ± 0.02, 3 ± 0.02, 4 ± 0.02 and 5 ± 0.02 for direct dye removal, respectively. The effect of dye concentrations was studied using different concentrations of synthetic dye containing 100–600 ppm and the effect of biomass weight was also studied at pH 2 ± 0.02 for different interval times. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium were determined using two different sorption models namely; Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. These isothermal models were applied to evaluate differences in the biosorption rates and uptakes of textile dye with a high degree of correlation coefficients in case of Freundlich’s isothermal model (R2 = 0.947. At the end of the experiments, the treatment with Baker’s yeast strain could reduce color absorbance and COD value of real textile wastewater by 100% and 61.82%, respectively. Baker’s yeast cells were characterized using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

  11. Mechanistic Insights into Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase Revealed by Solvent Isotope and Viscosity Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ruben; Huang, Gaochao; Meekins, David A; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Li, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) are a family of H 2 O 2 -dependent heme peroxidases, which have shown potential applications in lignin degradation and valorization. However, the DyP kinetic mechanism remains underexplored. Using structural biology and solvent isotope (sKIE) and viscosity effects, many mechanistic characteristics have been uncovered for the B-class El DyP from Enterobacter lignolyticus . Its structure revealed that a water molecule acts as the sixth axial ligand with two channels at diameters of ~3.0 and 8.0 Å leading to the heme center. A conformational change of ERS * to ERS, which have identical spectral characteristics, was proposed as the final step in DyPs' bisubstrate Ping-Pong mechanism. This step is also the rate-determining step in ABTS oxidation. The normal KIE of wild-type El DyP with D 2 O 2 at pH 3.5 suggested that cmpd 0 deprotonation by the distal aspartate is rate-limiting in the formation of cmpd I, which is more reactive under acidic pH than under neutral or alkaline pH. The viscosity effects and other biochemical methods implied that the reducing substrate binds with cmpd I instead of the free enzyme. The significant inverse sKIEs of k cat / K M and k ERS* suggested that the aquo release in DyPs is mechanistically important and may explain the enzyme's adoption of two-electron reduction for cmpd I. The distal aspartate is catalytically more important than the distal arginine and plays key roles in determining DyPs' acidic pH optimum. The kinetic mechanism of D143H- El DyP was also briefly studied. The results obtained will pave the way for future protein engineering to improve DyPs' lignolytic activity.

  12. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  13. Radiation effects induced in H2O ice by high energy ions and astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benit, J.

    1987-06-01

    This thesis presents the study of radiation effects induced in H 2 O ice by MeV/u ions: desorption of ionized species, erosion of the irradiated film and molecular synthesis within the ice. The desorption is analysed by time of flight mass spectroscopy. We describe the mass spectra of the desorbed ions, both positively and negatively charged, up to 400 uma. The absolute yields are given, as well as their dependence with the energy and energy loss of the primary ions. The erosion of the ice is analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, on line during the irradiation. Absolute yields are derived, as a function of the ions beam flux, the mass and energy of the ions, and the thickness of the samples. A linear dependence of the yield with the thickness is interpreted as follows: the erosion comes primarily from the dissociation of the molecules all along the ion tracks. Some astrophysical implications of the results are discussed in the framework of irradiation of icy material in a variety of environments: magnetospheres of giant planets, cometary nuclei, circumstellar shells and molecular clouds. It is emphasized that the irradiation by energetic ions plays a major role in cosmochemistry [fr

  14. Inhomogeneity induced and appropriately parameterized semilocal exchange and correlation energy functionals in two-dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Abhilash; Jana, Subrata; Samal, Prasanjit

    2018-04-01

    The construction of meta generalized gradient approximations based on the density matrix expansion (DME) is considered as one of the most accurate techniques to design semilocal exchange energy functionals in two-dimensional density functional formalism. The exchange holes modeled using DME possess unique features that make it a superior entity. Parameterized semilocal exchange energy functionals based on the DME are proposed. The use of different forms of the momentum and flexible parameters is to subsume the non-uniform effects of the density in the newly constructed semilocal functionals. In addition to the exchange functionals, a suitable correlation functional is also constructed by working upon the local correlation functional developed for 2D homogeneous electron gas. The non-local effects are induced into the correlation functional by a parametric form of one of the newly constructed exchange energy functionals. The proposed functionals are applied to the parabolic quantum dots with a varying number of confined electrons and the confinement strength. The results obtained with the aforementioned functionals are quite satisfactory, which indicates why these are suitable for two-dimensional quantum systems.

  15. Parametric Study and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester from Flow Induced Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, P.; Jawahar Chandra, C.; Neeraj, P.; Santhosh, B.

    2018-02-01

    Self-powered systems have become the need of the hour and several devices and techniques were proposed in favour of this crisis. Among the various sources, vibrations, being the most practical scenario, is chosen in the present study to investigate for the possibility of harvesting energy. Various methods were devised to trap the energy generated by vibrating bodies, which would otherwise be wasted. One such concept is termed as flow-induced vibration which involves the flow of a fluid across a bluff body that oscillates due to a phenomenon known as vortex shedding. These oscillations can be converted into electrical energy by the use of piezoelectric patches. A two degree of freedom system containing a cylinder as the primary mass and a cantilever beam as the secondary mass attached with a piezoelectric circuit, was considered to model the problem. Three wake oscillator models were studied in order to determine the one which can generate results with high accuracy. It was found that Facchinetti model produced better results than the other two and hence a parametric study was performed to determine the favourable range of the controllable variables of the system. A fitness function was formulated and optimization of the selected parameters was done using genetic algorithm. The parametric optimization led to a considerable improvement in the harvested voltage from the system owing to the high displacement of secondary mass.

  16. Strategy of ring-shaped aggregates in excitation energy transfer for removing disorder-induced shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Go; Nakatani, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral light harvesting complex (LH2), which is found in photosynthetic antenna systems of purple photosynthetic bacteria, has important functions in the photosynthetic process, such as harvesting sunlight and transferring its energy to the photosynthetic reaction center. The key component in excitation energy transfer (EET) between LH2s is B850, which is a characteristic ring-shaped aggregate of pigments usually formed by 18 or 16 bacteriochlorophylls in LH2. We theoretically study the strategy of the ring-shaped aggregate structure, which maximizes EET efficiency, by using the standard Frenkel exciton model and the self-consistent calculation method for the Markovian quantum master equation and Maxwell equation. As a result, we have revealed a simple but ingenious strategy of the ring-shaped aggregate structure. The combination of three key properties of the ring unit system maximizes the EET efficiency, namely the large dipole moment of aggregates causes the basic improvement of EET efficiency, and the isotropic nature and the large occupying area are critically effective to remove the disorder-induced shielding that inhibits EET in the presence of the randomness of orientation and alignment of carriers of excitation energy.

  17. Strategy of ring-shaped aggregates in excitation energy transfer for removing disorder-induced shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tei, Go; Nakatani, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral light harvesting complex (LH2), which is found in photosynthetic antenna systems of purple photosynthetic bacteria, has important functions in the photosynthetic process, such as harvesting sunlight and transferring its energy to the photosynthetic reaction center. The key component in excitation energy transfer (EET) between LH2s is B850, which is a characteristic ring-shaped aggregate of pigments usually formed by 18 or 16 bacteriochlorophylls in LH2. We theoretically study the strategy of the ring-shaped aggregate structure, which maximizes EET efficiency, by using the standard Frenkel exciton model and the self-consistent calculation method for the Markovian quantum master equation and Maxwell equation. As a result, we have revealed a simple but ingenious strategy of the ring-shaped aggregate structure. The combination of three key properties of the ring unit system maximizes the EET efficiency, namely the large dipole moment of aggregates causes the basic improvement of EET efficiency, and the isotropic nature and the large occupying area are critically effective to remove the disorder-induced shielding that inhibits EET in the presence of the randomness of orientation and alignment of carriers of excitation energy. (paper)

  18. Low-energy electron irradiation induced top-surface nanocrystallization of amorphous carbon film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Xue, E-mail: fanx@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Low-energy electron irradiation was proposed to nanocrystallize the top-surface of the as-deposited amorphous carbon film, and sp{sup 2} nanocrystallites formed in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. Display Omitted - Abstract: We report a low-energy electron irradiation method to nanocrystallize the top-surface of amorphous carbon film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. The nanostructure evolution of the carbon film as a function of electron irradiation density and time was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the electron irradiation gave rise to the formation of sp{sup 2} nanocrystallites in the film top-surface within 4 nm thickness. The formation of sp{sup 2} nanocrystallite was ascribed to the inelastic electron scattering in the top-surface of carbon film. The frictional property of low-energy electron irradiated film was measured by a pin-on-disk tribometer. The sp{sup 2} nanocrystallized top-surface induced a lower friction coefficient than that of the original pure amorphous film. This method enables a convenient nanocrystallization of amorphous surface.

  19. High-energy particle-induced tumorigenesis throughout the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Daniela; Nelson, Scott A; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Swedlow, Jan J; Williams, Elizabeth M; Strawn, Steven J; Appleton, Paul L; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Näthke, Inke; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological data reveals the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as one of the main sites for low-LET radiation-induced cancers. Importantly, the use of particle therapy is increasing, but cancer risk by high-LET particles is still poorly understood. This gap in our knowledge also remains a major limiting factor in planning long-term space missions. Therefore, assessing risks and identifying predisposing factors for carcinogenesis induced by particle radiation is crucial for both astronauts and cancer survivors. We have previously shown that exposure to relatively high doses of high-energy (56)Fe ions induced higher intestinal tumor frequency and grade in the small intestine of Apc(Min/+) mice than γ rays. However, due to the high number of spontaneous lesions (∼30) that develop in Apc(Min/+) animals, this Apc mutant model is not suitable to investigate effects of cumulative doses astronauts and particle radiotherapy patients. However, Apc(1638N/+) mice develop a relatively small number of spontaneous lesions (∼3 per animal) in both small intestine and colon, and thus we propose a better model for studies on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated model particle radiation increases tumor frequency and grade in the entire gastrointestinal tract (stomach and more distal intestine) after high- and low-radiation doses whether in the Apc(1638N/+). We have previously reported that an increase in small intestinal tumor multiplicity after exposure to γ rays was dependent on gender in Apc(1638N/+) mice, and here we investigated responses to particle radiation in the same model. Phenotypical and histopathological observations were accompanied by late changes in number and position of mitotic cells in intestinal crypts from animals exposed to different radiation types.

  20. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-04-03

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to {delta}E/E{approx}10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION {sup registered} ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to {delta}E/E < 1. The exceptional surface sensitivity and elemental selectivity of PAES was demonstrated in measurements of Pd and Fe, both coated with Cu layers of varying thickness. PAES showed that with 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe, more than 55% of the detected Auger electrons stem from Cu. In the case of the Cu coated Pd sample 0.96 monolayer of Cu resulted in a Cu Auger fraction of more than 30% with PAES and less than 5% with electron induced Auger spectroscopy

  1. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  2. Non-linear sputtering effects induced by MeV energy gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussofiane-Baudin, K.; Brunelle, A.; Chaurand, P.; Della-Negra, S.; Depauw, J.; Le Beyec, Y.; Hakansson, P.

    1993-09-01

    Gold clusters Au n + with 1 < n ≤ 4, accelerated to MeV energies at the Orsay tandem accelerator, have been used to induce secondary ion emission from the surface of thin organic and inorganic films. A non-linear enhancement of the secondary ion yields is observed when cluster impacts are compared to single atom impacts at the same velocity. It has been shown that the collective effects propagate in the solid over a depth larger than 2000 A. The equilibrium charge state of cluster constituents after their passage through a thin carbon foil (1000 A) has been measured. The mean value for the cluster constituents is the same as for single atoms at the same velocity. (authors). 41 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Measurements of angular and energy distributions of prompt neutrons from thermal neutron-induced fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, A. S.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Pleva, Yu. S.; Gagarski, A. M.; Val'ski, G. V.; Petrov, G. A.; Petrova, V. I.; Zavarukhina, T. A.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental setup and methodology used to measure prompt neutron angular and energy distributions from thermal neutron-induced fission are described. The neutrons are detected using two scintillation detectors, while the fission fragments are detected by multi-wire proportional detectors in conjunction with the TOF technique. To separate events corresponding to neutrons and γ-quanta, a double discrimination by the pulse shape and the time-of-flight is applied. Some preliminary results of an experiment performed with the 235U target are presented and briefly discussed. The yield of "scission" neutrons has been estimated in the framework of a simple evaporation model and was found not to exceed 5% of the total neutron yield. Including an assumed of anisotropy of the fission neutron angular distribution in the center-of-mass system of fission fragments into the model calculation leads to an increase in the "scission" neutron yields inferred from the data.

  4. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing

    2011-08-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform dynamic atomic relaxation in the presence of an electric current while evaluating the current-voltage characteristics. The central idea consists of expressing the system energy density matrix in terms of Green\\'s functions. To validate our implementation, we perform a series of benchmark calculations, both at zero and at finite bias. First we evaluate the current-induced forces acting over an Al nanowire and compare them with previously published results for fixed geometries. Then we perform structural relaxation of the same wires under bias and determine the critical voltage at which they break. We find that although a perfectly straight wire does not break at any of the voltages considered, a zigzag wire is more fragile and snaps at 1.4 V, with the Al atoms moving against the electron flow. The critical current density for the rupture is estimated to be 9.6 × 1010 A/cm2, in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 5 × 1010 A/cm2. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of our scheme to tackle the electromigration problem by studying the current-induced motion of a single Si atom covalently attached to the sidewall of a (4,4) armchair single-walled carbon nanotube. Our calculations indicate that if Si is attached along the current path, then current-induced forces can induce migration. In contrast, if the bonding site is away from the current path, then the adatom remains stable regardless of the voltage. An analysis based on decomposing the total force into a wind and an electrostatic component, as well as on a detailed evaluation of the bond currents, shows that this remarkable electromigration phenomenon is due solely to the position-dependent wind force. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. A new polymer-based laccase for decolorization of AO7: long-term storage and mediator reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Pan, Bingcai; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

    2014-07-01

    To address the bottlenecks of laccase-based catalysis, i.e., poor long-term stability and potential secondary pollution caused by synthetic mediator, we fabricated a new biocatalyst (N-PS-Lac) through adsorption of laccase onto polystyrene anion exchangers (N-PS) binding quaternary ammonium groups. After 2-year storage, the residual activity of N-PS-Lac remained as high as 101.7%, while that for native laccase was only 14.6%. Also, N-PS-Lac exhibited improved durability against pH variation and thermal treatment at 60°C. Gaussian curve fitting of FT-IR spectra indicated that laccase conformation of N-PS-Lac was rigidified, possibly because of the host geometric restriction and the host-laccase electrostatic attraction. A two-step method, i.e., adsorption of an azo dye AO7 by N-PS and then ectopic degradation by the immobilized laccase, was proposed to reuse the mediator HOBT for seven cyclic runs, where N-PS-Lac kept the constant decolorization efficiency. AO7 solution was detoxified completely after decolorization by the two-step method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of a macro-fungus for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 (AR44) dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, Tamer; Tosun, Ilknur; Kaynak, Zerrin; Kavas, Emine; Incirkus, Gonul; Akar, Sibel Tunali

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the possible use of macro-fungus Agaricus bisporus to remove Acid Red 44 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of pH, biomass amount, contact time and temperature to determine the decolorization efficiency of biosorbent. The highest dye removal yield was achieved at pH 2.0. Equilibrium occurred within about 30 min. Biosorption data were successfully described by Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of biosorbent material was found as 1.19 x 10 -4 mol g -1 . Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption of Acid Red 44 onto fungal biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of possible dye-biosorbent interaction and surface structure of biosorbent, respectively. Finally the proposed biosorbent was successfully used for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 in synthetic wastewater conditions.

  7. Decolorization and degradation of xenobiotic azo dye Reactive Yellow-84A and textile effluent by Galactomyces geotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kurade, Mayur B; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kabra, Akhil N; Kim, Pil Joo; Waghmode, Tatoba R

    2014-08-01

    Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 exhibited 86% decolorization of azo dye Reactive Yellow-84A (50mgL(-1)) within 30h at 30°C and pH 7.0 under static condition. Examination of azoreductase, laccase and tyrosinase enzyme activities confirmed their prominent role in Reactive Yellow-84A degradation. Considerable reduction of COD (73%) and TOC (62%) during degradation of the dye was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were further analyzed by HPLC, FTIR, GC-MS and HPTLC. The degradation products were identified as 4(5-hydroxy, 4-amino cyclopentane) sulfobenzene and 4(5-hydroxy cyclopentane) sulfobenzene by GC-MS. In addition, when G. geotrichum was applied to decolorize textile effluent, it showed 85% of true color removal (ADMI removal) within 72h, along with a significant reduction in TOC and COD. Phytotoxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of degraded Reactive Yellow-84A as compared to original dye. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment.

  9. Efficient photocatalytic decolorization of some textile dyes using Fe ions doped polyaniline film on ITO coated glass substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspulat, Bircan; Gülce, Ahmet; Gülce, Handan

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the photocatalytic decolorization of four commercial textile dyes with different structures has been investigated using electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and Fe ions doped polyaniline on ITO coated glass substrate as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, FT-IR spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the electrochemically synthesized polymer film photocatalyst. Film hydrophilicity was assessed from contact angle measurements. The results show that both of the polymer films exhibit good photocatalytic performance. Surprisingly, it was determined that by using Fe(II) ions during polymerization, it is possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the produced polyaniline films which favors their photocatalytic activity in water-based solutions. All four of the used dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange and methyl red) were completely decolorizated in 90 min of irradiation under UV light by using Fe ions doped polyaniline at the dye concentration of 1.5 × 10(-5)M, while the decolorization of those dyes were between 43% and 83% by using polyaniline as photocatalyst. Hence, it may be a viable technique for the safe disposal of textile wastewater into waste streams. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Iterative reconstruction for dual energy CT with an average image-induced nonlocal means regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houjin; Zeng, Dong; Lin, Jiahui; Zhang, Hao; Bian, Zhaoying; Huang, Jing; Gao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shanli; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    Reducing radiation dose in dual energy computed tomography (DECT) is highly desirable but it may lead to excessive noise in the filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructed DECT images, which can inevitably increase the diagnostic uncertainty. To obtain clinically acceptable DECT images from low-mAs acquisitions, in this work we develop a novel scheme based on measurement of DECT data. In this scheme, inspired by the success of edge-preserving non-local means (NLM) filtering in CT imaging and the intrinsic characteristics underlying DECT images, i.e. global correlation and non-local similarity, an averaged image induced NLM-based (aviNLM) regularization is incorporated into the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) framework. Specifically, the presented NLM-based regularization is designed by averaging the acquired DECT images, which takes the image similarity within the two energies into consideration. In addition, the weighted least-squares term takes into account DECT data-dependent variance. For simplicity, the presented scheme was termed as ‘PWLS-aviNLM’. The performance of the presented PWLS-aviNLM algorithm was validated and evaluated on digital phantom, physical phantom and patient data. The extensive experiments validated that the presented PWLS-aviNLM algorithm outperforms the FBP, PWLS-TV and PWLS-NLM algorithms quantitatively. More importantly, it delivers the best qualitative results with the finest details and the fewest noise-induced artifacts, due to the aviNLM regularization learned from DECT images. This study demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of the presented PWLS-aviNLM algorithm to improve the DECT reconstruction and resulting material decomposition.

  11. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Exacerbates Stroke-Induced Forelimb Abnormalities and Dampens Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Caine, Sally; Li, Xue; Hackett, Mark J; Bradley, Michael P; Nichol, Helen; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2018-02-03

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) pre-existing at stroke onset is believed to worsen functional outcome, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since brain inflammation is an important modulator of neurological recovery after stroke, we explored the impact of PEM on neuroinflammation in the acute period in relation to stroke-initiated sensori-motor abnormalities. Adult rats were fed a low-protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet for 28 days before inducing photothrombotic stroke (St) in the forelimb region of the motor cortex or sham surgery; the diets continued for 3 days after the stroke. Protein-energy status was assessed by a combination of body weight, food intake, serum acute phase proteins and corticosterone, and liver lipid content. Deficits in motor function were evaluated in the horizontal ladder walking and cylinder tasks at 3 days after stroke. The glial response and brain elemental signature were investigated by immunohistochemistry and micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging, respectively. The LP-fed rats reduced food intake, resulting in PEM. Pre-existing PEM augmented stroke-induced abnormalities in forelimb placement accuracy on the ladder; LP-St rats made more errors (29 ± 8%) than the NP-St rats (15 ± 3%; P < 0.05). This was accompanied by attenuated astrogliosis in the peri-infarct area by 18% and reduced microglia activation by up to 41 and 21% in the peri-infarct area and the infarct rim, respectively (P < 0.05). The LP diet altered the cortical Zn, Ca, and Cl signatures (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that proactive treatment of pre-existing PEM could be essential for optimal post-stroke recovery.

  12. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  13. Measurement of NdFeB permanent magnets demagnetization induced by high energy electron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temnykh, Alexander B. [Wilson Lab, Cornell University, LEPP, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)], E-mail: abt6@cornell.edu

    2008-03-11

    Demagnetization of NdFeB permanent magnets has been measured as function of radiation dose induced by high energy electrons. The magnet samples were of different intrinsic coercive forces, {approx_equal}12 and {approx_equal}20KOe, dimensions and direction of magnetization. 5 GeV electron beam from 12 GeV Cornell Synchrotron was used as a radiation source. A calorimetric technique was employed for radiation dose measurement. Results indicated that depending on the sample intrinsic coercive force, shape and direction of magnetization the radiation dose causing 1% of demagnetization of the sample varies from 0.0765{+-}0.005Mrad to 11.3{+-}3.0Mrad, i.e., by more than a factor of 100. Experimental data analysis revealed that demagnetization of the given sample induced by radiation is strongly correlated with the sample demagnetizing temperature. This correlation was approximated by an exponential function with two parameters obtained from the data fitting. The function can be used to predict the critical radiation dose for permanent magnet assemblies like undulator magnets based on its demagnetizing temperature. The latter (demagnetization temperature) can be determined at the design stage from 3-D magnetic modeling and permanent magnet material properties.

  14. Arctigenin preferentially induces tumor cell death under glucose deprivation by inhibiting cellular energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Qi, Chunting; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xiuquan; Zhang, Haohao; Hu, Lihong; Yuan, Junying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-08-15

    Selectively eradicating cancer cells with minimum adverse effects on normal cells is a major challenge in the development of anticancer therapy. We hypothesize that nutrient-limiting conditions frequently encountered by cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors might provide an opportunity for developing selective therapy. In this study, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of a natural compound, arctigenin, in regulating tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that arctigenin selectively promoted glucose-starved A549 tumor cells to undergo necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In doing so, arctigenin elevated cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocked cellular energy metabolism in the glucose-starved tumor cells. We also demonstrated that cellular ROS generation was caused by intracellular ATP depletion and played an essential role in the arctigenin-induced tumor cell death under the glucose-limiting condition. Furthermore, we combined arctigenin with the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and examined their effects on tumor cell growth. Interestingly, this combination displayed preferential cell-death inducing activity against tumor cells compared to normal cells. Hence, we propose that the combination of arctigenin and 2DG may represent a promising new cancer therapy with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rutin (quercetin rutinoside) induced protein-energy malnutrition in chronic kidney disease, but quercetin acted beneficially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2013-07-31

    Nutraceutically, much of the literature has indicated that an aglycon and its related glycoside would act similarly. However, controversial reports are accumulating. We hypothesize that rutin (RT) and quercetin (QT) pharmacodynamically could act differently. To confirm this, doxorubicin (DR) (8.5 mg/kg) was used to induce rat chronic kidney disease (CKD) and then treated with QT and RT (each 70 mg/kg body weight per day) for 13 weeks. QT exhibited better body weight gaining effect (420 ± 45) vs RT, 350 ± 57 g/rat (p protein-energy malnutrition". RT stimulated serum creatinine (sCr) production to reach 6.0 ± 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.001). QT did not alter the sCr level. RT but not QT induced uremia and hypercreatininemia. DR significantly downregulated Bcl-2, but highly upregulated Bax, Bad, and cleaved caspase-3, implicating the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. DR damaged DNA, but QT completely rescued such an effect and recovered renal amyloidosis and collagen deposition. Conclusively, RT and QT act differently, and RT is inferior to QT with respect to treating CKD.

  16. Investigation of proton induced reactions on niobium at low and medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Corniani, E.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F.; Csikai, J.; Shubin, Yu. N.

    2009-01-01

    Niobium is a metal with important technological applications: use as alloying element to increase strength of super alloys, as thin layer for tribological applications, as superconductive material, in high temperature engineering systems, etc. In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross-sections of charged particle induced reactions on structural materials proton induced excitation functions on Nb targets were determined with the aim of applications in accelerator and reactor technology and for thin layer activation (TLA). The charged particle activation cross-sections on this element are also important for yield calculation of medical isotope production ( 88,89 Zr, 86,87,88 Y) and for dose estimation in PET targetry. As niobium is a monoisotopic element it is an ideal target material to test nuclear reaction theories. We present here the experimental excitation functions of 93 Nb(p,x) 90,93m Mo, 92m,91m,90 Nb, 88,89 Zr and 88 Y in the energy range 0-37 MeV. The results were compared with the theoretical cross-sections calculated by means of the code ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-3, TALYS and with the literature data. The theory reproduces the shape of the measured results well and magnitude is also acceptable. Thick target yields calculated from our fitted cross-section give reliable estimations for production of medically relevant radioisotopes and for dose estimation in accelerator technology.

  17. Rose hip supplementation increases energy expenditure and induces browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Berger, Karin; Holm, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are widespread chronic disorders defined as excessive fat accumulation, and are major risk factors for several chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and fatty liver. Changes in lifestyle such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet can be crucial tools for treating obesity. Intake of rose hip, the fruit of several plants belonging to the Rosaceae family, has been shown to reduce body fat mass and prevent body weight gain. Thus, the aim of the study was to elucidate potential mechanisms through which rose hip inhibit diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet with (RH) or without (CTR) rose hip supplementation for three months. In vivo indirect calorimetry was monitored, as well as gene expression and protein levels of different adipose depots. Although no differences in energy intake were found compared to the CTR group, RH prevented body weight gain and lowered blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels. Indirect calorimetry showed that RH-fed mice have significantly higher EE during the dark phase, despite comparable voluntary activity. Moreover, when challenged with treadmill running, RH-fed mice exhibited higher metabolic rate. Therefore, we hypothesized that RH could stimulate the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic capacity or may induce browning of the white adipose tissue (WAT). Compared to the CTR group, gene expression and protein levels of some brown and "brite" markers, together with genes able to promote brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis (such as ucp1, tbx15 , bmp7, and cidea ), as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, was increased in WAT (but not in BAT) of RH-fed mice. Taken together these results indicate that dietary rose hip prevents body weight gain by increasing whole body EE and inducing browning of WAT. Thus, it has potential therapeutic implication for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  18. Strongly Asymmetric Spectroscopy in Plasmon-Exciton Hybrid Systems due to Interference-Induced Energy Repartitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Si-Jing; Li, Xiaoguang; Nan, Fan; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xudong; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2017-10-01

    Recent intense effort has been devoted to exploring different manifestations of resonant excitations of strongly coupled plasmons and excitons, but so far such studies have been limited to situations where the Fano- or Rabi-type spectra are largely symmetric at zero detuning. Using a newly developed full quantum mechanical model, here we reveal the existence of a highly asymmetric spectroscopic regime for both the Rabi splitting and transparency dip. The asymmetric nature is inherently tied to the non-negligible exciton absorbance and is caused by substantial interference-induced energy repartitioning of the resonance peaks. This theoretical framework can be exploited to reveal the quantum behaviors of the two excitation entities with varying mutual coupling strengths in both linear and nonlinear regimes. We also use prototypical systems of rhodamine molecules strongly coupled with AuAg alloyed nanoparticles and well-devised control experiments to demonstrate the validity and tunability of the energy repartitioning and correlated electronic state occupations, as captured by the variations in the asymmetric spectroscopy and corresponding nonlinear absorption coefficient as a function of the Au:Ag ratio. The present study helps to substantially enrich our microscopic understanding of strongly coupled plasmon-exciton systems.

  19. Development of a wave-induced forcing threshold for nearshore impact of Wave Energy Converter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.

    2016-02-01

    Wave-induced forcing is a function of spatial gradients in the wave radiation stresses and is the main driver of alongshore currents, rip currents, and nearshore sediment transport. The installation of nearshore Wave Energy Converter (WEC) arrays may cause significant changes in the surf zone radiation stresses and could therefore impact nearshore littoral processes. In the first part of this study, a new threshold for nearshore hydrodynamic impact due to the presence of WEC devices is established based on changes in the alongshore radiation stress gradients shoreward of WEC arrays. The threshold is defined based on the relationship between nearshore radiation stresses and alongshore currents as observed in field data. Next, we perform a parametric study of the nearshore impact of WEC arrays using the SWAN wave model. Trials are conducted on an idealized, alongshore-uniform beach with a range of WEC array configurations, locations, and incident wave conditions, and conditions that generate radiation stress gradients above the impact threshold are identified. Finally, the same methodology is applied to two wave energy test sites off the coast of Newport, OR with more complicated bathymetries. Although the trends at the field sites are similar to those seen in the parametric study, the location and extent of the changes in the alongshore radiation stress gradients appear to be heavily influenced by the local bathymetry.

  20. Optimization of the LHC interaction region with respect to beam-induced energy deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Strait, J.B.

    1996-06-01

    Energy deposition in the superconducting magnets by particles from p- p collisions is a significant challenge for the design of the LHC high luminosity insertions. We have studies the dependence of the energy deposition on the apertures and strengths of insertion magnets and on the placement of absorbers in front of and within the quadrupoles. Monte Carlo simulations were made using the code DTUJET to generate 7x7 TeV p-p events and the code MARS to follow hadronic and electromagnetic cascades induced in the insertion components. The 3D geometry and magnetic field descriptions of the LHC-4.1 lattice were used. With a quadrupole coil aperture ≥70 mm, absorbers can be placed within the magnet bore which reduce the peak power density, at full luminosity, below 0.5 mW/g, a level that should allow the magnets to operate at their design field. The total heat load can be removed by a cooling system similar to that used in the main magnets

  1. Phonon-induced enhancement of the energy gap and critical current of superconducting aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligson, D.; Clarke, J.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancements of the energy gap Δ and the critical current I/sub c/ have been induced in thin superconducting aluminum films near the transition temperature T/sub c/ by pulses of phonons at approximately 9 GHz. In terms of the change in temperature Vertical BardeltaT/T/sub c/Vertical Bar necessary to produce the same enhancement in equilibrium, the gap enhancement increased smoothly with phonon power at fixed temperature and decreasing temperature at fixed phonon power; however, very close to T/sub c/ the enhancement rolled off. At relatively low phonon powers, the data were in good agreement with the theory of Eckern, Schmid, Schmutz, and Schoen, but at higher power levels the data fell markedly below the predictions of the theory. The critical-current enhancements in terms of Vertical BardeltaT/T/sub c/Vertical Bar were always larger than the gap enhancements at the same temperature and phonon power. At fixed phonon power the critical-current enhancements were nearly independent of temperature, except very close to T/sub c/ where the enhancement became small. The inclusion of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution and the kinetic energy of the supercurrent in the theory relating the critical-current enhancement to the gap enhancement did not resolve the discrepancies between the two enhancements. It appears likely that there is an additional mechanism for critical-current enhancement that has not yet been identified

  2. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymers under ionizing radiation: the study of energy transfers to radiation induced defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced defects created in polymers submitted to ionizing radiations, under inert atmosphere, present the same trend as a function of the dose. When the absorbed dose increases, their concentrations increase then level off. This behavior can be assigned to energy transfers from the polymer to the previously created macromolecular defects; the latter acting as energy sinks. During this thesis, we aimed to specify the influence of a given defect, namely the trans-vinylene, in the behavior of polyethylene under ionizing radiations. For this purpose, we proposed a new methodology based on the specific insertion, at various concentrations, of trans-vinylene groups in the polyethylene backbone through chemical synthesis. This enables to get rid of the variety of created defects on one hand and on the simultaneity of their creation on the other hand. Modified polyethylenes, containing solely trans-vinylene as odd groups, were irradiated under inert atmosphere, using either low LET beams (gamma, beta) or high LET beams (swift heavy ions). During irradiations, both macromolecular defects and H 2 emission were quantified. According to experimental results, among all defects, the influence of the trans-vinylene on the behavior of polyethylene is predominant. (author) [fr

  4. pH effect on decolorization of raw textile wastewater polluted with reactive dyes by advanced oxidation with uv/h2o2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Rimeika, M.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2) in decolorizing real textile wastewater polluted with commercial reactive dyes - Reactive Yellow 84 and Reactive Red 141 was investigated. All the experiments were performed in a lab-scale reactor with the original high pH of the

  5. Aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by growing cells of a newly isolated yeast Candida tropicalis TL-F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Ning, Shuxiang; Zhang, Xuwang; Shi, Shengnan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by growing cells of a new yeast strain TL-F1 which was isolated from the sea mud. Strain TL-F1 was identified as Candida tropicalis on the basis of 28S rDNA analysis. Various azo dyes (20mg/L) were efficiently decolorized through aerobic degradation. Meantime, the effects of different parameters on both decolorization of Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR and growth of strain TL-F1 were investigated. Furthermore, possible degradation pathway of the dye GR was proposed through analysis of metabolic products using UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC-MS methods. As far as it is known, it is the first systematic research on a C. tropicalis strain which is capable of efficiently decolorizing various azo dyes under aerobic condition. This work provides a potentially useful microbial strain TL-F1 for treatment of azo dye contaminated wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a newly isolated yeast Magnusiomyces ingens LH-F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Li, Hua; Ning, Shuxiang; Xu, Bingwen

    2014-04-01

    Aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by both of suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of a newly isolated yeast strain LH-F1 were investigated in this study. A yeast strain LH-F1 capable of aerobically decolorizing various azo dyes (20mg/L) was identified as Magnusiomyces ingens basing on 26S rDNA analysis. Meanwhile, effects of different parameters on decolorization of Acid Red B by both of suspended growing cells and immobilized cells of strain LH-F1 were investigated. Furthermore, possible degradation pathway of the dye was proposed through analyzing metabolic intermediates using UV-Vis and HPLC-MS methods. As far as it is known, it is the first systematic research on a M. ingens strain which is capable of efficiently decolorizing azo dyes under aerobic condition. Additionally, this work would also provide a potentially useful microbial strain LH-F1 for treatment of industrial wastewaters containing azo dyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decolorization of textile azo dye and Congo red by an isolated strain of the dissimilatory manganese-reducing bacterium Shewanella xiamenensis BC01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I-Son; Chen, Tingting; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Xia; Ni, Chao; Sun, Dongzhe

    2014-03-01

    Shewanella xiamenensis BC01 (SXM) was isolated from sediment collected off Xiamen, China and was identified based on the phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA sequences and the gyrB gene. This strain showed high activity in the decolorization of textile azo dyes, especially methyl orange, reactive red 198, and recalcitrant dye Congo red, decolorizing at rates of 96.2, 93.0, and 87.5%, respectively. SXM had the best performance for the specific decolorization rate (SDR) of azo dyes compared to Proteus hauseri ZMd44 and Aeromonas hydrophila NIU01 strains and had an SDR similar to Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in Congo red decolorization. Luria-Bertani medium was the optimal culture medium for SXM, as it reached a density of 4.69 g-DCW L(-1) at 16 h. A mediator (manganese) significantly enhanced the biodegradation and flocculation of Congo red. Further analysis with UV-VIS, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that Congo red was cleaved at the azo bond, producing 4,4'-diamino-1,1'-biphenyl and 1,2'-diamino naphthalene 4-sulfonic acid. Finally, SEM results revealed that nanowires exist between the bacteria, indicating that SXM degradation of the azo dyes was coupled with electron transfer through the nanowires. The purpose of this work is to explore the utilization of a novel, dissimilatory manganese-reducing bacterium in the treatment of wastewater containing azo dyes.

  8. Purification and characterization of laccase produced by a white rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju under submerged culture condition and its potential in decolorization of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Arulmani, Manavalan; Nam, In-Hyun; Kim, Young-Mo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kalaichelvan, P Thangavelu

    2006-10-01

    An extracellular laccase was isolated and purified from Pleurotus sajor-caju grown in submerged culture in a bioreactor, and used to investigate its ability to decolorize three azo dyes. The extracellular laccase production was enhanced up to 2.5-fold in the medium amended with xylidine (1 mM). Purification was carried out using ammonium sulfate (70% w/v), DEAE-cellulose, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The enzyme was purified up to 10.3-fold from the initial protein preparation with an overall yield of 53%. The purified laccase was monomeric with an apparent molecular mass of 61.0 kDa. The purified enzyme exerted its optimal activity with 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and oxidized various lignin-related phenols. The catalytic efficiencies kcat/Km determined for ABTS and syringaldazine were 9.2x10(5) and 8.7x10(5), respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified enzyme was 5.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Sodium azide completely inhibited the laccase activity. The absorption spectrum revealed type 1 and type 3 copper signals. The purified enzyme decolorized azo dyes such as acid red 18, acid Black 1, and direct blue 71 up to 90, 87, and 72%, respectively. Decolorization ability of P. sajor-caju laccase suggests that this enzyme could be used for decolorization of industrial effluents.

  9. Decolorization of azo dye acid black 1 by the UV/H2O2 process and optimization of operating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Fan, Huan-Jung

    2004-09-10

    An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was applied for decolorization of a di-azo dye (acid black 1). The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, UV dosage and initial dye concentration, on decolorization have been evaluated. The acid black 1 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 21.24 mmol/l and UV dosage of 1400 W/l in less than 1.2 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. For real case application, an operation parameter plot of rate constant was developed. To evaluate the electric power and hydrogen peroxide consumption by UV/H2O2 reactor, 90% color removal was set as criteria to find the balance between both factors.

  10. Visible-light photocatalytic decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B on Cu{sub 2}O/crosslinked-chitosan nanocomposites prepared via one step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chunhua [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: xiaoling9119@yahoo.cn [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Li; Zhu, Huayue [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Chunhua; Gao, Lin [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Cu{sub 2}O/crosslinked-chitosan nanocomposites (Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs) were in situ prepared via a simple one-step liquid phase precipitation–reduction process and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, BET, XPS and UV–vis/DRS. The characterization results showed that Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs were almost similar spherical or ellipsoidal and the surface was rough and porous because Cu{sub 2}O particle was wrapped in chitosan. The chitosan layer was especially favorable for improving the adsorption ability of dye and molecular oxygen and restraining the recombination of electrons–holes pair. The visible-light photocatalytic decolorization behavior on Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs was evaluated using reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) as a model pollutant. The influences of various experimental factors on X-3B decolorization were investigated. It was found that the photocatalytic decolorization process on Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs followed apparent pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The dye X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in alkaline media. Cu{sub 2}O/CS NCs exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared with other photocatalysts reported before under similar experimental conditions.

  11. Thermophillic treatment by anaerobic granular sludge as an effective approach to accelerate the electron transfer and improve the reductive decolorization of azo dyes in bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos A.B.; Traverse, J.; Cervantes, F.J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and the redox mediator, thraquinone- 2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on electron transfer and subsequent reductive decolorization of dyes rom textile wastewater was assessed in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic bioreactors. The results clearly

  12. Efficient secretion of three fungal laccases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their potential for decolorization of textile industry effluent - A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antošová, Zuzana; Herkommerová, Klára; Pichová, I.; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2018), s. 69-80 ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laccase * decolorization * gene expression * expression optimization * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Industrial biotechnology Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  13. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on ZnO nanowires/macroporous SiO2 composites for the complete decolorization of anthraquinone dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaiyan; Jin, Xinyu; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2018-03-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires/macroporous silicon dioxide composite was used as support to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) simply by in situ cross-linking method. As cross-linker was adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanowires, the cross-linked HRP was quite different from the traditional cross-linking enzyme aggregates on both structure and catalytic performance. Among three epoxy compounds, diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DDE) was the best cross-linker, with which the loading amount of HRP with pI of 5.3 reached as high as 118.1 mg/g and specific activity was up to 14.9 U/mg-support. The mass loss of HRP cross-linked with DDE was negligible during 50-H leaching at 4 °C, and the thermal stability of the immobilized HRP was also quite good. The catalytic performance of immobilized HRP to decolorize anthraquinone dye was explored by using Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19) and Acid Violet 109 (AV 109) as model substrates. The results indicated that the immobilized HRP exhibited high decolorization efficiency and good reusability. The decolorization efficiency reached 94.3% and 95.9% for AV 109 and RB 19 within the first 30 Min, respectively. A complete decolorization of these two dyes has been realized within 2-3 H by using this new biocatalysis system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Simultaneous detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Kamat, S.; Shailaja, M.S.

    of toxicity of the MSW. The concentration of PAH in the MSW decreased by 68% by day 5 on treatment with the fungus. This is the first report where decolorization of MSW is accompanied by simultaneous detoxification and decrease in PAH content of the MSW. A...

  15. Transformations in oxides induced by high-energy ball-milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepelák, Vladimir; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Le Caër, Gérard

    2012-10-21

    This paper, by no means exhaustive, focuses on high-energy ball-milling of oxides, on their mechanically induced changes and on the consequences of such changes on their physical and chemical properties. High-energy ball-milling offers a fortunate combination of technical simplicity and of complexity both of physical mechanisms which act during milling and of mechanosynthesized materials. Its basic interest, which stems from the large diversity of routes it offers to prepare oxides either directly or indirectly, is illustrated with various families of oxides. The direct path is to be favoured when as-milled oxides are of interest per se because of their nanocrystalline characteristics, their defects or their modified structures which result from mechanically driven phase transformations. The indirect path consists of a sequence of steps starting with mechanically activated oxides which may be subsequently just annealed or submitted to a combination of thermal treatments, with the possible occurrence of various chemical reactions, to prepare the sought-after materials with potential gains in processing temperatures and times. High energy ball-milling of oxides is more and more currently used to activate powders and to prepare nano-oxides at moderate temperatures. The interest of an activation step is well illustrated by the broad development of doped titania powders, synthesized by heat treatment of pre-ground reactants, for photocatalytic applications or to develop antibacterial materials. Another important class of applications of high-energy ball-milling is the formation of composites. It is exemplified here with the case of oxide-dispersed strengthened alloys whose properties are considerably improved by a dispersion of ultra-stable nanosized oxides whose formation mechanisms were recently described. The basic understanding of the mechanisms by which oxides or oxide mixtures evolve by high-energy ball-milling appears to be less advanced than it is for metallic

  16. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruel, Gaëtan; Villagrasa, Carmen; Voisin, Pascale; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF) per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This comparison allowed us to

  17. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  18. Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Xinwei Cui; Jian Chen; Tianfei Wang; Weixing Chen

    2014-01-01

    High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Here, we adopted a lithium-carbon battery configuration. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. The induced fluorination of CNTA papers activated the revers...

  19. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of 238U in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of 238 U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of 238 U

  20. How do policies for efficient energy use in the household sector induce energy-efficiency innovation? An evaluation of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Stucki, Tobias; Woerter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research on innovation induced by climate-mitigation policy has been focused predominantly on the supply side of the energy system. Despite considerable climate-mitigation potential on the demand side, less attention is given to the innovation effect of policies addressing the household sector. Based on a comprehensive data set, including 550 policy measures over 30 years (1980–2009) and covering 21 European countries, we find—based on econometric estimations—that policies targeting efficient energy use in the household sector significantly increase the number of patented energy-efficiency inventions. A comparison of the different policy types reveals a particularly strong influence from financial subsidies and energy labels. The results indicate that policies supporting early market adoption of energy-efficient technologies are effective in fostering innovation. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency policy on energy-efficiency innovation. • The dataset covers patents and policies for 1980–2009 in 21 European countries. • Household policies show a positive influence on innovation activity (patented inventions). • The influence is most pronounced for financial subsidies and energy labels.

  1. Statistical Analysis and ETAS Modeling of Seismicity Induced by Production of Geothermal Energy from Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinske, C.; Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate seismicity related to hydrothermal systems in Germany and Italy, focussing on temporal changes of seismicity rates. Our analysis was motivated by numerical simulations The modeling of stress changes caused by the injection and production of fluid revealed that seismicity rates decrease on a long-term perspective which is not observed in the considered case studies. We analyze the waiting time distributions of the seismic events in both time domain (inter event times) and fluid volume domain (inter event volume). We find clear indications that the observed seismicity comprises two components: (1) seismicity that is directly triggered by production and re-injection of fluid, i.e. induced events, and (2) seismicity that is triggered by earthquake interactions, i.e. aftershock triggering. In order to better constrain our numerical simulations using the observed induced seismicity we apply catalog declustering to seperate the two components. We use the magnitude-dependent space-time windowing approach introduced by Gardner and Knopoff (1974) and test several published algorithms to calculate the space-time windows. After declustering, we conclude that the different hydrothermal reservoirs show a comparable seismic response to the circulation of fluid and additional triggering by earthquake interactions. The declustered catalogs contain approximately 50 per cent of the number of events in the original catalogs. We then perform ETAS (Epidemic Type Aftershock; Ogata, 1986, 1988) modeling for two reasons. First, we want to know whether the different reservoirs are also comparable regarding earthquake interaction patterns. Second, if we identify systematic patterns, ETAS modeling can contribute to forecast seismicity during production of geothermal energy. We find that stationary ETAS models cannot accurately capture real seismicity rate changes. One reason for this finding is given by the rate of observed induced events which is not constant over time. Hence

  2. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the

  3. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. When the lowest energy does not induce native structures: parallel minimization of multi-energy values by hybridizing searching intelligences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lü

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein structure prediction (PSP, which is usually modeled as a computational optimization problem, remains one of the biggest challenges in computational biology. PSP encounters two difficult obstacles: the inaccurate energy function problem and the searching problem. Even if the lowest energy has been luckily found by the searching procedure, the correct protein structures are not guaranteed to obtain. RESULTS: A general parallel metaheuristic approach is presented to tackle the above two problems. Multi-energy functions are employed to simultaneously guide the parallel searching threads. Searching trajectories are in fact controlled by the parameters of heuristic algorithms. The parallel approach allows the parameters to be perturbed during the searching threads are running in parallel, while each thread is searching the lowest energy value determined by an individual energy function. By hybridizing the intelligences of parallel ant colonies and Monte Carlo Metropolis search, this paper demonstrates an implementation of our parallel approach for PSP. 16 classical instances were tested to show that the parallel approach is competitive for solving PSP problem. CONCLUSIONS: This parallel approach combines various sources of both searching intelligences and energy functions, and thus predicts protein conformations with good quality jointly determined by all the parallel searching threads and energy functions. It provides a framework to combine different searching intelligence embedded in heuristic algorithms. It also constructs a container to hybridize different not-so-accurate objective functions which are usually derived from the domain expertise.

  5. When the Lowest Energy Does Not Induce Native Structures: Parallel Minimization of Multi-Energy Values by Hybridizing Searching Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qiang; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Rong; Miao, Da-Jun; Chen, Sha-Sha; Quan, Li-Jun; Li, Hai-Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein structure prediction (PSP), which is usually modeled as a computational optimization problem, remains one of the biggest challenges in computational biology. PSP encounters two difficult obstacles: the inaccurate energy function problem and the searching problem. Even if the lowest energy has been luckily found by the searching procedure, the correct protein structures are not guaranteed to obtain. Results A general parallel metaheuristic approach is presented to tackle the above two problems. Multi-energy functions are employed to simultaneously guide the parallel searching threads. Searching trajectories are in fact controlled by the parameters of heuristic algorithms. The parallel approach allows the parameters to be perturbed during the searching threads are running in parallel, while each thread is searching the lowest energy value determined by an individual energy function. By hybridizing the intelligences of parallel ant colonies and Monte Carlo Metropolis search, this paper demonstrates an implementation of our parallel approach for PSP. 16 classical instances were tested to show that the parallel approach is competitive for solving PSP problem. Conclusions This parallel approach combines various sources of both searching intelligences and energy functions, and thus predicts protein conformations with good quality jointly determined by all the parallel searching threads and energy functions. It provides a framework to combine different searching intelligence embedded in heuristic algorithms. It also constructs a container to hybridize different not-so-accurate objective functions which are usually derived from the domain expertise. PMID:23028708

  6. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  7. Measurement of energy dependence of fission fragment angular anisotropy for resonance neutron induced fission of 235U aligned target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdzel, A.A.; Furman, W.I.

    1996-01-01

    The results of the experiment on measuring the energy dependence of fission fragment angular anisotropy in resonance neutron induced fission of 235 U aligned target in energy region up to 42 eV are presented. The agreement with the data of Pattenden and Postma in resonances is good enough, while the theoretical curve, calculated using the R-matrix multilevel two fission channel approach, does not seem to describe the energy dependence of fission fragment angular anisotropy property. The necessity of taking into account the interference between levels with different spins is discussed. 11 refs., 2 figs

  8. Monte Carlo simulation for fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Saettone, E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de lngenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Apartado 31-139, Lima (Peru)

    2007-07-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from the thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U have been studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening on the standard deviation of the final fragment kinetic energy distribution ({sigma}{sub e}(m)) around the mass number m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125 that is in agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. These results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the variation in the primary fragment mean kinetic energy, and the yield as a function of the mass. (Author)

  9. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Bhasin

    Full Text Available The relaxation response (RR is the counterpart of the stress response. Millennia-old practices evoking the RR include meditation, yoga and repetitive prayer. Although RR elicitation is an effective therapeutic intervention that counteracts the adverse clinical effects of stress in disorders including hypertension, anxiety, insomnia and aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits remain undetermined. To assess rapid time-dependent (temporal genomic changes during one session of RR practice among healthy practitioners with years of RR practice and also in novices before and after 8 weeks of RR training, we measured the transcriptome in peripheral blood prior to, immediately after, and 15 minutes after listening to an RR-eliciting or a health education CD. Both short-term and long-term practitioners evoked significant temporal gene expression changes with greater significance in the latter as compared to novices. RR practice enhanced expression of genes associated with energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, insulin secretion and telomere maintenance, and reduced expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress-related pathways. Interactive network analyses of RR-affected pathways identified mitochondrial ATP synthase and insulin (INS as top upregulated critical molecules (focus hubs and NF-κB pathway genes as top downregulated focus hubs. Our results for the first time indicate that RR elicitation, particularly after long-term practice, may evoke its downstream health benefits by improving mitochondrial energy production and utilization and thus promoting mitochondrial resiliency through upregulation of ATPase and insulin function. Mitochondrial resiliency might also be promoted by RR-induced downregulation of NF-κB-associated upstream and downstream targets that mitigates stress.

  10. Exploring ultrashort high-energy electron-induced damage in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.; Fortunel, N.O.; Vaigot, P.; Cadio, E.; Martin, M.T.; Lundh, O.; Faure, J.; Rechatin, C.; Malka, V.; Gauduel, Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    In conventional cancer therapy or fundamental radiobiology research, the accumulated knowledge on the complex responses of healthy or diseased cells to ionizing radiation is generally obtained with low-dose rates. Under these radiation conditions, the time spent for energy deposition is very long compared with the dynamics of early molecular and cellular responses. The use of ultrashort pulsed radiation would offer new perspectives for exploring the 'black box' aspects of long irradiation profiles and favouring the selective control of early damage in living targets. Several attempts were previously performed using nanosecond or picosecond pulsed irradiations on various mammalian cells and radiosensitive mutants at high dose rate. The effects of single or multi-pulsed radiations on cell populations were generally analyzed in the framework of dose survival curves or characterized by 2D imaging of γ-H2AX foci and no increase in cytotoxicity was shown compared with a delivery at a conventional dose rate. Moreover, when multi-shot irradiations were performed, the overall time needed to obtain an integrated dose of several Grays again overlapped with the multi-scale dynamics of bio-molecular damage-repair sequences and cell signalling steps. Ideally, a single-shot irradiation delivering a well-defined energy profile, via a very short temporal window, would permit the approach of a real-time investigation of early radiation induced molecular damage within the confined spaces of cell compartments. Owing to the potential applications of intense ultrashort laser for radiation therapy, the model of the A431 carcinoma cell line was chosen. An ultrafast single-shot irradiation strategy was carried out with these radio-resistant human skin carcinoma cells, using the capacity of an innovating laser-plasma accelerator to generate quasi mono-energetic femtosecond electron bunches in the MeV domain and to deliver a very high dose rate of 10 13 Gy s -1 per pulse. The alkaline comet

  11. Experimental determination of proton induced reaction cross sections on {sup nat}Ni near threshold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Shariff, Md. Asad; Das, Sopan [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    A newly developed facility at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at Dhaka for measurement of proton induced reaction cross sections in the energy region below 5 MeV is outlined and tests for the beam characterization are described. The results were validated by comparison with the well-known excitation function of the {sup 64}Ni(p, n){sup 64}Cu reaction. Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 60,61}Cu, {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 55,57,58m+g}Co and {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 57}Ni were also measured from threshold to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, whereby irradiations were performed with 5 MeV protons available at the Tandem Accelerator and 16.7 MeV protons at the BC 1710 cyclotron at Juelich, Germany. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. In particular, the results of the reaction {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 61}Cu below 3 MeV could serve as beam monitor.

  12. The use of low energy, ion induced nuclear reactions for proton radiotherapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, K. M.; Doyle, B.; Segal, M. N.; Hamm, R. W.; Adler, R. J.; Glatstein, E.

    1995-12-01

    Medical radiotherapy has traditionally relied upon the use of external photon beams and internally implanted radioisotopes as the chief means of irradiating tumors. However, advances in accelerator technology and the exploitation of novel means of producing radiation may provide useful alternatives to some current modes of medical radiation delivery — with reduced total dose to surrounding healthy tissue, reduced expense, or increased treatment accessibility. This paper will briefly overview currently established modes of radiation therapy, techniques still considered experimental but in clinical use and innovative concepts under study that may enable new forms of treatment or enhance existing ones. The potential role of low energy, ion-induced nuclear reactions in radiotherapy applications is examined specifically for the 650 keV d( 3He,p) 4 He nuclear reaction. This examination will describe the basic physics associated with this reaction's production of 17.4 MeV protons and the processes used to fabricate the necessary materials used in the technique. Calculations of the delivered radiation dose, heat generation, and required exposure times are presented. Experimental data is also presented validating the dose calculations. The design of small, lower cost ion accelerators, as embodied in "nested"-tandem and radio frequency quadrupole accelerators is examined, as is the potential use of high-output 3He and deuterium ion sources. Finally, potential clinical applications are discussed in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to current radiotherapy methods and equipment.

  13. Resonant antineutrino induced electron capture with low energy bound-beta beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldeman, R.G.C.; Meloni, M.; Saitta, B. [Universita degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cagliari (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Antineutrino induced electron capture is a resonant process that can have a large cross-section for beams of monochromatic antineutrinos. We calculate the cross-section of this process and investigate an experimental setup where monochromatic antineutrinos are produced from the bound-beta decay of fully ionized radioactive atoms in a storage ring. If the energy between the source and the target is well matched, the cross-sections can be significantly larger than the cross-sections of commonly used non-resonant processes. The rate that can be achieved at a small distance between the source and two targets of 10{sup 3} kg is up to one interaction per 8.3.10{sup 18} decaying atoms. For a source-target distance corresponding to the first atmospheric neutrino oscillation maximum, the largest rate is one interaction per 3.2.10{sup 21} decaying atoms, provided that extremely stringent monochromaticity conditions (10{sup -7} or better) are achieved in future ion beams. (orig.)

  14. Strain-Induced Enhancement of the Electron Energy Relaxation in Strongly Correlated Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gadermaier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We use femtosecond optical spectroscopy to systematically measure the primary energy relaxation rate Γ_{1} of photoexcited carriers in cuprate and pnictide superconductors. We find that Γ_{1} increases monotonically with increased negative strain in the crystallographic a axis. Generally, the Bardeen-Shockley deformation potential theorem and, specifically, pressure-induced Raman shifts reported in the literature suggest that increased negative strain enhances electron-phonon coupling, which implies that the observed direct correspondence between a and Γ_{1} is consistent with the canonical assignment of Γ_{1} to the electron-phonon interaction. The well-known nonmonotonic dependence of the superconducting critical temperature T_{c} on the a-axis strain is also reflected in a systematic dependence T_{c} on Γ_{1}, with a distinct maximum at intermediate values (∼16  ps^{−1} at room temperature. The empirical nonmonotonic systematic variation of T_{c} with the strength of the electron-phonon interaction provides us with unique insight into the role of electron-phonon interaction in relation to the mechanism of high-T_{c} superconductivity as a crossover phenomenon.

  15. RFLP analysis of rice semi-dwarf mutation induced by high energy argon ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Chuxiong; Hu Weimin; Mei Mantong

    1997-01-01

    Two Indica rice varieties, Bianpizhan and Xiangzhan, and their semi-dwarf mutants induced by high energy argon ion radiation, Ar-10, and Xiang-Ar-1, were examined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis by using 97 rice single copy genomic clones mapped on 12 chromosomes of molecular genetic map, combined with 5 restriction enzymes. Among the markers screened, 9 detected polymorphism were between Bianpizhen and Ar-10, and 11 detected polymorphism were between Xiangzhan and Xiang-Ar-1. Moreover, two or more restriction enzymes could generate RFLP patterns when screened with a given marker for several polymorphic markers. Based on the polymorphic allelic loci, the mutation frequencies were estimated as 5.15% and 6.39% for Ar-10 and Xiang-Ar-1 respectively. These results suggested that the nature of mutation on the DNA level was probably large genetic changes rather than point mutation. Genetic analysis and gene tagging of semi-dwarf mutation in one of the mutant line, Ar-10, indicated that this mutation was controlled by a major recessive gene, which was preliminary located on chromosome 4

  16. RFLP Analysis of rice semi dwarf mutation induced by high energy argon ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Chuxiong; Hu Weimin; Mei Mantong

    1997-01-01

    Two Indica rice varieties, Bianpizhan and Xiangzhan, and their semi dwarf mutants induced by high energy argon ion radiation, Ar 10, and Xiang Ar 1, were examined with restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP)analysis by using 97 rice single copy genomic clones mapped on 12 chromosomes of molecular genetic map, combined with 5 restriction enzymes.Among the markers screened, 9 detected polymorphism were between Bianpizhan and Ar 10, and 11 detected polymorphism were between Xiangzhan and Xiang Ar 1.Moreover, two or more restriction enzymes could generate RFLP patterns when screened with a given marker for several polymorphic markers. Based on the polymorphic allelic loci, the mutation frequencies were estimated as 5 15% and 6 39% for Ar 10 and Xiang Ar 1 respectively.These results suggested that the nature of mutation on the DNA level was probably large genetic changes rather than point mutation.Genetic analysis and gene tagging of semi dwarf mutation in one of the mutant line, Ar 10, indicated that this mutation was controlled by a major recessive gene, which was preliminary located on chromosome 4. (author)

  17. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in protein energy malnutrition induced liver and kidney damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative and hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf meal (CALM) on hepatic injury and kidney injury associated with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study, PEM was induced in weaning male Wistar albino rats by feeding them with low protein diet for 2 weeks. The effects of several recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed were assessed in PEM rats. Plasma biochemical parameters were assessed as well. After the induction of PEM, results obtained showed significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total proteins (T.P), total bilirubin (T.Bil), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine with significant reduction in plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), albumin, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HC03(-)), and phosphate (P04(2-)) in PEM rats. Upon introduction of recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed for 4 weeks caused significant (P protein deficient diets has a protective role against hepatic injury and renal damage associated with PEM.

  18. The use of low energy, ion induced nuclear reactions for proton radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.; Segal, M.N.; Adler, R.J.; Glatstein, E.

    1995-01-01

    Medical radiotherapy has traditionally relied upon the use of external photon beams and internally implanted radioisotopes as the chief means of irradiating tumors. However, advances in accelerator technology and the exploitation of novel means of producing radiation may provide useful alternatives to some current modes of medical radiation delivery with reduced total dose to surrounding healthy tissue, reduced expense, or increased treatment accessibility. This paper will briefly overview currently established modes of radiation therapy, techniques still considered experimental but in clinical use, innovative concepts under study that may enable new forms of treatment or enhance existing ones. The potential role of low energy, ion-induced nuclear reactions in radiotherapy applications is examined specifically for the 650 keV d( 3 He,p) 4 He nuclear reaction. This examination will describe the basic physics associated with this reaction's production of 17.4 MeV protons and the processes used to fabricate the necessary materials used in the technique. Calculations of the delivered radiation dose, heat generation, and required exposure times are presented. Experimental data are also presented validating the dose calculations. The design of small, lower cost ion accelerators, as embodied in 'nested'-tandem and radio frequency quadrupole accelerators is examined, as is the potential use of high-output 3 He and deuterium ion sources. Finally, potential clinical applications are discussed in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to current radiotherapy methods and equipment

  19. Dexamethasone reduces energy expenditure and increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggioli, Raffaella; Ueta, Cintia B; Drigo, Rafael Arrojo E; Castillo, Melany; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Bianco, Antonio C

    2013-09-01

    To investigate how long-term treatment with dexamethasone affects energy expenditure and adiposity in mice and whether this is influenced by feeding on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were placed on a HFD for 2 weeks and started on dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg every other day during the next 7 weeks. Treatment with dexamethasone increased body fat, an effect that was more pronounced in the animals kept on HFD; dexamethasone treatment also worsened liver steatosis caused by the HFD. At the same time, treatment with dexamethasone lowered the respiratory quotient in chow-fed animals and slowed nightly metabolic rate in the animals kept on HFD. In addition, the acute VO2 acceleration in response to β3 adrenergic-stimulation was significantly limited in the dexamethasone-treated animals, as a result of marked decrease in UCP-1 mRNA observed in the brown adipose tissue of these animals. Long-term treatment with dexamethasone in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and exaggerates adiposity and liver steatosis. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. MD simulations to evaluate effects of applied tensile strain on irradiation-induced defect production at various PKA energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashiro, S.; Fujita, S.; Okita, T.; Okuda, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Strain effects on defect formation were evaluated at various PKA energies by MD. ► Radiation-induced defects were increased numerically by external strain. ► Enhanced formation of larger clusters causes the numerical increase of defects. ► Strain influence on the number of defects was greatest at about 20 keV PKA. ► Cluster size, which is mostly affected by strain, was greater with higher PKA energy. - Abstract: Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of applied tensile strain on defect production during cascade damages at various Primary Knock-on Atom (PKA) energies of 1–30 keV. When 1% strain was applied, the number of surviving defects increased at PKA energies higher than 5 keV, although they did not increase at 1 keV. The rate of increase by strain application was higher with higher PKA energy, and attained the maximum at 20 keV PKA energy with a subsequent gradual decrease at 30 keV PKA energy The cluster size, mostly affected by strain, was larger with higher PKA energy, although clusters with fewer than seven interstitials did not increase in number at any PKA energy.

  1. [Microstructure morphology and flocculation mechanism of the decolorizing flocculant poly-aluminum (III)-magnesium (II)-sulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yi-min; Chang, Xue-hong; Che, Yue; Gu, Qing-bao

    2013-09-01

    Crystal structures and morphologic characteristics of poly-aluminum (III)-magnesium (II)-sulfate (PMAS) were discussed using X-radial diffraction and infrared spectrogram and the flocculation mechanism was explored here based on comparisons between decolorization effect of landfill leachate secondary effluent and the system Zeta potential. The results indicated that PMAS was a kind of macromolecular composite polymer of aluminum and magnesium based on -OH bonding. The flocculation mechanism of PMAS was mainly charge neutralization and co-precipitation netting. Charge neutralization was the main mechanism at low dose. Its flocculation behaviors were different along with different pH of wastewater at high doses, namely, it was mainly charge neutralization at low pH and co-precipitation netting at high pH and both of them work together at neutral condition.

  2. Stabilising high energy orbit oscillations by the utilisation of centrifugal effects for rotating-tyre-induced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshun; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters are frequently considered in preference to linear devices because they can potentially overcome the narrow frequency bandwidth limitations inherent to linear variants; however, the possibility of variable harvesting efficiency is raised for the nonlinear case. This paper proposes a rotational energy harvester which may be fitted into an automobile tyre, with the advantage that it may broaden the rotating frequency bandwidth and simultaneously stabilise high-energy orbit oscillations. By consideration of the centrifugal effects due to rotation, the overall restoring force will potentially be increased for a cantilever implemented within the harvester, and this manifests as an increase in its equivalent elastic stiffness. In addition, this study reveals that the initial potential well barriers become as shallow as those for a bistable system. When the rotational frequency increases beyond an identifiable boundary frequency, the system transforms into one with a potential barrier of a typical monostable system. On this basis, the inter-well motion of the bistable system can provide sufficient kinetic energy so that the cantilever maintains its high-energy orbit oscillation for monostable hardening behaviour. Furthermore, in a vehicle drive experiment, it has been shown that the effective rotating frequency bandwidth can be widened from 15 km/h-25 km/h to 10 km/h-40 km/h. In addition, it is confirmed that the centrifugal effects can improve the harvester performance, producing a mean power of 61 μW at a driving speed of 40 km/h, and this is achieved by stabilising the high-energy orbit oscillations of the rotational harvester.

  3. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  4. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kevin; Jones, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.4 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Currently, 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal global access to energy by the year 2030. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to energy mix is derived from 91% non-renewable (oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear) and 9% renewable (e.g., hydropower, wind, solar, biofuels) sources. Here we use a nine region model of the world to quantify the changes in the global energy mix necessary to address population and climate change under two energy-use scenarios and find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary to support the 2014 UN population projections. We also find that renewable energy production must comprise 87-94% of global energy consumption by 2100. Our study suggests >50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a energy use scenario. Each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. We find that global energy demand in 2100 will be more than double that of today; of this demand, 82% will need to be derived from renewable sources. More renewable energy production will be required in 2100 than the 2014 total global energy production. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the energy as quickly as possible in order to supply the projected world energy demand and to limit warming to 2.5-3°C by 2100.

  5. Simultaneous Decolorization and Biohydrogen Production from Xylose by Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 in the Presence of Azo Dyes with Sulfonate and Carboxyl Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Cao, Ming-Yue; Wang, Peng-Tao; Wang, Shi; Yue, Ying-Rong; Yuan, Wen-Duo; Qiao, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Fei; Song, Xin

    2017-05-15

    Biohydrogen production from the pulp and paper effluent containing rich lignocellulosic material could be achieved by the fermentation process. Xylose, an important hemicellulose hydrolysis product, is used less efficiently as a substrate for biohydrogen production. Moreover, azo dyes are usually added to fabricate anticounterfeiting paper, which further increases the complexity of wastewater. This study reports that xylose could serve as the sole carbon source for a pure culture of Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 to achieve simultaneous decolorization and biohydrogen production. With 2 g liter -1 of xylose as the substrate, a maximum xylose utilization rate (UR xyl ) and a hydrogen molar yield (HMY) of 93.99% and 0.259 mol of H 2 mol of xylose -1 , respectively, were obtained. Biohydrogen kinetics and electron equivalent ( e - equiv) balance calculations indicated that methyl red (MR) penetrates and intracellularly inhibits both the pentose phosphate pathway and pyruvate fermentation pathway, while methyl orange (MO) acted independently of the glycolysis and biohydrogen pathway. The data demonstrate that biohydrogen pathways in the presence of azo dyes with sulfonate and carboxyl groups were different, but the azo dyes could be completely reduced during the biohydrogen production period in the presence of MO or MR. The feasibility of hydrogen production from industrial pulp and paper effluent by the strain if the xylose is sufficient was also proved and was not affected by toxic substances which usually exist in such wastewater, except for chlorophenol. This study offers a promising energy-recycling strategy for treating pulp and paper wastewaters, especially for those containing azo dyes. IMPORTANCE The pulp and paper industry is a major industry in many developing countries, and the global market of pulp and paper wastewater treatment is expected to increase by 60% between 2012 and 2020. Such wastewater contains large amounts of refractory contaminants, such as

  6. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, D; De Freitas, U; De Mello, E R Bezerra, E-mail: denis.barros@ifpb.edu.br, E-mail: umbelino@fisica.ufpb.br, E-mail: emello@fisica.ufpb.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da ParaIba, 58.800-970, Sousa, PB (Brazil)

    2011-03-21

    We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green's function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopole's core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole.

  7. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Denis; Freitas, Umbelino; Mello, Eugenio Bezerra de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Global monopoles are heavy spherically symmetric topological objects which may have been formed by the vacuum phase transition in the early universe after Planck time. Although the global monopole was first introduced by Sokolov and Starobinsky, its gravitational effects have been analyzed by Barriola and Vilenkin. We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopoles core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ball-point pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole. (author)

  8. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, D; De Freitas, U; De Mello, E R Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green's function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopole's core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole.

  9. Rapamycin Attenuated Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Isoproterenol and Maintained Energy Homeostasis via Inhibiting NF-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection organ (especially kidney transplantation. However, little is known about the role of Rapa in cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol and its underlying mechanism. In this study, Rapa was administrated intraperitoneally for one week after the rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol established. Rapa was demonstrated to attenuate isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy, maintain the structure integrity and functional performance of mitochondria, and upregulate genes related to fatty acid metabolism in hypertrophied hearts. To further study the implication of NF-κB in the protective role of Rapa, cardiomyocytes were pretreated with TNF-α or transfected with siRNA against NF-κB/p65 subunit. It was revealed that the upregulation of extracellular circulating proinflammatory cytokines induced by isoproterenol was able to be reversed by Rapa, which was dependent on NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the regression of cardiac hypertrophy and maintaining energy homeostasis by Rapa in cardiomyocytes may be attributed to the inactivation of NF-κB. Our results shed new light on mechanisms underlying the protective role of Rapa against cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol, suggesting that blocking proinflammatory response by Rapa might contribute to the maintenance of energy homeostasis during the progression of cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Mutational spectrum of the lacI gene in Escherichia coli K12 induced by low-energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Mingli; Wang Shun Chang; Wang Tao; Zhao Shiguang; Wu Yaojing; Wu Lijun; Yu Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    The mutational spectrum of the genomic lacI gene induced by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation in wild type Escherichia coli strain W3110 were compared with the spontaneous and the vacuum controls. The mutant frequency of irradiated group was dose-dependent and reached 26.3 x 10 -6 at dose of 31.2 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 , which was about 18-fold over the background (1.5 x 10 -6 ) and 10-fold over the vacuum controls (2.6 x 10 -6 ). This result indicated that the low-energy ion irradiation was one of many effective mutagens, though the vacuum condition of low-energy ions contributed some low-level gene mutations. It was found that the difference between the spontaneous and the vacuum control was the increases of base-pair substitutions in the vacuum control group. The spectra of irradiated group were quite similar to that of oxygen free-radical induced in the same strain, suggesting free-radicals and other adducts generated by low-energy ions might play an important role in the mutagenesis in vivo. When the spontaneous and the vacuum control group were compared, base-pair substitutions, deletions and additions of the irradiated group were significantly increased, and the +TGGC or -TGGC at hot spot was decreased from 82 to 48%. But the remarkable increase in absolute MF of the +TGGC or -TGGC at hot spot in the irradiated group suggested that low-energy ions did induce the mutations of this type. The spectra of our irradiated group had relative low-level base-pair substitutions, high-level ±TGGC and high proportion additions than those of γ-radiation induced, implying there were some different effects or processes between them

  11. Integrated inventory-based carbon accounting for energy-induced emissions in Chongming eco-island of Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingqing; Guo Ru; Li Fengting; Xia Bingbin

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the total carbon emissions in China are energy induced. A clear understanding of energy-induced carbon emissions is therefore necessary for local communities to develop a better carbon emissions management system. We develop an integrated inventory method for energy-induced carbon emissions accounting in local Chinese communities. The method combines scope and sectoral analyses on the basis of local statistical features. As an outcome four core findings are presented: (1) From 2000 to 2009, the energy-induced carbon emissions of Chongming rapidly increased from 1.75 to 4.90 million tons, with the annual growth rate of 12.12%. (2) Emissions from manufacturing, construction, and household sectors accounted for 84.44%; manufacturing is the biggest emitting sector. (3) Carbon emissions from imported electricity reached a historic high of 22.51% in 2009, indicating the necessity of taking the imported carbon emissions into consideration. (4) In 2008, the per capita carbon emissions of Chongming were lower than that of the United States and Shanghai, but higher than that of the global average. Three strategic approaches are proposed: to optimize industrial structure and improve efficiency, reinforce carbon management for the household sector, and enhance carbon statistics. - Highlights: ► The use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors is shown. ► This study estimates the market potential and characterizes the energy consumption. ► It makes a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas. ► The residual oil and diesel consumption decline over time by the natural gas use. ► In 2017, the cogeneration could provide 7.7% of total electricity demand in Peru.

  12. $\\gamma$-ray energy spectra and multiplicities from the neutron-induced fission of $^{235}$U using STEFF

    CERN Multimedia

    An experiment is proposed to use the STEFF spectrometer at n_TOF to study fragment $\\gamma$-correlations following the neutron-induced fission of $^{235}$U. The STEFF array of 12 NaI detectors will allow measurements of the single $\\gamma$-energy, the $\\gamma$ multiplicity, and the summed $\\gamma$energy distributions as a function of the mass and charge split, and deduced excitation energy in the fission event. These data will be used to study the origin of fission-fragment angular momenta, examining angular distribution eects as a function of incident neutron energy. The principal application of this work is in meeting the NEA high-priority request for improved $\\gamma$ray data from $^{235}$U(n; F). To improve the detection rate and expand the range of detection angles, STEFF will be modied to include two new ssion-fragment detectors each at 45 to the beam direction.

  13. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Kevin J.; Jones, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal access to energy by the year 2030. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. Previous studies have examined these issues at global or at individual regional or national levels. Here we use a nine region model of the world with two per capita energy consumption scenarios to find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary in order to support population projections. Modelled interaction between the regions highlights the importance of examining energy and population concerns in a systemic manner, as each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. As non-renewable energy reserves decline globally, the transition to a renewable energy infrastructure will develop at different times in each region. - Highlights: • A 9-region model of energy, population, and development through 2100 is presented. • Developing >50% renewable energy is required in 8 regions, though not concurrently. • Population growth and development will compound energy scarcity issues. • Early and significant renewable energy investment is key to realizing development. • Each region will face unique, though interlacing, challenges this century.

  14. Multi-bunch energy spread induced by beam loading in standing wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F.

    1995-04-01

    The interaction of a relativistic beam with the modes of the TM 010 pass-band of a multicell cavity does not cause any problem: although all the modes are excited by the RF (radiofrequency) generator, resulting in different cell excitations during the cavity filling and the beam pulse, the net accelerating field exhibits negligible fluctuations from bunch to bunch. However, when the beam is not fully relativistic, this is no more true. The phase slippage occurring in the first cells, between the non relativistic beam and the lower pass-band modes, produces an effective enhancement of the shunt impedances, which is usually negligible for a relativistic beam in a well tuned cavity. Moreover, the voltage jumps (amplitude and phase) occurring at each bunch passage, as well as the beam detuning caused by the off-crest bunches, vary from cell to cell. These effects enhance dramatically the fluctuation of the accelerating voltage, with a dominant beating provided by the pass-band mode nearest to the pi-mode. The induced beam energy spread has been estimated by the help of two distinct codes, developed at Frascati (Italy) and (Saclay), with results in good agreement. While an interaction integral is computed at each bunch passage, the cavity refilling is calculated by solving coupled differential equations of the modes of the pass-band, driven by a generator linked to one end-cell. It is shown also that the intermode coupling arises from the external Q of the drive end-cell, and not from the wall losses. For illustration, the authors applied the method to the beam-loading problem in the SC capture cavity of the low charge injector of the TESLA test facility installed at DESY

  15. Excitation photon energy dependence of photo-induced phase transition in (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, S.; Onda, K.; Shimizu, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Okimoto, Y.; Shao, X. F.; Nakano, Y.; Yamochi, H.; Saito, G.; Koshihara, S.

    2009-02-01

    The conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF)2PF6 has two types of charge transfer bands in the low temperature insulator phase: CT1 at 0.56 eV and CT2 at 1.38 eV. We excited these bands independently with a tunable ultrashort pulse laser and studied the difference of the photo-induced phases by measuring change in reflectivity spectrum over a wide photon energy range. As a result, we found that both the photo-induced phases by CT1 and CT2 excitation are the same except for their photo-conversion efficiencies

  16. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure, and energy intake during diet induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLany, James P; Kelley, David E; Hames, Kazanna C; Jakicic, John M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2014-02-01

    Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. The total EE was examined by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the intake/balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Weight loss of 9.6 ± 6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (-122 ± 319 vs. -376 ± 305 kcal day⁻¹), elimination of the drop in AEE (83 ± 279 vs. -211 ± 284 kcal day⁻¹) and greater weight loss (13.0 ± 7.0 vs. 8.1 ± 6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7-12. Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. Combined experimental and numerical investigation of energy harness utilizing vortex induced vibration over half cylinder using piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Tusher; Hossain, Md. Tanver; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur

    2017-06-01

    Energy harvesting technology has the ability to create self-powered electronic systems that do not rely on battery power for their operation. Wind energy can be converted into electricity via a piezoelectric transducer during the air flow over a cylinder. The vortex-induced vibration over the cylinder causes the piezoelectric beam to vibrate. Thus useful electric energy at the range 0.2-0.3V is found which can be useful for self-powering small electronic devices. In the present study, prototypes of micro-energy harvester with a shape of 65 mm × 37 mm × 0.4 mm are developed and tested for airflow over D-shaped bluff body for diameters of 15, 20 and 28mm in an experimental setup consisting of a long wind tunnel of 57cm × 57cm with variable speeds of the motor for different flow velocities and the experimental setup is connected at the downstream where flow velocity is the maximum. Experimental results show that the velocity and induced voltage follows a regular linear pattern. A maximum electrical potential of 140 mV for velocity of 1.1 ms-1 at a bluff body diameter of 15 mm is observed in the energy harvester that can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices. The simulation of this energy harvesting phenomena is then simulated using COMSOLE multi-physics. Diameter of the bluff bodies as well as flow velocity and size of cantilever beam are varied and the experimental findings are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones. The simulations along with the experimental data show the possibility of generating electricity from vortex induced vibration and can be applied in many practical cases for self-powering electronic devices.

  18. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. A novel kerf-free wafering process combining stress-induced spalling and low energy hydrogen implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingault, Timothee; Pokam-Kuisseu, Pauline Sylvia; Ntsoenzok, Esidor [CEMTHI - CNRS, Site Cyclotron, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Blondeau, Jean-Philippe [CEMTHI - CNRS, Site Cyclotron, 3 A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Universite d' Orleans, Chateau de la Source, 45100 Orleans (France); Ulyashin, Alexander [SINTEF, Forskningsveien 1, 0314 Oslo (Norway); Labrim, Hicham; Belhorma, Bouchra [CNESTEN, B.P. 1382 R.P., 10001 Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we studied the potential use of low-energy hydrogen implantation as a guide for the stress-induced cleavage. Low-energy, high fluence hydrogen implantation in silicon leads, in the right stiffening conditions, to the detachment of a thin layer, around a few hundreds nm thick, of monocrystalline silicon. We implanted monocrystalline silicon wafers with low-energy hydrogen, and then glued them on a cheap metal layer. Upon cooling down, the stress induced by the stressor layers (hardened glue and metal) leads to the detachment of a thin silicon layer, which thickness is determined by the implantation energy. We were then able to clearly demonstrate that, as expected, hydrogen oversaturation layer is very efficient to guide the stress. Using such process, thin silicon layers of around 710 nm-thick were successfully detached from low-energy implanted silicon wafers. Such layers can be used for the growth of very good quality monocrystalline silicon of around 50 μm-thick or less. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Adaptive response of low linear energy transfer X-rays for protection against high linear energy transfer accelerated heavy ion-induced teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Tanaka, Kaoru; Maruyama, Kouichi; Varès, Guillaume; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2012-12-01

    Adaptive response (AR) of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations for protection against teratogenesis induced by high LET irradiations is not well documented. In this study, induction of AR by X-rays against teratogenesis induced by accelerated heavy ions was examined in fetal mice. Irradiations of pregnant C57BL/6J mice were performed by delivering a priming low dose from X-rays at 0.05 or 0.30 Gy on gestation day 11 followed one day later by a challenge high dose from either X-rays or accelerated heavy ions. Monoenergetic beams of carbon, neon, silicon, and iron with the LET values of about 15, 30, 55, and 200 keV/μm, respectively, were examined. Significant suppression of teratogenic effects (fetal death, malformation of live fetuses, or low body weight) was used as the endpoint for judgment of a successful AR induction. Existence of AR induced by low-LET X-rays against teratogenic effect induced by high-LET accelerated heavy ions was demonstrated. The priming low dose of X-rays significantly reduced the occurrence of prenatal fetal death, malformation, and/or low body weight induced by the challenge high dose from either X-rays or accelerated heavy ions of carbon, neon or silicon but not iron particles. Successful AR induction appears to be a radiation quality event, depending on the LET value and/or the particle species of the challenge irradiations. These findings would provide a new insight into the study on radiation-induced AR in utero. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Acid blue 29 decolorization and mineralization by anodic oxidation with a cold gas spray synthesized Sn-Cu-Sb alloy anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale-Júnior, Edilson; Dosta, Sergi; Cano, Irene Garcia; Guilemany, Josep Maria; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The elevated cost of anodic materials used in the anodic oxidation for water treatment of effluents undermines the real application of these technologies. The study of novel alternative materials more affordable is required. In this work, we report the application of Sn-Cu-Sb alloys as cheap anodic material to decolorize azo dye Acid Blue 29 solutions. These anodes have been synthesized by cold gas spray technologies. Almost complete decolorization and COD abatement were attained after 300 and 600 min of electrochemical treatment, respectively. The influence of several variables such as supporting electrolyte, pH, current density and initial pollutant concentration has been investigated. Furthermore, the release and evolution of by-products was followed by HPLC to better understand the oxidative power of Sn-Cu-Sb electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Tianfei; Chen, Weixing

    2014-06-01

    High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Here, we adopted a lithium-carbon battery configuration. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. The induced fluorination of CNTA papers activated the reversible fluorination/defluorination reactions and lithium-ion storage/release at the CNTA paper cathodes, resulting in a dual-storage mechanism. The rechargeable battery with this dual-storage mechanism demonstrated a maximum discharging capacity of 2174 mAh gcarbon-1 and a specific energy of 4113 Wh kgcarbon-1 with good cycling performance.

  3. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of {sup 238}U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of {sup 238}U.

  4. Cafeteria diet induce changes in blood flow that are more related with heat dissipation than energy accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sabater

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A “cafeteria” diet is a self-selected high-fat diet, providing an excess of energy, which can induce obesity. Excess of lipids in the diet hampers glucose utilization eliciting insulin resistance, which, further limits amino acid oxidation for energy. Methods. Male Wistar rats were exposed for a month to “cafeteria” diet. Rats were cannulated and fluorescent microspheres were used to determine blood flow. Results. Exposure to the cafeteria diet did not change cardiac output, but there was a marked shift in organ irrigation. Skin blood flow decreased to compensate increases in lungs and heart. Blood flow through adipose tissue tended to increase in relation to controls, but was considerably increased in brown adipose tissue (on a weight basis. Discussion. The results suggest that the cafeteria diet-induced changes were related to heat transfer and disposal.

  5. Beam Energy Scaling of Ion-Induced Electron Yield from K+ Ions Impact on Stainless Steel Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kireeff-Covo, Michel; Barnard, John J; Bieniosek, Frank; Celata, C M; Cohen, Ronald; Friedman, Alex; Grote, D P; Kwan, Joe W; Lund, Steven M; Molvik, Arthur; Seidl, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc; Vujic, Jasmina L; Westenskow, Glen

    2005-01-01

    The cost of accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion energy (HIF) can be reduced by using the smallest possible clearance between the beam and the wall from the beamline. This increases beam loss to the walls, generating ion-induced electrons that could be trapped by beam space charge potential into an "electron cloud," which can cause degradation or loss of the ion beam. In order to understand the physical mechanism of production of ion-induced electrons we have measured impact of K+ ions with energies up to 400 KeV on stainless steel surfaces near grazing incidence, using the ion source test stand (STS-500) at LLNL. The electron yield will be discussed and compared with experimental measurements from 1 MeV K+ ions in the High-Current Experiment at LBNL.*

  6. Imaging of activated caspase-3 in living cell by fluorescence resonance energy transfer during photosensitization-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunxia; Xing, Da; Chen, Qun; Tang, Yonghong

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel and promising cancer treatment that employs a combination of a photosensitizing chemical and visible light, induces apoptosis in cell, and activation of caspase-3 is considered to be the final step in many apoptosis pathways. The changes of caspase-3 activation in cell during TNFα- and photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. FRET probe consisting of fusions of an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), Venus and a linker peptide containing the caspase-3 cleavage sequence DEVD was utilized. Therefore, activated caspase-3 cleaved the linker peptide of FRET probe and disrupted the FRET signal. Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (ASTC-a-1) were stably transfected with the plasmid (ECFP-DEVD-Venus) and then were treated by TNF-α and PDT, respectively. Experimental results indicated that caspase-3 activation resulted in cleavage of linker peptide and subsequent disruption of the FRET signal during TNFα- and photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis, and that the activation of caspase-3 induced by photodynamic therapy was faster than that induce by TNF-α. The study supports that using FRET technique and different recombinant substrates as FRET probes could be used to detect the process of PDT-induced apoptosis and provide a new means to investigate apoptotic mechanism of PDT.

  7. Porous hydroxyapatite-TiO2 nanocomposites from natural phosphates and their decolorization properties. Photoactive hydroxyapatite-TiO2 nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyarmane, H.; Saoiabi, S.; El Hanbali, I.; El Karbane, M.; Rami, A.; Masse, S.; Laghzizil, A.; Coradin, T.

    2015-07-01

    Titanium dioxide-hydroxyapatite nanopowders were prepared by the simultaneous gelation of a titanium alkoxide and precipitation of a redisolved natural phosphate mineral. Evolution of the crystallinity, porous features and surface reactivity of these powders as a function of Ti content and heating was studied. Optimal conditions were found for the preparation of a low-cost nanocomposite powder that was as effective as pure titania for the decolorization of methylene blue solutions.

  8. Enhancing Inhibition-Induced Plasticity in Tinnitus – Spectral Energy Contrasts in Tailor-Made Notched Music Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alwina; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wunderlich, Robert; Junghoefer, Markus; Wollbrink, Andreas; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM). Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC) in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts. PMID:25951605

  9. Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer based on nanobamboo array architecture for efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotian; Liow, Chihao; Bisht, Ankit; Liu, Xinfeng; Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2015-04-01

    Engineering interfacial photo-induced charge transfer for highly synergistic photocatalysis is successfully realized based on nanobamboo array architecture. Programmable assemblies of various components and heterogeneous interfaces, and, in turn, engineering of the energy band structure along the charge transport pathways, play a critical role in generating excellent synergistic effects of multiple components for promoting photocatalytic efficiency. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Production of Laccase by a New Myrothecium verrucaria MD-R-16 Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] and its Application on Dye Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to screen a laccase-producing fungal endophyte, optimize fermentation conditions, and evaluate the decolorization ability of the laccase. A new fungal endophyte capable of laccase-producing was firstly isolated from pigeon pea and identified as Myrothecium verrucaria based on a ITS-rRNA sequences analysis. Meanwhile, various fermentation parameters on the laccase production were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal fermentation conditions were a fermentation time of five days, temperature 30 °C and pH 6.22. Laccase activity reached 16.52 ± 0.18 U/mL under the above conditions. Furthermore, the laccase showed effective decolorization capability toward synthetic dyes (Congo red, Methyl orange, Methyl red, and Crystal violet in the presence of the redox mediator ABTS, with more than 70% of dyes decolorizing after 24 h of incubation. Additionally, the activity of laccase was relatively stable with pH (4.5–6.5 and a temperature range of 35–55 °C. Therefore, the high laccase production of the strain and the new fungal laccase could provide a promising alterative approach for industrial and environmental applications.

  11. Manganese peroxidase h4 isozyme mediated degradation and detoxification of triarylmethane dye malachite green: optimization of decolorization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Thiyagarajan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Park, Seung-Moon

    2013-11-01

    A cDNA encoding for manganese peroxidase isozyme H4 (MnPH4), isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was expressed in Pichia pastoris, under the control of alcohol oxidase I promoter. The recombinant MnPH4 was efficiently secreted onto media supplemented with hemin at a maximum concentration of 500 U/L, after which purified rMnPH4 was used to decolorize the triarylmethane dye malachite green (MG). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize three different operational parameters for the decolorization of MG. RSM showed that the optimized variables of enzyme (0.662 U), MnSO4 (448 μM), and hydrogen peroxide (159 μM) decolorized 100 mg/L of MG completely at 3 h. Additionally, UV-VIS spectra, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the degradation of MG by the formation of main metabolites 4-dimethylamino-benzophenone hydrate, N, N-dimethylaniline (N,N-dimethyl-benzenamine), and methylbenzaldehyde. Interestingly, it was found that rMnPH4 mediates hydroxyl radical attack on the central carbon of MG. Finally, rMnPH4 degraded MG resulted in the complete removal of its toxicity, which was checked under in vitro conditions.

  12. Laccase production optimization by response surface methodology with Aspergillus fumigatus AF1 in unique inexpensive medium and decolorization of different dyes with the crude enzyme or fungal pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xianchun; Ning, Yu

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, alkaline pretreatment was applied for the enhanced laccase production from rice straw. Various process parameters including sodium hydroxide concentration, pH and fermentation temperature were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Through regression analysis, it was found that laccase activity was well fitted by a quadratic polynomial equation (R(2)=0.998, Adj R(2)=0.995), and the fermentation temperature was the most significant factor influencing laccase activity. The optimized process conditions found were NaOH concentration of 0.39 mol L(-1), pH 3.12 and temperature 25.43 °C, under which laccase activity reached 142,198 ± 3586 U L(-1). Further studies were carried out to probe different dyes decolorization ability of laccase produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, A. fumigatus pellets and whole fermentation broth (WFB) using sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw as sole carbon source. Results showed that pure laccase demonstrate limited decolorization ability to all the studied dyes, while crude laccase, A. fumigatus pellets and WFB exhibit significant decolorization ability to all the studied dyes with WFB being the most excellent one. Effectiveness of degradation was confirmed by uv-vis and phytotoxicity studies, which indicated that A. fumigatus transformed the dyes into non-toxic metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient secretion of three fungal laccases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their potential for decolorization of textile industry effluent-A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antošová, Zuzana; Herkommerová, Klára; Pichová, Iva; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Laccases are enzymes with a broad range of biotechnological applications and have, for example, the ability to oxidize many xenobiotics including synthetic dyes. In order to obtain an efficient laccase for the decolorization of dyes which spoil wastewater from the textile industry, genes encoding three various laccase enzymes were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of laccases from ascomycete Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL), and two basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor (TvL) and Trametes trogii (TtL) was optimized via selection of plasmids, promoters, media composition, and cultivation conditions. For the first time, the activity of the three secreted laccases was directly compared with the use of various substrates, including different dyes and a wastewater sample. A strong constitutive ADH1 promoter, minimal growth medium, optimized combination of copper and organic nitrogen source, and low cultivation temperature were shown to significantly increase the yields and relative activities of secreted laccases. Heterologous expression of three fungal laccases was successfully achieved in S. cerevisiae being the highest for MtL and the lowest for TvL. MtL, and particularly TtL, showed the decolorization capacity. This is the first report which compared decolorization of synthetic dyes and wastewater by several recombinant laccases and suggested MtL and TtL to be applicable in the ecofriendly enzymatic treatment of colored industry effluent. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:69-80, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Application of central composite face-centered design and response surface methodology for the optimization of electro-Fenton decolorization of Azure B dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, E; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the ability of electro-Fenton technique for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes using a model azo dye such as Azure B. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of main parameters, such as dye concentration, electrode surface area, treatment time, and voltage. In this study, central composite face-centered experimental design matrix and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and evaluate the interactive effects of the four studied parameters. A total of 30 experimental runs were set, and the kinetic data were analyzed using first- and second-order models. The experimental data fitted to the empirical second-order model of a suitable degree for the maximum decolorization of Azure B by electro-Fenton treatment. ANOVA analysis showed high coefficient of determination value (R(2) = 0.9835) and reasonable second-order regression prediction. Pareto analysis suggests that the variables, time, and voltage produce the largest effect on the decolorization rate. Optimum conditions suggested by the second-order polynomial regression model for attaining maximum decolorization were dye concentration 4.83 mg/L, electrode surface area 15 cm(2), voltage 14.19 V, and treatment time of 34.58 min.

  15. Hydrogen production and anaerobic decolorization of wastewater containing Reactive Blue 4 by a bacterial consortium of Salmonella subterranea and Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanapokasin, Ramida Yuwadee; Boonyakamol, Anantabhathra; Sukseree, Supawadee; Krajarng, Aungkana; Sophonnithiprasert, Thanet; Kanso, Sungwan; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of wastewater (3,000 mg CODcr/l) containing 300 mg/l Reactive Blue 4, with different co-substrates, glucose, butyrate and propionate by a bacterial consortium of Salmonella subterranea and Paenibacillus polymyxa, concomitantly with hydrogen production was investigated at 35 degrees C. The accumulative hydrogen production at 3,067 mg CODcr/l was obtained after 7 days of incubation with glucose, sludge, the bacterial consortium. The volatile fatty acids, residual glucose and the total organic carbon were correlated to hydrogen obtained. Interestingly, the bacterial consortium possess decolorization ability showing approximately 24% dye removal after 24 h incubation using glucose as a co-substrate, which was about two and eight times those of butyrate (10%), propionate (12%) and control (3%), respectively. RB4 decolorization occurred through acidogenesis, as high volatile fatty acids but low methane was detected. The bacterial consortium will be the bacterial strains of interest for further decolorization and hydrogen production of industrial waste water.

  16. An alternative standard for Trolox-equivalent antioxidant-capacity estimation based on thiol antioxidants. Comparative 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] decolorization and rotational viscometry study regarding hyaluronan degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabárová, Eva; Valachová, Katarína; Rapta, Peter; Soltés, Ladislav

    2010-09-01

    Comparison of the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of three thiol compounds, D-penicillamine, reduced L-glutathione, and 1,4-dithioerythritol, expressed as a radical-scavenging capacity based on the two independent methods, namely a decolorization 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay and a rotational viscometry, is reported. Particular concern was focused on the testing of potential free-radical scavenging effects of thiols against hyaluronan degradation, induced by hydroxyl radicals. A promising, solvent-independent, antioxidative function of 1,4-dithioerythritol, comparable to that of a standard compound, Trolox(®), was confirmed by the 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay. The new potential antioxidant 1,4-dithioerythritol exhibited very good solubility in a variety of solvents (e.g., H(2)O, EtOH, and DMSO) and could be widely accepted and used as an effective antioxidant standard instead of a routinely used Trolox(®) on 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay.

  17. High Glucose-Induced Cardiomyocyte Death May Be Linked to Unbalanced Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Lin, Qiuting; Chen, Jiuxia; Wei, Tingting; Li, Chen; Zhao, Liangcai; Gao, Hongchang; Zheng, Hong

    2018-04-01

    High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death is a common symptom in advanced-stage diabetic patients, while its metabolic mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore metabolic changes in high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes and the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. We found that high glucose can promote cardiomyocyte death both in vitro and in vivo studies. Metabolomic results show that several metabolites exhibited inconsistent variations in vitro and in vivo. However, we also identified a series of common metabolic changes, including increases in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine) as well as decreases in aspartate and creatine under high glucose condition. Moreover, a reduced energy metabolism could also be a common metabolic characteristic, as indicated by decreases in ATP in vitro as well as AMP, fumarate and succinate in vivo. Therefore, this study reveals that a decrease in energy metabolism and an increase in BCAAs metabolism could be implicated in high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death.

  18. Imaging of Ras/Raf activity induced by low energy laser irradiation in living cell using FRET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Xing, Da

    2005-01-01

    Ras/Raf signaling pathway is an important signaling pathway that governs cell proliferation, differential and apoptosis. Low-energy laser irradiation (LELI) was found to modulate various processes. Generally, cell proliferation is induced by low doses LELI and apoptosis is induced by high doses LELI. Mechanism of biological effect of LELI has not been clear. Recently, activation of MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), which are downstream protein kinases of Ras/Raf, are observed during LELI-induced cell proliferation by immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. RaichuRas reporter consisting of fusions of H-ras, the Ras-binding domain of Raf (RafRBD), a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Therefore, intramolecular binding of GTP-Ras to RafRBD brings CFP close to YFP and increases FRET between CFP and YFP. Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (ASTC-a-1) was transfected with the plasmid (pRaichuRas) and then treated with LELI at dose of 60J/cm2. Effect of LELI on Ras/Raf in physiological condition of living cells was observed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique during lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis induced by high dose (60J/cm2) LELI. Experimental results showed that after high dose LELI treatment, the binding of Ras and Raf decreases obviously, Ras/Raf signaling pathway deregulates and cell apoptosis occurs.

  19. High-energy Neutron-induced Fission Cross Sections of Natural Lead and Bismuth-209

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrio, D; Carrapico, C; Eleftheriadis, C; Leeb, H; Calvino, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Savvidis, I; Vlachoudis, V; Haas, B; Koehler, P; Vannini, G; Oshima, M; Le Naour, C; Gramegna, F; Wiescher, M; Pigni, M T; Audouin, L; Mengoni, A; Quesada, J; Becvar, F; Plag, R; Cennini, P; Mosconi, M; Rauscher, T; Couture, A; Capote, R; Sarchiapone, L; Vlastou, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dillmann, I; Pavlopoulos, P; Karamanis, D; Krticka, M; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Martinez, T; Trubert, D; Oberhummer, H; Karadimos, D; Plompen, A; Isaev, S; Terlizzi, R; Cortes, G; Cox, J; Cano-Ott, D; Pretel, C; Colonna, N; Berthoumieux, E; Vaz, P; Heil, M; Lopes, I; Lampoudis, C; Walter, S; Calviani, M; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Embid-Segura, M; Stephan, C; Igashira, M; Papachristodoulou, C; Aerts, G; Tavora, L; Berthier, B; Rudolf, G; Andrzejewski, J; Villamarin, D; Ferreira-Marques, R; Tain, J L; O'Brien, S; Reifarth, R; Kadi, Y; Neves, F; Poch, A; Kerveno, M; Rubbia, C; Lazano, M; Dahlfors, M; Wisshak, K; Salgado, J; Dridi, W; Ventura, A; Andriamonje, S; Assimakopoulos, P; Santos, C; Voss, F; Ferrant, L; Patronis, N; Chiaveri, E; Guerrero, C; Perrot, L; Vicente, M C; Lindote, A; Praena, J; Baumann, P; Kappeler, F; Rullhusen, P; Furman, W; David, S; Marrone, S; Tassan-Got, L; Gunsig, F; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Pancin, J; Papadopoulos, C; Tagliente, G; Haight, R; Chepel, V; Kossionides, E; Badurek, G; Marganiec, J; Lukic, S; Pavlik, A; Goncalves, I; Duran, I; Alvarez, H; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n\\_TOF) facility is well suited to measure small neutron-induced fission cross sections, as those of subactinides. The cross section ratios of (nat)Pb and (209)Bi relative to (235)U and (238)U were measured using PPAC detectors. The fragment coincidence method allows to unambiguously identify the fission events. The present experiment provides the first results for neutron-induced fission up to 1 GeV for (nat)Pb and (209)Bi. A good agreement with previous experimental data below 200 MeV is shown. The comparison with proton-induced fission indicates that the limiting regime where neutron-induced and proton-induced fission reach equal cross section is close to 1 GeV.

  20. The impact of energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators on environmental pollution: evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the impact of energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators on environmental pollution from 1971 to 2011 is investigated using the statistically inspired modification of partial least squares (SIMPLS) regression model. There was evidence of a linear relationship between energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators and carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from the SIMPLS regression shows that a 1% increase in crop production index will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.71%. Economic growth increased by 1% will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.46%, which means that an increase in Ghana's economic growth may lead to a reduction in environmental pollution. The increase in electricity production from hydroelectric sources by 1% will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.30%; thus, increasing renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy portfolio will help mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Increasing enteric emissions by 1% will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 4.22%, and a 1% increase in the nitrogen content of manure management will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 6.69%. The SIMPLS regression forecasting exhibited a 5% MAPE from the prediction of carbon dioxide emissions.

  1. Dietary supplementation with decaffeinated green coffee improves diet-induced insulin resistance and brain energy metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lap; Varghese, Merina; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Fei; Knable, Lindsay Alexis; Ferruzzi, Mario; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that coffee consumption may reduce risk for type 2 diabetes, a known risk factor for Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases. Coffee consumption is also associated with reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementias. However, preventive and therapeutic development of coffee is complicated by the cardiovascular side effects of caffeine intake. As coffee is also a rich source of chlorogenic acids and many bioactive compounds other than caffeine, we hypothesized that decaffeinated coffee drinks may exert beneficial effects on the brain. We have investigated whether dietary supplementation with a standardized decaffeinated green coffee preparation, Svetol®, might modulate diet-induced insulin resistance and brain energy metabolism dysfunction in a high-fat diet mouse model. As expected, dietary supplementation with Svetol® significantly attenuated the development of high-fat diet-induced deficits in glucose-tolerance response. We have also found that Svetol®) treatment improved brain mitochondrial energy metabolism as determined by oxygen consumption rate. Consistent with this evidence, follow-up gene expression profiling with Agilent whole-genome microarray revealed that the decaffeinated coffee treatment modulated a number of genes in the brain that are implicated in cellular energy metabolism. Our evidence is the first demonstration that dietary supplementation with a decaffeinated green coffee preparation may beneficially influence the brain, in particular promoting brain energy metabolic processes.

  2. Enhancement of Energy Harvesting Performance by a Coupled Bluff Splitter Body and PVEH Plate through Vortex Induced Vibration near Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ken Chin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by vortex induced vibration energy harvesting development as a new source of renewable energy, a T-shaped design vibration energy harvester is introduced with the aim of enhancing its performance through vortex induced vibration at near resonance conditions. The T-shaped structural model designed consists of a fixed boundary aluminum bluff splitter body coupled with a cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH plate model which is a piezoelectric bimorph plate made of a brass plate sandwiched between 2 lead zirconate titanate (PZT plates. A 3-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation analysis is carried out with Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model under wind speed of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22.5, and 25 m/s. The results showed that with 19 m/s wind speed, the model generates 75.758 Hz of vortex frequency near to the structural model’s natural frequency of 76.9 Hz. Resonance lock-in therefore occurred, generating a maximum displacement amplitude of 2.09 mm or a 49.76% increment relatively in vibrational amplitude. Under the effect of resonance at the PVEH plate’s fundamental natural frequency, it is able to generate the largest normalized power of 13.44 mW/cm3g2.

  3. Simulation of energy and fluence dependence of heavy ion induced displacement damage factor in bipolar junction transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Ravindra, M.; Joshi, G. R.; Damle, R.

    2004-05-01

    This article presents the theoretical calculation of the variation of displacement damage factors as a function of energy and rad equivalent fluence in bipolar junction transistor for various particulate radiation viz ., He, Si, Cl, Ti, Ni, Br, Ag, I, and Au. The calculation is based on the experimental data on gamma-ray induced gain degradation in a commercial space borne BJT (2N3019). The method involves the calculation of gamma-ray dose (rad(Si)) equivalent of effective particle fluence. The linear energy transfer (LET) in silicon for different particle radiation obtained from TRIM calculation has been used for the conversion of gamma-dose into fluence of various particles. The estimation predicts a smooth increase in the displacement damage factor as the mass of the ion increases. Further, the displacement damage factor reaches a maximum at the same value of energy, which corresponds to maximum LET for all heavy ions. The maximum value of damage factor marginally decreases with increasing ion fluence for an ion of given energy. The results are compared with the data available in the literature for proton, deuteron, and helium induced displacement damage.

  4. Visualization of spatiotemporal energy dynamics of hippocampal neurons by mass spectrometry during a kainate-induced seizure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Sugiura

    Full Text Available We report the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI imaging mass spectrometry combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE mass spectrometry to visualize energy metabolism in the mouse hippocampus by imaging energy-related metabolites. We show the distribution patterns of ATP, ADP, and AMP in the hippocampus as well as changes in their amounts and distribution patterns in a murine model of limbic, kainate-induced seizure. As an acute response to kainate administration, we found massive and moderate reductions in ATP and ADP levels, respectively, but no significant changes in AMP levels--especially in cells of the CA3 layer. The results suggest the existence of CA3 neuron-selective energy metabolism at the anhydride bonds of ATP and ADP in the hippocampal neurons during seizure. In addition, metabolome analysis of energy synthesis pathways indicates accelerated glycolysis and possibly TCA cycle activity during seizure, presumably due to the depletion of ATP. Consistent with this result, the observed energy depletion significantly recovered up to 180 min after kainate administration. However, the recovery rate was remarkably low in part of the data-pixel population in the CA3 cell layer region, which likely reflects acute and CA3-selective neural death. Taken together, the present approach successfully revealed the spatiotemporal energy metabolism of the mouse hippocampus at a cellular resolution--both quantitatively and qualitatively. We aim to further elucidate various metabolic processes in the neural system.

  5. Formation of plasmid DNA strand breaks induced by low-energy ion beam: indication of nuclear stopping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Jiang Bingyao; Chen Youshan; Ding Xingzhao; Liu Xianghuai; Chen Ceshi; Guo Xinyou; Yin Guanglin

    1998-01-01

    Plasmid pGEM 3zf(+) was irradiated by nitrogen ion beam with energies between 20 and 100 keV and the fluence kept as 1 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 . The irradiated plasmid was assayed by neutral electrophoresis and quantified by densitometry. The yields of DNA with single-strand and double-strand breaks first increased then decreased with increasing ion energy. There was a maximal yield value in the range of 20-100 keV. The relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) cross-section and linear energy transfer (LET) also showed a peak-shaped distribution. To understand the physical process during DNA strand breaks, a Monte Carlo calculation code known as TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) was used to simulate energy losses due to nuclear stopping and to electronic stopping. It can be assumed that nuclear stopping plays a more important role in DNA strand breaks than electronic stopping in this energy range. The physical mechanisms of DNA strand breaks induced by a low-energy ion beam are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Study of Thermo-Mechanical Effects Induced in Solids by High Energy Particle Beams: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dallocchio, Alessandro; Kurtyka, T; Bertarelli, A

    2008-01-01

    Requirements of modern nuclear physics entail big efforts in the field of particle accelerator technology in order to build powerful machines providing particle beams at higher and higher energies; in this context, the Large Hadron Collider represents the future for particle physics. The LHC stores 360 MJ for each circulating beam; this large amount of energy is potentially destructive for accelerator equipments having direct interaction with particles; the need to handle high thermal loads bestows strategic importance to the study of thermo-mechanical problems in accelerator devices. The aim of this work is the study of thermo-mechanical effects induced in solids by high energy particle beams. Development of facilities devoted to the experimental test of accelerator equipments in real working conditions presents several technical difficulties and high cost; the importance of developing reliable methods and accurate models that could be efficiently applied during the design phase of the most critical particle...

  7. Production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on target W at the energy of 72 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Moazzem Hossain [Univ. of Chittagong, Dept. of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Herpers, Ulrich [Univ. of Cologne, Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Cologne (Germany); Michel, Rolf [University of Hannover, Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (Germany); Kubik, Peter [Paul Scherrer Inst., c/o Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Investigations of cross-sections for residual nuclide production on the target element W by proton-induced reactions were performed by irradiating the target with 72 MeV protons using the cyclotron facilities at Paul-Scherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland. Residual nuclides were measured by gamma-spectrometry of HpGe detectors calibrated with standard gamma sources. The measured data contains 104 individual cross-sections for 20 identified nuclides in the proton energies between 52.5 - 68.9 MeV. These nuclear data is important in the study of spallation neutron source and in accelerator driven technologies such as waste transmutation and energy amplification. The present data are compared with the shape of the excitation functions of earlier only one measurement at higher energies and they are in good agreement to each other. (author)

  8. Effects of Neutron Emission on Fragment Mass and Kinetic Energy Distribution from Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Saetone, E.

    2007-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron-induced fission of 235 U(n th ,f) have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening in the standard deviation of the kinetic energy at the final fragment mass number around m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125. These results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. and other results on yield of mass. We conclude that the obtained results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the sharp variation in the primary fragment kinetic energy and mass yield curves. We show that because neutron emission is hazardous to make any conclusion on primary quantities distribution of fragments from experimental results on final quantities distributions

  9. Energy minibands degeneration induced by magnetic field effects in graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villagrana, R. A.; Carrera-Escobedo, V. H.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Madrigal-Melchor, J.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2017-12-01

    Energy minibands are a basic feature of practically any superlattice. In this regard graphene superlattices are not the exception and recently miniband transport has been reported through magneto-transport measurements. In this work, we compute the energy miniband and transport characteristics for graphene superlattices in which the energy barriers are generated by magnetic and electric fields. The transfer matrix approach and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism have been implemented to calculate the energy minibands and the linear-regime conductance. We find that energy minibands are very sensitive to the magnetic field and become degenerate by rising it. We were also able to correlate the evolution of the energy minibands as a function of the magnetic field with the transport characteristics, finding that miniband transport can be destroyed by magnetic field effects. Here, it is important to remark that although magnetic field effects have been a key element to unveil miniband transport, they can also destroy it.

  10. An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models

    OpenAIRE

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    An energy balance decomposition of temperature changes is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the change. Changes in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, bein...

  11. Theoretical potential for low energy consumption phase change memory utilizing electrostatically-induced structural phase transitions in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Daniel A.; Li, Yao; Pop, Eric; Reed, Evan J.

    2018-01-01

    Structural phase-change materials are of great importance for applications in information storage devices. Thermally driven structural phase transitions are employed in phase-change memory to achieve lower programming voltages and potentially lower energy consumption than mainstream nonvolatile memory technologies. However, the waste heat generated by such thermal mechanisms is often not optimized, and could present a limiting factor to widespread use. The potential for electrostatically driven structural phase transitions has recently been predicted and subsequently reported in some two-dimensional materials, providing an athermal mechanism to dynamically control properties of these materials in a nonvolatile fashion while achieving potentially lower energy consumption. In this work, we employ DFT-based calculations to make theoretical comparisons of the energy required to drive electrostatically-induced and thermally-induced phase transitions. Determining theoretical limits in monolayer MoTe2 and thin films of Ge2Sb2Te5, we find that the energy consumption per unit volume of the electrostatically driven phase transition in monolayer MoTe2 at room temperature is 9% of the adiabatic lower limit of the thermally driven phase transition in Ge2Sb2Te5. Furthermore, experimentally reported phase change energy consumption of Ge2Sb2Te5 is 100-10,000 times larger than the adiabatic lower limit due to waste heat flow out of the material, leaving the possibility for energy consumption in monolayer MoTe2-based devices to be orders of magnitude smaller than Ge2Sb2Te5-based devices.

  12. Observation of aggregation triggered by Resonance Energy Transfer (RET) induced intermolecular pairing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Wang, Weizhi; Ke, Lin; Zhang, Nan

    2017-07-20

    In this report, we showed the existence of RET induced intermolecular pairing force by comparing their fluorescence behaviors under room illumination vs standing in dark area for either PFluAnt solution or PFluAnt&PFOBT mixture. Their prominent emission attenuation under room illumination brought out the critical role of photo, i.e. RET induced intermolecular pairing force in induction of polymer aggregation. Constant UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectra in terms of both peak shapes and maximum wavelengths implied no chemical decomposition was involved. Recoverable fluorescence intensity, fluorescence lifetime as well as NMR spectra further exclude photo induced decomposition. The controllable on/off state of RET induced intermolecular pairing force was verified by the masking effect of outside PFluAnt solution which function as filter to block the excitation of inside PFluAnt and thus off the RET induced intermolecular pairing force. Theoretical calculation suggest that magnitude of RET induced intermolecular pairing force is on the same scale as that of van der Waals interaction. Although the absolute magnitude of RET induced intermolecular pairing force was not tunable, its effect can be magnified by intentionally turn it "on", which was achieved by irradiance with 5 W desk lamp in this report.

  13. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tayeb, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Abdel-Rahman, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O 3 in air discharge, O 3 in water, and H 2 O 2 ) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  14. Ursolic Acid-Regulated Energy Metabolism—Reliever or Propeller of Ultraviolet-Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV light is a leading cause of diseases, such as skin cancers and cataracts. A main process mediating UV-induced pathogenesis is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Excessive ROS levels induce the formation of DNA adducts (e.g., pyrimidine dimers and result in stalled DNA replication forks. In addition, ROS promotes phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase-coupled hormone receptors and alters downstream energy metabolism. With respect to the risk of UV-induced photocarcinogenesis and photodamage, the antitumoral and antioxidant functions of natural compounds become important for reducing UV-induced adverse effects. One important question in the field is what determines the differential sensitivity of various types of cells to UV light and how exogenous molecules, such as phytochemicals, protect normal cells from UV-inflicted damage while potentiating tumor cell death, presumably via interaction with intracellular target molecules and signaling pathways. Several endogenous molecules have emerged as possible players mediating UV-triggered DNA damage responses. Specifically, UV activates the PIKK (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase family members, which include DNA-PKcs, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, whose signaling can be affected by energy metabolism; however, it remains unclear to what extent the activation of hormone receptors regulates PIKKs and whether this crosstalk occurs in all types of cells in response to UV. This review focuses on proteomic descriptions of the relationships between cellular photosensitivity and the phenotypic expression of the insulin/insulin-like growth receptor. It covers the cAMP-dependent pathways, which have recently been shown to regulate the DNA repair machinery through interactions with the PIKK family members. Finally, this review provides a strategic illustration of how UV-induced mitogenic activity is modulated by the insulin

  15. Peripheral collisions in Ar induced reactions between 27 and 44 A.MeV: study of energy dissipation by measuring the correlated neutron multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.; Doubre, H.; Galin, J.; Pouthas, J.; Jahnke, U.; Jiang, D.X.; Lott, B.; Jacquet, D.

    1988-01-01

    A 4 π detector measuring the neutron multiplicities has been used to investigate the energy dissipation during peripheral collisions in Ar induced reactions around the Fermi Energy. Besides the persistance of direct transfer reactions for the most peripheral collisions, there are strong evidences for the occurrence of quite large energy dissipation, a clear signature for the one body friction to still play a major role at these intermediate energies

  16. Induced Seismicity at the UK "Hot Dry Rock" Test Site for Geothermal Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Main, Ian; Jupe, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    In enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), fluid is injected at high pressure in order to stimulate fracturing and/or fluid flow through otherwise relatively impermeable underlying hot rocks to generate power and/or heat. The stimulation induces micro-earthquakes whose precise triggering mechanism and relationship to new and pre-existing fracture networks are still the subject of some debate. Here we analyse the dataset for induced micro-earthquakes at the UK “hot dry rock” experimental geothermal...

  17. Development of the precise measurement method for gamma-ray energy of neutron induced radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishikawa, Toshiaki; Uemura, Jitsuya

    1998-01-01

    Goal of the research is to develop a new energy calibration method to perform precise measurement of photon energy by gamma-ray spectrometry. Here, we regard reference standard energies to be those of photon of radioactive isotopes measured basing on a laser wavelength of 86 Kr (606 nm) together with energy-wavelength conversion factor E λ = 1.239 842 44 x 10 -6 eV m ±0.03 ppm (CODATA 1986). As such the reference standard we use 192 Ir isotope. Deviation of photon energy values between data obtained by photon spectrometry, i.e., the decay gamma-ray analysis and the prompt gamma-ray analysis with Ge or Ge(Li) detectors, and those obtained by crystal diffraction spectrometry, has led that the 'conventional' method of energy calibration for the photon spectrometry is not adequate to the precise energy assignment. A 'new' method has solved this problem by introducing the concept of an instrument function, which is the transfer function between an input signal-shape function and an output (measured) signal-shape function, as summarized in reference 1. Present status of photon energy values has been examined for the nuclear-decay gamma-rays, the nuclear excitation gamma-rays and the mesonic-atom X-rays. At the previous stage of research we evaluated that a commonly-used internal standard method, mainly used for activation analysis study, was inadequate for the precise measurement of photon energy, so far as we use base subtraction method. In the present study, we examined the cause of the inadequacy of a base-subtraction method for obtaining the photopeak line shape for the precise energy measurement. (author)

  18. Plasma adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids following long-term exercise-induced negative energy balance in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, J; Després, J P; Gagnon, J; Tchernof, A; Nadeau, A; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1999-09-01

    There are few reports of the change in sex hormone levels accompanying a weight change in men, although an excessive decline in testosterone (TESTO) has been described as an associate of stress-induced weight loss. Plasma levels of cortisol, TESTO, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol glucuronide (3alphaDIOL-G) were measured in seven pairs of sedentary male monozygotic twins (age, 21.0 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI], 26.2 +/- 5.5 kg/m2) before and after 93 days of standardized submaximal (50% to 55% maximum oxygen consumption) cycle-ergometer exercise. A total energy deficit of 244 +/- 9.7 MJ induced significant changes (P fatness measures. Plasma TESTO and DHEA-S increased and 3alphaDIOL-G decreased. The increase in TESTO was a significant inverse correlate of loss in all measures of body fat, particularly central adiposity (r = -.58 to -.86, P fat loss-adjusted). Lower postexercise levels of 3alphaDIOL-G correlated positively with decreased body composition measures (r = .65 to .68, P fat (AVF) was greater in men with lower fasting insulin levels (P fat loss: cortisol, .72; ADT-G, .62, P low androgen metabolite levels accompanied the changes in body composition and body fat distribution generated by the exercise-induced negative energy balance. Furthermore, these changes were characterized by a significant resemblance within identical-twin pairs.

  19. Effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Ting, Stephanie; Girvan, Liz; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Swain, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain. The strain energy release rate using a four-point bending stable fracture test was evaluated for two different porcelains [leucite containing (VM9) and glass (Zirox) porcelain] veneered to zirconia. Prior to veneering the zirconia had been subjected to 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 autoclave cycles. The specimens were manufactured to a total bi-layer dimension of 30 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to identify the phase transformation and fracture behavior. The strain energy release rate for debonding of the VM9 specimens were significantly higher (pautoclave cycles lowered the strain energy release rate significantly (pautoclave cycles between 5 and 20. The monoclinic phase reverted back to tetragonal phase after undergoing conventional porcelain firing cycles. EBSD data showed significant changes of the grain size distribution between the control and autoclaved specimen (cycle 20). Increasing autoclave cycles only significantly decreased the adhesion of the VM9 layered specimens. In addition, a conventional porcelain firing schedule completely reverted the monoclinic phase back to tetragonal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Total Kinetic Energy and Fragment Mass Distribution of Neutron-Induced Fission of U-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Daniel James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schmitt, Kyle Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Properties of fission in U-233 were studied at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at incident neutron energies from thermal to 40 MeV at both the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center flight path 12 and at WNR flight path 90-Left from Dec 2016 to Jan 2017. Fission fragments are observed in coincidence using a twin ionization chamber with Frisch grids. The average total kinetic energy (TKE) released from fission and fragment mass distributions are calculated from observations of energy deposited in the detector and conservation of mass and momentum. Accurate experimental measurements of these parameters are necessary to better understand the fission process and obtain data necessary for calculating criticality. The average TKE released from fission has been well characterized for several isotopes at thermal neutron energy, however, few measurements have been made at fast neutron energies. This experiment expands on previous successful experiments using an ionization chamber to measure TKE and fragment mass distributions of U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This experiment requires the full spectrum of neutron energies and can therefore only be performed at a small number of facilities in the world. The required full neutron energy spectrum is obtained by combining measurements from WNR 90L and Lujan FP12 at LANSCE.