WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy green schools

  1. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  2. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What Makes Green Schools Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Green energy represents a way to empower students by demonstrating creative problem-solving with an eye on protecting precious resources, both capital and natural. Many school districts have already taken the initiative during the past five years to implement energy projects, whether for the educational or economic opportunities, or both.…

  4. Final report to the Department of Energy: Green Schools Project DE-FC01-99EE10685. Schools for the 21st century: Transferring the Green Schools experience; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    2002-01-01

    This report describes five major activities that the Alliance to Save Energy performed for the years 2000 and 2001 to support and compliment DOE's Energy Smart Schools Partnership. The major tasks under this project were to: (1) Promote the School Efficiency Peer Exchange program for school personnel; (2) develop the Earth Apple Awards program and disseminate the best award-winning ideas; (3) link Green Schools with Rebuilt with at least one metropolitan area such as Philadelphia or Buffalo; (4) support Rebuild/Energy Smart Schools through working at the state level to develop business, state, and local government and through making presentations in support of school efficiency; (5) update the curriculum search originally conducted in 1995

  5. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  6. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1997-01-01

    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....

  7. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  8. Green Building and School Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  9. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  10. Green Energy - Fiction and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberg, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The term ``Green Energy'' has been popularized to refer to energy sources that do not depend on fossil fuels. The oldest truly ``green'' energy source is wood fuel derived by photosynthesis for thermal comfort in the cold season. Thermal energy from the combustion of wood for personal heating in our 41 million fireplaces has greatly declined, due to an ``Anti-fireplace Hoax'' (1) that fireplaces are ``energy counterproductive.'' Physicists have a special obligation to address the problem that our major true source of ``Green Energy'' is widely misrepresented and neglected. 1. L. Cranberg, The Physics Teacher, Letter, January,l989

  11. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  12. Green accounting for greener energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, M.; Vranes, S.; Goekalp, I.

    2010-01-01

    The first step towards the widespread use of renewable energy sources and preservation of our environment for the people of the future is to adopt the ''green accounting'' standards that translate socially and environmentally responsible behavior into monetary terms, the only language businesses understand. These standards have the potential of switching on the red light for all pollution-causing power plants, and those depleting the natural capital in any way, be it over-harvesting the forests, or exhausting the underground treasures - coal, oil, natural gas, etc. This paper will show how green accounting can help in changing the focus from the economic welfare to the total societal welfare, acknowledging the fact that human society is an integral part of the natural world. The paper will also briefly present the software developed by the authors that introduce the green accounting principles into the investment appraisal process, aiming at encouraging investments into renewable energy. The tool is also useful as a platform facilitating calibration of economic/financial instruments, like environmental taxes of governmental incentives, that are usually to boost renewable energy sector. The comparative analysis of investment into biofuel-powered combined heat and power production plant using two types of investment valuation standards, one based on conventional cash-flow analysis, the other based on green-accounting standards is detailed in the paper. The analysis is performed as a part of the European Commission Framework Program Project AFTUR, undertaken by the consortium consisting of respectful European Research Establishments in renewable energy area as well as major European biofuel-powered turbine producers. The results show that the wider adoption of green accounting standards would induce the unprecedented growth of the renewable energy sector, because it would make the investment into renewable energy attractive for investors. (author)

  13. Implementing Green Walls in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. McCullough

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls—a “vertical garden,” or “living wall” interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate and a water delivery system—provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to “outdoor nature” within the indoor environment. Hands-on “project-based” learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.

  14. Implementing Green Walls in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael B; Martin, Michael D; Sajady, Mollika A

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies in applied pedagogical design have shown that, at all educational levels, direct exposure to the natural environment can enhance learning by improving student attention and behaviors. Implementing green walls-a "vertical garden," or "living wall" interior wall that typically includes greenery, a growing medium (soil or substrate) and a water delivery system-provides environmental health benefits, but also provides a practical application within classrooms for minimizing directed attention fatigue in students by connecting them to "outdoor nature" within the indoor environment. Hands-on "project-based" learning is another pedagogical strategy that has proved to be effective across the spectrum of educational levels and across subject areas. Green walls have the potential to inspire critical thinking through a combination of project-based learning strategies and environmental education. The authors have outlined a curriculum involving the implementation of an indoor living wall system within a classroom-learning environment, incorporating project-based learning modules that interact with the wall. In conjunction with the passive health benefits of a green wall, project-based curriculum models can connect students interactively with indoor nature and have the potential to inspire real-world thinking related to science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics fields within the indoor learning environment. Through a combination of these passive and interactive modes, students are connected to nature in the indoor environment regardless of weather conditions outdoors. Future research direction could include post-construction studies of the effectiveness of project-based curricula related to living walls, and the long-term impacts of implementing green walls in classrooms on school achievement and student behaviors.

  15. Green Building Implementation at Schools in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimu, D. A. J.; Tumanduk, M. S. S. S.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims at investigating the green building implementation at schools in North Sulawesi, Indonesia; and to analysis the relationship between implementation of green building concept at school with students’ green behaviour. This research is Survey Research with quantitative descriptive method. The analysis unit is taken purposively, that is school that had been implemented the green building concept, Manado’s 3rd Public Vocational High School, Lokon High School at Tomohon, Manado Independent School at North Minahasa, and Tondano’s 3rd Public Vocational High School. Data collecting is acquired by observation and questionnaire. The Assessment Criteria of green building on Analysis Unit, is taken from Greenship Existing Building ver 1. There are 4 main points that being assessed, which are Energy Conservation and Efficiency; Water Conservation; Indoor Health and Comfort; Waste Managerial. The Analysis technique used in this research is the simple regression analysis. The result of the research shows that there is a significant relation between green building implementation at school and students’ green behavior. The result is accordance with the Gesalts Psychologist theories, that architecture can change the user’s behaviour.

  16. Frenzy for green energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoue, A.; Andreau, S.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable, CO 2 -free or clean energies are receiving the adhesion of politicians and investors. 21.5 billion dollar were invested in 2006 in new renewable energy production capacities at the world scale, indicating a real craze for a structuring industry which would carry on its growth. Many companies are now quoted at the stock exchange and this trend should increase with the competition of emerging countries, like China and India, in this sector. The need for new technologies remains important and the R and D budget reached 16.3 billion dollars at the world scale in 2006. The market of renewable equipments and facilities should quadruple in the next 10 years and should reach 226.7 billion dollars in 2016. (J.S.)

  17. Investigating and analysing the energy and environmental performance of an experimental green roof system installed in a nursery school building in Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamouris, M.; Pavlou, C.; Doukas, P.; Synnefa, A.; Hatzibiros, A. [University of Athens, (Greece). Department of Physics, Division of Applied Physics, Laboratory of Meteorology; Mihalakakou, G. [University of Ioannina, Agrinion (Greece). Department of Environment and Natural Resources Management; Patargias, P. [University of Peloponnesus, Kalamata (Greece). Faculty of Human Sciences and Cultural Studies, Department of History, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management

    2007-09-15

    This paper deals with the experimental investigation and analysis of the energy and environmental performance of a green roof system installed in a nursery school building in Athens. The investigation was implemented in two phases. During the first phase, an experimental investigation of the green roof system efficiency was presented and analysed, while in the second one the energy savings was examined through a mathematical approach by calculating both the cooling and heating load for the summer and winter period for the whole building as well as for its top floor. The energy performance evaluation showed a significant reduction of the building's cooling load during summer. This reduction varied for the whole building in the range of 6-49% and for its last floor in the range of 12-87%. Moreover, the influence of the green roof system in the building's heating load was found insignificant, and this can be regarded a great advantage of the system as any interference in the building shell for the reduction of cooling load leads usually to the increase of its heating load. (author)

  18. Green energy strategies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Ay, Murat

    2006-01-01

    In this study we propose some green energy strategies for sustainable development. In this regard, seven green energy strategies are taken into consideration to determine the sectoral, technological, and application impact ratios. Based on these ratios, we derive a new parameter as the green energy impact ratio. In addition, the green energy-based sustainability ratio is obtained by depending upon the green energy impact ratio, and the green energy utilization ratio that is calculated using actual energy data taken from literature. In order to verify these parameters, three cases are considered. Consequently, it can be considered that the sectoral impact ratio is more important and should be kept constant as much as possible in a green energy policy implementation. Moreover, the green energy-based sustainability ratio increases with an increase of technological, sectoral, and application impact ratios. This means that all negative effects on the industrial, technological, sectoral and social developments partially and/or completely decrease throughout the transition and utilization to and of green energy and technologies when possible sustainable energy strategies are preferred and applied. Thus, the sustainable energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of the countries where green energy (e.g., wind, solar, tidal, biomass) is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investment in green energy supply and progress should be encouraged by governments and other authorities for a green energy replacement of fossil fuels for more environmentally benign and sustainable future

  19. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  20. Going Green: The Business Case for Greening your Energy Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavery, Greg

    2007-07-01

    We are all familiar with the challenges facing the energy industry: supply security, climate change, emerging cleaner technologies, retail competition, staffing, and the quest for growth. This paper demonstrates how a proactive environmentally considered ('green') corporate approach addresses these issues and unlocks four tangible areas of value addition for energy companies. Based on over a decade of experience by the author in this emerging field, this paper provides some golden rules for companies considering the green approach and showcases an Australian market leading energy company who is unlocking green value. (auth)

  1. Certification Systems of Green Schools: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Kocabas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is an approach that should not merely be limited to the design of buildings, but be a lifestyle adopted by posterity. Individuals ought to have the consciousness to protect and preserve the natural resources of future generations. After all, this is what will probably make studies on sustainability reach their targets. School buildings are critically important in achieving this goal in that they can enable future generations to be raised with an awareness of sustainability. This explains the reason why, in this study, the following leading green school certification systems and their criteria have been compared and examined: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; Collaborative for High Performance Schools; and, Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method. Five schools with these certificates were taken as examples, evaluated and compared. This study, in which descriptive survey model was employed, made it clear that the standards set for green schools serve similar purposes no matter when a green school certification system originated or which countries have adopted it. However, the following variables play an important role in the success of the green school approach: attitudes of administrators; training pattern; location of the school; materials selection; and the responsibilities of educators and learners. School buildings in Turkey should further be discussed in detail with these points in mind.

  2. Going Green: Eco-Friendly Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show that a school's physical condition--especially its lighting and indoor air quality--directly affect student performance. A 2005 Turner Construction survey of green buildings found that 70 percent of districts with sustainable schools reported improved student performance. It also makes perfect sense that…

  3. C-TEC: Ohio's First All-Green School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Angie

    2009-01-01

    In Ohio's Licking County, the Career and Technology Education Centers (C-TEC) is a leader in the green movement. This eco-friendly school incorporates environmental sustainability in all aspects of its programming and is the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified public building in the state. While eco-friendly…

  4. Green Power Procurement Library | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ., and E.S. Brown. 2006. Utility-Marketer Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series. EPA 430-R-09-045. Green Power Developing New Renewable Energy Projects. NREL/TP-6A20-51904. July. Natural Marketing Institute. 2011

  5. Green schools: strengthening our economy by investing in our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, John M

    2009-01-01

    An architect looks at the history of school design and construction in the United States, which by 2008 had approximately 97,000 public schools holding 54.3 million students and five million teachers. About 73 percent of the schools were built prior to 1969. A study has shown that Green Schools can produce a 30-50 percent reduction in energy use, 35 percent reduction in carbon dioxide, a 40 percent reduction in water use, and cut 70 percent in solid waste. Further, student absenteeism and teacher turnover were reduced and productivity increased three percent. If all American schools were Green, the country would save nearly $1 trillion in the next 10 years.

  6. Development of National Assessment Criteria for Green Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    evaluation of the national green schools project in Mainland China in 2006. Background ... school management (the green school committee, the plan for green schools, training ... the processes of environmental education (inclusion of environmental education in the .... The basic reason is that the content about continued ...

  7. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-02-15

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  8. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. The Greening of a Business School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Describes the University of South Alabama's program of envirotech student internships in Latin America. Encourages business schools to reshape the anti-environmental attitudes prevalent in present and future managers by demonstrating how "green" can be profitable, especially in the international arena, through outcome-oriented…

  10. Sustainability in Schools: Why Green Buildings Have Become a Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie; Dunbar, Brian; Schiller, Craig

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in both green school construction and research linking green schools to healthier students, higher performance and financial return on investment, it is no surprise that the green school design practices are quickly becoming standard practice. This is reason for celebration, yet there are still many mountains to climb to achieve…

  11. Going Solar in Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domine, Mark

    2011-01-01

    These are tough economic times, and few groups are more cognizant of this than school and university administrators. Struggling with significantly smaller operating budgets, institutions are faced with the harsh realities of laying off qualified teachers and staff, increasing class sizes, limiting or eliminating valuable programs and, in some…

  12. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  13. The challenge of greening energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  14. The challenge of greening energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Energy Research Group

    2006-07-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  15. Green Dot Public Schools. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2018

    2018-01-01

    "Green Dot Public Schools" is a nonprofit organization that operates more than 20 public charter middle and high schools in California, Tennessee, and Washington. The "Green Dot Public Schools" model emphasizes high quality teaching, strong school leadership, a curriculum that prepares students for college, and partnerships…

  16. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  17. Green energy and large commercial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capage, Adam

    2000-01-01

    The difficulties faced in selling green energy to large commercial users are reviewed in this article. Four steps are identified in helping energy service suppliers (ESP) focus on opportunities for maximising revenue, namely, targeting the best prospects, identifying the right contact person, appealing to the primary contact, and helping contacts to make the sale internally. Companies with environmentally conscious customers and well defined environmental policies and led by those that promote environmental stewardship are recognised as commercial customers most likely to sign a deal for green energy

  18. Webinar: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  19. SOLAR ENERGY FOR GREEN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Jesudoss Manohar; Dr. T. Jayaprakasam

    2016-01-01

    India a rapidly growing economy with more than 1 billion people is facing a huge also energy demand. The electricity production has expanded over the years but we cannot deny the fact that the population of the country is also expanding. More than 72% of population living in villages and half of the villages remain without electricity. It’s high time that our country should concentrate more on energy efficiency, conservation and renewable energy to fulfill the energy needs of India and bri...

  20. Financing green energy projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddynor Manshor; Yvonne Lunsong; Norhayati Kamaruddin

    2000-01-01

    Kyoto Protocol is the first global commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Malaysia, which signed the Protocol on 12 March 1999, must also take steps to address the climate change concerns. The use of renewable energy sources is seen as a feasible way to address the issue. Despite their environment-friendliness, these sources of energy are grossly under-utilised even though Malaysia is amply endowed with renewable energies, particularly biomass and solar. As a unique domestic resource, recurring energy savings from energy efficiency could also qualify as renewable energy. At present, the contribution of renewable energy in the country's energy mix is very small compared to its large potential. The Malaysian Government recognizes the potential of this form of energy. As part of its fuel diversification policy, the government plans to expand the four-fuel strategy to include renewable energy as the fifth fuel. Due to all year constant sunshine and vast oil palm cultivation, both solar and palm oil residues are identified as the most promising green energy option. Efforts are underway to embark on programs to demonstrate and evaluate the viability of these emerging green technologies. A few organizations are given grants to undertake pre-feasibility studies of pre-commercialization demonstration projects. When approved, viable projects could also qualify for technical and financial assistance from foreign partners. However, grants are limited and under World Trade Organization rules such subsidies should not exceed 30 percent in most cases. Commercialization of green energy projects must therefore involve full participation of private developers and financial institutions. Yet, virtually no attempt is made to promote financing of such projects in Malaysia. In most cases, financial institutions are not aware of the economic potential of these unique and under exploited sources. This paper will discuss problems in financing green energy projects and then

  1. Hydrogen - A new green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnu, Franck

    2013-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the role hydrogen might have as energy in the energy transition policy, a review of different areas of research related to the hydrogen sector, and presentations of some remarkable innovations in different specific fields. Hydrogen might be an asset in energy transition because production modes (like electrolysis) result in an almost carbon-free or at least low-carbon hydrogen production. Challenges and perspectives are evoked: energy storage for intermittent energies (the MYRTE platform), the use of a hydrogen-natural mix (GRHYD program), the development of fuel cells for transport applications, and co-generation (Japan is the leader). Different French research organisations are working on different aspects and areas: the H2E program by Air Liquide, fuel cell technologies by GDF Suez, power electrolyzers and cells by Areva. Some aspects and research areas are more specifically detailed: high temperature electrolysis (higher efficiencies, synthesis of methane from hydrogen), fuel cells (using less platinum, and using ceramics for high temperatures), the perspective of solid storage solutions (hydrogen bottles in composite materials, development of 'hydrogen sponges', search for new hydrides). Innovations concern a project car, storage and production (Greenergy Box), the McPhy Energy storage system, an electric bicycle with fuel cell, easy to transport storage means by Air Liquide and Composites Aquitaine, development of energy autonomy, fuel cells for cars, electrolyzers using the Proton Exchange Membrane or PEM technology

  2. Green energy and hydrogen research at University of Waterloo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises Green Energy and Hydrogen Research at the University of Waterloo in Canada. Green energy includes solar, wind, bio fuels, hydrogen economy and conventional energy sources with carbon dioxide sequestration

  3. New green paper on European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2006, EU Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso and Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs presented to the public the Green Paper on 'A European Strategy for a Sustainable, Competitive, and Secure Energy', which had been expected for some time. The authors thus underscore the great importance for European development of energy policy. However, the European treaties restrict the competence of the EU in matters of energy policy. The Green Paper is to spark off a broad consultation and discussion process about the potential design of a comprehensive European energy policy. 6 main areas are mentioned in which action needs to be taken: - Energy for growth and employment. - Single energy market and continuity of supply. - Mix of energy resources: sustainable, efficient, divers. - Climate protection. - Innovation in energy technologies. - Coherent foreign policy in matters of energy. 3 key objectives are identified: - Development of renewable and other energy sources also with low CO 2 emissions. - Opening of markets, promotion of investments, energy efficiency. - Continuity of supply. (orig.)

  4. Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brian; Fiedler, Lon

    2012-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, many schools and universities are considering energy-saving solutions, including solar heating options, to lower costs and to attract students and staff that support environmentally friendly practices. However, administrators and facility engineers should take several issues into account before pursuing a solar…

  5. Green taxes by doubling energy levies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, R.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of green taxes, levies and investment facilities in the Netherlands. Also, attention is paid to the main issues in the Third Dutch National Environmental Plan (NMP3). Energy levies are imported for the Dutch government to shift taxes on labor further towards taxes on pollution. However, the proposed doubling of the energy levies meets strong opposition from industry and businesses. 2 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    maximizing their positive ones. The study was undertaken for UNEP by the Beijer Institute in Stockholm (now the Stockholm Environment Institute) during 1988-90. The results have been published as a joint UNEP/Stockholm Environment Institute publication, Bioenergy and the Environment, by Westview Press. This volume is intended for professionals in the field, such as those working in environmental management and energy planning, and to aid decision makers charged with assessing the impacts of alternative energy systems. This booklet - Green Energy: biomass and the environment - is a popular version of the technical study and is based largely, though not exclusively, on it. It is intended primarily for those who have a special interest in the subject but who do not have any professional background in the area. It is hoped that members of the general public, and of schools and universities, will also find it timely and useful

  7. Green mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2008-07-01

    Municipal governments and provincial regulators are under increasing pressure to divert clean organic waste materials from landfill sites and establish productive uses for them. This article described the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) CANMET Green Mines Green Energy consortium. Composed of mining, forestry, government, and academic representatives, the consortium's aim is to expand the use of organic waste residuals in the rehabilitation of mine sites for use as a feedstock in biofuel production. The program's themes include: (1) determining the conditions required to maximize growth; (2) investigating the interaction of various organic covers on tailings pore water, effluent and mineralogy; (3) investigating the potential economic and environmental impacts on all relevant sectors; and (4) disseminating findings to all relevant stakeholders. Tests are currently being conducted to determine the potential impact of municipal waste materials on tailings oxidation and effluent chemistry. The effect of biosolids and compost-derived dissolved organic carbon on effluent treatability and toxicity is also being investigated. Results from the investigations to date suggest that sulfate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is taking place. It was concluded that steady state has not yet been reached after a 1 year period. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  9. Green Energy for Green Economy: The Case Study of Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Green economy is an overarching purpose for sustainable growth and friendly environment. Renewable energy focuses on clean energy and sustainable development targets a continuous growth. Green economy includes both of them. Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI struggles serious problems in terms of economics after showing a remarkable economic growth until mid-2014. The increasing gap between demand and supply is seen another serious problem for KRI. Green energy is one of the essential stage towards to the green economy and it is one of the vital issue to succeed on the way of green economy. Solar energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energy source around the world and KRI has a great potential for solar energy. This study aims to stimulate KRI to invest green energy and encourage it to establish green economy to make its economy robust for the shocks and enable to show a sustainable development.

  10. European energy policy: the green book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  11. Urban Greening as part ofDistrict Energy Services

    OpenAIRE

    MELIN, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Work carried out during this master’s thesis is about urban greening and its close integration with district energy systems. Urban greening is the fact to develop green infrastructures (parks, street trees, ...) instead of grey infrastructures (buildings, roads, ...) in cities. Despite that the actual economic value of green infrastructure is less appreciated at first glance and very difficult to valorize, urban greening has many undeniable advantages such as reducing pollution and heat islan...

  12. Good prospects for green energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has to attain the strategic objectives for 2020: 20% of energy from renewable sources, cutting the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20% and diminishing the dependence on imported fuels, that is why in the last years European Commission has decided that MS should increase the flexibility of programs to promote green energy and cut subsidies. Although wind and solar energy have become more competitive in terms of cost in the last two decades, many production technologies need to be improved, also storage and transport capacities. Romania has an important potential of renewable energy resources and has introduced a functional mechanism for supporting their development based on a system of mandatory quotas for electricity, combined with trading a number of green certificates, but all the costs are transferred to the consumers.This system may carry an overcompensation for the investors and also an excessive burden on the consumers. Most investments were made in wind and hydro, the fewest in solar and biomass. Market liberalization may create more competition and stimulate the investments in different renewable resources.

  13. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M.; Parsons, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  14. Sustainable energy strategies for green energy supply. Paper no. IGEC-1-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, A.; Ay, M.; Dincer, I.

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are, first, to determine the sustainable energy strategies for green energy supply, and secondly, to derive the green energy recovery ratio and the sustainable green energy progress ratio, and thirdly, to investigate the effects of sustainable energy strategies on these ratios. For these purposes, 20-possible sustainable energy strategies are taken into consideration and are divided into three subgroups that are strategies on the technological impact, sectoral impact, and green energy impact in a society. Using the possible sustainable energy strategies, technological and sectoral impact ratios of green energy and also green energy activity ratio are determined and discussed in detail. Additionally, some Case studies are performed in the scope of this interesting investigation: (i) the effect of technological impact ratio on green energy recovery ratio, and sustainable green energy progress ratio, (ii) the effect of sectoral impact ratio on green energy recovery ratio, and sustainable green energy progress ratio, and (iii) the effect of green energy impact ratio on green energy recovery ratio and sustainable green energy progress ratio. It is found that sustainable green energy progress ratio increases with an increase of technological, sectoral, and green energy impact ratios. This means that all negative effects on the industrial, technological, sectoral and social developments partially and/or completely decrease throughout the transition and utilization to and of green energy and technologies when possible sustainable energy strategies are preferred and applied. Thus, the sustainable energy strategies can make an important contribution to the economies of the countries where green energy is abundantly produced. Therefore, the investment in green energy supply should be, for the future of world nations, encouraged by governments and other authoritative bodies who, for strategic reasons, wish to have a green alternative to fossil

  15. Matching renewable energy supply and demand in green datacenters

    OpenAIRE

    Goiri, Iñigo; Haque, Md E.; Le, Kien; Beauchea, Ryan; Nguyen, Thu D.; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi; Bianchini, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose GreenSlot, a scheduler for parallel batch jobs in a datacenter powered by a photovoltaic solar array and the electrical grid (as a backup). GreenSlot predicts the amount of solar energy that will be available in the near future, and schedules the workload to maximize the green energy consumption while meeting the jobs' deadlines. If grid energy must be used to avoid deadline violations, the scheduler selects times when it is cheap. Evaluation results show that GreenS...

  16. Green Energy-Industrial Innovation: A Comparative Study of Green Energy Transformations in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikeland, Per Ove; Christiansen, Atle Christer; Koefoed, Anne Louise; Midttun, Atle; Tangen, Kristian

    1999-07-01

    Greening of industry is a prominent topic on the European agenda and has received a new impetus with the Kyoto process, where the European Union and its member states are facing new obligations. Due to its role as a major infrastructure sector and due to its extensive emissions, the electricity sector has become a focal industry in this context. These same factors, as well as the large public ownership has, in fact, traditionally placed energy in a central public political focus. The energy and electricity sector hence exemplify the intertwined nature of economics and politics in sector developments, where technology choices and capacity expansions have numerous motivations and diverse interests to please. This report discusses ''green'' innovation in the energy industry. By selecting some of the most advanced examples of breakthrough for new green technologies in Europe, it explores the basic elements of successful greening of industry. To account for the fact that product innovation- and diffusion-processes are embedded in a complex politico-economic setting, we have developed an analytical framework, incorporating both economic, political and societal elements and the interplay between them. More specifically, environmentally oriented innovation is seen as evolving out of the interplay between: 1) a technical-commercial core (major market agents, i.e. the renewable energy supply industry, associated complementary industries and consumers); 2) the political-administrative system; and 3) the societal basis, referring to existing societal customs, norms, and modes of social organisation. Drawing on Porter's (1990) analysis of business clusters, we have termed our focus ''green energy-industrial cluster'' emergence and growth. We have taken Porter's attempt to break out of a limited market analysis into a broader strategic focus one step further, where the political and institutional dimensions are more explicitly included. This implies that we see the emergence of

  17. Green Energy-Industrial Innovation: A Comparative Study of Green Energy Transformations in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove; Christiansen, Atle Christer; Koefoed, Anne Louise; Midttun, Atle; Tangen, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Greening of industry is a prominent topic on the European agenda and has received a new impetus with the Kyoto process, where the European Union and its member states are facing new obligations. Due to its role as a major infrastructure sector and due to its extensive emissions, the electricity sector has become a focal industry in this context. These same factors, as well as the large public ownership has, in fact, traditionally placed energy in a central public political focus. The energy and electricity sector hence exemplify the intertwined nature of economics and politics in sector developments, where technology choices and capacity expansions have numerous motivations and diverse interests to please. This report discusses ''green'' innovation in the energy industry. By selecting some of the most advanced examples of breakthrough for new green technologies in Europe, it explores the basic elements of successful greening of industry. To account for the fact that product innovation- and diffusion-processes are embedded in a complex politico-economic setting, we have developed an analytical framework, incorporating both economic, political and societal elements and the interplay between them. More specifically, environmentally oriented innovation is seen as evolving out of the interplay between: 1) a technical-commercial core (major market agents, i.e. the renewable energy supply industry, associated complementary industries and consumers); 2) the political-administrative system; and 3) the societal basis, referring to existing societal customs, norms, and modes of social organisation. Drawing on Porter's (1990) analysis of business clusters, we have termed our focus ''green energy-industrial cluster'' emergence and growth. We have taken Porter's attempt to break out of a limited market analysis into a broader strategic focus one step further, where the political and institutional dimensions are more explicitly included. This implies that we see the emergence of

  18. Green4sure. The Green Energy Plan. Background report; Green4sure. Het Groene Energieplan. Achtergrondrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.J. (ed.) (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The Green Energy Plan indicates how the ambitious climate targets of the cabinet can be achieved at the lowest cost. Main issue is that all energy consumers individually (industry, electricity production, aviation) or collectively (built environment, transport) are placed in an emission credits system with climate budget. The effort and costs are differentiated in order to ensure a largest possible acceptance. Moreover, new standards will be introduced for vehicles, buildings (existing and new) and appliances. The effects of the plan have been calculated and will lead to the desired halving of greenhouse gas emissions, an annual efficiency improvement of 2.1%. In 2030 the annual cost will amount to over 4 billion euro, but there are also substantial social benefits. This background report focuses on households, utilities and SME, greenhouse farming, traffic, industry, electricity, renewable energy, biomass and biodiversity, CO2 storage, external costs and benefits of Green4Sure, employment and socio-economic effects as well as the climate act. [mk]. [Dutch] Het Groene Energieplan geeft aan hoe de ambitieuze klimaatdoelen van het kabinet gehaald kunnen worden tegen de laagste kosten. Belangrijkste punten zijn dat alle energiegebruikers individueel (industrie, elektriciteitsproductie, luchtvaart) of collectief (gebouwde omgeving, transport) onder een emissierechtensysteem met klimaatbudget komen te vallen. De inspanningen, en daarmee de kosten zijn gedifferentieerd om de acceptatie zo groot mogelijk te laten zijn. Daarnaast komen er normen voor voertuigen, gebouwen (nieuw en bestaand) en apparaten. De effecten van het plan zijn doorgerekend en leiden tot de gewenste halvering van de broeikasgassen, een jaarlijkse efficiencyverbetering van 2,1%. De kosten bedragen in 2030 jaarlijks ruim 4 miljard euro, maar er zijn ook forse maatschappelijke baten. In dit achtergrondrapport wordt aandacht besteed aan huishoudens, utiliteiten en MKB, glastuinbouw, verkeer, industrie

  19. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  20. Green paper on energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.; Whitmore, J.; Shariff, N.

    2005-11-01

    This green paper was created by the Canadian Environmental Network to initiate a dialogue on climate change and energy issues. Recommendations for energy strategies for Canada beyond 2012 were presented. An overview of recent climate science was presented, as well as various stabilization scenarios needed to prevent further climate change. A review of global energy trends working for and against action to prevent climate change was also provided. It was suggested that the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations can only be achieved when the United States and large developing economies such as China, India and Brazil transform themselves into renewable-energy based economies. Renewable energy and energy efficiency must play a central role in future climate change regimes. It was suggested that nuclear power cannot be considered as an option to reduce GHGs due to its high cost, and on-going public concerns over long-term waste disposal, fuel-cycle health and safety. A viable global framework for stabilizing GHG concentrations built on the current regimes of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol was recommended. It was suggested that richer industrialized nations must take the lead by pursuing absolute reductions and providing assistance to developing nations for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. It was recommended that developing nations should contribute to global mitigation efforts by pursuing low-carbon intensity development paths, and that effective climate change policies must address the economic barriers faced by developing nations. Other recommendations included a regulatory regime for major energy producers and users incorporating progressively lower GHG emission targets; the elimination of all subsidies for the fossil fuel and nuclear fuel-cycle and power industries; the adoption of a national renewable energy strategy; the implementation of a national energy conservation and efficiency

  1. Energy and carbon for green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, Louis-Marie; Bucy, Jacques de; Caujolle, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006, massive shale gas exploration and development in the United States has enabled the country to reduce the price of gas by a factor of 3. Taking instantaneously advantage of this unique situation, the chemical sector has planned more than 100 billion dollars of investment in new industrial capacity, creating a tremendous environment for its domestic chemical industry. In Europe, despite a high capacity for innovation, the chemical industry is suffering from ageing facilities and high production costs. It must contend with ferocious competition from the United States but also from Asia, which currently represents 46% of the global market, and the Middle East that is benefiting from the 50 billion dollars invested in the chemical sector since the early 2000's. Lower energy prices and labor costs in the United States are negatively impacting the competitiveness of European industrial companies but their capacity to innovate can help them to re-bounce. By reducing the environmental impact of their products, they can generate added value that is important to their direct customers, end users and also governments. In this article, to assist industrial companies, ENEA, a consulting firm specialized in energy and sustainable development, examines two strategic principles of green chemistry: energy efficiency and the use of renewable feedstock. It addresses all of the topics linked to energy and carbon in chemistry, from supply (bio-feedstocks, CO 2 reuse) to the end products (life-cycle analysis, recyclability) while also covering the processes (energy sobriety, bio-refineries, use of microalgae)

  2. Green Schools for Everyone within This Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mourik, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    At the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), people see the profound, positive impact that green buildings have on people's lives and the innovation they have poured into the marketplace--from office and retail buildings to government facilities and individual homes. However, none of these markets speaks more powerfully to the benefits and…

  3. Ex-ante evaluation of Green Deals Energy; Ex-ante evaluatie van Green Deals Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzenga, H.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of the results of a study of the bottlenecks experienced by initiators in the realization of green projects, the solutions for which the Dutch government has chosen, and the role that local authorities play in it. An important research question is to what extent it is likely that Green Deal projects will lead to imitation by others. The research has focused on four themes: Onshore wind energy, Energy production from co- fermentation of manure, Energy conservation of heat in the built environment, and Decentralised electricity generation with solar panels [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de resultaten van een onderzoek naar de knelpunten die initiatiefnemers ervaren bij de realisatie van groene projecten, de oplossingsrichtingen waarvoor de Rijksoverheid heeft gekozen, en de rol die decentrale overheden daarin spelen. Een belangrijke onderzoeksvraag is in hoeverre het aannemelijk is dat Green Deal-projecten zullen leiden tot navolging door anderen. Het onderzoek heeft zich toegespitst op vier thema's: Windenergie op land, Energieproductie uit (co)vergisting van mest, Energiebesparing op warmte in de gebouwde omgeving, en Decentrale elektriciteitsopwekking met zonnepanelen.

  4. Green Design and Sustainable Development of School Uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yumei; Fang, Xuemeng; Zhou, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the school uniform has gradually become an integral part of campus culture construction. A school uniform is not only an iconic symbol of students and a school, but also the carrier of campus culture, with special education function and cultural connotation. However in the same time, many problems exist in the design, making and material selection of school uniforms, in which, substandard fabric quality is the most serious problem. To ensure the quality, health and safety of school uniforms, in my opinion, priority should be given to green design and sustainable development in the design process of school uniforms, which will be more conducive to promoting the sound development of school uniforms. In today’s economic development, the globalization of mass production is no longer just a symbol of challenging the limits of human beings, but to explore the unlimited potential of human spiritual collaboration. If we want to have a better future on this planet, we need to completely redefine the key issue we need to address, that is, green design. The rise of green products is a great progress of human understanding and solving environmental problems. It is the inevitable development trend of commodity production, and will have a profound impact on human survival and development in the future. School uniform is an important part of campus culture construction. In order to not damage the health of primary and secondary school students, in the school uniform design and production process should follow the concept of “green design” to achieve the school uniform style, color, material design, a comprehensive “green” positioning.

  5. Proceedings of the 4. international green energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.Q.; Hao, Y.Z.; Zhu, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    This multi-disciplinary international conference was organized for the development and promotion of the non-polluting, renewable and sustainable energy known as green energy. It was attended by researchers, scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers from around the world to discuss the future direction, strategies and priorities in the field of green energy, including energy diversity with local energy resources such as solar, hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal and other renewable sources of energy. Green energy technologies have the potential to meet future energy needs while reducing environmental impact and strengthening the economy. The 3 main conference topics were: (1) renewable and green energy resources and technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen energy, alternative fuels and green building development, (2) advanced energy systems, including power generation, distributed energy systems, energy efficiency and exergy optimization, and (3) energy, environment and sustainable development with particular focus on energy economics, greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, and energy security issues. All 135 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Green Energy for Your Non Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skulnik, Gary; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2010-01-01

    The definitive, practical, go-to resource guide on helping all charities become more "green" Nonprofit Guide to Going Green is your comprehensive learning tool to guide nonprofits and NGOs towards becoming greener. A desktop reference for any charitable organization to become greener, this essent...

  7. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the

  8. Strategic Green Energy Roadmap 2011 for South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijlhuizen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The South Korean energy system depends for 97% on import. The remaining three percent of the energy need is covered by hydropower, solar panels and wind turbines. Korea is looking for alternatives, both for import and for fossil fuels. In 2008, Korea developed its 'Low carbon, green growth' policy, followed by the first 'Strategic green energy roadmap' one year later. Mid-2011 the Ministry of Knowledge Economy published an updated roadmap. [nl

  9. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  10. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, Nasir [Climate Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  11. Greening of Business Schools: A Systemic View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Charbel Jose Chiappetta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a model for the analysis of business schools as creators, disseminators, and adopters of knowledge on environmental management. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the importance of higher education institutions for sustainability, and more specifically, about their relevance for the creation,…

  12. More green dollars to the energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valestrand, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Investments in clean tech in the American market increased with 35 percent in 2005. The same green trend is observed in Sweden, and especially wind power has seen a substantial growth globally with a 40 percent increase in the production capacity in 2005 compared to 2004

  13. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  14. Building a Green Economy: Employment Effects of Green Energy Investments for Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Pollin; Heidi Garrett-Peltier

    2009-01-01

    In this study of Ontario’s green economy, Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett-Peltier present an approach to realistically estimate the employment effects of green investments in Ontario. They focus on two alternative investment scenarios for the province: a baseline program of $18.6 billion invested in conservation and demand management; hydroelectric power; on-shore wind power; bioenergy; waste energy recycling; and solar power over 10 years, and a more ambitious $47.1 billion 10-year investmen...

  15. Green power: A renewable energy resources marketing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as power generated from the sun, the wind, the heat of the earth, and biomass. Green pricing is the marketing strategy to sell green power to customers who voluntarily pay a premium for it. Green pricing is evolving from the deregulation of the electric industry, the need for clean air, reflected in part as concern over global warming, and technology advances. The goal of the renewable energy marketing plan is to generate enough revenues for a utility to fund power purchase agreements (PPAs) with renewable energy developers or construct its own renewable facilities. Long-term, fixed price PPAs enable developers to obtain financing to construct new facilities, sometimes taking technological risks which a utility might not take otherwise. The marketing plan is built around different rate premiums for different categories of ratepayers, volunteer customer participation, customer participation recognition, and budget allocations between project costs and power marketing costs. Green prices are higher than those for conventional sources, particularly prices from natural gas fired plants. Natural gas is abundant relative to oil in price per British thermal unit (Btu). Green pricing can help bridge the gap between the current oversupply of gas and the time, not far off, when all petroleum prices will exceed those for renewable energy. The rapid implementation of green pricing is important. New marketing programs will bolster the growing demand for renewable energy evidenced in many national surveys thus decreasing the consumption of power now generated by burning hydrocarbons. This paper sets forth a framework to implement a green power marketing plan for renewable energy developers and utilities working together

  16. Renewable Energy for Rural Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A.C.; Lawand, T.

    2000-11-28

    This publication addresses the need for energy in schools, primarily those schools that are not connected to the electric grid. This guide will apply mostly to primary and secondary schools located in non-electrified areas. In areas where grid power is expensive and unreliable, this guide can be used to examine other energy options to conventional power. The authors' goal is to help the reader to accurately assess a school's energy needs, evaluate appropriate and cost-effective technologies to meet those needs, and to implement an effective infrastructure to install and maintain the hardware.

  17. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  18. Green Energy for a Green City—A Multi-Perspective Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wątróbski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basis for implementing demands for a green city is the use of, among other things, innovative “clean” technologies. However, it is mostly and directly connected to the increased use of electric energy. Green transport is an appropriate example of this. By contrast, conventional sources of energy (e.g., based on coal have a very negative impact on people and the environment. Therefore, this article mentions an attempt to solve a complex problem of employing renewable energy sources (RES as an element of the “green city” system. The research was carried out on the basis of a feasibility study (decision game for the location of a wind farm in the vicinity of the city of Szczecin, Poland. When constructing the decision models, multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA methods were applied, especially analytic hierarchy process (AHP and preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE.

  19. Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: 1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from β-carotene to chlorophyll occurs

  20. Analysis and evaluation of the applicability of green energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. J.; Song, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    With the seriousness of environmental issues and the shortage of resources, the applicability of green energy technology has been paid more and more attention by scholars in different fields. However, the current researches are often single in perspective and simple in method. According to the Theory of Applicable Technology, this paper analyzes and defines the green energy technology and its applicability from the all-around perspectives of symbiosis of economy, society, environment and science & technology etc., and correspondingly constructs the evaluation index system. The paper further applies the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation to the evaluation of its applicability, discusses in depth the evaluation models and methods, and explains in detail with an example. The author holds that the applicability of green energy technology involves many aspects of economy, society, environment and science & technology and can be evaluated comprehensively by an index system composed of a number of independent indexes. The evaluation is multi-object, multi-factor, multi-level and fuzzy comprehensive, which is undoubtedly correct, effective and feasible by the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation. It is of vital theoretical and practical significance to understand and evaluate comprehensively the applicability of green energy technology for the rational development and utilization of green energy technology and for the better promotion of sustainable development of human and nature.

  1. Proceedings of the 6. international green energy conference IGEC-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoc, T.H.; Midilli, A.; Turan, O.; Orman, E.; Tunca, F.; Yazar, I. (eds.) [School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    The 6th International Green Energy Conference (IGEC) took place in Eskisehir, Turkey, from June 5 to June 9, 2011 and was organized by the International Association for Green Energy and Anadolu University. The IGEC is a multi-disciplinary international conference on the use of energy with reduced environmental impacts. Around 150 experts from all over the world attended and presentations were given on energy diversity, energy localization, energy security and sustainable development. The conference provided these experts with an opportunity to hear about studies done by their peers, gather and discuss the latest technical information and research results, and to debate future directions and priorities in sustainable development and energy security. All 124 papers presented during the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  2. Zero Energy Schools: The Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    School buildings have a lot of potential to achieve zero energy (ZE) in new construction as well as in retrofits. There are many examples of schools operating at ZE, and many technical resources available to guide school districts and their design and construction teams through the process. When school districts embark on the path to ZE, however, they often confront challenges related to processes and a perception that ZE buildings require 'new,' unconventional, and expensive technologies, materials, or equipment. Here are some of the challenges school districts and their design and construction teams commonly encounter, and the solutions they use to overcome them.

  3. Energy efficiency and environmental considerations for green data centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.; Shah, A.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of business and social practices based on information and social practices based on information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the last few decades has transformed many, if not most, economies and businesses into e-economies and businesses into e-businesses. For economies, ICTs are increasingly playing a critical role in transforming and generating economic opportunities. Technology has a potential to create sustainable business and society both in grim and green economic times. Especially, the recovery from the current economic crisis is going to lead to more greener and energy efficient industries. Data centers are found to be major culprits in consuming too much energy and generating higher level of CO/sub 2/ in their overall operations. In order to handle the sheer magnitude of today's data, servers have become larger, denser, hotter, and significantly more costly operate using more power than being used earlier. This paper determines the properties and attributes of green IT infrastructures and the way they will be helpful in achieving green sustainable businesses. The proposed attributes and characteristics of green IT using Virtualization technology are very productive and efficient and green, hence reducing the emission of greenhouse gases so that their overall effect on global warming can be reduced or even eliminated. The proposed attributes indicate the qualities of green IT to enhance the proper utilization of hardware and software resources available in the data center. (author)

  4. Building green covering for a sustainable use of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Campiotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the growth of the cities increased built and paved areas, energy use and heat generation. The phenomenon of urban warming, called urban heat island, influences negatively outdoor comfort conditions, pollutants concentration, energy demand for air conditioning, as well as increases environmental impact due to the demand of energy generation. A sustainable technology for improving the energy efficiency of buildings is the use of green roofs and walls in order to reduce the energy consumption for conditioning in summer and improve the thermal insulation in winter. The use of green roofs and walls can contribute to mitigate the phenomenon of heat island, the emissions of greenhouse gases, and the storm water runoff affecting human thermal comfort, air quality and energy use of the buildings. Recently, a number of municipalities started to adopt regulations and constructive benefits for renovated and new buildings which incorporate green roofs and walls. The aim of this paper is to describe the green roofs and walls plant technology.

  5. Estimating the energy independence of a municipal wastewater treatment plant incorporating green energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Jihoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimated green energy production in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. • Engineered approaches in mining multiple green energy resources were presented. • The estimated green energy production accounted for 6.5% of energy independence in the plant. • We presented practical information regarding green energy projects in water infrastructures. - Abstract: Increasing energy prices and concerns about global climate change highlight the need to improve energy independence in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents methodologies for estimating the energy independence of a municipal WWTP with a design capacity of 30,000 m 3 /d incorporating various green energy resources into the existing facilities, including different types of 100 kW photovoltaics, 10 kW small hydropower, and an effluent heat recovery system with a 25 refrigeration ton heat pump. It also provides guidance for the selection of appropriate renewable technologies or their combinations for specific WWTP applications to reach energy self-sufficiency goals. The results showed that annual energy production equal to 107 tons of oil equivalent could be expected when the proposed green energy resources are implemented in the WWTP. The energy independence, which was defined as the percent ratio of green energy production to energy consumption, was estimated to be a maximum of 6.5% and to vary with on-site energy consumption in the WWTP. Implementing green energy resources tailored to specific site conditions is necessary to improve the energy independence in WWTPs. Most of the applied technologies were economically viable primarily because of the financial support under the mandatory renewable portfolio standard in Korea

  6. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  7. Obama: towards an energy green new deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    After the announcement of the very ambitious 'New Energy for America' plan, the author comments what could change, and what may not change in the U.S. energy policy. He recalls that most of the previous American presidents stressed a necessary energy independence which, in fact, has never been reached. He indicates that energy consumption per capita is particularly high in this country as well as greenhouse gas emissions which has been increasing during the last decades. The author highlights the heterogeneous situations which can be observed among the different states in terms of sources of energy and of electricity import. This heterogeneity renders rather difficult to reach a consensus on issues like carbon dioxide market. Then, the author discusses the influence of climate change on public awareness. In the second part of the article, the author discusses the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in an historical perspective. He notices that some efforts in energy saving may finally result in an increase of energy consumption, that which questions the American way of life

  8. Green energy laws and Republican legislators in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, Jonathan S.; Hess, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The policy context for green energy laws in the United States has changed over the past few years, because the Republican Party has increasingly opposed renewable electricity and other green energy policies. In this study, we draw on a database of 6071 votes on RPS (renewable portfolio standards) and PACE (Property-Assessed Clean Energy) laws by individual state legislators in the United States to examine the circumstances shaping Republican votes for green energy laws from 2007–2011. We find that votes on these laws are indeed increasingly partisan, with Republicans supporting RPS laws especially less than Democrats. However, Republicans' support for these laws is higher in states with weaker fossil fuel industries. Furthermore, Republicans tend to support the laws where median household income is lower, environmental organizations are weaker, labor-environmental coalitions are absent, and the proportion of Democrats in the legislature is lower, suggesting a reactive effect against green energy policies in more progressive settings. - Highlights: ► We analyze Republican votes for state RPS and PACE laws from 2007–2011. ► Support for RPS laws declined, while support for PACE laws remained steady. ► Support for both laws is lower in states with strong fossil fuel industries. ► Support for both laws is lower in more Democratic legislatures.

  9. Green Energy Outlook in Europe. Strategic prospects to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    As the successor to last years' report The Green Energy Outlook 2001 by Reuters Business Insight, this new report focuses on the opportunities that are opening across Europe. In particular the report evaluates the implications of trading in a harmonised green energy market and how certification and labelling will affect trading strategies. Renewable energy is rapidly becoming an important commodity. The report forecasts a green certificate market of over 20 to 30 billion Euro in 2010, largely driven by environmental policy and the increasing viability of green technologies. The impact of new policies and key issues such as certification and labeling are significant factors of the current European renewable energy market. This report evaluates the current market and identifies the main areas for growth and development to 2010. The latest market research and analysis, detailed country profiles, key players' strategies and recommendations for success in the expanding and evolving market make this report a must for every company and government with interest in the renewable energy market

  10. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Trevor B; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2016-12-14

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light energy harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light-harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we compare the theoretical minimum energy fluctuations in nanoscale quantum heat engine photocells that incorporate one or two photon-absorbing channels and show that fluctuations are naturally suppressed in the two-channel photocell. This intrinsic suppression acts as a passive regulation mechanism that enables the efficient conversion of varying incident solar power into a steady output for absorption over a broad range of the solar spectrum on Earth. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum provides no inherent regulatory benefit, indicating that green light should be rejected in a photocell whose primary role is the regulation of energy flow.

  11. Technology and energy at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.

    1994-01-01

    The teaching of technology and energy in schools requires more than simply the transfer of information. Public attitudes towards technology often contain unacknowledged contradictions, and research has shown that programmes for greater public understanding of science depend for their success on context, motivation, and on the source of the information. Exploration of the methods of science, its motivations and its limitations, should provide the basis for teaching nuclear energy in schools

  12. Doing more with less. green paper on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Even without high and volatile oil prices, which have led to a downgrading of the prospects of economic growth in Europe, there would be very good reasons for the European Union to make a strong push towards a re-invigorated programme promoting energy efficiency at all levels of European society. This green paper seeks to act as a catalyst, leading to a renewed energy efficiency initiative at all levels of European society - EU, national, regional and local. Furthermore, this Green Paper seeks to make a significant contribution, by way of example and leadership, to kick-start an international effort to contribute to addressing climatic change through energy efficiency. China presently uses more than five times as much energy as the EU to produce one unit of GDP, USA uses approximately 50% more than EU. With exploding energy demand, in particular in China and India, energy efficiency must be one of the key policies to try to reconcile, on the one hand, the increased energy needs of the developing world to power growth and improve living conditions and, on the other hand, combat global warming. This Green Paper, and the momentum created in following it up, should put the EU at the forefront of efforts to make energy efficiency a global priority. (BA)

  13. Energy transition, a new French energy model. Future energies, green growth, sustainable jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene

    2014-01-01

    This publication introduces the new French energy policy for energy transition. It presents and comments the main orientations defined for this policy and which are at the base of the French law on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it addresses the following topics: to define common objectives for a successful energy transition, to strengthen France's energy independence and to struggle against climate change; to better insulate buildings to save energy, to reduce energy bills and to create jobs; to develop clean transports to improve air quality and to protect the health of French people; to promote renewable energies to diversify energies and to valorise resources of French territories; to struggle against wastage and to promote circular economy from product design to product recycling; to simplify and clarify procedures aimed at improving efficiency and competitiveness; to strengthen nuclear safety and citizen information; and to provide citizen, enterprises, territories and the State with the power to act together

  14. Energy prices, technological knowledge and green energy innovation. A dynamic panel analysis of patent counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, Juergen; Wetzel, Heike; Koeln Univ.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the e.ect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.

  15. Switch green : Energy Star appliance feebate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2004, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the residential sector have grown by 10 per cent, and are likely to continue growing unless a policy aimed at reducing emissions is introduced. The residential sector is a significant contributor to Canada's overall GHG emissions, and an important source for potential reductions. This report presented the results of a study that described and evaluated a new economic instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption in Canada from household appliances, such as air conditioners, furnaces and boilers. Results of a quantitative analysis to determine the effect of changing taxation of residential appliances to reflect energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were presented. In addition, the report presented the results of a qualitative evaluation of the policy, using the criteria established in the 2005 budget plan, a framework for evaluating environmental tax proposals. The report outlined the context for the tax proposal that was evaluated and provided a summary of trends in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption as well as a discussion of important trends in residential energy consumption. A review of policies already in place to address energy consumption from household appliances was also presented. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  16. School of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Saligin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia's cooperation with international community in finding ways of addressing global energy security, serves its national interests on international arena. International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy (IIEPD was established at MGIMO University in February 2000, in accordance with the decision of the Academic Council of the 30 th of November 1999 and in the framework of an agreement with the International Academy of the fuel and energy complex. IIEPD combines two important aspects of foreign policy studies - energy and diplomacy. For the first time in Russia it launched a multi-level training in the field of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, and international energy cooperation. The immediate cause of the creation of IIEPD was an urgent demand on the part of major government agencies and leading oil, gas and energy companies for specialists with qualifications necessary to address the issues in the international energy cooperation and integration of the Russian fuel and energy sector in the world economy: - Energy Policy and Diplomacy; - International law; - World Economy and Finance; - International Management and Marketing. The idea of creation of the International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy was supported by the State Duma and the Federation Council, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Economic Development. The Supervisory Board is headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

  17. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  18. Green energy technologies: challenges & opportunities for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation looks at the status of the South African energy industry today. Solar PV & wind are the cheapest new-build options per kWh in South Africa, and cost competitiveness of renewables has two consequences: 1) distributed power...

  19. Greenness and school-wide test scores are not always positively associated – A replication of "linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the 'greenness' of school surroundings using remote sensing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H.E.M. Browning; Ming Kuo; Sonya Sachdeva; Kangjae Lee; Lynne Westphal

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies find vegetation around schools correlates positively with student test scores. To test this relationship in schools with less green cover and more disadvantaged students, we replicated a leading study, using six years of NDVI-derived greenness data to predict school-level math and reading achievement in 404 Chicago public schools. A direct replication...

  20. Developing agricultural opportunities on mine tailings : the Green Mines green energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Spiers, G.; Beckett, P.; Lock, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-02-15

    The goal of the Green Mines green energy initiative is to advance mine reclamation through the beneficial use of organic residuals for the sustainable establishment of bioenergy crops and other productive land uses. Target organic residuals include: source separated organic compost; papermill biosolids; leaf and yard waste compost; and municipal wastewater biosolids. This presentation discussed the Green Mines green energy initiative with particular reference to potential uses; current participants; scope of the initiative; and progress to date. The presentation also discussed a column study that involved adding filter, filter fabric, silica sand and polyethylene beads to the base of columns. Unoxidized tailings were slurried and pumped into columns and then the oxidized tailings were dried and homogenized. The results of acidic copper/nickel tailings with lime and no lime were also discussed. A summary of findings from the column study was offered. It was found that nutrient management must be considered and organic covers appear to increase metal and arsenic leaching from unlimed tailings. The presentation also made reference to demonstration field plots; biosolids delivery; tilling; monitoring; biomass sampling; and harvesting. The presentation concluded with a discussion of next steps which involve completing construction of the current suite of field plots and implementing full monitoring. figs.

  1. Green ICT & energy from smart to wise strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Appelman, Jaco H; Warnier, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the connection between the growing body of literature on sustainability and the topics of energy and ICT. It aims to show how stakeholders active in this area need to play their part ensuring that the ICT-sector evolves towards a sector that can lead through "greening by IT" and also shows that it can "green its own IT" as well. This is the first book that integrates two seemingly incompatible approaches to sustainability: efficiency and effectiveness. The book builds on the efficiency initiatives already taken by industry, but it is not a "how-to-do-it manual". It offers in

  2. Nuclear energy for the green development of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Eek; Kim, Il-Dong; Lee, Sang-Don; Jeong, Young-Gi

    2009-01-01

    The Korean government announced the 'Basic Plan for National Energy towards 2030' last year. The goal of the plan is to achieve energy security, energy efficiency and environmental protection. To achieve green development Korean government plans to increase the portion of nuclear and renewable energy and reduce that of coal and oil energy. According to the plan, Korea will build another 9 units until 2030 and nuclear energy will represent 59% of electricity demands by 2030 which is about 20% higher than last year. Even though environment surrounding the nuclear industry is changing favorably and the government has a plan to increase nuclear energy for green development and optimal energy mix, we have to meet some challenges in the area of safety, waste disposal, public acceptance, and technology development. In this paper, we introduced the history, current status and future prospect of the nuclear industry in Korea, discussed new roles of nuclear energy, and made suggestions how to meet challenges and brace up for the global nuclear renaissance. (author)

  3. An Interdisciplinary Education of Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, M. V.; Mazzatenta, C.; Wong, K.; Socha, A.

    2017-12-01

    This following project demonstrates an interdisciplinary method of teaching Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics. It is shown that an interdisciplinary approach to introduce students to the foundations of sustainability strongly connects education with real world applications, and highlights the growing influence of sustainable practices on the world at large. The authors will present results from the interdisciplinary course "Sustainability, Energy and Green Economy" taught at the Center of Sustainable Energy, Bronx Community College, City University of New York (CSE-BCC-CUNY) by faculty from Physics, Chemistry, Biology. The course curriculum covers the relationship of humans within their environment, the facts of climate change, an analysis of the current global energy portfolio, the burgeoning renewable energy sector, and connections between consumption and quality of life. The students are exposed to empirical data and asked to evaluate trends to ascertain the future energy and resource demands of a growing global population. The students are lead through an estimation of their own carbon footprint. Emphasis is made on the concept of `Life Cycle Analysis' and how such analyses can be used to create market value and a "green product". The interdisciplinary approach to teach students on how the principles of sustainability are building the green economy and how to build a successful career within today's workforce encourages students to apply the critical lens of sustainability to all aspects of their personal lives, as well as local, regional and global economies. The authors will present data collected by students to formulate and articulate a hypothesis specifically related to the sustainability of societal and economic market trends.

  4. Soft computing in green and renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Iowa Bioeconomy Inst.; US Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab; Kalogirou, Soteris [Cyprus Univ. of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences and Engineering; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar (eds.) [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems provides a practical introduction to the application of soft computing techniques and hybrid intelligent systems for designing, modeling, characterizing, optimizing, forecasting, and performance prediction of green and renewable energy systems. Research is proceeding at jet speed on renewable energy (energy derived from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides, rain, geothermal heat, biomass, hydrogen, etc.) as policy makers, researchers, economists, and world agencies have joined forces in finding alternative sustainable energy solutions to current critical environmental, economic, and social issues. The innovative models, environmentally benign processes, data analytics, etc. employed in renewable energy systems are computationally-intensive, non-linear and complex as well as involve a high degree of uncertainty. Soft computing technologies, such as fuzzy sets and systems, neural science and systems, evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming, and machine learning, are ideal in handling the noise, imprecision, and uncertainty in the data, and yet achieve robust, low-cost solutions. As a result, intelligent and soft computing paradigms are finding increasing applications in the study of renewable energy systems. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of renewable energy systems will find this book very useful. (orig.)

  5. From black to green energy. Geopolitics of global energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Van Geuns, L.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-05-01

    The transition to a global low-carbon energy sector is on the agenda of policymakers in the Netherlands, Europe and world-wide. However, the way in which the international political discussion takes place makes it far from clear that such a transition will indeed take place. Conflicts of interest between climate concerns, energy security, access to energy and profits made from fossil fuels should be analysed more properly and taken into account in international energy and climate negotiations in order to prevent that an energy crisis will be the only way forward towards a low-carbon energy sector. [nl

  6. High-Performance Schools: Affordable Green Design for K-12 Schools; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Brown, J.; Stevens, K.

    2004-08-01

    Schools in the United States spend $7.8 billion on energy each year-more than the cost of computers and textbooks combined, according to a 2003 report from the National Center for Education Statistics. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that these high utility bills could be reduced as much as 25% if schools adopt readily available high performance design principles and technologies. Accordingly, hundreds of K-12 schools across the country have made a commitment to improve the learning and teaching environment of schools while saving money and energy and protecting the environment. DOE and its public- and private-sector partners have developed Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools, customized for nine climate zones in U.S. states and territories. These design guidelines provide information for school decision makers and design professionals on the advantages of energy efficiency and renewable energy designs and technologies. With such features as natural day lighting, efficient electric lights, water conservation, and renewable energy, schools in all types of climates are proving that school buildings, and the students and teachers who occupy them, are indeed high performers. This paper describes high performance schools from each of the nine climate zones associated with the Energy Design Guidelines. The nine case studies focus on the high performance design strategies implemented in each school, as well as the cost savings and benefits realized by students, faculty, the community, and the environment.

  7. The law on energy transition for a green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the main issues addressed by the French law on energy transition for a green growth. Thus, it evokes its main objectives and how they can be reached (notably through a control of energy demand, a wider carbon share in taxes), gives an overview of measures related to building renovation, to the development of clean transports (priority to less polluting transport modes, energy efficiency and renewable energy in transports, reduction of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions, plan for air quality), to the struggle against wastage and to the promotion of circular economy, to the promotion of renewable energies, to the reinforcement of nuclear safety and citizen information, to the simplification and clarification of procedures, to making citizens, enterprises and State able to act together (through governance tools, the steering of electricity production, energy transition in territories, specific measures for non-interconnected areas)

  8. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Akram; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  9. Review of the Application of Green Building and Energy Saving Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhineng

    2017-12-01

    The use of energy-saving technologies in green buildings should run through the entire process of building design, construction and use, enabling green energy-saving technologies to maximize their effectiveness in construction. Realize the sustainable development of green building, reduce energy consumption, reduce people’s interference with the natural environment, suitable for people living in “green” building.

  10. Green businesses in a clean energy economy: Analyzing drivers of green business growth in U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    In a clean energy economy, green businesses play a central role by utilizing renewable energy technologies and employing green labor forces to provide clean energy services and goods. This paper aims at analyzing factors driving the growth and survival of green businesses in the U.S. states, with hypotheses proposed on the impacts from clean energy policies and tax incentives, labor market conditions, and economic and political environments. A fixed effect regression analysis is applied with a panel data set of 48 continental states from 1998 to 2007 in the United States. The statistical analysis with a longitudinal data set reveals that the adoption of renewable energy policies, the permission of renewable energy credits imports, the stringency of minimum wage legislations, and presence of clean energy business associations are the major driving forces of the green business development in the U.S. states. - Highlights: • This paper studies the growth of green businesses in the U.S. states. • The adoption of RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) is positively associated with number of green businesses. • Clean energy NGOs are positively associated with green business growth

  11. Energy savings, emission reductions, and health co-benefits of the green building movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, MacNaughton; X, Cao; J, Buonocore; J, Cedeno-Laurent; J, Spengler; A, Bernstein; J, Allen

    2018-06-01

    Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year. Of the green building rating schemes, LEED accounts for 32% of green-certified floor space and publically reports energy efficiency data. We employed Harvard's Co-BE Calculator to determine pollutant emissions reductions by country accounting for transient energy mixes and baseline energy use intensities. Co-BE applies the social cost of carbon and the social cost of atmospheric release to translate these reductions into health benefits. Based on modeled energy use, LEED-certified buildings saved $7.5B in energy costs and averted 33MT of CO 2 , 51 kt of SO 2 , 38 kt of NO x , and 10 kt of PM 2.5 from entering the atmosphere, which amounts to $5.8B (lower limit = $2.3B, upper limit = $9.1B) in climate and health co-benefits from 2000 to 2016 in the six countries investigated. The U.S. health benefits derive from avoiding an estimated 172-405 premature deaths, 171 hospital admissions, 11,000 asthma exacerbations, 54,000 respiratory symptoms, 21,000 lost days of work, and 16,000 lost days of school. Because the climate and health benefits are nearly equivalent to the energy savings for green buildings in the United States, and up to 10 times higher in developing countries, they provide an important and previously unquantified societal value. Future analyses should consider these co-benefits when weighing policy

  12. The Energy transition for green growth. Energy transition for green growth act in action: Regions - Citizens - Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    A great ambition underlies France's Energy Transition for Green Growth Act: to make France - following on from the Paris Climate Summit - an exemplary nation in terms of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions, diversifying its energy model and increasing the deployment of renewable energy sources. This Act provides a unique opportunity both for climate negotiations and for France. It sets goals and implements operational solutions which can be shared with different regions, companies, researchers, the public and anyone with a long-standing commitment to fighting climate change. The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act and its attendant action plans are designed to give France the means to make a more effective contribution to tackling climate change and reinforce its energy independence, while striking a better balance in its energy mix and creating jobs and business growth. The texts required for its implementation are operational and support plans are in place. These tools are available to private individuals, businesses and the regions, enabling them to take concrete action. This document summarizes the actions under way: Defining common objectives, Acting together, Renovating buildings, developing clean transport, Tackling waste and promoting the circular economy, Promoting renewable energy, optimising nuclear safety and public information, Simplifying and clarifying procedures

  13. Fair Division of Costs in Green Energy Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers cost allocation in networks where agents are characterized by stochastic demand and supply of a non-storable good, e.g. green energy. The grid itself creates possibilities of exchanging energy between agents and we propose to allocate common costs in proportion to the economi...... gain of being part of the grid. Our model includes a set of fundamental requirements for the associated trading platform. In particular, it is argued that a suitable mechanism deviates from a traditional market. The approach is illustrated by simulations....

  14. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  15. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  16. An Energy Saving Green Plug Device for Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloul, Albe; Sharaf, Adel; El-Hawary, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a low cost a FACTS Based flexible fuzzy logic based modulated/switched tuned arm filter and Green Plug compensation (SFC-GP) scheme for single-phase nonlinear loads ensuring both voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. The new Green Plug-Switched filter compensator SFC modulated LC-Filter PWM Switched Capacitive Compensation Devices is controlled using a fuzzy logic regulator to enhance power quality, improve power factor at the source and reduce switching transients and inrush current conditions as well harmonic contents in source current. The FACTS based SFC-GP Device is a member of family of Green Plug/Filters/Compensation Schemes used for efficient energy utilization, power quality enhancement and voltage/inrush current/soft starting control using a dynamic error driven fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The device with fuzzy logic controller is validated using the Matlab / Simulink Software Environment for enhanced power quality (PQ), improved power factor and reduced inrush currents. This is achieved using modulated PWM Switching of the Filter-Capacitive compensation scheme to cope with dynamic type nonlinear and inrush cyclical loads..

  17. ENERGY STAR and Green Buildings--Using ENERGY STAR Resources for Green Building Rating Systems: LEED[R], Green Globes[R] and CHPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utebay, Kudret

    2011-01-01

    Every building, from the smallest school to the tallest skyscraper, uses energy. This energy is most often generated by burning fossil fuels, which releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. Existing commercial buildings offer a significant opportunity for low-cost, immediate emissions and energy cost…

  18. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  19. Green investment as a financing tool for solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koot, E.J.

    1997-07-01

    Results of a workshop on the title subject (25 March 1997) are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to transfer knowledge and disseminate information about the fiscal options and regulations in the Netherlands to invest in environment-friendly projects (EIA, VAMIL, Regeling Groenprojecten). Next to presentations of representatives of a bank, involved in green funding projects, a public utility and a housing corporation, four cases were discussed in which green investment options for solar energy system projects have been evaluated: (1) large-scale solar boiler project (150 m 2 ) in a health care home (utility building); (2) large-scale photovoltaic (PV) project (1000 m 2 ) in the facade of a new office building; (3) application of solar water heaters in a housing project of 1000 private property houses; and (4) a cluster project of 100 private property houses with a 5 m 2 roof-integrated PV-system for each house

  20. Zero Energy Schools: Architects Take the Lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Zero energy schools are possible and practical, and architects are leading the way. Imagine a school so inviting that students want to come to school. Now imagine this school housed in a beautiful, light-filled building that produces more energy on an annual basis than it uses. Finally, imagine that the district built this school on the same budget as a conventional school, using typical materials, equipment, and tradespeople. Sound too good to be true Discovery Elementary School in Arlington, Virginia, is living proof that zero energy (ZE) schools are feasible, affordable, and sensible.

  1. Inventory of Green House Gas Emissions from the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N

    1998-01-01

    The presentation highlighted two features of Kenya's energy sector namely: imported petroleum fuel for modern sector and wood fuel for domestic and informal sectors. The main objectives was to evaluate the amount and type of Green House emitted between 1989 and 1992 from the total national fuel wood consumption, the charcoal production, total charcoal consumption and the generation of possible recommendations on possible options available in the energy sector to mitigate against adverse effects of human induced climate change impacts. Under fossil fuels, the paper looked at emissions resulting from combustion of liquid fossil fuels, burning coal for energy, crude oil refining, storage and handling, whilst under traditional biomass fuels, fuel wood burned from energy, charcoal production and consumption, Nitrous Oxides were targeted

  2. Renewable energies - China, first producer of 'green' electricity by 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    While being the biggest polluter and coal consumer in the world, China possess seven Chinese companies among the ten first solar array manufacturers, and some leaders in the wind energy and offshore wind energy sector. This article outlines the development of 'green' electricity production in China. This sector will exhibit a much greater growth rate than that foreseen in other countries during the next years: five times that in the USA, seven times that in India, eight times that in Germany, and eighteen times that in France. This progression relies on hydroelectricity and wind energy for 90 per cent. The article also comments the development of wind energy capacity in China at a higher rate than in Western countries

  3. Nuclear energy - a green energy solution to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the world has conducted itself in exploiting energy resources so far particularly in the post industrial revolution period, is now looming as one of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of development or even sustainability of life. Global climate change is no more a perceived threat, it is now a reality and we are not in a position to engage ourselves to debate on the issue. It is in fact a little late in taking the right corrective action if we have any concern for our future generations. The efforts of the scientists and engineers are to gradually replace the energy from burning of carbonaceous material to clean and intense source of energy i.e. nuclear fission and fusion

  4. Teens, Power Tools, and Green Schools: Education for Sustainability through a University Environmental Design Program and Middle School Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of green schools in promoting education for sustainability by reflecting on a university-middle school partnership focused on sustainable design. Undergraduates and middle school students met weekly for a semester to learn about sustainability through simple design projects and activities that focused on…

  5. ORGANOFINERY: FROM GREEN CROPS TO PROTEINS, ENERGY AND FERTILISER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Kiel, P.

    Difficulties with the supply of organic protein feed; low crop yields and low value of leguminous forage crops and a lack of organic fertilisers are nowadays some of the major challenges faced in organic farming with monogastric animals. Thus, organic farmers are forced to import feed and manure ...... from conventional farms. In order to overcome these challenges, the OrganoFinery project targets to develop a green biorefinery concept where organic crops are utilised for animal feed, fertiliser and energy production by producing biogas....

  6. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  7. Harvard Business School energy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobaugh, R.; Yergin, D.

    1979-01-01

    With the help of cost-benefit calculations which include also the - to a great extent - neglected external resp. social costs the team of authors of the Havard Businees School conclude that energy conservation as well as alternative energies as solar energy are the most important energy sources of the future - a conclusion which clearly contradicts the present prevailing opinion according to which the expansion of energy consumption and the improvement of power supply by nuclear power plants are indispensable for the securing of economic growth and the economic structure. Although the authors keep up an option for nuclear energy (as it may perhaps be possible to solve the problem of radioactive waste disposal) they put forward the sober statement that - last not least because of its questionable economic efficiency - nuclear power cannot be a solution to energy crisis for the rest of the century, let alone to the politically precarious dependence of the Western Countries on the Saudi-Arabic import oil. The Havard Analysis is based on the latest numerical data and it is not only valid for the USA. It shall have even more impact for a country like the Federal Republic of Germany which is short of raw material. Therefore the American figures are put in relation to the German situation in an additional chapter. (orig./UA) [de

  8. TYPES OF INFRASTRUCTURE FOR GREEN ENERGY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Across the world governments make decisions on climate change and environmental pollution saying that is the most important goal for the future of their states. Accumulation of environmental problems was done in decades of irrational and unplanned exploitation. Industrialization itself is not a bad thing for humanity [9], but how this is achieved can be detrimental to the future of global society. Environment reverses the conditions created for man in so many thousands of years: thus, economic life is becoming increasingly difficult through its activities. Plants and animals disappear land turns into deserts, people get sick. The present paper attempts to find solutions to a global, national and regional situation, referring to those types of infrastructure viable to produce clean energy in Romania. This paper argues the need of green energy and propose alternative and environmentally friendly cleaner solutions.

  9. The green bubble: waste into wealth: the new energy revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this exhaustive (and exhausting) look at the future of energy, Bell, a professor of management and chairman of the economics department at Brooklyn College, CUNY, maps a complicated future for investors and laymen with clear-eyed examination of failed U.S. environmental policy and worldwide efforts to break away from oil. Under discussion are a wide range of topics: the stampede away from oil; wind energy and turbines; photovoltaic opportunities; what car-makers are saying and what they're actually doing (including a careful look at the popular Toyota Prius); the extremely lengthy timetables for new energy-saving technologies to get off the ground; and the processes, research and expectations tied up in them all. Drawing an analogy to the dot-com debacle, Bell predicts investment in the hot properties of energy tech will lead to a bubble effect, eventually draining the financial resources of investors who linger too long. Frequently fascinating anecdotes-as in the story of Sweden's green welfare state and bicycles of Lyon-buoy what otherwise can read like a university course. Bell's latest (following 2003's The Stock Market Sting) is an educated, opinionated tour through the future of energy economics that should shore up the will and wisdom of investors, as well as open the eyes of average Americans. (authors)

  10. Zero Energy Schools--Beyond Platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the fastest growing trends in school design is Net Zero Energy Schools. There are now at least a dozen or more schools completed or in construction that have achieved, or have committed to, this incredible level of energy efficiency. In this article, the author examines this trend and take a brief look at some of the exemplary projects that…

  11. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. 75 FR 47536 - Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency... are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City from September... & Communication Technology (ICT)'' solutions, as well as energy efficiency technologies to enter or increase their...

  13. A Review of Green Building Development in China from the Perspective of Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of green building development and assessment standards in China, particularly from the perspective of energy saving. It is divided into four parts: (1 the development of policies of green building in China that have been proposed for meeting energy-conservation and emission-reduction targets; (2 the scientific research on green building by the Chinese government, including the promotion of maximum resource sustainability, environmental protection, and the reduction of pollution; (3 the development of assessment standards for green building in China; and (4 the development of green building technologies in China.

  14. A fair green economy? Studies of agriculture, energy and waste initiatives in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hezri, Adnan; Ghazali, Rospidah

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes that a green economy needs also to be a fair economy. Following broader global trends, in 2009 the Malaysian government established the basic architecture for green economy by incorporating a green technology portfolio into the newly established Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. This was followed by a suite of interventionist policy instruments. However, Malaysia's approach raises the question whether the full range of social, economic and environmental goals...

  15. Feasibility test on green energy harvesting from physical exercise devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nirendra N.; Mourshed, M.; Masud, M. H.; Hossain, M. S.; Kamal, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of power is increasing day by day due to the increase of world population as well as the industrialization and modernization. Depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves and the adverse effects of their uses on the environment insist the researchers to find out some means of efficient and cost effective alternative energy sources from small to large scales. In a gymnasium the human metabolism power is used to drive the physical exercise devices. However there are a number of exercise device which can have the potential to generate electricity during physical exercise. By converting the available mechanical energy from these exercise devices into kinetic energy, electric power can be produced. In this work, energy was harvested from the most commonly used physical exercise devices used in the gymnasium - paddling and chin up. The paddle pulley and the chin up pulley were connected to the couple pulley which in turn coupled to an alternator by a V-belt to produce electrical energy and a rechargeable battery was used to store electrical energy. The power generation from the device depends upon the speed at which the alternator runs and the age limit. The electrical energy output was observed 83.6 watt at 1300 rpm and 62.5 watt at1150 rpm alternator speed for the paddling and chin up respectively recorded for an average adult. The device was designed for a constant 49N load on the alternator for both paddling and chin up operation. By running each of these devices for about 12 hours in a day, any gymnasium can avoid burning of almost 23.67 kg and 31.6 kg of diesel fuel per year for chin up and paddling respectively. Also it can cut off the CO2 emission to the environment which reveals itself a standalone green micro gym.

  16. Pluri-annual energy programming - The Energy transition for green growth. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Transition for Green Growth Act and its attendant action plans are designed to give France the means to make a more effective contribution to tackling climate change and reinforce its energy independence, while striking a better balance in its energy mix and creating jobs and business growth. This document summarizes the content of the Pluri-annual energy programming, which is the consistent action framework of the French energy transition: improving energy efficiency and reducing fossil fuels consumption, accelerating the development of renewable energy sources, maintaining a high-level of security of supply in the respect of environmental requirements, preparing tomorrow's energy system, developing clean mobility, taking account of the socio-economic issues of the energy transition and acting with the regions in this way

  17. Green gas (SNG) in the Dutch energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerrigter, H.

    2006-04-01

    The presentation on the title subject comprises Motivation for Green Gas; Potential and application; Green Gas and SNG implementation; Biomass availability and import; Economy of SNG production; and the SNG development trajectory. SNG stands for Synthetic Natural Gas

  18. Theoretical evaluation of thermal and energy performance of tropical green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, S.W.; Jim, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and energy efficiency of tropical green roofs is assessed by a theoretical model to clarify the contribution of underlying factors. The suitability of 1400 high-rise public housing blocks in Hong Kong for rooftop greening was assessed by remote sensing images. Weather and microclimatic-soil monitoring data of an experimental green roof provided the basis for computations. Roof greening prevented a huge amount of solar energy at 43.9 TJ in one summer from penetrating the buildings to bring significant energy saving. Thermal performance of humid-tropical green roofs, with greater latent heat dissipation, is twice more effective than the temperate ones. The energy balance model shows that solar energy absorption by bare and green roofs depends on shortwave rather than longwave radiation. Heat flux into a building indicates a one-day time lag after a sunshine day. With restricted evapotranspiration, bare roofs have more sensible heat and heat storage than green roofs. The bare roof albedo of 0.15, comparing with 0.30 of green roof, renders 75% higher heat storage. Small increase in convection coefficient from 12 to 16 could amplify 24% and 45% of latent heat dissipation respectively for bare and green roofs. Doubling the soil water availability could halve the heat storage of green roofs. -- Highlights: → We developed a theoretical model to calculate the thermal performance of tropical green roofs. → Bare roofs have more sensible heat and heat storage than green roofs. → Latent heat dissipation of tropical green roofs is twice that of temperate counterparts. → Heat flux through the roof into a building demonstrates a one-day time lag after a long sunshine day. → Green roofs can block 43.9 TJ of solar energy penetration into public housing buildings in one summer.

  19. Contribution of promoting the green residence assessment scheme to energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hongping; Shen, Liyin

    2012-01-01

    Green residence development has been one of the important strategies for promoting sustainable urban development. Governments throughout the world have been encouraging property developers to deliver green properties. In line with this development, governments have been implementing various assessment programs to certify green residential buildings with the aim of contributing to sustainable urban development. With reference to the Chinese construction practice, this paper examines the effectiveness of the green residence assessment scheme toward its defined aim through investigating the contents and procedures of the green residence assessment scheme by referring to the practices of Chongqing city in western China. Based on the results of five case studies and five semi-structured interviews, this study reveals the significant contribution from implementing the green residence assessment scheme particularly to energy saving in residential buildings. Further, the green residence assessment scheme promotes the application of green building materials and green construction technologies in the entire process of delivering and operating residential buildings. The findings provide valuable references for further investigating alternative methods to achieve better energy saving in developing residential buildings. - Highlights: ► Energy saving in residence development is important for sustainable urban development. ► Green residence assessment scheme contributes significantly to energy saving in residences. ► Green residence assessment promotes application of environmentally friendly building materials and technologies

  20. Building Effective Green Energy Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozell, Maureen R.; Liston, Cynthia D.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges across the country are engaged in large-scale federal and state initiatives to train low-income individuals for the nascent field that's become known as "green jobs." Many green economy advocates believe that green jobs training can be part of career pathways that help move unemployed and disconnected individuals--who are often…

  1. Role of green energy towards India's energy security. Paper no. IGEC-1-054

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool, A.S.; Mitra, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    India's energy consumption is growing rapidly for last three decades. The per capita energy consumption is increasing at an average rate of 3.6% per annum for last two decades. Also, the population of India is increasing at a rate of 1.5 % per annum. This makes it clear that conventional fossil fuel based system will not be able to fulfill the demand of energy in future period. To achieve and maintain desired economic and industrial growth rates, reliable supply of required amount of energy at reasonable cost is a necessity. Encouraging use of non-conventional energy sources on a commercial basis can be a major step towards self sufficiency in energy sector. India has a very large potential for developing and utilizing green energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, etc. These sources can satisfy India's growing energy demand to a large extent. Fuel cells can serve as a major source of energy with their clean energy production, higher efficiencies, modularity and ability to give reliable supply of energy at constant rates. Thus, fuel cells serve for diversification and localization of energy sources, which is important for energy security. This paper reviews current energy status of India and presents fuel cell as a prospective candidate for achieving energy security. (author)

  2. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattle, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  3. Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar S. Mahmoud; Muhammad Asif; Mohammad A. Hassanain; Mohammad O. Babsail; Muizz O. Sanni-Anibire

    2017-01-01

    Green roofs may be considered a passive energy saving technology that also offer benefits like environmental friendliness and enhancement of aesthetic and architectural qualities of buildings. This paper examines the energy and economic viability of the green roof technology in the hot humid climate of Saudi Arabia by considering a modern four bedroom residential building in the city of Dhahran as a case study. The base case and green roof modelling of the selected building has been developed...

  4. A Review of Green Building Development in China from the Perspective of Energy Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhang; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of green building development and assessment standards in China, particularly from the perspective of energy saving. It is divided into four parts: (1) the development of policies of green building in China that have been proposed for meeting energy-conservation and emission-reduction targets; (2) the scientific research on green building by the Chinese government, including the promotion of maximum resource sustainability, environmental protection, and the redu...

  5. Words vs. deeds: Americans' energy concerns and implementation of green energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Garrett C.

    As the effects of climate change become increasingly clear, nations, international organizations, and corporations are working together to help mitigate these negative effects before they become irreversible. The United States, as the world's largest emitter per capita, has a responsibility to take quick and decisive action to decrease carbon emissions. And while an overwhelming majority of Americans believe that green energy policies are the right step forward, few have taken meaningful steps to actually implement these policies. Green and energy efficient technologies such as hybrid and electric cars, smart meters, and solar panels---technologies that would reduce our carbon footprint---are currently purchased or used by very few households. There is a clear gap between our words and deeds. Using the University of Texas at Austin Energy Poll dataset, this paper examines this gap and analyzes how income may influence what people say, versus how they act, seeking to better understand how income influences peoples' energy behaviors. Previous literature suggests that income has proven to be an inconsistent measure of concern for energy use. Through two OLS models, this paper finds that income is negatively correlated with Americans' concern for energy usage, while finding that there is a positive correlation between income and Americans' implementation of energy efficient technologies. Further, there is a nonlinear relationship between income groups and how Americans both think about their energy usage and actually implement more energy efficient measures.

  6. The Teaching Green School Building: A Framework for Linking Architecture and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    The "Teaching Green School Building" is an emergent type of school building that attempts to engage building users with environmental issues in buildings. Architectural interventions in these buildings range from signage to interactive touch screens to gardens and demonstration kitchens that foster educational programmes about…

  7. Building Minds, Minding Buildings: Our Union's Road Map to Green and Sustainable Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Late in 2006, the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) released the first report in this series, "Building Minds, Minding Buildings: Turning Crumbling Schools into Environments for Learning." This second report, which covers the green schools movement is a natural follow-up; it highlights the work of AFT members and affiliates involved…

  8. Green-Frag: Energy-Efficient Frame Fragmentation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas H.

    2013-01-01

    that is optimized to be energy efficient, which is originated from the chosen frame fragmentation scheme. This new energy-efficient frame fragmentation protocol is called (Green-Frag). Green-Frag uses an algorithm that gives sensor nodes the ability to transmit data

  9. Impacts of integration of production of black and green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huizhong; Tamas, Meszaros Matyas

    2010-01-01

    As the mandate for minimum renewable sources renders Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) an essential input for power generation, it may induce mergers between power companies of conventional and renewable sources. Such mergers enable the integrated firms to extend market power from the TGC market to the physical energy market. We find that the price of TGCs is indeed higher in the integrated market than the disintegrated market, indicating the presence of market power leveraging. However, despite higher TGC price, the total supply of electricity is greater under integration than disintegration, reflecting efficiency gains from vertical integration, which eliminates double marginalization. The thrust of this paper is that market changes induced by environmental policies will in turn affect environmental and economic regulations. For example, increased supply resulting from integration induced by the renewable source mandate may reduce the effectiveness of programs that promote energy saving behavior, but at the same time creates room for raising the minimum of renewable sources without unduly depressing production and consumption. (author)

  10. Green close-quote s function method with energy-independent vertex functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay Tzeng, S.Y.; Kuo, T.T.; Tzeng, Y.; Geyer, H.B.; Navratil, P.

    1996-01-01

    In conventional Green close-quote s function methods the vertex function Γ is generally energy dependent. However, a model-space Green close-quote s function method where the vertex function is manifestly energy independent can be formulated using energy-independent effective interaction theories based on folded diagrams and/or similarity transformations. This is discussed in general and then illustrated for a 1p1h model-space Green close-quote s function applied to a solvable Lipkin many-fermion model. The poles of the conventional Green close-quote s function are obtained by solving a self-consistent Dyson equation and model space calculations may lead to unphysical poles. For the energy-independent model-space Green close-quote s function only the physical poles of the model problem are reproduced and are in satisfactory agreement with the exact excitation energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  12. A cautionary approach in transitioning to 'green' energy technologies and practices is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatiele, Puleng; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies (wind turbines, solar cells, biofuels, etc.) are often referred to as 'clean' or 'green' energy sources, while jobs linked to the field of environmental protection and energy efficiency are referred to as 'green' jobs. The energy efficiency of clean technologies, which is likely to reduce and/or eliminate reliance on fossil fuels, is acknowledged. However, the potential contribution of green technologies and associated practices to ill health and environmental pollution resulting from consumption of energy and raw materials, generation of waste, and the negative impacts related to some life cycle phases of these technologies are discussed. Similarly, a point is made that the green jobs theme is mistakenly oversold because the employment opportunities generated by transitioning to green technologies are not necessarily safe and healthy jobs. Emphasis is put on identifying the hazards associated with these green designs, assessing the risks to the environment and worker health and safety, and either eliminating the hazards or minimizing the risks as essential elements to the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green technologies. The perception that it is not always economically possible to consider all risk factors associated with renewable energy technologies at the beginning without hampering their implementation, especially in the poor developing countries, is dismissed. Instead, poor countries are encouraged to start implementing environmentally sound practices while transitioning to green technologies in line with their technological development and overall economic growth.

  13. Developing green energy resources - a case study in B.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, J.; Thompson, P.

    2001-01-01

    British Columbia Hydro, a Crown Corporation embarked on a strategy to become a sustainable energy company in 2001. An integral part of that strategy was to include reliable green and alternative energy sources in its power generation mix. In this framework, green and alternative energy contributes substantially to future investment decisions, revenue and competitive positioning in the market place. This paper presents a case study for green energy resources in the context of British Columbia Hydro. It discusses methods to quantify Greenhouse Emissions and ways to reduce Greenhouse Gases by choosing cleaner power with examples from a demonstration project on Vancouver Island

  14. How Should Energy Be Defined Throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two main approaches in physics concerning the definition of energy, one claiming there is no satisfactory definition and taking conservation as a fundamental property, and the other based on Rankine's definition of energy as the capacity of a system to produce changes. We then present a study concerning how energy is actually defined throughout schooling in the case of France by analyzing national programs, physics textbooks, and the answers of teachers to a questionnaire. This study brings to light a consistency problem in the way energy is defined across school years: in primary school, an adapted version of Rankine's definition is introduced and conservation is ignored; in high school, conservation is introduced and Rankine's definition is ignored. Finally, we address this consistency problem by discussing possible teaching progressions. We argue in favor of the use of Rankine's definition throughout schooling: at primary school, it is a possible substitute to students' erroneous conceptions; at secondary school, it might help students become aware of the unifying role of energy and thereby overcome the compartmentalization problem.

  15. Discussion Tourism Industry on Energy of Green Tourism and Green Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zeyung

    2016-01-01

    Tourism industry is closely linked with the natural environment but with a highly indivisibility of symbiotic relationship. Green tourism and green tourism hotel are not only the spindle stage of development industry. The environmental protection is also an environmental conservation and sustainable development of substantive liability demonstration. The study is also belong to the substance RDF itself, so we can call “clean energy”. The raw materials came from agricultural waste through prop...

  16. A Review of Greene (2002 High School Graduation Rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The - Greene Method- of calculating school - graduation rates- and the Manhattan Institute (MI criticisms of official graduation and completion statistics are outlined and scrutinized. The methodology fails to recognize the complexity of the issue and appears to ignore the considerable efforts that have been undertaken by education statisticians to remediate the problems inherent to these types of data. The Greene method for calculating completion ratios is simulated and found to have little to no reliability. It is recommended that anyone intent on reporting valid and reliable education indicators avoid use of the Greene Method.

  17. Zero Energy Schools: Designing for the Future: Zero Energy Ready K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Designing, building, and operating zero energy ready K-12 schools provides benefits for districts, students, and teachers. Optimizing energy efficiency is important in any building, but it's particularly important in K-12 schools. Many U.S. school districts struggle for funding, and improving a school building's energy efficiency can free up operational funds that may then be available for educational and other purposes.

  18. Technical meeting of OREAQ (Regional Observatory of Energy in Aquitaine): energy and greenhouse gases in Aquitaine, the system of the green certificates and the green electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. This meeting is devoted to the greenhouse effect in Aquitaine. It discusses the carbon dioxide emissions bond to the energy, the green certificates and the green electricity market in France. (A.L.B.)

  19. Green Lighting. Energy-efficient integrated lighting systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, F.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the Green Lighting project was to develop a High Performance Integrated Lighting System, based on advanced technologies for day- and electric lighting, achieving a Lighting Power Density (LPD) that does not exceed 3 W/m{sup 2}. The project has revealed that Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are an ideal basis for High Performance Integrated Lighting Systems. Not only are they able to provide adequate illumination (i.e. sufficiently high illuminance) in office rooms during large fractions of normal office hours, under various sky conditions and over the entire year, but they are also highly appreciated by office occupants at the condition that glare control mechanisms are available. Complementary electric lighting is, however, still necessary to back up the ADS at times when there is insufficient daylight flux available. It was shown during this project, that the most interesting trade-offs between energy-efficiency and visual comfort are obtained by using a combination of ceiling-mounted directly emitting luminaires with very high optical efficiencies for ambient lighting and portable desk lamps for temporary task lighting. The most appropriate lamps for the ceiling-mounted luminaires are currently highly efficient fluorescent tubes, but white LED tubes can be considered a realistic option for the future. The most suitable light sources for desk lamps for temporary task lighting are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and white LED light bulbs. Based on the above-mentioned technologies, a High Performance Integrated Lighting System with a very low LPD has been developed over the last three years. The system has been set up in an office room of the LESO solar experimental building located on the EPFL campus; it has been tested intensively during a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study involving twenty human subjects. This study has revealed that the subjects' performance and subjective visual comfort was improved by the new system, compared to

  20. Toward Food System Sustainability through School Food System Change: Think&EatGreen@School and the Making of a Community-University Research Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Harlap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the theoretical and conceptual framework and the research and practice model of Think&EatGreen@School, a community-based action research project aiming to foster food citizenship in the City of Vancouver and to develop a model of sustainable institutional food systems in public schools. The authors argue that educational and policy interventions at the school and school board level can drive the goals of food system sustainability, food security, and food sovereignty. The complex relationship between food systems, climate change and environmental degradation require that international initiatives promoting sustainability be vigorously complemented by local multi-stakeholder efforts to preserve or restore the capacity to produce food in a durable manner. As a step towards making the City of Vancouver green, we are currently involved in attempts to transform the food system of the local schools by mobilizing the energy of a transdisciplinary research team of twelve university researchers, over 300 undergraduate and graduate students, and twenty community-based researchers and organizations working on food, public health, environmental and sustainability education.

  1. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Assessment of green roof systems in terms of water and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Ekşi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs concept term is used for extensive green roofs which are planted with herbaceous plants that can be adapted into changeable environmental conditions on a shallow substrate layer, require minimal maintenance, installed for their benefits to building and urban scale. Main objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of a green roof such as thermal insulation, water holding capacity, runoff characteristics, plant growth and its interaction with environmental factors in Istanbul climate conditions by performing comparative measurements. In this study, a research site (IU Green Roof Research Station was founded to assess water and energy balance of green roofs. Thus, a typical green roof was evaluated in terms of water and energy balance and its interaction with the building and city was determined. energy efficiency of green roof system was 77% higher than reference roof. Temperature fluctuations on green roof section of the roof were 79% lower. In addition, green roof retained 12,8% - 100% of precipitation and delayed runoff up to 23 hours depending on water content of substrate.

  3. Green-Frag: Energy-efficient frame fragmentation scheme for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas

    2013-10-01

    Frame fragmentation techniques aim to achieve higher throughput by reducing retransmissions. Using experiments on a WSN testbed, we show that frame fragmentation also helps to reduce energy consumption. In this paper we propose Green-Frag, a new energy-efficient protocol based on efficient frame fragmentation technique. Green-Frag allows sensor nodes to transmit data with optimal transmit power and frame structure based on environmental conditions. Green-Frag takes into consideration the channel conditions, interference patterns and level, as well as the distance between sender and receiver. The paper discusses various design and implementation considerations for Green-Frag. Using experimental evaluation on a sensor mote testbed, we show that Green-Frag achieves the least energy consumption by choosing the best transmit power according to the channel conditions.

  4. Development and validation of sustainability criteria of administrative green schools in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiboudi, Hossein; Lahijanian, Akramolmolok; Shobeiri, Seyed Mohammad; Jozi, Seyed Ali; Azizinezhad, Reza

    2017-07-15

    Environmental responsibility in school has led to the emergence of a variety of criteria to administer green schools' contributions to sustainability. Sustainability criteria of administrative green schools need validity, reliability and norms. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate assessment criteria for green schools in Iran based on the role of academia. A national survey was conducted to obtain data on sustainability criteria initiatives for green schools and the Iranian profile was defined. An initial pool of 71 items was generated and after its first edition, 63 items were selected to comprise the sustainability criteria. Engineering-architectural and behavioral aspects of this sustainability criteria were evaluated through a sample of 1218 graduate students with environmental degrees from Iran's universities. Exploratory factor analysis using principal components and promax rotation method showed that these 9 criteria have simple structures and are consistent with the theoretical framework. The reliability coefficients of subscales ranged between 0.62 (participation) and 0.84 (building location and position). The study's survey of correlation coefficients between items and subscales illustrated that those coefficients varied between 0.24 and 0.68. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on Influencing Factors of Salespeople's Empowerment Readiness in Green Energy Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohui

    As market competition in green energy enterprises continues to intensify, marketing activities are enlarging and customer demand is increasingly growing and diversifying. More and more green energy enterprises have empowered their own salespeople. And managers in green energy enterprises are more concerned with the issues which employees suit to be empowered and which factors will influence employee empowerment readiness. This paper proposes the definition of salespeople's empowerment readiness, analyzes influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, discusses the effect mechanism of influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, finally, and puts forward some suggestions to enhance salespeople's empowerment readiness from the perspective of human resource management practice.

  6. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  7. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  8. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  9. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    2012-01-01

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is…

  10. Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs may be considered a passive energy saving technology that also offer benefits like environmental friendliness and enhancement of aesthetic and architectural qualities of buildings. This paper examines the energy and economic viability of the green roof technology in the hot humid climate of Saudi Arabia by considering a modern four bedroom residential building in the city of Dhahran as a case study. The base case and green roof modelling of the selected building has been developed with the help of DesignBuilder software. The base case model has been validated with the help of 3-month measured data about the energy consumption without a green roof installed. The result shows that the energy consumption for the base case is 169 kWh/m2 while the energy consumption due to the application of a green roof on the entire roof surface is 110 kWh/m2. For the three investigated green roof options, energy saving is found to be in the range of 24% to 35%. The economic evaluation based on the net present value (NPV approach for 40 years with consideration to other environmental advantages indicates that the benefits of the green roof technology are realized towards the end of the life cycle of the building.

  11. PENANAMAN KESADARAN DAN TANGGUNGJAWAB TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN HIDUP MELALUI GREEN SCHOOL DI SD NEGERI DEMAKAN 02 TAHUN PELAJARAN 2014/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranichayudha Rohsulina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This devotion aims to instill awareness and responsibility towards the environment in elementary school students. This activity was conducted in 02 primary schools with class participants Demakan 3, 4, and 5 in groups. Service activities is carried out through four stages, includes the extension (socialization, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of results. Results devotion shows that primary school Demakan 02 Sukoharjo related to green school in the school can be taken several conclusions are: 1 There is the awareness and responsibility of environmental awareness green in SD N Demakan 02 Sukoharjo. 2 Farming with students of all ages to encourage their interest in nature and enthusiasm early in life. 3 This devotion succeeded yield as much as 110 pot polybag. Keywords: green school, awareness, responsibility Abstract This devotion aims to instill awareness and responsibility towards the environment in elementary school students. This activity was conducted in 02 primary schools with class participants Demakan 3, 4, and 5 in groups. Service activities is carried out through four stages, includes the extension (socialization, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of results. Results devotion shows that primary school Demakan 02 Sukoharjo related to green school in the school can be taken several conclusions are: 1 There is the awareness and responsibility of environmental awareness green in SD N Demakan 02 Sukoharjo. 2 Farming with students of all ages to encourage their interest in nature and enthusiasm early in life. 3 This devotion succeeded yield as much as 110 pot polybag. Keywords: green school, awareness, responsibility

  12. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  13. Transforming Sustainability Development Education in Malaysian Schools through Greening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Mahat; Shaharudin, Idrus; Mohmadisa, Hashim; Nasir, Nayan; Yazid, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the practice of sustainability among Malaysian Secondary Schools involved in the Sustainable Schools Program Environmental Award (SLAAS). The research attempts to identify the SLAAS effects on teachers' and students' behaviors after direct involvement with the activities of the program. The cluster sampling technique…

  14. Energy Prediction versus Energy Performance of Green Buildings in Malaysia. Comparison of Predicted and Operational Measurement of GBI Certified Green Office in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Suzaini M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forward from the sustainability agenda of Brundtland in 1987 and the increasing demand for energy efficient buildings, the building industry has taken steps in meeting the challenge of reducing its environmental impact. Initiatives such as ‘green’ or ‘sustainable’ design have been at the forefront of architecture, while green assessment tools have been used to predict the energy performance of building during its operational phase. However, there is still a significant hap between predicted or simulated energy measurements compared to actual operational energy consumption, or is more commonly referred as the ‘performance gap’. This paper tries to bridge this gap by comparing measured operational energy consumption of a Green Building Index (GBI certified office building in Kuala Lumpur, with its predicted energy rating qualification.

  15. Buying green! A handbook on green energy procurement. 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-10

    Over 2 trillion Euros is spent on public contracts on a yearly basis in the EU, translating to 19 percent of its GDP. ICLEI has been working with the European Commission to produce guidance on green public procurement (GPP) which will help public authorities to reduce their environmental impact, while complying with the procurement rules. The result is the new edition of the Buying Green! handbook. The handbook identifies strategies for GPP, and explains in detail how these can be implemented at each stage of the procurement process. It is intended for public sector procurers but is also a useful reference for policy makers and businesses who are either implementing their own green purchasing or responding to tenders. In addition to explaining how GPP can be implemented under the EU procurement rules, the handbook includes examples of green contracts from across the EU-27. The resource has been fully updated from the previous 2004 edition and includes expanded sections on life-cycle costing (LCC) and the construction, timber, electricity and food and drink sectors.

  16. Discussion Tourism Industry on Energy of Green Tourism and Green Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zeyung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry is closely linked with the natural environment but with a highly indivisibility of symbiotic relationship. Green tourism and green tourism hotel are not only the spindle stage of development industry. The environmental protection is also an environmental conservation and sustainable development of substantive liability demonstration. The study is also belong to the substance RDF itself, so we can call “clean energy”. The raw materials came from agricultural waste through proper blending ratio and control technology, after PP14 adhesive extruded through the fluidized bed pyrolysis cracking process to burn stability. The recovery can also be used as fuel volatile process of drying and gasification. However, in the actual economic cost of the test running the hotel industry can reduce the cost per MJ USD $ 0.0082, more economical than coal expenses 23.17% of the fuel. Therefore, green hotel through biomass fuels RDF as clean fuels can further reduce carbon emissions to reach the green hotel of expectations.

  17. Temperature Control & Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Ming Su; Mei-Shu Huang

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue when we are faced with the challenge of climate change. Through literature review, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect to a degree. Because there are not enough open space and parks, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary schools ar...

  18. RUSTEC: Greening Europe's energy supply by developing Russia's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole; Willems, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The North-West of Russia is characterized by a large renewable energy resource base in geographic proximity to the EU. At the same time, EU Member States are bound by mandatory renewable energy targets which could prove to be costly to achieve in the current budgetary context and which often face strong local opposition. Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy makes it possible for Member States to achieve their targets by importing electricity produced from renewable energy sources from non-EU countries. So far, most attention has been on the Mediterranean Solar Plan or Desertec. An EU–Russia Renewable Energy Plan or RUSTEC – being based on onshore wind/biomass/hydro energy and on-land interconnection, rather than solar power and subsea lines – could present a cost-efficient and short-term complement to Desertec. This article examines the political, geopolitical, economic, social and legal challenges and opportunities of exporting “green” energy from Russia to the EU. It argues that EU–Russian cooperation in the renewable energy field would present a win-win situation: Member States could achieve their targets on the basis of Russia's renewable energy potential, while Russia could begin to develop a national renewable energy industry without risking potential price increases for domestic consumers—a concern of great political sensitivity in Russia. - Highlights: ► Russia has a huge renewable energy potential in geographic proximity to the EU. ► This potential could help the EU decarbonize its electricity supply at least cost.► EU–Russia green energy export is a win-win situation but lacks political attention.► RUSTEC could be a short-term and cost-efficient complement to Desertec. ► RUSTEC would diversify EU energy imports/Russian exports and stimulate innovation.

  19. Impact of Middle School Student Energy Monitoring Activities on Climate Change Beliefs and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2018-01-01

    The Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World project aims to direct middle school students' enthusiasm for hands-on activities toward interest in science and other STEM areas while guiding them to solve real-world problems. Students in this project are taught by their teachers to use energy monitoring equipment to audit standby power…

  20. GREENLYS. Grenoble and Lyon experiment with smart energy of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Electric power grid operators are facing new challenges, including rising energy consumption and emissions, the need to integrate renewable energy sources, and the emergence of electric vehicles. There is an urgent need to make grids safer, more efficient, environmentally 'greener', and more flexible. In a word: smarter. Schneider Electric has teamed with 4 partners (GEG, GDF Suez, ERDF and GINP) and 6 others on the GreenLys project, the first full-scale smart grid demonstration project in France. Partially financed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the consortium has developed an experimental technology platform being tested in the cities of Lyon and Grenoble, ultimately involving 1,000 residential customers and 40 commercial building sites. The goal is to standardize and showcase a functional smart grid by 2015, setting the stage for widespread deployment. The GreenLys project is testing innovative solutions from energy generation to end use. At the grid level this includes new analysis tools, next generation substation automation equipment, and communication with smart meters at consumer locations. The grid will be self-healing, quickly reconfiguring itself to maintain the supply of electricity. It will also incorporate decentralised energy generation based on renewables or natural gas, as well as the potential to use stored energy in electric vehicles. At the end-consumer level, a variety of new technologies are applied to engage businesses and homeowners. The cloud-based Demand-Side Operation platform will enable participation in programs like demand response that offer financial incentives for adjusting energy consumption when required. Such programs will help energy users optimize their energy bill and encourage energy-efficient practices. Offering their energy flexibility to the smart grid will also help alleviate peak demand and compensate for the intermittency of large-scale renewable energy production. For commercial

  1. The security of energy supply. The European Commission's Green Paper stimulates debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The growing dependence of the European Union (EU) on external supplies of energy is the central focus of a ''Green Paper'' issued in late November 2000 by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels. Entitled ''Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'', the Green Paper is intended to stimulate debate on the EU's energy policies and strategies. European member States are ''interdependent'', the Green Paper states, ''both because of climate change issues and the creation of the internal energy market. Any energy policy decision taken by a Member State will inevitably have repercussions on the functioning of the market in other Member States. Energy policy has assumed a new, Community dimension.'' Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: The EU will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; its enlargement will not change this situation. Based on current forecasts, energy dependence will reach 70% by the year 2030. - The EU has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions; it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector. - The EU presently is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. Featured here is the Executive Summary of the Green Paper

  2. Design and control strategy for a hybrid green energy system for mobile telecommunication sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-07-01

    The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithm-based technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system's components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

  3. Green-Frag: Energy-efficient frame fragmentation scheme for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    Frame fragmentation techniques aim to achieve higher throughput by reducing retransmissions. Using experiments on a WSN testbed, we show that frame fragmentation also helps to reduce energy consumption. In this paper we propose Green-Frag, a new

  4. Energy conservation in ICT-businesses. Green computing in the USA; Energiereductie topprioriteit ICT-bedrijven. Green computing is hot in de USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulsebos, M.

    2007-09-15

    A brief overview of the initiatives in ICT-businesses in the USA to save energy, also known as 'green computing'. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht van de initiatieven bij ICT-bedrijven in de USA om energie te besparen, ook bekend onder de naam 'green computing'.

  5. Report on the green paper on energy. Four years of European initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In December 2000, the European Commission adopted a Green Paper on European Union energy policy. This brochure takes stock of the action undertaken in the following areas over the last four years:managing demand, diversifying internal energy sources,developing the internal energy market and the security of external supply. It presents: the Green Paper stakes, the progress made, the four political challenges, managing demand, diversifying European sources, the streamlined internal energy market, controlling external supply, future prospects for the Union, legislative developments and ten possibilities for economical energy use. (A.L.B.)

  6. Report on the green paper on energy. Four years of European initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In December 2000, the European Commission adopted a Green Paper on European Union energy policy. This brochure takes stock of the action undertaken in the following areas over the last four years:managing demand, diversifying internal energy sources,developing the internal energy market and the security of external supply. It presents: the Green Paper stakes, the progress made, the four political challenges, managing demand, diversifying European sources, the streamlined internal energy market, controlling external supply, future prospects for the Union, legislative developments and ten possibilities for economical energy use. (A.L.B.)

  7. BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

  8. Dynamic Simulation of the Green Roofs Impact on Building Energy Performance, Case Study of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Tiana Rakotondramiarana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs improve building energy performance and constitute an alternative to sustainable buildings. A green roof model is dynamically coupled with a building thermal model to assess its energy performance that takes into account the indoor air temperature dynamic changes. Under the climate conditions in Antananarivo, we compared green and conventional roofs. The present study shows that green roofs protect the roof structure under extreme temperature and large temperature fluctuations. For the case of Antananarivo, the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations at the top face of the support is reduced by 28 °C when using green roof. The impact of the green roof on indoor air temperature and energy demand is investigated. The vegetation decreases the maximum indoor air temperature and improves the building thermal comfort during summer days. It has no effect on the minimum indoor air temperature, but additional soil thickness can increase it. In addition, a global sensitivity analysis, which is carried out on the proposed model without considering any specific weather data, allows us to identify the most influential parameters on the energy demand. It has been found that green roofs have almost insignificant thermal impact in insulated buildings; however, their potential prevails over the building envelope and weather characteristics in the case of non-insulated building.

  9. Experimental evaluation of thermal and energy performance of temperate green roofs: a case study in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Institute of Hydrology; Water Resources

    2011-12-01

    An experimental evaluation of thermal and energy performance of temperate green roofs was carried out by thermal and meteorological observation and energy budget modeling using a setup of green roof in Beijing urban area. From both the yearly and daily temperature trends, the green roof could effectively damp down the undulation of roof surface temperature comparing with the conventional one. As an insulating screen, the green roof abated the amplitude of temperature by 9.0 in winter and 9.1 °C in summer, respectively. Under different cloud conditions, the green roof in summer time resulted in decreases in sensible heat and heat flux by 125.3W m-2 and 32.0 W m-2, respectively, on daily average comparing with the conventional one. Based on the energy budget analyses, under an assumptive scenario of 50% roof-greening in Beijing, a total of 34.1 PJ of sensible heat and 8.7 PJ of heat flux would be decreased for a summer period of 90 days. This study demonstrated that green roof, serving as an insulating screen to building top in comparison with the conventional roof, proved thermal improving effect in building scale and high energy saving potential for urban development.

  10. Assessment of energy credits for the enhancement of the Egyptian Green Pyramid Rating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aleem, Shady H.E.; Zobaa, Ahmed F.; Abdel Mageed, Hala M.

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important categories in the Green Building Rating Systems all over the world. Green Building is a building that meets the energy requirements of the present with low energy consumption and investment costs without infringing on the rights of forthcoming generations to find their own needs. Despite having more than a qualified rating system, it is clear that each system has different priorities and needs on the other. Accordingly, this paper proposes a methodology using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assessment of the energy credits through studying and comparing four of the common global rating systems, the British Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), the American Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the Australian Green Stars (GS), and the PEARL assessment system of the United Arab Emirates, in order to contribute to the enhancement of the Egyptian Green Pyramid Rating System (GPRS). The results show the mandatory and optional energy credits that should be considered with their proposed weights according to the present and future needs of green Egypt. The results are compared to data gathered through desk studies and results extracted from recent questionnaires. - Highlights: • The Egyptian rating system is underway but not on track. • The main objective is the enhancement of the Egyptian rating system. • We propose a methodology for assessment of the energy credits. • The results show the optional energy credits with their optimal weights. • The results show the mandatory energy credits that should be considered.

  11. ENERGY BUDGETS IN FREE-LIVING GREEN IGUANAS IN A SEASONAL ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV; WESSELINGH, RA; VOGEL, JT; ALBERS, KBM

    Using a variety of techniques we estimated energy expenditure and allocation of energy in free-living green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in a seasonal environment on Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. 1) Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured by means of the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, using

  12. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  13. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  14. Understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.

    2013-01-01

    activities; (d) paradoxically, the analyzed business schools can be considered academic leaders in the field, but have had difficulties in adopting environmental management practices internally; (e) there is a "path dependence" effect in this process; (f) there are barriers to organizational change towards...... conducted at Brazilian business schools. The results were analyzed using the conceptual background of barriers to organizational change, transition to a more sustainable society, and path dependence. The main findings indicate that: (a) the incorporation of environmental management issues tends to begin......This study analyses business schools' incorporating environmental management issues into their core activities, defined through teaching, research, outreach and management. Taking into account the relative lack of literature on this theme, case study fieldwork is utilized. Two case studies were...

  15. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen; Dhaini, Ahmad R.; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem; Shen, Gangxiang; Lin, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green

  16. Delivering energy efficiency and carbon reduction schemes in England: Lessons from Green Deal Pioneer Places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Robert D.; Koh, S.C. Lenny; Morris, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Against a background of growing international and national carbon reduction legislation, the UK government introduced the “Green Deal” to deliver a significant increase in housing energy efficiency and reduction in carbon emissions. This paper reflects on one English local authority's experience delivering a programme intended to foster local interest in the Green Deal. Drawing on social surveys and pre and post Green Deal intervention interviews with five demonstrator homes (households that applied to receive a Green Deal package fully funded by the scheme, providing a test bed for the Green Deal recruitment and installation process), this paper shows that awareness and understanding of the Green Deal scheme is low. There is opposition to the cost of finance offered but a strong interest in improving household warmth and for funding improvements through payments added to the electricity bill. Demonstrator home residents perceived Green Deals had improved the warmth and quality of their home, but saving money was the primary motivator for their involvement, not increasing warmth. Whilst Green Deal has not delivered the level of success that was hoped, much can be learned from the scheme to improve future energy efficiency schemes that will be necessary to deliver emission reduction commitments. -- Highlights: •Resident awareness and understanding of the Green Deal is low. •Green Deal assessment costs and loan interest rates are biggest barriers to uptake. •Funding energy improvements via a charge on electricity bill welcomed by residents. •Saving money rather than increasing warmth main motivator for scheme involvement. •Insights from this work should be used to inform future emission reduction schemes

  17. How Should Energy Be Defined throughout Schooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The question of how to teach energy has been renewed by recent studies focusing on the learning and teaching progressions for this concept. In this context, one question has been, for the most part, overlooked: how should energy be defined throughout schooling? This paper addresses this question in three steps. We first identify and discuss two…

  18. Energy Retrofit for Aging K-12 Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    3D/International, Houston, TX.

    Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Topics explore how certain ECM measures can benefit educational facilities, why retrofitting begun sooner rather than later is important, how to finance the retrofit program, and the…

  19. Advanced Energy Design Guide K-12: Next Generation of School Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Driven by energy efficiency advances and renewable energy cost reductions, zero energy buildings are popping up all around the country. Although zero energy represents a bold paradigm shift - from buildings that consume energy to buildings that produce enough energy to meet their energy needs on an annual basis - it isn't a sudden shift. Zero energy buildings are the result of steady, incremental progress by researchers and building professionals working together to improve building energy performance. ASHRAE is taking the lead by publishing - in partnership with the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - a new series of advanced energy design guides (AEDGs) focused on zero energy buildings. The recently completed Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving Zero Energy (K-12 ZE AEDG) is the first in this series.

  20. Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

  1. A certificate-based approach to marketing green power and constructing new wind energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, Eric; Bird, Lori; Swezey, Blair

    2003-01-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers. They thus lower the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country. (Author)

  2. Interaction of carbon reduction and green energy promotion in a small fossil-fuel importing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethig, Ruediger; Wittlich, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the incidence of carbon-reduction and green-energy promotion policies in an open fossil-fuel importing general equilibrium economy. The focus is on mixed price-based or quantity-based policies. Instruments directed toward promoting green energy are shown to reduce also carbon emissions and vice versa. Their direct effects are stronger than their side effects, the more so, the greater is the elasticity of substitution in consumption between energy and the consumption good. We calculate the effects of variations in individual policy parameters, especially on energy prices and welfare costs, and determine the impact of exogenous fossil-fuel price shocks on the economy. (orig.)

  3. Study on transferring improved green fluorescent protein gene into wheat via low energy Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lifang; Li Hong; Song Daojun

    2000-01-01

    An improved GFP gene (mGFP4) was introduced into mature embryo cells of wheat cultivars Wan 9210 and Wanmai 32 via low energy ion beam-mediated delivery technique. Resistant calli were selected on medium containing paromomycin (100-140 mg/L). Five green plants were regenerated from resistant calli of Wan 9210 derived from 387 implated mature embryos. 32 green plants were obtained from 776 irradiated mature embryos in Wanmai 32. No green plant was regenerated from calli of 200 non-transformed embryos. PCR assays of 37 green plants showed that they all obtained the expected size of amplified DNA fragment (600 bp). Southern blot of 4 well-developed green plants confirmed stable integration of GFP gene into wheat genome. The average transformation frequencies of Wan 9210 and Wanmai 32 were 1.3% and 4.1%, respectively, according to the results of PCR assays

  4. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  5. Inverse relationship between urban green space and childhood autism in California elementary school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Jackson, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy. Their associations with autism prevalence were evaluated with negative binomial regression models and spatial regression models. We observed inverse associations between several green space metrics and autism prevalence in school districts with high road density, the highly urbanized areas, but not in others. According to negative binomial regression models, adjusted rate ratios (RR) for the relationships in these school districts between autism prevalence and green space metrics in 10% increments were as follows: for forest, RR=0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.95); for grassland, RR=0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97); for average tree canopy, RR=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95), and for near-road tree canopy, RR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91). These results suggest that increases of 10% in forest, grassland, average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy are associated with a decrease in autism prevalence of 10%, 10% 11% and 19%, respectively. In contrast, urban land and road density were positively associated with autism prevalence. The results of spatial regression models were consistent with those obtained by negative binomial models, except for grassland. Our study suggests that green space, specifically tree cover in areas with high road density, may influence autism prevalence in elementary school children beneficially. Further studies are needed to investigate a potential causal relationship, and the major mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial associations

  6. GREEN ENERGY TO PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT/ ENERGIA VERDE PARA PROTEGER O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After 1950, began to appear nuclear fission plants. The fission energy was a necessary evil. In this mode it stretched the oil life, avoiding an energy crisis. Even so, the energy obtained from oil represents about 60% of all energy used. At this rate of use of oil, it will be consumed in about 60 years. Today, the production of energy obtained by nuclear fusion is not yet perfect prepared. But time passes quickly. We must rush to implement of the additional sources of energy already known, but and find new energy sources. Green energy in 2010-2015 managed a spectacular growth worldwide of about 5%. The most difficult obstacle met in worldwide was the inconstant green energy produced.

  7. GREEN LEAN METHODOLOGY: ENTERPRISE ENERGY MANAGEMENT FOR INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the usefulness of Lean Manufacturing techniques when approaching the environmental issues. Green Lean Methodology presentation in seven steps with afferent tools and techniques provides a practical framework. Green Lean Methodology follows the Deming’s cycle (PDCA and it aims to achieve the continuous incremental improvement. Increasing the resource use effectiveness is achieved not only by protecting natural resources, but also by increasing productivity. These environmental gains through productivity are possible by continuously reducing losses in transformation processes, by designing/redesigning products and services in order to prevent undesirable environmental effects, by designing the control procedures in the processing flows, by increasing the capital investment in more efficient technology, by continuously improving work performance, by changing the perceptions of senior managers and by a more efficient and effective research and innovation. Keywords

  8. The green paper 'towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.; Tillerson, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Green Paper, 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply' was adopted by the European Commission on the 20. of November, 2000 (COM(2000)769 final). At this occasion, the Commission launched a public debate on this strategic document. On the 21. of June 2001, a Public Hearing on Security of energy supply in Europe, on the basis of the Green Paper, was organised by the Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy of the European Parliament. Bernard Laponche was among the six experts participating to the Hearing and presented the following paper, prepared with Kenya Tillerson. This presentation is organised in three chapters: I - Comments on the Green Paper; II - Energy efficiency potentials; III - Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter I shows that under the heading of the security of supply, the Green paper elaborates and proposes a global energy strategy taking into account environmental and internal market issues and constraints. This leads to recommendations for a common energy policy for Europe based, as first priority, on a demand policy, i.e. energy efficiency on the demand side. If the necessity of such a policy is clearly stated, the Green paper remains weak on the quantitative objectives, due to the lack of contrasted energy forecast scenarios, as well as on the means of a vigorous energy efficiency policy at European Level. The issue of energy efficiency potentials at European Union level is examined in Chapter II, in the light of the poor information which can be extracted from the energy scenarios presented by the European Commission in various publications. A comparison of energy consumption indicators in France and the European Union leads to a rough estimate of a potential for energy demand efficiency by 2020 of the order of 280 Mtoe on final energy consumption, for the European Union. Chapter III underlines the merits of the Green Paper which are a clear-sighted analysis and a well defined main recommendation

  9. Green-Frag: Energy-Efficient Frame Fragmentation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas H.

    2013-05-15

    Power management is an active area of research in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Efficient power management is necessary because WSNs are battery-operated devices that can be deployed in mission-critical applications. From the communications perspective, one main approach to reduce energy is to maximize throughput so the data can be transmitted in a short amount of time. Frame fragmentation techniques aim to achieve higher throughput by reducing retransmissions. Using experiments on a WSN testbed, we show that frame fragmentation helps to reduce energy consumption. We then study and compare recent frame fragmentation schemes to find the most energy-efficient scheme. Our main contribution is to propose a new frame fragmentation scheme that is optimized to be energy efficient, which is originated from the chosen frame fragmentation scheme. This new energy-efficient frame fragmentation protocol is called (Green-Frag). Green-Frag uses an algorithm that gives sensor nodes the ability to transmit data with optimal transmit power and optimal frame structure based on environmental conditions. Green-Frag takes into consideration the channel conditions, interference patterns and level, as well as the distance between sender and receiver. The thesis discusses various design and implementation considerations for Green-Frag. Also, it shows empirical results of comparing Green-Frag with other frame fragmentation protocols in terms of energy efficiency. Green-Frag performance results shows that it is capable of choosing the best transmit according to the channel conditions. Subsequently, Green-Frag achieves the least energy consumption in all environmental conditions.

  10. Green certificates: a new currency for trading the environmental benefits of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookall-Fallon, C.; Crozier-Cole, T.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the driving force of the Kyoto Protocol on the EU's proposed Directive to stimulate the use of renewable energy sources for generating electricity, and the forthcoming sixth conference of the Parties to the UN National Framework Convention on Climatic Change where it is hoped that the EU will ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol requiring the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. Details of the EU's Directive on the liberalisation of the internal market for electricity and targets for increasing renewable energy electricity consumption are given. Trading environmental benefits of renewable generation, the concept of trading green certificates, the challenges to creating a green certificate market, national green certificate systems such as the Dutch and Danish systems, and the progress towards Europe-wide green certificate trading are discussed

  11. Unlikely (but perfect) partners in the fight for the green energy and fair trade economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Fred

    2009-01-01

    A priority for the United Steelworkers the last several years has been its work with the Sierra Club as part of the Blue Green Alliance. By working with our unconventional allies, we impacted the most important general election in any of our lifetimes. Now, smart investments in renewable energy and fuel-efficient cars are cornerstones of the Obama administration's economic recovery plan. The other priority issue when we began the Blue Green Alliance was fair trade. It still is a priority.

  12. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other ...

  13. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  14. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  15. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Smeets, A.; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  16. Energylab Nordhavn: An integrated community energy system towards green heating and e-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiawei; You, Shi; Zong, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the green potential of a newly developed urban community, i.e., Nordhavn, in Copenhagen, Denmark from a planning perspective, wherein the energy sector of power, heat and transportation will be developed as an integrated energy system solution. Based on an hour-by-hour analysi...

  17. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  18. Towards a green economy in Germany? The role of energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, Marc; Schlomann, Barbara; Krail, Michael; Rohde, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the latest energy efficiency policies of Germany. • We find tangible energy, climate and socioeconomic impacts by 2020. • Notably the building sector stands to benefit economically. • A ‘green energy economy’ needs to build on ambitious energy efficiency policies. - Abstract: Energy efficiency policies play a key role in the transformation to a ‘green energy economy’. In this paper, we take stock of the impacts of the existing energy efficiency policy instruments in Germany and review the energy, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the country’s latest energy efficiency and climate strategies for the year 2020. We find evidence supporting the findings of other studies that enhanced green energy policies will trigger tangible economic benefits in terms of GDP growth and new jobs even in the short term. Whereas policy makers have already acknowledged and implemented this conclusion in the case of renewable energies, our paper shows that striving for more ambitious energy efficiency policies represents a similar win–win strategy, which should be exploited to a much larger extent.

  19. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption

  20. Student's Environmental Literacy Profile of Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Meilinda, Hephi; Prayitno, Baskoro Adi; Karyanto, Puguh

    2017-01-01

    Environmental literacy refers to the knowledge of the mechanism of how the nature works and the roles of human to preserve the nature sustainably. The dynamic relation between human and environment can be seen from the life interaction along with all the components. One characteristic of society that has environmental literacy is highly concerned with environmental. This research aims to analyze students’ environmental literacy in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta. Environmental literacy co...

  1. Study on storage energy devices: supercapacitors, a green alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Rancaño Fernandez, Ariadna

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is increasingly common to hear about environmental issues. This fact keep us to continually try to improve energy optimization, either through new storage devices that pollute less or improvements in the environmental energy generation systems. Recent new types of devices under study are those called supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electronic devices able to store charge in form of electrical energy. This energy is stored as an electric field, so supercapacitors are less pol...

  2. A Hybrid Energy Sharing Framework for Green Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    traffic at each base station (BS), a surplus or shortfall of energy may occur at any given time. To increase energy selfreliance and minimize the network’s energy cost, the operator needs to efficiently exploit the RE generated across all BSs

  3. The Dual Promise of Green Jobs: A Qualitative Study of Federally Funded Energy Training Programmes in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the policy literature on green jobs and green jobs training in the USA and to present findings of a qualitative study on the start-up of two Energy Training Partnerships (ETP) funded by the US Department of Labour to train workers for green jobs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes a review…

  4. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shyi-Min; Huang, May-Yao; Su, Pu-Ti; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  5. Student's Environmental Literacy Profile Of Adiwiyata Green School In Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hephi Meilinda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental literacy refers to the knowledge of the mechanism of how the nature works and the roles of human to preserve the nature sustainably. The dynamic relation between human and environment can be seen from the life interaction along with all the components. One characteristic of society that has environmental literacy is highly concerned with environmental. This research aims to analyze students’ environmental literacy in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta. Environmental literacy covers some components including environmental knowledge, attitude, and environmental concern.This research was developed through descriptive qualitative design to obtain data by employing classroom observation and questionnaire based on environmental literacy to the students in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta. The research finding shows that (1 students’ environmental literacy in Adiwiyata Green School in Surakarta is categorized as low level. Data obtained from the instrument are 77,38% for environmental knowledge, 59,50% for attitude, 70,12% for environmental concern. The average percentage for all components is 68,97%. Based on the finding, it can be concluded that the environmental literacy is still low. It can be seen from (1 knowledge and concern aspects are higher than attitude aspect, (2 attitude aspect contains two components which are anti anthropocentrism and anti-exemptionalism, so that it is necessarily to increase students’ concern toward the environment.

  6. Tracing temperature patterns of cut leafy greens during service in North Carolina school food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen M; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Phister, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Contaminated fresh produce has been increasingly identified as a cause of foodborne illnesses. Because of concerns about pathogen growth on these food items at retail, the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code established that cut leafy greens (lettuce, spinach, spring mix, cabbage, arugula, and kale) must have time and temperature controls for safety and hence should be kept at refrigerated temperatures (5°C or lower). The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature profiles of cut leafy greens in single-serving clamshell containers provided as part of the North Carolina School Lunch Program and to compare the two policies that North Carolina has in place to control the temperature of these products (the 3-day rule and time in lieu of temperature). Temperatures were recorded with data loggers in 24 schools during a 3-day period. In all cases, substantial temperature variability was found for these products, including temperatures above 5°C for at least 1 h on each of the 3 days. In some cases, temperatures reached above 5°C for more than 3 h throughout the serving time. The results demonstrate the importance of developing a protocol for continuous temperature monitoring of leafy greens served in school lunch programs.

  7. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO2 - Based assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-01-01

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO 2 -balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding "Greenness" on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-02-20

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012-2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM 2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% ( p value absenteeism rates, and a 1 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5 during the academic year was associated with a 1.58% ( p value absenteeism rates. Based on these percentage changes in chronic absenteeism, a 0.15 increase in NDVI and 1 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5 correspond to 25,837 fewer students and 15,852 more students chronically absent each year in Massachusetts respectively. These environmental impacts on absenteeism reinforce the need to protect green spaces and reduce air pollution around schools.

  9. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Tropical Island Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  10. A Hybrid Energy Sharing Framework for Green Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2016-12-09

    Cellular operators are increasingly turning towards renewable energy (RE) as an alternative to using traditional electricity in order to reduce operational expenditure and carbon footprint. Due to the randomness in both RE generation and mobile traffic at each base station (BS), a surplus or shortfall of energy may occur at any given time. To increase energy selfreliance and minimize the network’s energy cost, the operator needs to efficiently exploit the RE generated across all BSs. In this paper, a hybrid energy sharing framework for cellular network is proposed, where a combination of physical power lines and energy trading with other BSs using smart grid is used. Algorithms for physical power lines deployment between BSs, based on average and complete statistics of the net RE available, are developed. Afterwards, an energy management framework is formulated to optimally determine the quantities of electricity and RE to be procured and exchanged among BSs, respectively, while considering battery capacities and real-time energy pricing. Three cases are investigated where RE generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. Results investigate the time varying energy management of BSs and demonstrate considerable reduction in average energy cost thanks to the hybrid energy sharing scheme.

  11. Green and energy-efficient methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Naghdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of “Green Chemistry”, which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV, gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs.

  12. School education on energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imakita, Manami

    2005-01-01

    In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)

  13. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  14. The role of exergy in increasing utilization of green energy and technologies. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Rosen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of exergy is described as a measure for identifying and explaining the benefits of green energy and technologies, so the benefits can be clearly understood and appreciated by experts and non-experts alike, and the utilization of green energy and technologies can be increased. Exergy can be used to assess and improve energy systems, and can help better understand the benefits of utilizing green energy by providing more useful and meaningful information than energy provides. Exergy clearly identifies efficiency improvements and reductions in thermodynamic losses attributable to green technologies. Exergy can also identify better than energy the environmental benefits and economics of energy technologies. Exergy should be utilized to engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers, involved in green energy and technologies. (author)

  15. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  16. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  17. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  18. The Impact of Greening Tax Systems on Sustainable Energy Development in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the greening of tax systems in the European Union (EU, and reviews the achievements of the Baltic States in relation to greening their tax systems and implementing the sustainable energy development goals set by the EU’s energy policies. Environmental taxes promote sustainable energy development, as they allow internalizing the external costs of atmospheric pollution in the energy sector. Energy production and consumption are a major source classical pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Almost of the all EU member states (MS apply pollution taxes as the most important economic tool for mitigating the environmental impacts of various economic activities. Considering the importance of the energy sector in terms of its contributions to total atmospheric emissions in the EU, it is supposed that environmental taxes are important drivers of sustainable energy development. Environmental taxes, as the main tool for the integration of negative externalities that are related to atmospheric pollution, are imposed to create incentives for reducing fossil fuel consumption and switching to renewable energy sources or fuels that have a lower carbon content and thus cause less pollution. The paper presents a comparative assessment of the impact of environmental taxes on sustainable energy development indicators in three selected countries from the Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia during the period 2005–2015, and reveals the role that the greening of tax systems has had on implementing sustainable energy development targets in the Baltic States.

  19. Red light for Green Paper: The EU policy on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The EU Green Paper on energy efficiency calls for action to decrease energy use and thus achieve increased competitiveness, fulfil the environmental targets and increase security of supply. In this comment, we examine the role the EU Commission suggest that energy efficiency, and policies supporting energy efficiency, takes. The policies and the suggestions are qualitatively elaborated upon in the light of the goal of a common European electricity market. We suggest that the rationales for the energy efficiency measures are weak, and that the suggested goals of increased competitiveness, environmental targets, and security of supply are best reached with the direct measures especially designed for each goal. Some of the energy efficiency measures may counter-act other direct policies. Further, The Green Paper measures may prove detrimental to the European Electricity market insofar as the policies suggested could lead to a policy fatigue among the electricity consumers

  20. The role of green energy systems and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the buildup of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas. (author)

  1. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  2. Canada-renewable energy : Implications for WTO law on green and not-so-green subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charnovitz, Steve; Fischer, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    In the first dispute on renewable energy to come to WTO dispute settlement, the domestic content requirement of Ontario's feed-in tariff was challenged as a discriminatory investment-related measure and as a prohibited import substitution subsidy. The Panel and Appellate Body agreed that Canada was

  3. Green Energy Options for Consumer-Owned Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co-opPlus of Western Massachusetts

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project was to define, test, and prototype a replicable business model for consumer-owned cooperatives. The result is a replicable consumer-owned cooperative business model for the generation, interconnection, and distribution of renewable energy that incorporates energy conservation and efficiency improvements.

  4. The Green Lab : Experimentation in Software Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccianti, Giuseppe; Lago, Patricia; Vetrò, Antonio; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wieringa, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Software energy efficiency is a research topic where experimentation is widely adopted. Nevertheless, current studies and research approaches struggle to find generalizable findings that can be used to build a consistent knowledge base for energy-efficient software. To this end, we will discuss how

  5. Optimizing energy for a 'green' vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; McCarney, Steve; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Lydon, Patrick; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    This paper describes an approach piloted in the Kasserine region of Tunisia to increase the energy efficiency of the distribution of vaccines and temperature sensitive drugs. The objectives of an approach, known as the 'net zero energy' (NZE) supply chain were demonstrated within the first year of operation. The existing distribution system was modified to store vaccines and medicines in the same buildings and to transport them according to pre-scheduled and optimized delivery circuits. Electric utility vehicles, dedicated to the integrated delivery of vaccines and medicines, improved the regularity and reliability of the supply chains. Solar energy, linked to the electricity grid at regional and district stores, supplied over 100% of consumption meeting all energy needs for storage, cooling and transportation. Significant benefits to the quality and costs of distribution were demonstrated. Supply trips were scheduled, integrated and reliable, energy consumption was reduced, the recurrent cost of electricity was eliminated and the release of carbon to the atmosphere was reduced. Although the initial capital cost of scaling up implementation of NZE remain high today, commercial forecasts predict cost reduction for solar energy and electric vehicles that may permit a step-wise implementation over the next 7-10 years. Efficiency in the use of energy and in the deployment of transport is already a critical component of distribution logistics in both private and public sectors of industrialized countries. The NZE approach has an intensified rationale in countries where energy costs threaten the maintenance of public health services in areas of low population density. In these countries where the mobility of health personnel and timely arrival of supplies is at risk, NZE has the potential to reduce energy costs and release recurrent budget to other needs of service delivery while also improving the supply chain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  7. Influences Energy Consumption has on Green GDP Growth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxian, Xie

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between China’s total energy consumption growth and GGDP growth based on the data of 1997-2016. With path analysis employed, the direct and indirect influence on GGDP growth rate exerted by several energy consumption ratios as well as the relationship among them is explored. Furtherly, the author determines how much each of these ratios contributes to GGDP. This research suggests that proportion of natural gas consumption and that of other energy consumption are the two major drivers of GGDP growth, while coal and oil consumption proportion inhibits GGDP Growth. Specifically, increasing the proportion of natural gas consumption contributes the most to GGDP growth.

  8. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  9. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, Trevor B.; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a tw...

  10. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  11. Greening the networks: a comparative analysis of different energy efficient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Saeed, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    From a room electric bulb to the gigantic backbone networks energy savings have now become a matter of considerable concern. Issues such as resource depletion, global warming, high energy consumptions and environmental threats gave birth to the idea of green networking. Serious efforts have been done in this regard on large scale in the ICT sector. In this work first we give an idea of how and why this modern technology emerged. We then formulate a precise definition of the term green technology. We then discuss some leading techniques which are promising to produce green-results when implemented on real time network systems. These technologies are viewed from different perspectives e.g. hardware implementations, software mechanisms and protocol changing etc. We then compare these techniques based on some pivotal points. The main conclusion is that a detailed comparison is needed for selecting a technology to implement on a network system. (author)

  12. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...... is that the rise of the green economy can only take place accompanied by considerable institution formation in the form of standards. In this sense, the presence of standards may be seen as an important indicator on the maturity of the greening of the economy. The paper presents early empirical work...

  13. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: water allocation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, N.J.

    1982-04-01

    According to preliminary studies, operation of a nine-reactor Nuclear Energy Center near Green River, Utah would require the acquisition of 126,630 acre-feet per year. Groundwater aquifers are a potential source of supply but do not present a viable option at this time due to insufficient data on aquifer characteristics. Surface supplies are available from the nearby Green and San Rafael Rivers, tributaries of the Colorado River, but are subject to important constraints. Because of these constraints, the demand for a dependable water supply for a Nuclear Energy Center could best be met by the acquisition of vested water rights from senior appropriators in either the Green or San Rafael Rivers. The Utah Water Code provides a set of procedures to accomplish such a transfer of water rights

  14. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  15. Modeling Energy Efficiency As A Green Logistics Component In Vehicle Assembly Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer

    2016-11-01

    This paper uses System Dynamics (SD) simulation to investigate the concept green logistics in terms of energy efficiency in automotive industry. The car manufacturing industry is considered to be one of the highest energy consuming industries. An efficient decision making model is proposed that capture the impacts of strategic decisions on energy consumption and environmental sustainability. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. SD is the chosen simulation method and the main green logistics issues considered are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission and energy utilization. The model will assist decision makers acquire an in-depth understanding of relationship between high level planning and low level operation activities on production, environmental impacts and costs associated. The results of the SD model signify the existence of positive trade-offs between green practices of energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emission.

  16. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  17. Note on french law on the energy transition and green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denolle, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The French law on the energy transition and green growth (TECV law) seems in some ways limited in scope, restricted to set vague goals and formulate simple incentives to act. But this law can not be reduced to this. Composed of 215 articles, it necessarily refers to prescriptive and technical measures meant to realize the energy transition. The TECV law has, moreover, the merit of addressing the energy issue in its entirety, evoking not only renewable energies, but also the insulation of buildings, the challenge of developing clean transport, the need to promote a circular economy that consumes less energy

  18. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  19. Sustainable energy. Economic growth for the Netherlands with green potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijbesma, F.; Oudeman, M.

    2010-02-01

    Research of the economic potential and options for enhancing renewable energy in the Netherlands. The following research questions were addressed: What is the current and future economic value of renewable energy in the Netherlands?; What are the areas in which the Netherlands has a unique point of departure with respect to knowledge and activities?; How can the economic potential be optimally deployed? Can the opportunities be increased by making it a key area?; What are other ways are there to enhance the economic development?. [nl

  20. Building energy modeling for green architecture and intelligent dashboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Justin

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. Energy efficiency in this sector is key to reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions. This work studied the passive technique called the roof solar chimney for reducing the cooling load in homes architecturally. Three models of the chimney were created: a zonal building energy model, computational fluid dynamics model, and numerical analytic model. The study estimated the error introduced to the building energy model (BEM) through key assumptions, and then used a sensitivity analysis to examine the impact on the model outputs. The conclusion was that the error in the building energy model is small enough to use it for building simulation reliably. Further studies simulated the roof solar chimney in a whole building, integrated into one side of the roof. Comparisons were made between high and low efficiency constructions, and three ventilation strategies. The results showed that in four US climates, the roof solar chimney results in significant cooling load energy savings of up to 90%. After developing this new method for the small scale representation of a passive architecture technique in BEM, the study expanded the scope to address a fundamental issue in modeling - the implementation of the uncertainty from and improvement of occupant behavior. This is believed to be one of the weakest links in both accurate modeling and proper, energy efficient building operation. A calibrated model of the Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation's LEED Gold, 3,400 m2 building was created. Then algorithms were developed for integration to the building's dashboard application that show the occupant the energy savings for a variety of behaviors in real time. An approach using neural networks to act on real-time building automation system data was found to be the most accurate and efficient way to predict the current energy savings for each scenario. A stochastic study examined the impact of the

  1. Energy, economic and environmental discourses and their policy impact: The case of Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Dolter, Brett

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the debates around the Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA) as an energy and economic development strategy through comparative public policy and discourse analysis approaches. The evidence regarding the economic impacts of the GEGEA is found to be almost entirely based on the results of economic modeling exercises. Critics and supporters of the legislation have arrived at very different conclusions through such exercises. These outcomes are similar to those seen in other jurisdictions pursuing renewable energy initiatives, such as Feed In Tariffs (FITs), renewables obligations and portfolio standards. A discourse analysis approach is employed to examine the reasons for the different conclusions being reached over the impacts of renewable energy initiatives. Differences in modeling approaches and assumptions are found to reflect differences in ideational perspectives on the part of the modelers with respect to the appropriate roles of markets and the state and the relationship between economic development and environmental sustainability in public policy. The paper concludes with suggestions regarding the gathering and availability of information regarding economic development in the renewable energy sector, and a discussion of potential ways to strengthen future efforts to understand the economic and environmental impact of renewable energy initiatives. - Highlights: • The discourse surrounding renewable energy initiatives is embedded within wider ideological debates. • The information that underpins the debates in Ontario is the result of economic modelling, not empirical data. • All of the existing modelling efforts suffer from significant shortcomings. • FITS are seen as politically feasible mechanisms for correcting biases in favour of conventional technologies. • The province's long-term commitment of renewable energy development is now uncertain

  2. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  3. Role of local governments in promoting renewable energy businesses: a contribution to the green urban economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.; Meerow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although policy-makers and entrepreneurs across the world are increasingly talking about the green economy, much of this debate still centers on the state of the global economy at the nation-state level. The role of renewable energy sourcing remains limited, while dependence on fossil fuels remains

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Alliance Green Builders, Casa Aguila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-09-01

    Alliance Green Builders built this 3,129-ft2 home in the hills above Ramona, California, to the high-performance criteria of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. The home should perform far better than net zero thanks to a super-efficient building shell, a wind turbine, three suntracking solar photovoltaic arrays, and solar thermal water heating.

  5. 75 FR 36128 - Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Suspension of Trading June 22, 2010. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a... a suspension of trading in the securities of Green Energy. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed...

  6. NASA's GreenLab Research Facility: A Guide for a Self-Sustainable Renewable Energy Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomani, B. M. McDowell; Hendricks, R. C.; Elbuluk, Malik; Okon, Monica; Lee, Eric; Gigante, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The sustainability of humanity, as we know it, directly depends on the ability to secure affordable fuel, food, and freshwater. NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has initiated a laboratory pilot study on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as utilizing wind and solar technology as alternative renewable energy resources. The GreenLab Research Facility focuses on optimizing biomass feedstock using algae and halophytes as the next generation of renewable aviation fuels. The unique approach in this facility helps achieve optimal biomass feedstock through climatic adaptation of balanced ecosystems that do not use freshwater, compete with food crops, or use arable land. In addition, the GreenLab Research Facility is powered, in part, by alternative and renewable energy sources, reducing the major environmental impact of present electricity sources. The ultimate goal is to have a 100 percent clean energy laboratory that, when combined with biomass feedstock research, has the framework in place for a self-sustainable renewable energy ecosystem that can be duplicated anywhere in the world and can potentially be used to mitigate the shortage of food, fuel, and water. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility at Glenn and its power and energy sources, and provides recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the facility s concept.

  7. Cellular energy allocation of pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator compound) on cellular energy allocation of a heterometabolous insect, Brachynema germari Kol. The fifth instar of this insect was treated with 0, 20, 60, 100, 200 and 500 mg l-1 formulation of pyriproxyfen (Admiral 10EC) and the ...

  8. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation When Scaling-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Pedro F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  9. Green IGP Link Weights for Energy-efficiency and Load-balancing in IP Backbone Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Frederic; Wang, Ning; Moessner, Klaus; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption of backbone networks has become a primary concern for network operators and regulators due to the pervasive deployment of wired backbone networks to meet the requirements of bandwidth-hungry applications. While traditional optimization of IGP link weights has been used in IP based load-balancing operations, in this paper we introduce a novel link weight setting algorithm, the Green Load-balancing Algorithm (GLA), which is able to jointly optimize both energy efficiency ...

  10. Magnetic field effects on the quantum wire energy spectrum and Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern Horing, Norman J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the energy spectrum and propagation of electrons in a quantum wire on a 2D host medium in a normal magnetic field, representing the wire by a 1D Dirac delta function potential which would support just a single subband state in the absence of the magnetic field. The associated Schroedinger Green's function for the quantum wire is derived in closed form in terms of known functions and the Landau quantized subband energy spectrum is examined.

  11. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, David M.; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green ga...

  12. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.

    2015-10-19

    Modern smartphones are limited by their short battery life. The advancement of the graphical performance is considered as one of the main reasons behind the massive battery drainage in smartphones. In this paper we present a novel implementation of the GPUFreq Scaling Governors, a Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) model implemented in the Android Linux kernel for dynamically scaling smartphone Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The GPUFreq governors offer users multiple variations and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption of smartphone GPUs can be significantly reduced with a minor effect on the GPU performance.

  13. Green light from the government to boost nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The British government backs the project of building about 10 new nuclear power plants. The main reason is that renewable energies appear to be insufficiently advanced, in technical terms, to rely solely on them for the production of electricity. The British government has warned that the operators will have to pay entirely the dismantlement costs of these new nuclear plants and a fair part of the cost of the management of radioactive wastes they generate. (A.C.)

  14. Green-house gasses reduction in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, Mirko; Markovska, Natasha; Boshevski, Tome; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up activity of the Macedonian First National Communication under the UNFC-CC, Technology Needs Assessment is conducted, evaluating by GACMO model the measures related mainly to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies. An abatement cost curve is constructed and used as an illustrative tool for recognizing priorities in GHG abatement policy. About half of the measures are shown to be of 'win-win' type, reducing 3% of the baseline GHG emissions, while the total reduction which can be achieved by all measures amounts to 20%. For each measure difficulties for implementation are identified, being the highest for the measures with largest GHG abatement potential. Generally, these difficulties include lack of financing and low prospects for attracting foreign investments as well as legislative and administrative barriers. It must be recognized that climate change issues could not be of high priority in a country with economy in transition. Consequently, in our case the main issues which should be integrated within the framework of ongoing transition reforms, in an effort to implement a GHG emission reduction policy, would be: institutional capacity building, attracting foreign investment, emphasis on energy efficiency and considering the switch toward less carbon intensive fuels. (Author)

  15. Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, Ulrike; Lutz, Christian; Edler, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ► It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ► The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ► Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ► Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

  16. Contribution of green labels in electricity retail markets to fostering renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney P.E.

    2016-01-01

    In European countries, retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source and the related environmental impacts of their portfolio over the preceding year. The electricity supplied in the Dutch retail market is presented as renewable energy for 34%, but this relatively high share is for 69% based on certificates (Guarantees of Origin) which are imported from in particular Norway. The certificates are used to sell green electricity to consumers. The premium for green electricity which is actually paid by Dutch consumers is no more than a few percentages of the retail price. The low level of this premium is related to the abundant supply of certificates at low marginal costs from Norway. This also means that the premium for green electricity is too low to give an incentive for investments in new capacity. Hence, the current labelling system for renewable electricity is mainly valuable, besides being an instrument for tracking and tracing of renewable energy, as a marketing instrument for electricity retailers. The effectiveness of Guarantees of Origin as a policy instrument to foster renewable electricity sources is weak. This effectiveness can be raised by implementing restrictions on the international trade or the issuance of new certificates. - Highlights: • In Europe, electricity retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source. • In the Netherlands, most renewable energy is based on imported certificates. • The certificates system does not result in more renewable energy. • Restrictions on international trade may improve the effectiveness.

  17. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  18. Nuclear energy and the Green Paper of the European Commission 'An European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    At present the energy is for European Union officials an issue of top priority. In the beginning of 2006 the natural gas crisis between Russia and Ukraine remembered menacingly to the Europeans that energy supply of the continent depends decisively on importation from other geographic areas and that these importation raise risks of a great variety. In addition to the power problems, disastrous effects on the economy, human life and eco-systems appeared to have the climate changes produced by fossil fuel burning. Consequently, a common energetic policy of Europe should be targeted at three main objectives: sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Six directions of action were identified: 1. EU must finalize the construction of internal European gas and electricity market; 2. EU should ensure that its energy market guaranties the security of supply under a solidary policy of the member states; 3. It is necessary that a large debate to have place about different sources of energy including the problems of costs and impact on climatic change, security and supply competitiveness and sustainability; 4. EU should approach the climatic change issues in agreement with the objectives established at Lisbon conference aiming at placing EU in the forefront of technological and scientific progress; 5. A strategic plan concerning the energy technology; 6. A common foreign policy in the field of energy. It is worthy to stress that the present Green Paper of EU has a manifestly different position concerning the nuclear energy with respect to the prior Green Paper of November 2000. While, in 2000 the EU Commission viewed the nuclear energy as being 'in limbo', in the 2006 version the Commission declared the nuclear energy as the most important source of power in Europe without CO 2 emissions. It is stated that all the energy options should be kept open while the Europe states have the right to establish their own energy mix, which they consider optimal, and in which

  19. Simultaneous attainment of energy goals by means of green certificates and emission permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Stine Grenaa; Skytte, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the analytical effects of introducing emission permits and green certificates and the corresponding quotas as regulatory mechanisms to, respectively, reduce emissions from electricity production and ensure a certain deployment of renewable energy. The different case studies in this paper show that both instruments can be used in order to reach an emission goal or a goal of renewable energy. However, the combination of these instruments and the way they are used, is shown to be important for the price faced by consumers. It is shown that the effect on the consumer price is not an unambiguous increase with the introduction of a green quota. There is a choice between quotas leading to a lower consumer price and quotas leading to a higher consumer price. As a result of this it is shown that it is always optimal to reach a renewable energy deployment goal by the use of green certificates. However, to reach an emission goal it is sometimes most favourable, with respect to consumer prices, to use green certificates and sometimes to use emission permits

  20. Blue Line Innovations brochure : Think green, act smart, save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Blue Line Innovations Inc. is working with leading electric utilities and regulatory agencies to provide smart-home technologies to consumers for demand-side management. Their latest product is the PowerCost Monitor, a real-time feedback product that help households understand and reduce the amount of electricity they use. The monitor, which reveals electricity use in real-time by both total and current cost and kilowatt hour, uses wireless encrypted technology to send usage information from an outside meter to an in-home display. The small detector/transmitter can be easily installed to an existing household electro-mechanical utility meter by the homeowner without an electrician or service disruption. Studies have shown that when domestic users are provided with real-time feedback on electricity usage, they can reduce their energy bills by as much as 20 per cent. This in-home measuring and reporting unit helps customers make decisions about changing their usage habits, purchasing electricity-saving light and appliances and conserving energy. In a demonstration project, Hydro-One installed PowerCost Monitors in the homes of Hydro One customers in Ontario in July 2004. The objective was to determine the extent of changes in customer behaviour and reductions in electricity consumption resulting from direct real-time feedback information on electricity consumption. Other demonstration projects have been launched in conjunction with CEA Technologies Inc., Natural Resources Canada, Newfoundland Power and BC hydro to install the monitors in homes on both coasts of Canada. Governments, utilities, communities and individuals are recognizing that saving energy is a critical factor to sustainable development by conserving natural resources and reducing pollution. A list of suggestions for reducing electricity use in lighting, kitchens, laundry and heating and cooling were also presented. 1 fig.

  1. Renewable energy (green ICT) support for mobile communications in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivor, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the telecommunication and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry has grown very fast with increasing appetites for modern value added services and gadgets which function without any break, delay or interferences. Currently, total worldwide mobile subscription......). This growth therefore requires more reliable and sustainable energy for effective operation. However, about nearly 1.6 billion people in the world do not have access to electricity and about 99 percent of this figure is from developing countries. This shows that about 1.3 billion people from Sub...

  2. Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Havva

    2008-01-01

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources (RES) because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energy exploitation in a number of areas. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. The renewable energy contribution in the total primary energy production is insignificant. The alternative and renewable energy systems have been neglected so far in Turkey but must be included in the new energy programs. In this context, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to encourage renewable-based generation in competitive market conditions. Supporting mechanisms such as feed-in tariffs and purchase obligation are defined in the law, in conformity with the EU legislation and practice. These mechanisms are envisaged to facilitate the development of power plants based on RES. (author)

  3. Green obligations at the service of the energy and ecological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, Dorine; Phantharangsi, Maryvonne; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Besson, Leo

    2016-09-01

    Green obligations are an important lever for the financing of energy transition as they allow enterprises and public bodies to finance their environmental projects, notably their investments and infrastructures. They comprise a reporting on financed investments and the description of the green characteristic of the financed projects. This publication proposes an overview of this arrangement which has been introduced in 2007 and has been displaying a strong development since 2013, and was also boosted by the COP21. The market diversification and internationalisation are outlined, and concern large companies, private banks, and local and regional communities, with rather well identified objectives. The publication outlines that the precise definition of green obligations is however still missing, that private and public initiatives are emerging to structure this market. It finally outlines the need for a harmonisation of reporting standards

  4. Development of the Nordic Bioeconomy: NCM reporting: Test centers for green energy solutions - Biorefineries and business needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene; Björnsdóttir, Bryndís; Brandt, Asbjørn

    In 2014 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a new bioeconomy project: “Test centers for green energy solutions – Biorefineries and Busi-ness needs”. The purpose was to strengthen green growth in the area of the bioeconomy by analyzing and mapping the current status of the bio-economy in the......In 2014 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a new bioeconomy project: “Test centers for green energy solutions – Biorefineries and Busi-ness needs”. The purpose was to strengthen green growth in the area of the bioeconomy by analyzing and mapping the current status of the bio...

  5. An efficient and accurate method to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for general potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T; Heller, E J; Parrott, R E

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent quantum mechanics provides an intuitive picture of particle propagation in external fields. Semiclassical methods link the classical trajectories of particles with their quantum mechanical propagation. Many analytical results and a variety of numerical methods have been developed to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent methods work for nearly arbitrarily shaped potentials, including sources and sinks via complex-valued potentials. Many quantities are measured at fixed energy, which is seemingly not well suited for a time-dependent formulation. Very few methods exist to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for complicated potentials without resorting to ensemble averages or using certain lead-in arrangements. Here, we demonstrate in detail a time-dependent approach, which can accurately and effectively construct the energy-dependent Green function for very general potentials. The applications of the method are numerous, including chemical, mesoscopic, and atomic physics

  6. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  7. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  8. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  9. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  10. Proceedings of the Indian Analytical Science Congress: analytical science for innovations in green energy, technology and industry - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The theme of IASC - 2013 is 'Analytical Science for innovations in Green Energy, Technology and Industry'. This theme was chosen to emphasize the unprecedented opportunities for analytical science and technology in the field of green energy, technology and industry, while at the same time recognizing the special challenges faced by analytical science in this field. The objective of the conference is to advance research, development and innovation in analytical sciences for the benefit of its application in the areas of green science and technology. The growing role of analytical science in green energy, technology and industry are significant. The next few years will witness more momentous achievements of analytical science as well as its application in green energy, technology and industry contributing towards the benefit of mankind in terms of healthy, productive, long and comfortable life. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Green energy education programs and demonstrations at the Kortright Centre for Conservation. Paper no. IGEC-1-047

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.

    2005-01-01

    In Ontario, when both professionals and non-professionals want to learn about sustainable technologies and practices they usually end up at the Kortright Centre For Conservation. Kortright has one of the largest educational programs in Canada dedicated to informing and inspiring people from all walks of life to think and act more sustainably. Our goals are to inform, to demonstrate and to promote green energy solutions. To these ends, Kortright has designed a number of successful programs for students and adults that provide both theoretical and hands on learning opportunities. Each year thousands of people trek to Kortright to participate in adult workshops and curriculum-based school programs. This paper and presentation will reveal some of the unique demonstrations and programming used by Kortright to motivate people to adopt more sustainable lifestyles. (author)

  12. The use of green waste from tourist attractions for renewable energy production: The potential and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Du, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guofu; Tang, Yuli; Fan, Likun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Yijun; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying potential renewable energy sources from tourist attractions is a pivotal initial step in developing energy policies and strategies for low-carbon tourist industry development. Although solar energy and wind power have been in use for providing power for tourist attractions, the value of using waste biomass for energy production is still poorly understood. Here we advocate a promising approach that produces energy from green waste created by tourism attractions currently existing in large numbers and is still increasing dramatically. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China as an example, we evaluated the potential of utilizing green waste to produce energy from 385 tourist attractions in 16 cities of this region. Our results showed that the total potential energy production using the green waste biomass was estimated at 6740 TJ/yr (1 TJ=10 12 J) with an average of 137 GJ/ha/yr (1 GJ=10 9 J), accounting for 6% (the average of the Yangtze River Delta, some scenic areas up to 93%) of YRD′s tourism industry′s energy consumption in 2008. The use of green waste for energy production is possible using current technology and could result in a win–win approach by reducing waste and increasing the renewable energy yields. -- Highlights: •Green waste from tourist attractions could help offset the tourist′s fossil fuel consumption. •Economic, technical, and social feasibility analysis of green waste for energy production. •Puts forward policy recommendations, from management regulations, public support etc

  13. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  14. Is green energy expensive? Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy promotion and its cost are at the heart of the energy policy debate in many countries. The question from an economic perspective is how expensive the promotion of renewable sources through price-based incentive schemes is. This paper addresses this issue empirically. We analyze the Spanish electricity market during the period 2008–2012, where renewable energy production rose by 57%. To determine how expensive it was, we first measure the savings due to the spot price reduction driven by the merit order effect and, second, we compute the amount paid as incentives to green energy by the electricity system; the difference between the two is the net cost of green energy to the electricity markets. We present aggregate results for renewable sources as a whole, as well as individual results for each technology. We show that at the initial stages, when renewable capacity was low, green energy promotion paid for itself (2008–2009); however, from 2010 on, when renewable production reached a relatively high level, it started to impose a positive net cost on the system. Finally, we found substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive. - Highlights: • The combination of feed-in tariffs and premiums has been an effective instrument in the promotion of renewable electricity in Spain. • Significant reduction of the daily market price due to RES-E. • Considering the subsidies to RES-E this energy might seem rather expensive for the Spanish electricity system since 2010. • Substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive

  15. The appeal of the green deal: Empirical evidence for the influence of energy efficiency policy on renovating homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettifor, H.; Wilson, C.; Chryssochoidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Green Deal is a major new energy policy designed to support the diffusion of energy efficiency measures in UK homes. This paper provides one of the first empirical examinations of the Green Deal′s success in influencing homeowners’ renovation decisions. Using a repeated measures design in which households were questioned before and after the Green Deal′s launch in January 2013, we assess the policy′s success in raising awareness of energy efficiency. In particular, we test the effectiveness of the Green Deal′s positioning to overcome barriers to renovation among homeowners already interested in or considering energy efficiency measures. Using the innovation decision process (Rogers, 2003) as a conceptual framing of the renovation decision process, we examine whether new information on energy efficiency provided by the Green Deal strengthened intentions and its antecedents. We find that (1) energy efficiency is of potential appeal to all renovators regardless of their attitudes about energy efficiency, (2) energy efficiency opportunities need to be identified in the early stages of renovation when homeowners are thinking about ways to improve their home, and (3) homeowners’ intentions towards energy efficiency are weakened by uncertainty about financial benefits, helping to explain the relatively slow uptake of the Green Deal to-date. - Highlights: • Examines the impact of a major new energy policy, the Green Deal, on intentions towards energy efficiency. • 502 households questioned four months prior to, and seven months after the launch. • Renovating itself is mechanism through which households engage with the Green Deal. • Strengthening beliefs in energy savings accelerates intentions to renovate energy efficiently

  16. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  17. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures notes on field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP violation, experimental aspects of CP violation in K and B decays, relativistic heavy-ion physics, and the scientific programme of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These core scientific topics are complemented by a lecture about the physics of ski jumping.

  18. Stuck between a ROC and a hard place? Barriers to the take up of green energy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the UK mechanisms for ensuring future investment in renewable energy through consumer adoption of green energy tariffs and the Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) system. Using a national survey and focus groups the stated willingness by UK customers to pay a premium for renewable or green energy and actual take up of such tariffs is assessed. Substantial differences between willingness to pay for and the adoption of green energy tariffs are reported. This disparity is linked to a range of factors including consumer confusion, lack of supply, complexities of constructing 'green source' tariffs under the ROC system and a lack of customer trust. It is concluded that the re-definition of the green energy market in favour of 'green source' tariffs, greater direct compliance with the Renewable Obligation by addressing supply constraints, and efforts in providing clearer information and choices for consumers via a compulsory green energy accreditation scheme are required if willing consumers' are to contribute to investment in renewable energy

  19. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  20. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  1. REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS – ASSESSMENT METHOD OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN GREEN ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAFTEI DANIEL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of real options as a evaluation method of investment in green energy. Article consider several theoretical and practical approaches, the analysis based on real options by many authors who have theorized and used this method. Each approach provides a operationalisation through a steps series of specific evaluation. This paper highlights the different views: academics, financiers, managers and facilitates the access to an accurate evaluation decisions of projects.

  2. Development of school energy policy and energy education plans: A comparative case study in three Wisconsin school communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Jennie F.; Floress, Kristin; Rickert, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Through a qualitative comparative case study, this investigation examined the process by which three school districts in Wisconsin, U.S.A., developed a school energy policy and complementary energy education plan. To guide the process, the researchers created an outline of recommended steps for the districts to follow. Although there were variations in the sequence and perceived ease of the steps, the Energy Task Force members involved in the process found the outline to be a supportive guide. Further analysis of the cases involved interviewing members of the Energy Task Forces to identify facilitating and obstructing factors. The study concluded that factors such as level of environmental literacy, along with aspects of the school culture and leadership, interacted to influence the successful drafting of school energy policies and education plans. In addition to introducing an outline of recommended steps that can be used by other school policy development teams interested in promoting energy efficiency, this study adds insights into the analysis of energy policy work within the context of a school setting. - Highlights: • School energy policy and complementary energy education plans can be successfully developed with guidelines for policy team membership. • Teacher agency, including environmental literacy, helps overcome barriers in developing school policy and energy education plans. • Administrative support of energy conservation is a key to the development of school energy policies and complementary energy education plans

  3. University Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: How Postsecondary Institutions Use the LEEDRTM Green Building Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Shannon Massie

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study focused on how institutions of higher education have used the United States Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]) Green Building Rating system. It employed statistical methods to assess which types of universities have used LEED, what ratings they earned, and…

  4. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Research Framework on Green Schools: Infrastructure, Social Environment, Occupant Health, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Mayer, Adam P; Barr, Stephanie; Bohren, Lenora; Dunbar, Brian; Manning, Dale; Reynolds, Stephen J; Schaeffer, Joshua W; Suter, Jordan; Cross, Jennifer E

    2017-05-01

    Sustainable school buildings hold much promise to reducing operating costs, improve occupant well-being and, ultimately, teacher and student performance. However, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effects of sustainable school buildings on health and performance indicators. We sought to create a framework for a multidisciplinary research agenda that links school facilities, health, and educational outcomes. We conducted a nonsystematic review of peer review publications, government documents, organizational documents, and school climate measurement instruments. We found that studies on the impact of physical environmental factors (air, lighting, and thermal comfort) on health and occupant performance are largely independent of research on the social climate. The current literature precludes the formation of understanding the causal relation among school facilities, social climate, occupant health, and occupant performance. Given the average age of current school facilities in the United States, construction of new school facilities or retrofits of older facilities will be a major infrastructure investment for many municipalities over the next several decades. Multidisciplinary research that seeks to understand the impact of sustainable design on the health and performance of occupants will need to include both an environmental science and social science perspective to inform best practices and quantification of benefits that go beyond general measures of costs savings from energy efficiencies. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  6. Replacing leads by self-energies using non-equilibrium Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Open quantum systems consist of semi-infinite leads which transport electrons to and from the device of interest. We show here that within the non-equilibrium Green's function technique for continuum systems, the leads can be replaced by simple c-number self-energies. Our starting point is an approach for continuum systems developed by Feuchtwang. The reformulation developed here is simpler to understand and carry out than the somewhat unwieldly manipulations typical in the Feuchtwang method. The self-energies turn out to have a limited variability: the retarded self-energy Σ r depends on the arbitrary choice of internal boundary conditions, but the non-equilibrium self-energy or scattering function Σ which determines transport is invariant for a broad class of boundary conditions. Expressed in terms of these self-energies, continuum non-equilibrium transport calculations take a particularly simple form similar to that developed for discrete systems

  7. Teaching - learning plan on nuclear energy for elementary school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This is for teaching - learning curriculum about nuclear energy for elementary school students. It consist of four titles, which are I saved this much, learning energy through quiz, I work for nuclear power plant and would mayor build a nuclear power plant in our town? It was written to teach nuclear power plant and nuclear energy to elementary school students in easy way.

  8. Green IoT: An Investigation on Energy Saving Practices for 2020 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, R.; Zahoor, S.; Shah, M.A.; Wahid, A.; Yu, Hongnian

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging concept which aims to connect billions of devices with each other. The IoT devices sense, collect and transmit important information from their surroundings. This exchange of very large amount of information amongst billions of devices creates a massive energy need. Green IoT envisions the concept of reducing the energy consumption of IoT devices and making the environment safe. Inspired by achieving a sustainable environment for IoT, we first give the ...

  9. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: regional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This document constitutes one segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid and remote Western region. This phase of the study discusses regional considerations involved in nuclear energy center development at Green River, Utah. Regional support for NEC development is assessed. In addition, possible regulatory constraints to NEC development are identified and analyzed. Possible resource allocation shortages resulting from NEC development are also considered. A comparison with a similar study on NEC development in the Southeastern United States is also included

  10. The promotional impacts of green power products on renewable energy sources: direct and indirect eco-effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. They can therefore be evaluated on a par with other support instruments regarding their effectiveness to connect new capacity to the grid. Apart from this direct effect however, green power products confer a much more active role for customers and utilities. Thus, learning processes, which foster eco-oriented decisions beyond the construction of new renewable generation capacity, may be induced. In the present paper, we provide an encompassing review of the ecological consequences of green electricity products. We examine the direct eco-effects by comparing five European countries in their endeavor to increase electricity generation from renewable energy. The results show that the impact of green power on increasing renewable generation capacity is rather limited. In a second step, we analyze the contribution of green power in stimulating eco-oriented learning. It turns out that green power has particular potential in facilitating simultaneous learning processes involving power producers, traders, suppliers and consumers. We conclude that green electricity can be a crucial complement to governmental energy policies in the mid term. A precondition for reaping this potential is the careful policy design to create synergies in the interaction of regulatory support schemes and the green power market

  11. EH-GC: An Efficient and Secure Architecture of Energy Harvesting Green Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the high power consumption of data centers is the biggest challenge to making cloud computing greener. Many researchers are still seeking effective solutions to reduce or harvest the energy produced at data centers. To address this challenge, we propose a green cloud infrastructure which provides security and efficiency based on energy harvesting (EH-GC. The EH-GC is basically focused on harvesting the heat energy produced by data centers in the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS infrastructure. A pyroelectric material is used to generate the electric current from heat using the Olsen cycle. In order to achieve efficient green cloud computing, the architecture utilizes a genetic algorithm for proper virtual machine allocation, taking into consideration less Service Level Agreement (SLA violations. The architecture utilizes Multivariate Correlation Analysis (MCA correlation analysis based on a triangular map area generation to detect Denial of Service (DoS attacks in the data center layer of the IaaS. Finally, the experimental analysis is explained based on the energy parameter, which proves that our model is efficient and secure, and that it efficiently reuses the energy emitted from the data center.

  12. The Resulting Perceptions of "Greening" a Local School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    The world today faces enormous challenges on the environmental front. Schools may be part of the problem as they use enormous amounts of energy, create thousands of tons of waste, and often operate in less than ideal environments, all of which may negatively impact the health and welfare of students. Some environmental educators and researchers…

  13. National Low-Carbon Strategy. France in action. The energy transition for green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The National Low-Carbon Strategy (SNBC), introduced by the energy transition for green growth act, outlines the approach to be adopted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It sets in motion the transition to a low-carbon economy. France, with its energy transition act for green growth, has committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 40% between 1990 and 2030 and fourfold between 1990 and 2050. France's greenhouse gas emissions per person are already among the lowest in the developed world, but more needs to be done. The act introduces tools designed to promote a low-carbon economy, namely 'carbon budgets' and the National Low-Carbon Strategy (SNBC), in order to achieve these new goals. These have been set for the 2015-2018, 2019-2023 and 2024-2028 periods. 'Carbon budgets' are caps on greenhouse gas emissions established for successive five-year periods, designed to set the downward trend in emissions. They are broken down into major sectors of activity (transport, housing, industry, agriculture, energy and waste). The SNBC outlines strategic guidelines for implementing the transition to a sustainable, low-carbon economy across all sectors of activity. It has been jointly developed with civil society by means of a broad public consultation and the close involvement of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE). The SNBC comprises a series of overarching and sector-specific recommendations that outline the pathway to a low-carbon economy that will improve well-being, growth and employment. It sets a target for reducing the national carbon footprint, which remained stable between 1990 and 2012 owing to an increase in emissions linked to imports. It is important that we work together to ensure that we are not simply out-sourcing our emissions but actually reducing them. It will help raise both public and private funding for the energy transition. An 'energy transition for climate' label will help identify investment funds that are funding

  14. Willingness to pay for renewable energy: implications for UK green tariff offerings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, S.L.; Fleming, P.D.; Urwin, P.

    2000-01-01

    Although financial support for renewable electricity sources has existed via the non-fossil fuel obligation since 1990, the UK 'green power' market is still in its infancy. This paper looks at attitudes to tariffs for 'green power' in light of the proposed phase-out of the non-fossil fuel obligation. The hypothesis tested was the consumer's willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources and to see if this was related to income and attitude. Data for analysis were taken from replies to a questionnaire sent to an energy-aware subpopulation of Leicester which were analysed by a variety of statistical tests. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that whether someone was willing to pay more was significantly correlated with attitude, experience (whether they had visited an environmental centre) and the purchasing power placed on GBP 5.00. This finding has implications for the methods by which support for green tariffs can be increased. Education and raising people's awareness through experience should be able to change attitudes and so increase their willingness to pay. (author)

  15. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  17. General Retarded Contact Self-energies in and beyond the Non-equilibrium Green's Functions Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Tillmann; He, Yu; Andrawis, Robert; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Retarded contact self-energies in the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions allow to model the impact of lead structures on the device without explicitly including the leads in the actual device calculation. Most of the contact self-energy algorithms are limited to homogeneous or periodic, semi-infinite lead structures. In this work, the complex absorbing potential method is extended to solve retarded contact self-energies for arbitrary lead structures, including irregular and randomly disordered leads. This method is verified for regular leads against common approaches and on physically equivalent, but numerically different irregular leads. Transmission results on randomly alloyed In0.5Ga0.5As structures show the importance of disorder in the leads. The concept of retarded contact self-energies is expanded to model passivation of atomically resolved surfaces without explicitly increasing the device's Hamiltonian.

  18. Development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool: An Evidence-Based Model for School Garden Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel

    2017-10-01

    Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study. Participants were identified with the help of Grow To Learn, the organization coordinating the New York City school garden initiative, and recruited via e-mail. A stratified, purposeful sample of 21 New York City elementary and middle schools participated in this study throughout the 2013/2014 school year. The sample was stratified in their garden budgets and purposeful in that each of the schools' gardens were determined to be well integrated and sustained. The processes and strategies used by school gardeners to establish well-integrated school gardens were assessed via data collected from surveys, interviews, observations, and concept mapping. Descriptive statistics as well as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to examine the survey and concept mapping data. Qualitative data analysis consisted of thematic coding, pattern matching, explanation building and cross-case synthesis. Nineteen components within four domains of school garden integration were found through the mixed-methods concept mapping analysis. When the analyses of other data were combined, relationships between domains and components emerged. These data resulted in the development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool. When schools with integrated and sustained gardens were studied, patterns emerged about how gardeners achieve institutionalization through different combinations of critical components. These patterns are best described by the GREEN Tool, the first framework to identify how to

  19. Building Green: Construction for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Todd

    2012-01-01

    At Jefferson County Vocational School (JCVS) in Bloomingdale, Ohio, students get a lesson on building green with the construction of a home in the school's subdivision. The home is being built using Energy Star guidelines so that it may be identified as an Energy Star home. The goal for the Jefferson County Vocational Schools Board of Education…

  20. An Energy-Efficient Compressive Image Coding for Green Internet of Things (IoT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Duan, Xiaomeng; Li, Xu; He, Wei; Li, Yanling

    2018-04-17

    Aimed at a low-energy consumption of Green Internet of Things (IoT), this paper presents an energy-efficient compressive image coding scheme, which provides compressive encoder and real-time decoder according to Compressive Sensing (CS) theory. The compressive encoder adaptively measures each image block based on the block-based gradient field, which models the distribution of block sparse degree, and the real-time decoder linearly reconstructs each image block through a projection matrix, which is learned by Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion. Both the encoder and decoder have a low computational complexity, so that they only consume a small amount of energy. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only has a low encoding and decoding complexity when compared with traditional methods, but it also provides good objective and subjective reconstruction qualities. In particular, it presents better time-distortion performance than JPEG. Therefore, the proposed compressive image coding is a potential energy-efficient scheme for Green IoT.

  1. An Energy-Efficient Compressive Image Coding for Green Internet of Things (IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at a low-energy consumption of Green Internet of Things (IoT, this paper presents an energy-efficient compressive image coding scheme, which provides compressive encoder and real-time decoder according to Compressive Sensing (CS theory. The compressive encoder adaptively measures each image block based on the block-based gradient field, which models the distribution of block sparse degree, and the real-time decoder linearly reconstructs each image block through a projection matrix, which is learned by Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE criterion. Both the encoder and decoder have a low computational complexity, so that they only consume a small amount of energy. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only has a low encoding and decoding complexity when compared with traditional methods, but it also provides good objective and subjective reconstruction qualities. In particular, it presents better time-distortion performance than JPEG. Therefore, the proposed compressive image coding is a potential energy-efficient scheme for Green IoT.

  2. Domestic uptake of green energy promoted by opt-out tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Felix; Lotz, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Motivating individuals to choose energy from sustainable sources over conventionally produced power constitutes one of the biggest policy challenges for societies. Here we present the results of a randomized controlled trial in Germany that tested the impact of default rules (that is, a type of `nudging’) on voluntary purchases of `green’ energy contracts that entirely stem from renewable resources. Setting the default choice to more expensive `green’ energy (that is, where consumers have to actively opt out if they do not want it) increased purchases of such nearly tenfold. Furthermore, county-level political preference for the green party uniquely predicted behaviour in the absence of the nudge, suggesting that default setting potentially overrules motivational aspects of green energy purchases. In follow-up experiments, we provide further evidence that the effect does not seem to be driven by unawareness. Summarizing, the present research provides an example of using behavioural science for climate change mitigation and shows alternatives to the use of subsidies or other economic incentives.

  3. Rare earth elements-critical resources for green energy and digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.

    2013-01-01

    High technology and environment applications of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past few decades. The REE forms largest economical coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specialty of the REE has given them a level of technological, environment and economical importance. As technological applications of REE have multiplied over the past several decades, the demand for them has increased dramatically. The green energy is the segment, which is largely contributed in its performance by the REE. The increasing concern about the impact of green house gases around the globe has made countries to explore clean energy technologies to reduce emissions. India has ambitious plans for generating solar power of 30,000 MW and wind energy of 50,000 MW by 2013. Critical component with respect to wind energy is the high strength rare earth permanent magnet, while in hybrid electrical motors REEs like lanthanum are used in LiMH battery pack

  4. Mapping the Green Infrastructure potential - and it's water-energy impacts on New York City roof Tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Rebecka; Destouni, Georgia; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Green Roofs have the potential to provide multiple services in cities. Besides acting as carbon sinks, providing noise reduction and decreasing air pollution - without requiring any additional "land-use" in a city (only roof-use), green roofs have a quantifiable potential to reduce direct and indirect energy and water use. They enhance the insulating capacity of a conventional residential roof and thereby decrease both cooling demands in summer and heating demands in winter. The former is further mitigated by the cooling effect of evapotranspiration from the roofs In New York City green roofs are additionally a valuable component of reducing "combined sewer overflows", as these roofs can retain storm water. This can improve water quality in the city's rivers as well as decrease the total volume of water treated in the city's wastewater treatment plants, thereby indirectly reduce energy demands. The impacts of green roofs on NYC's water-energy nexus has been initially studied (Engström et. al, forthcoming). The present study expands that work to more comprehensively investigate the potential of this type of nature-based solution in a dense city. By employing Geographical Information Systems analysis, the roof top area of New York City is analysed and roof space suitable for green roofs of varying types (ranging from extensive to intensive) are mapped and quantified. The total green roof area is then connected with estimates of potential water-energy benefits (and costs) of each type of green roof. The results indicate where green roofs can be beneficially installed throughout the city, and quantifies the related impacts on both water and energy use. These outputs can provide policy makers with valuable support when facing investment decisions in green infrastructure, in a city where there is great interest for these types of nature-based solutions.

  5. Green signalling effects in the market for energy-efficient residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; Oikarinen, Elias; Harjunen, Oskari

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency (EE) levels are hypothesised to affect house transaction prices. • We estimate a hedonic model using Energy Performance Certificates from Finland. • A price premium is found for the most energy-efficient properties. • The empirical results are suggestive of a green signalling effect. • Demand for EE high performers appears to be segmented from lower tiers. - Abstract: Empirical evidence from recent studies suggests that the price premium on energy-efficient buildings is potentially higher than the pure capitalisation of energy savings but the empirical evidence on the size of the non-savings components is scant. This study aims to fill this research gap by investigating whether the mandatory energy efficiency ratings for residential properties imply benefits that go beyond energy savings. Using a sample of several thousand apartment transactions from Helsinki, Finland, we first test if higher ratings were significantly associated with higher prices. In addition to a large number of property and neighbourhood characteristics, this dataset contains information on building-level energy usage which allows us to distinguish between the cost savings effect of energy consumption and the value of more intangible factors associated with the energy label. The hedonic model yields a statistically significant 3.3% price premium for apartments in the top three energy-efficiency categories and 1.5% when a set of detailed neighbourhood characteristics are included. When maintenance costs containing energy usage costs are added, a robust and significant price premium of 1.3% persists whereas no differentiation is found for the medium and lower rating categories. These findings may be indicative of energy-efficient buildings having signalling value – and therefore an additional incentive to invest in such buildings – for ‘green’ consumers. However, a favourable energy rating did not appear to speed up the sales process in the

  6. Fiscal greening and energy. Part 2. Economic effects of increase and broadening of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Mulder, M.; Vromans, M.

    2001-07-01

    For the benefit of the discussion on greening the Dutch tax system, The Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) has made an analysis of the economic and environmental effects of raising the energy tax in the Netherlands, the so called Regulating Energy Tax.This energy tax is introduced in 1996 and has been raised in the following years in order to encourage energy efficiency improvement and the production of renewable energy. Since the introduction and the raising of this energy tax is coupled with a reduction of the tax tariffs on labour and capital, the tax basis is shifted towards environment polluting factors.This tax shift is called 'greening the tax system'. Five variants for raising the energy tax are analysed. In two of these variants the existing tariffs are raised by maintaining the existing exemption for energy use above a certain level. In the other two variants this level is raised, meaning that a larger part of the total energy use is taxed.In addition to these 4 variants, CPB has formulated a variant in which taxes have to be paid for all energy use without any exemption. In the long run uniform marginal tariffs for all energy users is the most efficient variant. Measures to reduce emissions will then be taken by the firms and households where the marginal reduction costs are relatively low. In the medium run the environmental and macroeconomic effects are almost the same in all variants. Raising the energy tax will result in a reduction of the emissions of CO2 in 2020 by 2,5 -8,5 Mton. The explanation for this range is the existence of large uncertainties concerning the development of costs and non-financial bottlenecks in the field of renewable energy production. The macro-economic costs of all variants in 2020 will be less then 0,1% GDP. The differences in environmental and macro-economic effects in the medium run are too small and the uncertainties about these effects are too large to rank these variants according their cost

  7. Technical Feasibility Study for Zero Energy K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldwasser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This technical feasibility study provides documentation and research results supporting a possible set of strategies to achieve source zero energy K-12 school buildings as defined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) zero energy building (ZEB) definition (DOE 2015a). Under this definition, a ZEB is an energy-efficient building in which, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy.

  8. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology-a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  9. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology--a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  10. A Green Energy Application in Energy Management Systems by an Artificial Intelligence-Based Solar Radiation Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huan Kuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV systems generate green energy from the sunlight without any pollution or noise. The PV systems are simple, convenient to install, and seldom malfunction. Unfortunately, the energy generated by PV systems depends on climatic conditions, location, and system design. The solar radiation forecasting is important to the smooth operation of PV systems. However, solar radiation detected by a pyranometer sensor is strongly nonlinear and highly unstable. The PV energy generation makes a considerable contribution to the smart grids via a large number of relatively small PV systems. In this paper, a high-precision deep convolutional neural network model (SolarNet is proposed to facilitate the solar radiation forecasting. The proposed model is verified by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that SolarNet outperforms other benchmark models in forecasting accuracy as well as in predicting complex time series with a high degree of volatility and irregularity.

  11. In situ fabrication of green reduced graphene-based biocompatible anode for efficient energy recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi; Chen, Zuliang

    2018-02-01

    Improving the anode configuration to enhance biocompatibility and accelerate electron shuttling is critical for efficient energy recovery in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this paper, green reduced graphene nanocomposite was successfully coated using layer-by-layer assembly technique onto carbon brush anode. The modified anode achieved a 3.2-fold higher power density of 33.7 W m -3 at a current density of 69.4 A m -3 with a 75% shorter start period. As revealed in the characterization, the green synthesized nanocomposite film affords larger surface roughness for microbial colonization. Besides, gold nanoparticles, which anchored on graphene sheets, promise the relatively high electroactive sites and facilitate electron transfer from electricigens to the anode. The reduction-oxidation peaks in cyclic voltammograms indicated the mechanism of surface cytochromes facilitated current generation while the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed the enhanced electron transfer from surface cytochrome to electrode. The green synthesis process has the potential to generate a high performing anode in further applications of MFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Multilevel DC - AC Converter from Green Energy Power Generators Using Step-Square Waving and PWM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajingbesi, F. E.; Midi, N. S.; Khan, S.

    2017-06-01

    Green energy sources or renewable energy system generally utilize modular approach in their design. This sort of power sources are generally in DC form or in single cases AC. Due to high fluctuation in the natural origin of this energy (wind & solar) source they are stored as DC. DC power however are difficult to transfer over long distances hence DC to AC converters and storage system are very important in green energy system design. In this work we have designed a novel multilevel DC to AC converter that takes into account the modular design of green energy systems. A power conversion efficiency of 99% with reduced total harmonic distortion (THD) was recorded from our simulated system design.

  13. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective

  14. Harvard Business School energy report. Energie-Report der Harvard Business School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobaugh, R; Yergin, D

    1979-01-01

    With the help of cost-benefit calculations which include also the - to a great extent - neglected external social costs, the team of authors of the Havard Businees School conclude that energy conservation as well as alternative energies such as solar energy are the most important energy sources of the future. This conclusion clearly contradicts the present prevailing opinion which says the expansion of energy consumption and the improvement of power supply by nuclear power plants are indispensable for the securing of economic growth and the economic structure. Although the authors keep up an option for nuclear energy (as it may perhaps be possible to solve the problem of radioactive waste disposal) they put forward the sober statement that - last not least because of its questionable economic efficiency - nuclear power cannot be a solution to energy crisis for the rest of the century, let alone to the politically precarious dependence of the Western Countries on the Saudi-Arabic import oil. The Havard Analysis is based on the latest numerical data and it is not only valid for the USA. It shall have even more impact for a country like the Federal Republic of Germany which is short of raw material. Therefore the American figures are put in relation to the German situation in an additional chapter.

  15. The multi-annual Energy Plan - Executive summary. The energy transition for the green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The multi-annual energy plan aims at completing the transition towards an energy system which is more efficient, less wasteful, more diverse and therefore more resilient. It reaffirms our commitment to reducing energy consumption, particularly energy from fossil fuels. The future of France's energy sector lies in striking a harmonious balance between different energy sources. These strategic decisions will help us to meet our objectives to keep greenhouse gas emissions to a minimum in line with our commitments to the EU and to the Paris Climate Agreement, to protect human health and the environment and to ensure access to energy at a reasonable cost whilst stimulating economic activity and employment in France

  16. Check your school's energy performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael [Danish Building Research Inst., Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a poster presentation of a web tool for benchmarking schools. The poster will show how benchmarking makes it possible to compare the energy consumption of schools on the basis of the schools' age, type and location. In this way, the tool will draw attention to poor and good energy performance of the buildings, and in addition make key actors aware of energy-saving measures and if possible, low energy behaviour.A prototype version based on The Danish Energy Certificate Scheme introduced in 1997 is now available. This however, will be revised as soon as possible to adopt also schools labelled in agreement with a new Danish certification scheme, which is in accordance with The European Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD). When entering the tool, the user is required to select a specific school and this school will be used for benchmarking. After this, the benchmarking can be designed at will. Heat, electricity, as well as the water consumption of the school can be objects for benchmarking. Moreover, the user can opt for several units of measurement such as kWh of heat per square meter per year, or cubic meters of water per pupil per day. The criteria for the selection of schools relevant for comparison can also be decided. Among these criteria are period of construction, number of storeys and geographical location. Finally, the tool enables the user to visualise the consequences for the school of different combinations of energy-saving measures, such as using low-energy windows and low-energy lighting.The tool is intended for energy officials, school caretakers, head teachers, teachers and even pupils. The development of the tool was financially subsidised via public service obligations. The administration and maintenance of the tool will for the next years be in the charge of the Danish Building Research Inst.

  17. Multi-year programming of energy - The energy transition for a green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers several documents. It contains the decree related to the definition of the multi-year programming of energy (in France), and then a synthesis of this policy which addresses its main objectives: to define a coherent framework for action for energy transition, to improve energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of fossil energies, to accelerate the development of renewable energies, to maintain a high level of security of supply while complying with environmental requirements, to prepare tomorrow's energy system, to develop a clean mobility, and to take economic and social of energy transition into account and to act with territories. The next documents address the implementation framework of the multi-year programming of energy, aspects related to energy demand management, aspects related to energy supply, aspects related to security of supply, to the development of infrastructures and to the flexibility of the electricity system, the strategy for the development of a clean mobility, aspects related to social and economic impacts, aspects related to the French western isles. A report is also proposed as an environmental strategic assessment of this programming and of its part related to the strategy for the development of a clean mobility. The opinion of Environmental Authority on this programming is also provided, as well as an information note published as an answer to this opinion. A debate of the national council for energy transition is included, as well as the opinion of the High Council for Energy, the texts of several amendments notably proposed by EDF, and the opinion of the expert committee for energy transition

  18. Intelligent analysis of energy consumption in school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatikainen, Mika; Skön, Jukka-Pekka; Leiviskä, Kauko; Kolehmainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity and heating energy consumptions of six school buildings were compared. • Complex multivariate data was analysed using modern computational methods. • Variation in electricity consumption cost is considerably low between study schools. • District heating variation is very slight in two new study schools. • District heating cost describes energy efficiency and state of building automation. - Abstract: Even though industry consumes nearly half of total energy production, the relative share of total energy consumption related to heating and operating buildings is growing constantly. The motivation for this study was to reveal the differences in electricity use and district heating consumption in school buildings of various ages during the working day and also during the night when human-based consumption is low. The overall aim of this study is to compare the energy (electricity and heating) consumption of six school buildings in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The selected school buildings were built in different decades, and their ventilation and building automation systems are also inconsistent. The hourly energy consumption data was received from Kuopion Energia, the local energy supply company. In this paper, the results of data analysis on the energy consumption in these school buildings are presented. Preliminary results show that, generally speaking, new school buildings are more energy-efficient than older ones. However, concerning energy efficiency, two very new schools were exceptional because ventilation was on day and night in order to dry the building materials in the constructions. The novelty of this study is that it makes use of hourly smart metering consumption data on electricity and district heating, using modern computational methods to analyse complex multivariate data in order to increase knowledge of the buildings’ consumption profiles and energy efficiency.

  19. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Chamoso, Pablo; Yoe, Hyun; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-03-14

    The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user's energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  20. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso González-Briones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user’s energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  1. On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Buildings: A System-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2016-05-03

    Adopting a green building rating system (GBRSs) that strongly considers use of renewable energy can have important environmental consequences, particularly in developing countries. In this paper, we studied on-site renewable energy and GBRSs at the system level to explore potential benefits and challenges. While we have focused on GBRSs, the findings can offer additional insight for renewable incentives across sectors. An energy model was built for 25 sites to compute the potential solar and wind power production on-site and available within the building footprint and regional climate. A life-cycle approach and cost analysis were then completed to analyze the environmental and economic impacts. Environmental impacts of renewable energy varied dramatically between sites, in some cases, the environmental benefits were limited despite the significant economic burden of those renewable systems on-site and vice versa. Our recommendation for GBRSs, and broader policies and regulations, is to require buildings with higher environmental impacts to achieve higher levels of energy performance and on-site renewable energy utilization, instead of fixed percentages.

  2. Surface energy balance of an extensive green roof as quantified by full year eddy-covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, Jannik; Weber, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m 2 extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle. To understand the influence of water availability on green roof-atmosphere energy exchange, we studied dry and wet periods and looked into functional relationships between leaf area, volumetric water content (VWC) of the substrate, shortwave radiation and β. The surface energy balance was dominated by turbulent heat fluxes in comparison to conductive substrate heat fluxes. The Bowen ratio was slightly below unity on average but highly variable due to ambient meteorology and substrate water availability, i.e. β increased to 2 in the summer season. During dry periods mean daytime β was 3, which is comparable to typical values of urban instead of rural sites. In contrast, mean daytime β was 0.3 during wet periods. Following a summer wet period the green roof maximum daily evapotranspiration (ET) was 3.3mm, which is a threefold increase with respect to the mean summer ET. A multiple regression model indicated that the substrate VWC at the present site has to be >0.11m 3 m -3 during summer high insolation periods (>500Wm -2 ) in order to maintain favourable green roof energy partitioning, i.e. mid-day βurban green roofs can be significantly optimised by using sustainable irrigation approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    OpenAIRE

    Prillia Ayudia; Rachmat Haris; Mulyana Tatang

    2017-01-01

    PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement are...

  4. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  5. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David M; McDonagh, Shane; Murphy, Jerry D

    2017-11-01

    Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors. Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas. Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. School Retrofit Design Analysis System. A Microcomputer Model for School Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen Lee

    The School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) developed in this study provides a non-technical method for the school administrator to use in evaluating alternative energy saving retrofit and new construction design possibilities. By providing a high degree of flexibility, SRDAS is applicable to a wide range of school building and retrofit…

  7. German energy transition at the crossroad: global pressures or green energy island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Frank

    2015-05-01

    In reaction to the March 2011 nuclear disaster that occurred in Fukushima/Japan, Germany has unilaterally decided to launch an energy transition of hitherto unseen dimensions. Berlin set extremely ambitious objectives such as phasing out nuclear energy by 2020, as well as, in the long run, the creation of a sustainable and autarkic energy system. Reactions to this decision differed. Within her own country, Angela Merkel's energy transition was largely acclaimed, although it represented a total u-turn with respect to the previous policy which consisted of prolonging nuclear reactors' lifespan. Abroad and notably among Germany's European partners, it has, in turn, been heavily criticized. These partners had not been consulted prior to decisions being taken, despite the huge impact these decisions had and continue to have on their own energy security. Four years after Angela Merkel announced the German energy transition, it is obvious that a lot of effort still needs to be put into it and that the objectives defined are far from having been reached. German energy policy has failed to adapt to its global context, notably characterized by the U.S. shale gas revolution, geopolitical upheaval, the great polluters' absent willingness to commit to climate protection, etc. At the time being, it has also failed to find a sustainable equilibrium between environmental protection, energy security and economic competitiveness. Moreover, Germany needs to act in accordance with its European partners, without whom it will not be able to tackle the global challenge of climate change and attain to European energy security. If Germany fails to reach these objectives, it may see its competitiveness and geopolitical influence decline at the global level, which would also have repercussions on the EU's standing in the world. (author)

  8. Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Conditions in a Primary School with a Green Roof System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Barmparesos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results from a typical school building in Athens, equipped partly with a green roof system (GRS. Environmental monitoring took place in six classrooms located both under the concrete roof and the GRS sectors as well as in the immediate external environment during the warm and cold periods of a school year. Daily measurements of pollutants CO2, TVOCs (Total Volatile Organic Compound, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were performed in selected classes. Moreover, indoor ambient temperature (T and relative humidity (RH measurements were implemented in order to estimate the absolute humidity (AH and assess the indoor environmental conditions. The results highlight that during summer, the GRS reduces temperature in a classroom on the top floor by about 2.8 °C, in comparison with the respective classroom under the concrete roof and that AH remained relatively stable for both classrooms. Amid winter, a reverse behavior occurs only for temperature. Moreover, air exchange rates (AER were calculated by using the CO2 decay method for all of the classrooms. The results demonstrated insufficient ventilation for all experimental sights. Finally, concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, were found to be relatively decreased, with average values of 0.79, 3.39, and 27.80 μg m−3. Levels of CO2 and TVOCs were elevated during class hours ranging from 469 to 779 ppm and from 6.63 ppm to 13.33 ppm, respectively, but generally within the respective limits of exposure. The examination of the indoor/outdoor (I/O ratio of air pollutants, demonstrated that the outdoor meteorology affects only PM1 and PM2.5, as PM10 and TVOCs are strongly affected by internal sources and the activities of pupils.

  9. gTBS: A green Task-Based Sensing for energy efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2016-09-08

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used to sense and measure physical conditions for different purposes and within different regions. However due to the limited lifetime of the sensor\\'s energy source, many efforts are made to design energy efficient WSN. As a result, many techniques were presented in the literature such as power adaptation, sleep and wake-up, and scheduling in order to enhance WSN lifetime. These techniques where presented separately and shown to achieve some gain in terms of energy efficiency. In this paper, we present an energy efficient cross layer design for WSN that we named \\'green Task-Based Sensing\\' (gTBS) scheme. The gTBS design is a task based sensing scheme that not only prevents wasting power in unnecessary signaling, but also utilizes several techniques for achieving reliable and energy efficient WSN. The proposed gTBS combines the power adaptation with a sleep and wake-up technique that allows inactive nodes to sleep. Also, it adopts a gradient-oriented unicast approach to overcome the synchronization problem, minimize network traffic hurdles, and significantly reduce the overall power consumption of the network. We implement the gTBS on a testbed and we show that it reduces the power consumption by a factor of 20%-55% compared to traditional TBS. It also reduces the delay by 54%-145% and improves the delivery ratio by 24%-73%. © 2016 IEEE.

  10. The greening of the U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, D.C. Second-year status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-22

    The Greening of the Department of Energy Headquarters is a comprehensive, multi-year project designed to identify and implement specific actions DOE can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It is part of the Administration`s overall effort to promote greening in all of the nation`s federal buildings. Present Clinton started the Greening of the White House in 1993, and similar efforts have been undertaken by the Department of Defense at the Pentagon, the National Park Service at the Presidio, and now the Department of Energy at the Forrestal and Germantown buildings. The Greening of the Department of Energy Headquarters, An Action Plan for Success (Action Plan), unveiled on April 22, 1996, outlined more than 80 action items for DOE`s Forrestal and Germantown buildings. The action items were designed to increase energy efficiency, improve resource management, improve air quality, reduce water use, reduce paper use, improve landscape management, improve maintenance and operational procedures, increase employee participation, and promote education and outreach. In the two years since the Action Plan was introduced, the Department of Energy has made major progress in implementing specific action items designed to target four major subject areas: (1) Energy Efficiency; (2) Resource Management; (3) Air, Water, Landscape, and (4) Human Factors. This report outlines the status of the recommendations of the Action Plan since they were introduced two years ago.

  11. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  12. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prillia Ayudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement area to be optimized and analyzed. Improvement plan at this stage that is focusing on energy area and technology. Thirdly is process applies by modifying the technology through implementing automation system on the punching machine so that there is an increase of green level on the process machine. The result obtained after implement the method can save cost on electrical energy consumption in the amount of Rp 1.068.159/day.

  13. Greening of taxes and energy. Effects of increased energy levies and specific exemptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The study on the title subject is part of a new long-term outlook for the period 1990-2020, focusing on the environment, mobility, space (physical planning) and energy. The environmental, employment and economic impacts of two levy variants have been analyzed. The first is the so-called Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch), and the second is the Environment-Based Tax Law (WBM, abbreviated in Dutch). Tax rebates to households and businesses are in the form of a lower income tax and lower employer contributions. It is concluded that it is possible to double existing energy levies or to triple them for small-scale consumers without large economic impacts, provided that (1) large-scale consumers are spared; (2) the levies are rebated totally or partly; and (3) levy and rebate will be accepted by the Dutch society

  14. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  15. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  16. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  17. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: licensing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, M.; Russell, R.; Zillman, D.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines the laws governing the location of a 9-unit nuclear energy center (NEC) near Green River, Utah. The time frame being considered for development of the conceptual NEC is from 1995 to 2013. Accordingly, the report is forced to speculate about some aspects of the plant, its site and its construction. Most of the report examines existing legal requirements for constructing an NEC. Where pertinent, changes in the law are discussed that would affect an NEC that is to be licensed in one or two decades. In general, no insurmountable legal problems exist that would prevent an NEC from being licensed at the Green River location. Several legal requirements pose significant concerns and would have to be faced before an NEC could be built. Among the major legal constraints are radiation protection, regulatory approval of financing, access to water, and local zoning restrictions. Two other constraints that involve legal matters are the wisdom of standardization of the units and the responsibility of the NEC builder to correct socio-economic impacts on the local area

  18. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanofluids Used for Heat Dissipation in Hybrid Green Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize carbon nanotube (CNT/water nanofluids (CNWNFs and to apply the nanofluids in a heat-dissipation system of dual green energy sources. CNTs were mixed with water in weight fractions of 0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5% to produce nanofluids. The thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, and specific heat of the nanofluids were measured. An experimental platform consisting of a simulated dual energy source and a microchip controller was established to evaluate the heat-dissipation performance. Two indices, the heat dissipation enhancement ratio and specific heat dissipation enhancement ratio (SHDER, were defined and calculated. The CNWNFs with a CNT concentration of 0.125 wt.% were used because they exhibited the highest SHDER. The steady-state performance was evaluated at 2 flow rates, 11 hybrid flow ratios, and 3 heating ratios for a total power of 1000 W. The transient behavior of the energy sources at preset optimal temperatures was examined, and the CNWNFs exhibited average increases in stability and heat dissipation efficiency of 36.2% and 5%, respectively, compared with water. This nanofluid heat-dissipation system is expected to be integrated with real dual energy sources in the near future.

  19. A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo Ferreira

    2011-03-18

    A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.

  20. Green residues from Bangkok green space for renewable energy recovery, phosphorus recycling and greenhouse gases emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitanuwat, Bussarakam; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    Effective ways to integrate human life quality, environmental pollution mitigation and efficient waste management strategies are becoming a crisis challenge for sustainable urban development. The aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate and recommend an optimum Urban Green Space (UGS) area for the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA); and (2) to quantify potential renewable resources including electricity generation and potential nutrient recovery from generated ash. Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions from the management of Green Residues (GR) produced in a recommended UGS expansion are estimated and compared with those from the existing BMA waste management practice. Results obtained from this study indicate that an increase in UGS from its current 2.02% to 22.4% of the BMA urban area is recommended. This optimum value is primarily due to the area needed as living space for its population. At this scale, GR produced of about 334kt·y -1 may be used to generate electricity at the rate of 206GWh·y -1 by employing incineration technology. Additionally, instead of going to landfill, phosphorus (P) contained in the ash of 1077 t P·y -1 could be recovered to produce P fertilizer to be recycled for agricultural cultivation. Income earned from selling these products is found to offset all of the operational cost of the proposed GR management methodology itself plus 7% of the cost of BMA's Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) operations. About 70% of the current GHGs emission may be reduced based on incineration simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, and Business School Students’ Intentions to Purchase Green Vehicles in Emerging Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohiuddin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness and changing attitudes toward “green consumption” are becoming evident in emerging countries’ markets. Using an extended theory of planned behavior, this paper aims to examine emerging countries’ business students’ intentions to purchase green vehicles. Stratified random sampling was used to select study participants, and data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that environmental knowledge and awareness have a significant influence on business students’ favorable attitudes toward green vehicles. Further, a significant association between attitudes toward green vehicles, perceived behavioral controls, and intentions to purchase green vehicles was observed. Findings serve to inform managers and policy makers who are formulating strategies for maximizing value creation in an era of increasingly environmentally aware consumers in emerging markets. Ultimately, this policy will help to promote green technology initiatives, and encourage higher rates of adoption of eco-friendly vehicles in emerging countries.

  2. Nuclear energy VEW information for schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    VEW AG in Dortmund offers factual information, on economical and technical aspects as well as new developments, in the field of power supply, to schools, teacher training and postgraduate training colleges, school administrative bodies, local education authorities, working parties school/industry, etc. The following themes are of primary importance: sources of power, transport and distribution, applications of electric power, the environment and its protection, climate and problems with CO 2 . Specialist meetings and educational courses, seminars, visits to facilities, media for use in classrooms, didactics, etc. are organized and provided

  3. Contributing to a green energy economy? A macroeconomic analysis of an energy efficiency program operated by a Swiss utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushchenko, Alisa; Patel, Martin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our input–output model allows estimating impacts of energy efficiency programs on GDP and employment in Switzerland. • We provide with a deeper insight into modeling of income impacts of energy savings with regard to input–output method. • Geneva case study demonstrates that energy efficiency programs can have positive macroeconomic impacts in Switzerland. • Our results help to understand how to enhance positive macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs. • We provide policy recommendations for further development of energy efficiency programs. - Abstract: In order to enhance energy efficiency as a pillar of transition to a green energy economy it is important to understand whether and under which conditions energy efficiency programs could have positive economic and social impacts. There are a growing number of studies on macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs for various countries and regions. However, in Switzerland only few evaluations have been performed. The present study evaluates the impacts on GDP and employment of Geneva’s energy efficiency program portfolio éco21 which is operated by the local utility. Two programs aiming for electricity savings in the residential sector are analyzed: Eco-sociales targets social housing and Communs d’immeubles focuses on common spaces in buildings. An input–output model is developed, based on the Swiss input–output table, program administrator data, Swiss, and European statistics. Both impacts of initial expenditure and energy cost savings are evaluated. We estimate and compare the impacts of the two programs and discuss factors that cause differences. Our results show that energy efficiency programs can have positive impacts on GDP and employment. According to our estimates, each Swiss Franc (CHF) spent within the energy efficiency program creates approximately 0.2 CHF of additional GDP compared to the reference case scenario. Net impacts on employment are

  4. How to Launch an Energy Star Energy Efficiency Competition for K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utebay Kudret; McArthur, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been forced by rising costs and shrinking budgets to stretch their resources further than ever before in order to meet the educational needs of today's students. EPA's ENERGY STAR program helps K-12 schools and districts improve energy efficiency, reduce operating costs and redirect critical resources into the…

  5. Impact of government incentives in the profitability of green energy production using fuel cells in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo A. Potosí-Guerrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are a technological alternative to produce green energy, however, high costs make fuel cell a non-profitable option. This paper analyses the impact of the Colombian government incentives in the profitability of fuel cells. The analysis is based on the total operation cost of the fuel cell in three representative applications: residential, office and building elevator. The economic viability of fuel cell generation in those cases is contrasted with classical solutions like diesel generators and standard grid to provide a reference framework. Such results enable to evaluate the effectiveness of the Colombian government incentives in promoting the use of fuel cells over other less environmental-friendly options such as diesel generators. Finally, new incentives are proposed by subsidies offered by other countries with higher fuel cell penetration into their electric market. All the analyses are supported in simulations performed with a mathematical model parameterized using the characteristics of commercial devices.

  6. Preliminary analysis of the study of a Nuclear Energy Center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The planning phase for the study of a conceptualized Regional Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Green River, Utah to serve a four state area is discussed and an outline of the proposed study is presented. It is assumed that the more technical issues of a NEC have already been studied in detail for generic sites and that this study will address the site specific impacts of a NEC at a representative site. The emphasis will be on the institutional, legal, political, sociological, economic and environmental impacts of a NEC. An assessment is made of the willingness and ability of related public and private entities to participate in the study. These include local, state and regional government agencies, colleges and universities, research organizations, private firms and consultants, and relevant federal agencies in Utah and the region.

  7. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J

    2011-07-18

    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing green building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2's most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a cafe and river vistas for miles of New York City's skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects, selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy

  8. Green Planet Architecture - A Methodology for Self-Sustainable Distributed Renewable Energy Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Johnson, Shawana; Venners, John P.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Our planet has been endowed with a host of natural mechanisms to keep the environment and climate in balance. Humans are now facing the need to restore this balance that has been upset in the past years because of a growing population and resource demands. To steer dependency away from freshwater crops and decrease environmental damage from humanity s fuel and energy demands, it is necessary to take advantage of the natural adaptive biomass resources that are already in place. Using methods of Green Planet Architecture, based on compilations of current research and procedures, could lead to new forms of energy and fueling as well as new sources for food and feed. Green Planet Architecture involves climatic adaptive biomass; geospatial intelligence; agri- and aqua-culture life cycles; and soil, wetland, and shoreline restoration. Plants such as Salicornia, seashore mallow, castor, mangroves, and perhaps Moringa can be modified (natural, model-assisted, or genetically modified) to thrive in salt-water and brackish water or otherwise not arable conditions, making them potentially new crops that will not displace traditional farming. These fueling sources also have potential to be used in other rapid-growth industries, such as the aviation industry, that have incentive to move towards more sustainable fuel supplies. This paper highlights an example of how synergistic development of biomass resources and geospatial intelligence high-performance computing capabilities can be focused to resolve potential drought-famine problems. These techniques, provide a basis for future e-science-based discovery (and access) through technology that can be expanded to support global societal applications.

  9. "Green Planet Architecture"-A Methodology for Self-Sustainable Distributed Renewable Energy Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Johnson, Shawana; Venners, John P.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This planet has been endowed with a host of natural mechanisms to keep the environment and climate in balance. Humans are now facing the need to restore this balance that has been upset in the past years because of a growing population and resource demands. To steer dependency away from freshwater crops and decrease environmental damage from humanity s fuel and energy demands, it is necessary to take advantage of the natural adaptive biomass resources that are already in place. Using methods of "Green Planet Architecture," based on compilations of current research and procedures, could lead to new forms of energy and fueling as well as new sources for food and feed. Green Planet Architecture involves climatic adaptive biomass; geospatial intelligence; agri- and aqua-culture life cycles; and soil, wetland, and shoreline restoration. Plants such as Salicornia, seashore mallow, castor, mangroves, and perhaps Moringa can be modified (naturally, model-assisted, or genetically) to thrive in salt water and brackish water or otherwise not arable conditions, making them potentially new crops that will not displace traditional farming. These fueling sources also have potential to be used in other rapid-growth industries, such as the aviation industry, that have incentive to move towards more sustainable fuel supplies. This report highlights an example of how synergistic development of biomass resources and geospatial intelligence high-performance computing capabilities can be focused to resolve potential drought-famine problems. These techniques provide a basis for future e-science-based discovery (and access) through technology that can be expanded to support global societal applications.

  10. Non-aqueous energy storage devices using graphene nanosheets synthesized by green route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattakumar Mhamane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the use of triethylene glycol reduced graphene oxide (TRGO as an electrode material for non-aqueous energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. TRGO based non–aqueous symmetric supercapacitor is constructed and shown to deliver maximum energy and power densities of 60.4 Wh kg–1 and 0.15 kW kg–1, respectively. More importantly, symmetric supercapacitor shows an extraordinary cycleability (5000 cycles with over 80% of capacitance retention. In addition, Li-storage properties of TRGO are also evaluated in half-cell configuration (Li/TRGO and shown to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼705 mAh g–1 with good cycleability at constant current density of 37 mA g–1. This result clearly suggests that green-synthesized graphene can be effectively used as a prospective electrode material for non-aqueous energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  11. A Review of 'Energy and Transport in Green Transition: Perspectives on Ecomodernity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harnesk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The book “Energy and Transport in Green Transitions – Perspectives on Ecomodernity” deals with the societally and scientifically crucial topic of energy and climate change mitigation. The book starts by setting high ambitions as the authors attempt “to go beyond both the extremism of the anti-capitalist critique and the radical enthusiasm of techno-economic positivism” in their exploration to find ways to resolve political, economic and technological entanglements “to boost a greener economy and culture”. It aims to so through a regional comparative study that looks at mature Western economies, the rapidly developing China, and the developing economies in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors present an excellent descriptive historical review for those interested in the broader picture of energy production and automobile sector in the regions addressed. However, in an attempt to cover as much ground as possible while assuring "maximum accessibility”, the authors' explanation of the dynamics of change involved is not conveyed in an analytically convincing manner.

  12. Energy transmission through a double-wall curved stiffened panel using Green's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subha; Bhattacharya, Partha

    2015-04-01

    It is a common practice in aerospace and automobile industries to use double wall panels as fuselage skins or in window panels to improve acoustic insulation. However, the scientific community is yet to develop a reliable prediction method for a suitable vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission through a curved double-wall panel. In this quest, the present work tries to delve into the modeling of energy transmission through a double-wall curved panel. Subsequently the radiation of sound power into the free field from the curved panel in the low to mid frequency range is also studied. In the developed model to simulate a stiffened aircraft fuselage configuration, the outer wall is provided with longitudinal stiffeners. A modal expansion theory based on Green's theorem is implemented to model the energy transmission through an acoustically coupled double-wall curved panel. An elemental radiator approach is implemented to calculate the radiated energy from the curved surface in to the free field. The developed model is first validated with various numerical models available. It has been observed in the present study that the radius of curvature of the surface has a prominent effect on the behavior of radiated sound power into the free field. Effect of the thickness of the air gap between the two curved surfaces on the sound power radiation has also been noted.

  13. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  14. Screening of Energy Renovation Measures for Schools – Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Paulsen, Anton; Stiger, Simone

    2013-01-01

    School of the Future’ is a collaborative project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union in the energy sector. It started in February 2011 and will run for 5 years. The aim of the “School of the Future” project is to design, demonstrate, evaluate and communicate shining examples...... of how to reach the future high performance building level. School buildings and their primary users: pupils – the next generations – are in the focus of the project. Both, the energy and indoor environment performance of 4 demo buildings in 4 European countries and climates will be greatly improved due...

  15. Greening a Chemistry Teaching Methods Course at the School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Hj Ismail, Zurida; Mohamed, Norita

    2011-01-01

    Green chemistry is the design, development and implementation of chemical products and processes to reduce or eliminate the use of sub-stances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article reports on the integration of green chemistry and sustainable development concepts (SDCs) into an existing teaching methods course for chemistry…

  16. Doing more with less. green paper on energy efficiency; Fae mere ud af mindre. Groenbog om energieffektivitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Even without high and volatile oil prices, which have led to a downgrading of the prospects of economic growth in Europe, there would be very good reasons for the European Union to make a strong push towards a re-invigorated programme promoting energy efficiency at all levels of European society. This green paper seeks to act as a catalyst, leading to a renewed energy efficiency initiative at all levels of European society - EU, national, regional and local. Furthermore, this Green Paper seeks to make a significant contribution, by way of example and leadership, to kick-start an international effort to contribute to addressing climatic change through energy efficiency. China presently uses more than five times as much energy as the EU to produce one unit of GDP, USA uses approximately 50% more than EU. With exploding energy demand, in particular in China and India, energy efficiency must be one of the key policies to try to reconcile, on the one hand, the increased energy needs of the developing world to power growth and improve living conditions and, on the other hand, combat global warming. This Green Paper, and the momentum created in following it up, should put the EU at the forefront of efforts to make energy efficiency a global priority. (BA)

  17. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  18. Hydrogen Gas from Serpentinite, Ophiolites and the Modern Ocean Floor as a Source of Green Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogen gas is emitted by springs associated with serpentinites and extensive carbonate deposits in Oman, The Philippines, the USA and other continental locations. The hydrogen springs contain unusually alkaline fluids with pH values between 11 and 12.5. Other workers have described off-ridge submarine springs with comparably alkaline fluid compositions, serpentinite, abundant free hydrogen gas, and associated carbonate edifices such as Lost City on the Atlantis Massif 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D.S. Kelley and associates, Science 2005). The association of hydrogen gas with ultramafites is a consistent one that has been attributed to a redox couple involving oxidation of divalent iron to the trivalent state during serpentinization, although other possibilities exist. Some of the hydrogen springs on land are widespread. For example in Oman dozens of alkaline springs (Neal and Stanger, EPSL 1983) can be found over thousands of sq km of outcropping ophiolite. While the deposits in Oman and the Philippines are well-known to much of the geochemical community, little interest seems to have been displayed toward either the ophiolitic occurrences or the submarine deposits for energy production. This may be a mistake as the showings because they could lead to an important source of green energy. Widespread skepticism currently exists about hydrogen as a primary energy source. It is commonly said that free hydrogen does not occur on earth and that it is therefore necessary to use other sources of energy to produce hydrogen, obviating the general environmental benefit. However the existence of numerous occurrences of hydrogen gas associated with ophiolites and submarine occurrences of hydrogen suggests the likelihood that natural hydrogen gas may be an important source of clean energy for modern society remaining to be tapped. Calculations in progress should establish whether or not this is likely to be the case.

  19. Climate Change Mitigation through Energy Benchmarking in the GCC Green Buildings Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Alhorr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC of countries resides at or close to the top of the global table of CO2 emissions per capita and its economy relies heavily on its fossil fuels. This provides a context for green building programs that initially aim to create an understanding of emission pathways within the GCC and hence develop approaches to their reduction in the built environment. A set of criteria will allow specific analysis to be undertaken linked to the spatial dimensions of the sector under study. In this paper, approaches to modelling energy consumption and CO2 emissions are presented. As investment in the built environment continues, natural resources dwindle and the cost of energy increases, delivering low-energy buildings will become mandatory. In this study, a hybrid modelling approach (bottom-top & top-bottom is presented. Energy benchmarks are developed for different buildings’ uses and compared with international standards. The main goals are to establish design benchmarks and develop a modelling tool that contains specific information for all buildings types (existing and new, as well as planned and projected growths within the various city districts, then integrate this database within a geospatial information system that will allow us to answer a range of “what-if”-type questions about various intervention strategies, emissions savings, and acceptability of pre-defined course of actions in the city sector under consideration. The spatial carbon intensity may be adjusted over a certain period, (e.g., through local generation (microgeneration or due to an increasing proportion of lower carbon-energy in the generation mix and this can be related to the sector and city overall consumption.

  20. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  1. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, K-12 Schools (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit energy efficiency measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. K-12 schools were selected as one of the highest priority building sectors, because schools affect the lives of most Americans. They also represent approximately 8% of the energy use and 10% of the floor area in commercial buildings nationwide. U.S. K-12 school districts spend more than $8 billion each year on energy - more than they spend on computers and textbooks combined. Most occupy older buildings that often have poor operational performance - more than 30% of schools were built before 1960. The average age of a school is about 42 years - which is nearly the expected serviceable lifespan of the building. K-12 schools offer unique opportunities for deep, cost-effective energy efficiency improvements, and this guide provides convenient and practical guidance for exploiting these opportunities in the context of public, private, and parochial schools.

  2. [Effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Hu, X; Gao, S; Bai, D

    1999-09-30

    In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance, 151 grade three school children from four classes of two schools were sampled for this study. Children were randomly assigned to breakfast A or B on any given day. They were provided with breakfast with either high or low energy content at school over a period of 5 successive days. The remained foods were collected and weighed. Performance tests including addition, multiplication, number checking, logic, creativity, physical endurance, visual-analogue scales were applied at the third or fourth period of courses in the morning on Tuesday through Friday during the experimental week. The teachers involved in the study were blind to the kind of treatment. No significant effect of energy intake at breakfast on these performance indicators was found in this study.

  3. Potential for Knowledge in Action? An Analysis of Korean Green Energy Related K3-12 Curriculum and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Douglas R.; Shin, Jungyeop

    2017-01-01

    While understanding green energy development and what drives it are important, there is increasing consensus that sustainability transitions concerning usage need to be viewed in terms of the place specific contexts, including education, that critically mold them. In order to "support" sustainability transitions, information and…

  4. Particle swarm optimization based fuzzy logic controller for autonomous green power energy system with hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, S.; Ardehali, M.M.; Sirizi, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimized fuzzy logic controller for a hybrid green power system is developed. ► PSO algorithm is used to optimize membership functions of controller. ► Optimized fuzzy logic controller results in lower O and M costs and LPSP. ► Optimization results in less variation of battery state of charge. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for operating an autonomous hybrid green power system (HGPS) based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. An electrolyzer produces hydrogen from surplus energy generated by the wind turbine and photovoltaic array of HGPS for later use by a fuel cell. The PSO algorithm is used to optimize membership functions of the FLC. The FLC inputs are (a) net power flow and (b) batteries state of charge (SOC) and FLC output determines the time for hydrogen production or consumption. Actual data for weekly residential load, wind speed, ambient temperature, and solar irradiation are used for performance simulation and analysis of the HGPS examined. The weekly operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) are considered in the optimization procedure. It is determined that FLC optimization results in (a) reduced fluctuations in batteries SOC which translates into longer life for batteries and the average SOC is increased by 6.18% and (b) less working hours for fuel cell, when the load is met by wind and PV. It is found that the optimized FLC results in lower O and M costs and LPSP by 57% and 33%, respectively, as compared to its un-optimized counterpart. In addition, a reduction of 18% in investment cost is achievable by optimal sizing and reducing the capacity of HGPS equipment.

  5. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  6. Green Growth - an Illusion? Energy and Climate Risk: Rethinking our Developmental Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2011-01-01

    The years go by and international conferences come and go, with their quota of cries of alarm and calls to action to counter climate change. But in reality few large-scale programmes have been launched anywhere in the world involving concrete action to bring down greenhouse gas emissions. As one who has campaigned for many years for policies of energy consumption control, Benjamin Dessus shows here that the energy challenge is as great as it has ever been in a world of expanding populations in which most peoples aspire to reach the developmental level of the northern countries, despite the fact that our climate probably cannot support such a state of affairs. He argues here against a certain number of common suppositions, such as the idea of focussing exclusively on CO 2 in the fight against global warming, the need for a continuous economic growth on the order of 2% per annum or excessive faith in market mechanisms to bring down greenhouse gas emissions. He also stresses the ambiguities of so-called 'green' growth and compares different energy conservation scenarios. In this way, he shows that, against a relatively dominant line of reasoning based largely on (at times near-utopian) technological solutions and the continuation of sustained economic growth, there are more effective paths based on individual/collective energy sobriety and a serious slowdown of economic growth in the most developed countries, if not indeed a total halt to that growth (though these are more ambitious in that they require a revolution in the behaviour of the most affluent peoples). He concludes by proposing some courses of action for implementing such a programme in a country like France, showing the extent to which modern modes of life are going to have to change and how urgent it now is to debate these matters, if such change is to be achieved without - excessive - pain. (author)

  7. The Energy Impact in Buildings of Vegetative Solutions for Extensive Green Roofs in Temperate Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Barozzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many bibliographical studies have highlighted the positive effects of green roofs as technological solutions both for new and renovated buildings. The one-year experimental monitoring campaign conducted has investigated, in detail, some aspects related to the surface temperature variation induced by the presence of different types of vegetation compared to traditional finishing systems for flat roofs and their impact from an energy and environmental point of view. The results obtained underlined how an appropriate vegetative solution selection can contribute to a significant reduction of the external surface temperatures (10 °C–20 °C for I > 500 W/m2 and 0 °C–5 °C for I < 500 W/m2, regardless of the season compared to traditional flat roofs. During the winter season, the thermal gradients of the planted surface temperatures are close to zero compared to the floor, except under special improving conditions. This entails a significant reduction of the energy loads from summer air conditioning, and an almost conservative behavior with respect to that from winter heating consumption. The analysis of the inside growing medium temperatures returned a further interesting datum, too: the temperature gradient with respect to surface temperature (annual average 4 °C–9 °C is a function of solar radiation and involves the insulating contribution of the soil.

  8. Green Growth. The impact of wind energy on jobs and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arapogianni, A.; Moccia, J.; Wilkes, J. (ed.); Azau, S. (ed.)

    2012-03-15

    Green Growth examines the impact of wind energy on jobs and the economy in the EU. The wind energy industry increased its contribution to the EU's gross domestic product (GDP) by 33% between 2007 and 2010. In 2010, the industry's growth was twice that of the EU's GDP overall, with the sector contributing 32 billion euro to an EU economy in slowdown. The sector created 30% more jobs from 2007 to 2010 to reach nearly 240,000, while EU unemployment rose by 9.6% . By 2020, there should be 520,000 jobs in the sector. The sector was a net exporter of 5.7 billion euro worth of goods and services in 2010. The sector avoided 5.71 billion euro of fuel costs in 2010. The sector invested 5% of its spending in R and D - three times more than the EU average. Wind turbine manufacturers commit around 10% of their total turnover to R and D.

  9. Effect of Solvation on Electron Detachment and Excitation Energies of a Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Samik; Chakrabarty, Suman; Ghosh, Debashree

    2016-05-19

    Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is applied to the fluorinated green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore (DFHBDI) in its deprotonated form to understand the solvatochromic shifts in its vertical detachment energy (VDE) and vertical excitation energy (VEE). This variant of the GFP chromophore becomes fluorescent in an RNA environment and has a wide range of applications in biomedical and biochemical fields. From microsolvation studies, we benchmark (with respect to full QM) the accuracy of our QM/MM calculations with effective fragment potential (EFP) as the MM method of choice. We show that while the solvatochromic shift in the VEE is minimal (0.1 eV blue shift) and its polarization component is only 0.03 eV, the effect of the solvent on the VDE is quite large (3.85 eV). We also show by accurate calculations on the solvatochromic shift of the VDE that polarization accounts for ∼0.23 eV and therefore cannot be neglected. The effect of the counterions on the VDE of the deprotonated chromophore in solvation is studied in detail, and a charge-smearing scheme is suggested for charged chromophores.

  10. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.T. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a representative Western site. The site selected for this conceptual study, an area of about 50 square miles, is located 15 miles south of Green River, Utah. The conceptual NEC would consist of nine nuclear electric generating units, arranged on the site in three clusters of three reactors each (triads), separated by about 2 1/2 miles. Of the total electric output of 11,250 MWe that the NEC could produce, about 82% is assumed to be transmitted out of Utah to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The technical engineering issues studied included geology and seismology, plant design, low-level radioactive waste disposal, transmission, and construction schedules and costs. Socioeconomic issues included were demographics, land use, community service needs, and fiscal impacts. Environmental considerations included terrestrial and aquatic ecology, visual impact, and secondary population impacts. Radiological issues were concerned with the safety and risks of an NEC and an on-site low-level waste facility. Institutional issues included methods of ownership, taxation, implications of energy export, and water allocation. The basic finding was that an NEC would be technically feasible, but a number of socioeconomic and institutional issues would require resolution before a Western regional NEC could be considered a viable power plant siting option.

  11. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a representative Western site. The site selected for this conceptual study, an area of about 50 square miles, is located 15 miles south of Green River, Utah. The conceptual NEC would consist of nine nuclear electric generating units, arranged on the site in three clusters of three reactors each (triads), separated by about 2 1/2 miles. Of the total electric output of 11,250 MWe that the NEC could produce, about 82% is assumed to be transmitted out of Utah to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The technical engineering issues studied included geology and seismology, plant design, low-level radioactive waste disposal, transmission, and construction schedules and costs. Socioeconomic issues included were demographics, land use, community service needs, and fiscal impacts. Environmental considerations included terrestrial and aquatic ecology, visual impact, and secondary population impacts. Radiological issues were concerned with the safety and risks of an NEC and an on-site low-level waste facility. Institutional issues included methods of ownership, taxation, implications of energy export, and water allocation. The basic finding was that an NEC would be technically feasible, but a number of socioeconomic and institutional issues would require resolution before a Western regional NEC could be considered a viable power plant siting option

  12. Power issues at school; Energie macht Schule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heup, Juergen

    2011-09-15

    Energy and power are not only current issues in politics and society but also subjects for the classroom. In these time of short budgets, energy consultants are able to offer free teaching materials. However, this is a controversial issue as they may take the opportunity to advertise themselves.

  13. Can Culture Act as an Enabler to Innovation? Exploring the Germany-Ontario Experience Regarding the Introduction of Green Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Irwin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role that societal culture may play in terms of acting as an inhibitor or enabler when creating conditions conducive to innovative enterprise. To further understanding of this concept, the paper's authors explore different cultural influences and traditions of the country of Germany and the Canadian province of Ontario against the backdrop of the introduction of a government green energy policy and how local business reacts to new opportunities forthcoming from this shift in policy direction. The authors contend that the current Ontario psyche has contributed to an overall cultural drag on innovative activities. They demonstrate that in no place is this cultural impact more evident than the apparent lack of home-grown innovative activity surrounding green energy entrepreneurship; where, in spite of progressive and favourable provincial government policy, continued manufacturing growth is led by offshore companies The Ontario experience is in sharp contrast to current and historical German activity, when it comes to local innovation and advances in green energy. While Germany officially enacted their green energy act at the turn of the last century, experts agree that the German tenure with going green is in fact 35 to 40 years in the making. Although it has been contended that unique historical conditions such as postwar reconstruction and the reunification of the former East and West Germany have been significant contributing factors to Germany's embracing of sustainable energy, the authors of this paper contend that cultural factors such as the German sense of naturfreund; an overwhelming sense of being a nature-lover, may also play a significant role. In their exploration the authors build upon Hofstede's cultural dimension theory unpacking specific cultural components, as they compare actions and responses made by German and Ontarian policy-makers and business decision-makers.

  14. Japan - IAEA joint Nuclear Energy Management School 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Mika; Hidaka, Akihide; Ikuta, Yuko; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Sawai, Tomotsugu; Murakami, Kenta; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Tomita, Akira; Toba, Akio; Hirose, Hiroya; Watanabe, Masanori; Kitabata, Takuya; Ueda, Kinichi; Kita, Tomohiko; Namaizawa, Ken; Onose, Takatoshi

    2017-03-01

    Since 2010, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has held the 'Nuclear Energy Management School' so-called 'IAEA-NEM' to develop future leaders who plan and manage nuclear energy utilization in their county. Since 2012, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) together with the Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net), the University of Tokyo (UT), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and JAIF International Cooperation Center (JICC) have cohosted the NEM school in Japan in cooperation with IAEA. Since then, the school has been held every year, with the school in 2016 marking the fifth. In the 2016 NEM school, Japanese nuclear energy technology and experience, such as lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, were provided by not only lectures by IAEA experts, but also lectures by Japanese experts and leaders in order to offer a unique opportunity for the participants from other countries to learn about particular cases in Japan. Opportunities to visit a variety of nuclear facilities were offered for the participants in the form of technical tours in Fukui and Kobe. Through the school, we contributed to the internationalization of Japanese young nuclear professionals, development of nuclear human resource of other countries including nuclear newcomers, and enhanced cooperative relationship between IAEA and Japan. Additionally, collaborative relationship with JN-HRD Net was strengthened solidly through the integrated cooperation among ministries, universities, manufacturers and research organizations across the county by holding the school in Japan. In this report, findings obtained during the preparatory work and the school period were reported in order to make a valuable contribution towards effectively and efficiently conducting future international nuclear human resource development activities in Japan. (author)

  15. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 4: Hindman Elementary School, Hindman, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Presented is a study identifying and evaluating opportunities for decreasing energy use at Hindman Elementary School, Hindman, Kentucky. Methods used in this engineering investigation include building surveys, computer simulations and cost estimates. Findings revealed that modifications to the school's boiler, temperature controls, electrical…

  16. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets: the case of green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.; Nese, Gjermund

    2004-01-01

    Markets for environmental externalities are typically closely related to the markets causing such externalities, whereupon strategic interaction may result. Along these lines, the market for Green Certificates is strongly interwoven in the electricity market as the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of Green Certificates. In this paper, we formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning electricity and Green Certificate markets, and focus on the role of market power. We consider two versions of a Nash-Cournot game: a standard Nash-Cournot game where the players treat the market for Green Certificates and the electricity market as separate markets; and a Nash-Cournot game with endogenous treatment of the interaction between the electricity and Green Certificate markets with conjectured price responses. One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per unit subsidies, as the producers involved start to game on the joint functioning of markets. (author)

  17. Energy Performance Contract models for the diffusion of green-manufacturing technologies in China: A stakeholder analysis from SMEs’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Dillon K.; Xue, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are significant to China's emission reduction programme. This research aims to improve our understanding of the challenge of diffusing green-manufacturing technologies among SMEs in China. Specifically, this study examines the Chinese Government's effort to facilitate reduction of energy consumption among SMEs through Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) to incentivize domestic manufacturers to adopt energy efficient measures (EEMs) in order to reduce demand for energy and corresponding drop in emissions. The data is gathered from relevant EPC stakeholders in the National Motor Upgrading Demonstration Project and its implementation in Dongguan city, which is based on 30 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions. Using stakeholder analysis, this study finds that guaranteed energy savings model is the favorite model in implementation, given the gained benefits outweigh committed resources, and the control capability overrides possible risks among the two core stakeholders. The outcomes of this study may allow the government to have a clear understanding of stakeholder perception of the different EPC models used in China so the design and deployment of these mechanisms can be improved. - Highlights: • Examine the barriers faced by green technologies when they are promoted to SMEs on a large scale. • Explain why green technology diffusion is thwarted when stakeholders cannot reach compromises. • Find that the guaranteed energy savings model is the best mechanism for upgrading SMEs. • Note that new EPC models and new policies are needed to increase stakeholders’ adoption rate.

  18. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, K.; Wood, C.; Barton, J.; Cohen, D.; Sandercock, G.

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year ...

  19. Optimization of Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Green Building Design Using Duelist, Killer-Whale and Rain-Water Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyanto, T. R.; Matradji; Syamsi, M. N.; Fibrianto, H. Y.; Afdanny, N.; Rahman, A. H.; Gunawan, K. S.; Pratama, J. A. D.; Malwindasari, A.; Abdillah, A. I.; Bethiana, T. N.; Putra, Y. A.

    2017-11-01

    The development of green building has been growing in both design and quality. The development of green building was limited by the issue of expensive investment. Actually, green building can reduce the energy usage inside the building especially in utilization of cooling system. External load plays major role in reducing the usage of cooling system. External load is affected by type of wall sheathing, glass and roof. The proper selection of wall, type of glass and roof material are very important to reduce external load. Hence, the optimization of energy efficiency and conservation in green building design is required. Since this optimization consist of integer and non-linear equations, this problem falls into Mixed-Integer-Non-Linear-Programming (MINLP) that required global optimization technique such as stochastic optimization algorithms. In this paper the optimized variables i.e. type of glass and roof were chosen using Duelist, Killer-Whale and Rain-Water Algorithms to obtain the optimum energy and considering the minimal investment. The optimization results exhibited the single glass Planibel-G with the 3.2 mm thickness and glass wool insulation provided maximum ROI of 36.8486%, EUI reduction of 54 kWh/m2·year, CO2 emission reduction of 486.8971 tons/year and reduce investment of 4,078,905,465 IDR.

  20. Analysis of the energy and environmental effects of green car deployment by an integrating energy system model with a forecasting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Hee; Park, Sang Yong; Hong, Jong Chul; Choi, Sang Jin; Kim, Jong Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new methodology for improving energy system analysis models was proposed. ► The MARKAL model was integrated with the diffusion model. ► The new methodology was applied to green car technology. ► The ripple effect of green car technology on the energy system can be analyzed. -- Abstract: By 2020, Korea has set itself the challenging target of reducing nationwide greenhouse gas emissions by 30%, more than the BAU (Business as Usual) scenario, as the implementation goal required to achieve the new national development paradigm of green growth. To achieve such a target, it is necessary to diffuse innovative technologies with the capacity to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, the ripple effect of diffusing innovative technologies on the energy and environment must be quantitatively analyzed using an energy system analysis model such as the MARKAL (Market Allocation) model. However, energy system analysis models based on an optimization methodology have certain limitations in that a technology with superior cost competitiveness dominates the whole market and non-cost factors cannot be considered. Therefore, this study proposes a new methodology for overcoming problems associated with the use of MARKAL models, by interfacing with a forecasting model based on the discrete-choice model. The new methodology was applied to green car technology to verify its usefulness and to study the ripple effects of green car technology on greenhouse gas reduction. The results of this study can be used as a reference when establishing a strategy for effectively reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, and could be of assistance to future studies using the energy system analysis model.

  1. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  2. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-05-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H 2 O 2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Provision of Renewable Energy using Green Certificates: Market Power and Limit Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.; Nese, Gjermund

    2002-07-01

    We formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results from the analysis is that the certificate system faced with market power basically may collapse into a system of per unit subsidies (author)

  4. Energy in the french and dutch Green plans: an instructive comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatem, F.

    1990-11-01

    In this article, while recognizing that the French Environment Plan has the merit of proposing, for the first time, an overview of the pollution problems to be tackled, the author however sets down a number of provisions in this regard. Through an examination of the three parts of the plan (the stakes and the findings, the goals, ways and means), he illustrates his point of view with the support of a detailed analysis of the proposals concerning energy. The comparison which he makes with the proposals contained in the Dutch Green Plan highlights the points which need to be reflected upon thoroughly in France. With relation to the rigor, the clarity, the accuracy, the seriousness of the assessments in the Dutch Plan, the author finds that the French Plan lacks a ranking of goals, a discussion of ways and means to be deployed, an adequate economic and financial framework, and it tends to prefer discourse to analysis and preconception to demonstration. This document is only an initial sketch; a real action plan still remains to be prepared.

  5. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  6. A target group-specific approach to ''green'' power retailing: students as consumers of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossling, S.; Kunkel, T.; Schumacher, K.; Heck, N.; Birkemeyer, J.; Froese, J.; Naber, N.; Schliermann, E.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive body of literature exists on the obstacles that have to be overcome in green power retailing. In this article, target group-specific marketing is evaluated as a strategy to increase the share of residential customers of green power. A sample of students in the city of Freiburg, Germany was interviewed in order to assess their awareness of environmental issues, their willingness to change to green power products, and to better understand individual hindrances in changing the power supplier. The analysis shows that students are highly positive towards green power products, but for several reasons difficult to reach in marketing campaigns. Aspects to be considered in addressing this consumer-group include the students' particular expectations towards green products, their living-conditions, price sensitivity, and their perception of the relative effort involved in changing the power provider. (author)

  7. High-energy green supercapacitor driven by ionic liquid electrolytes as an ultra-high stable next-generation energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Ponraj, Rubha; Thangavel, Vigneysh; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2018-04-01

    Development of supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle life using sustainable materials for next-generation applications is of paramount importance. The ongoing challenge is to elevate the energy density of supercapacitors on par with batteries, while upholding the power and cyclability. In addition, attaining such superior performance with green and sustainable bio-mass derived compounds is very crucial to address the rising environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate the use of watermelon rind, a bio-waste from watermelons, towards high energy, and ultra-stable high temperature green supercapacitors with a high-voltage ionic liquid electrolyte. Supercapacitors assembled with ultra-high surface area, hierarchically porous carbon exhibits a remarkable performance both at room temperature and at high temperature (60 °C) with maximum energy densities of ∼174 Wh kg-1 (25 °C), and 177 Wh kg-1 (60 °C) - based on active mass of both electrodes. Furthermore, an ultra-high specific power of ∼20 kW kg-1 along with an ultra-stable cycling performance with 90% retention over 150,000 cycles has been achieved even at 60 °C, outperforming supercapacitors assembled with other carbon based materials. These results demonstrate the potential to develop high-performing, green energy storage devices using eco-friendly materials for next generation electric vehicles and other advanced energy storage systems.

  8. Quota regime for renewable energy sources and Green Labels trading in the electricity market of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drillisch, J.

    1998-01-01

    The renewables quota regime combined with a ''green electricity'' labelling and trading system, implemented by the Dutch association of distribution undertakings, is the first of its kind in Europe. The distribution undertakings are bound by a commitment to take and distribute ''green label'' electricity from renewables amounting to approx. 3% of their total sales to contractual customers. This is a modest percentage, but the quota regime already proved to be a promoter of close-to-the-market generation technologies. It would be too early now to make a final statement on the quota regime's influence on enhanced use of renewable energy sources. Practice so far also revealed the need for some modifications in the design of the pricing system for''green electricity''. Current debates consider integration of renewable energy sources abroad. The first accounting date for giving evidence of compliance with the commitment to green label quotas is late in the year 2000. This will be the test for the system and the efficiency of sanctions provided for in case of non-compliance. It will be a task of the future to examine whether it might be appropriate to establish a similar system for the heat market. (RHM/CB) [de

  9. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  10. Large-area printed supercapacitor technology for low-cost domestic green energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Z.; Thomas, D.J.; Korochkina, T.; Phillips, C.O.; Lupo, D.; Lehtimäki, S.; O'Mahony, J.; Gethin, D.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate that a flexible ultra-thin supercapacitor can be fabricated using high volume screen printing process. This has enabled the sequential deposition of current collector, electrode, electrolyte materials and adhesive onto a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate in order to form flexible electrodes for reliable energy storage applications. The electrodes were based on an activated carbon ink and gel electrolyte each of which were formulated for this application. Supercapacitors that have surface areas from 100 to 1600 mm"2 and an assembled device thickness of 375 μm were demonstrated. The capacitance ranged from 50 to 400 mF. Capacitance of printed carbon electrodes is rarely reported in literature and no references were found. The chemistry developed during this study displayed long-term cycling potential and demonstrated the stability of the capacitor for continued usage. The gel electrolyte developed within this work showed comparable performance to that of a liquid counterpart. This improvement resulted in the reduction in gel resistance from 90Ω to 0.5Ω. Significant reduction was observed for all resistances. The solid-state supercapacitors with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors that used a liquid electrolyte. This large area printed device can be used in future houses for reliable green energy storage. - Highlights: • It has been demonstrated that a flexible supercapacitors with large area storage has been developed. • The simplified architecture has the potential to lead to a new class of printable, thin storage devices. • The specific capacitance of 21 F/g was measured.

  11. School for Young High Energy Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, M E

    2003-01-01

    Forty-seven experimental particle physicists attended the 2002 Summer School, held, as usual, at The Cosener's House in Abingdon during September. The weather was glorious allowing a number of tutorials and impromptu seminars to take place in the lovely gardens. The lectures were of a high standard and were delivered and received enthusiastically, providing material for lively discussions in tutorials and elsewhere. The students each gave a ten-minute seminar and the general quality of the talks was impressive and the time keeping excellent. The activities described ranged from front-line physics analysis to preparations for the next generation of machines and detectors, and gave a clear indication of the breadth of particle physics activities in the UK

  12. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Greenspace Around Schools by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas data set shows the number of schools in each block group in the EnviroAtlas community boundary as well as the number of schools where less than 25%...

  13. Effect of a Green Investment Society on the Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme (SDE); Effect Groene Investeringsmaatschappij op SDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M.; Van Stralen, J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-27

    On request of the Holland Financial Centre, ECN has projected the potential benefits of a Green Investment Company for the expenditure of the SDE+ Scheme (Renewable Energy Incentivisation Scheme). To this end, a calculation was made of the effects of an interest rebate for sustainable energy projects [Dutch] Op verzoek van Holland Financial Centre heeft ECN geraamd wat de voordelen kunnen zijn van een Groene Investeringsmaatschappij op de uitgaven voor de SDE+ (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie). Hiertoe diende een berekening gemaakt te worden van de effecten van een rentekorting voor duurzame energieprojecten.

  14. 2016 TSRC Summer School on Fundamental Science for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Victor S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-25

    The 2016 TSRC Summer School on Fundamental Science for Alternative Energy introduced principles, methods, and approaches relevant to the design of molecular transformations, energy transduction, and current applications for alternative energy. Energy and environment are likely to be key themes that will dominate the way science and engineering develop over the next few decades. Only an interdisciplinary approach with a team-taught structure as presented at the 2016 TSRC Summer School can be expected to succeed in the face of problems of such difficulty. The course inspired a new generation of 24 graduate students and 2 post-docs to continue work in the field, or at least to have something of an insider's point of view as the field develops in the next few decades.

  15. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  16. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Arctic and Subarctic Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-11-01

    The Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools--Arctic and Subarctic Climates provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school in arctic and subarctic climates. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs.

  17. Infrequent blue and green emission transitions from Eu3+ in heavy metal tellurite glasses with low phonon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.; Tanabe, S.; Lin, L.; Yang, D.L.; Liu, K.; Wong, W.H.; Yu, J.Y.; Pun, E.Y.B.

    2006-01-01

    Eu 3+ doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite (Eu 3+ :LKBBT) glasses were prepared by conventional melt quenching. Twelve emission bands including infrequent blue and green bands are observed and they almost cover whole visible spectral region under violet light radiation. The blue and green emissions of Eu 3+ rarely appeared in oxide glasses before, but they have been clearly recorded in Eu 3+ :LKBBT glasses even in the case of high concentration doping of Eu 3+ . The analysis based on spontaneous-radiative rate, energy gap and Raman scattering reveals that the obtaining of the abundant multichannel emissions of Eu 3+ is due to the higher refractive index and the lower phonon energy in LKBBT glass system

  18. Energy Use and Indoor Climate in Two Schools Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    . The 7 buildings are being energy renovated and monitored with support from the EU-CONCERTO initiative as part of the project “Cost-effective Low-energy Advanced Sustainable So1utions – Class1”. The buildings are very different and therefore the energy renovations to take place will also vary from...... insulation of piping and improved control (Building Energy Management Systems – BEMS). This paper presents preliminary results of analysis and monitoring of energy use and indoor climate in the two public schools before and after deep energy renovation....

  19. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  20. 2013 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, G; ESHEP 2013

    2015-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the the- oretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, quantum chromodynamics, Higgs physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, flavour physics, and practical statistics for particle physicists.

  1. 2012 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; ESHEP 2012

    2014-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, and cosmology.

  2. Energy performance assessment of Looe junior and infant school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.K.; Vaughan, N.D.; Jenkins, H.G. (Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff (GB)); O' Sullivan, P.E. (University Coll., London (GB). Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning)

    1990-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary appraisal of a passive solar primary school in Cornwall is presented. The building was found to be energy efficient and well liked by the teaching staff. Whilst problems were noted in ventilation control and air-quality the building was considered to be a successful example of passive solar design. (author).

  3. Proceedings of the school for young high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the Proceedings of the 'School for Young High Energy Physicists', which was held at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Sept. 1987. The lectures were presented in four courses, and were intended to give experimentalists a grounding in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory. The four lectures courses were each selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  4. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  5. Can Culture Act as an Enabler to Innovation? Exploring the Germany-Ontario Experience Regarding the Introduction of Green Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Irwin; Jan A.C. Klakurka

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role that societal culture may play in terms of acting as an inhibitor or enabler when creating conditions conducive to innovative enterprise. To further understanding of this concept, the paper's authors explore different cultural influences and traditions of the country of Germany and the Canadian province of Ontario against the backdrop of the introduction of a government green energy policy and how local business reacts to new opportunities forthcoming from this sh...

  6. A network approach to overcoming barriers to market engagement for SMEs in energy efficiency initiatives such as the Green Deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Keeffe, Juliette M.; Gilmour, Daniel; Simpson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Green Deal (GD) was launched in 2013 by the UK Government as a market-led scheme to encourage uptake of energy efficiency measures in the UK and create green sector jobs. The scheme closed in July 2015 after 30 months due to government concerns over low uptake and industry standards but additional factors potentially contributed to its failure such as poor scheme design and lack of understanding of the customer and supply chain journey. We explore the role of key delivery agents of GD services, specifically SMEs, and we use the LoCal-Net project as a case study to examine the use of networks to identify and reduce barriers to SME market engagement. We find that SMEs experienced multiple barriers to interaction with the GD such as lack of access to information, training, and confusion over delivery of the scheme but benefited from interaction with the network to access information, improve understanding of the scheme, increasing networking opportunities and forming new business models and partnerships to reduce risk. The importance of SMEs as delivery agents and their role in the design of market-led schemes such as the GD are discussed with recommendations for improving SME engagement in green sector initiatives. - Highlights: • The role of delivery agents should be addressed in voluntary energy reduction schemes. • SMEs attempting to engage in the Green Deal market faced multiple barriers. • Networks can assist in overcoming SME barriers to entry into new green sector markets. • Access to information, contacts and experts are key benefits of business networks. • Policy driven market-led schemes must consider all actors to prevent early failures.

  7. Toward a Spatial Perspective on Business Sustainability: The Role of Central Urban and Environmentally Sensitive Areas in Energy Corporates’ Green Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Liu, Zongrui; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most concerned topics in strategic management research, the motivations of energy corporates’ green behaviours are extensively explored by scholars, however, only a few noticed the role of geographic antecedents. To bridge this gap, we argue that energy firms’ green behaviours will be greatly predicted by its location, more specifically, proximity to environmentally sensitive areas and central urban areas. Draw on neo-institutional theory and stakeholder theory, we argue that institutional forces mediate the links between energy corporates’ green behaviours and proximities, while different proximity affects via different institutional logics. The results are discussed along with managerial implications.

  8. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each

  9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  10. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  11. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  12. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine; Wood, Carly; Barton, Jo; Pretty, Jules N; Cohen, Daniel; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, pself-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  13. The Energy transition for green growth. The green growth revolution is picking up pace with the help of the energy transition law and its associated actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This document briefly summarizes the main objectives of the French law on energy transition: make buildings and housing energy efficient, give priority to clean means of transport, aim for zero waste make tomorrow's materials out of today's waste, increase the use of renewable energies, combat fuel poverty. The goal is: to reach 40% less greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 compared to 1990, to Reduce final energy consumption by 50% in 2050 compared to 2012, to reach 30% less fossil fuel consumption in 2030 compared to 2012, to dispose 50% less waste in landfill by 2025, to increase the share of renewable energies to 32% of final energy consumption by 2030 and to 40% of electricity production, to diversify electricity production and reduce the share of nuclear energy to 50% by 2025

  14. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document; Livret vert sur la securite de l'approvisionnement en energie, document technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  15. Synthesis, Photoluminescence Behavior of Green Light Emitting Tb(III) Complexes and Mechanistic Investigation of Energy Transfer Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Kumar, Satish; Devi, Rekha; Khatkar, Avni; Taxak, V B; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, S P

    2018-06-04

    A series of five new terbium(III) ion complexes with 4,4-difluoro-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione (HDPBD) and anciliary ligands was synthesized. The composition and properties of complexes were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, powder X-ray diffaraction, TG-DTG and photoluminescence spectroscopy. These complexes exhibited ligand sensitized green emission at 546 nm associated with 5 D 4  →  7 F 5 transitions of terbium ion in the emission spectra. The photoluminescence study manifested that the organic ligands act as antenna and facilitate the absorbed energy to emitting levels of Tb(III) ion efficiently. The enhanced luminescence intensity and decay time of ternary C2-C5 complexes observed due to synergistic effect of anciliary ligands. The CIE color coordinates of complexes came under the green region of chromaticity diagram. The mechanistic investigation of intramolecular energy transfer in the complexes was discussed in detail. These terbium(III) complexes can be thrivingly used as one of the green component in light emitting material and in display devices. Graphical Abstract Illustrate the sensitization process of the Tb ion and intramolecular energy transfer process in the Tb 3+ complex.

  16. Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goggio Borgeson, Merrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Zimring, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-04-01

    This guide focuses on clean energy financing options for school administrators, facility managers, and other K-12 school decision makers who are considering investments in high performance school projects. This guide explicitly focuses on comprehensive energy upgrades, those that involve multiple measures and are targeted toward achieving significant energy savings. Successful implementation of clean energy upgrades in schools is a matter of understanding the opportunity, making the commitment, and creatively tapping into available financing. This guide attempts to provide the foundation needed for successful projects in U.S. schools. It walks through the financing options available to K-12 schools and provides case studies of six school districts from around the country.

  17. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionally and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation leaves little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as precondition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle. (author)

  18. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionality and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation lefts only little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as pre-condition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle

  19. Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy, Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers and Designers; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.

    2001-05-16

    Greening Federal Facilities, Second Edition, is a nuts-and-bolts resource guide compiled to increase energy and resource efficiency, cut waste, and improve the performance of Federal buildings and facilities. The guide highlights practical actions that facility managers, design and construction staff, procurement officials, and facility planners can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It supports a national effort to promote energy and environmental efficiency in the nation's 500,000 Federal buildings and facilities. Topics covered include current Federal regulations; environmental and energy decision-making; site and landscape issues; building design; energy systems; water and wastewater; materials; waste management, and recycling; indoor environmental quality; and managing buildings.

  20. Green My Place: Evaluation of a Serious Social Online Game Designed to Promote Energy Efficient Behaviour Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ultan Cowley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pressing problems of climate change and energy insecurity can both, to a degree, be addressed by improving efficiency and conservation of energy use. A key driver of energy conservation is the consumer market, illustrating the important need to educate citizens towards adopting more sustainable practices. This form of education has several requirements: it must be cost-efficient, scalable, optional or non-intrusive, and self-motivating. We argue that one format that meets these requirements is serious social online games. We describe one such game, Green My Place, which was deployed in the context of the energy-efficiency promotion EU project SAVE ENERGY. We describe two studies evaluating the game, which showed limited positive effects. Analysing the results, we argue that although observable effects might be limited, the format bonuses such as low cost and scalability imply the value of serious social online games, given a large enough population.

  1. 2nd Machine Learning School for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Second Machine Learning summer school organized by Yandex School of Data Analysis and Laboratory of Methods for Big Data Analysis of National Research University Higher School of Economics will be held in Lund, Sweden from 20 to 26 June 2016. It is hosted by Lund University. The school is intended to cover the relatively young area of data analysis and computational research that has started to emerge in High Energy Physics (HEP). It is known by several names including “Multivariate Analysis”, “Neural Networks”, “Classification/Clusterization techniques”. In more generic terms, these techniques belong to the field of “Machine Learning”, which is an area that is based on research performed in Statistics and has received a lot of attention from the Data Science community. There are plenty of essential problems in High energy Physics that can be solved using Machine Learning methods. These vary from online data filtering and reconstruction to offline data analysis. Students of the school w...

  2. Dynamic Modelling with "MLE-Energy Dynamic" for Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberti, Enrico; Corni, Federico

    During the recent years simulation and modelling are growing instances in science education. In primary school, however, the main use of software is the simulation, due to the lack of modelling software tools specially designed to fit/accomplish the needs of primary education. In particular primary school teachers need to use simulation in a framework that is both consistent and simple enough to be understandable by children [2]. One of the possible area to approach modelling is about the construction of the concept of energy, in particular for what concerns the relations among substance, potential, power [3]. Following the previous initial research results with this approach [2], and with the static version of the software MLE Energy [1], we suggest the design and the experimentation of a dynamic modelling software—MLE dynamic-capable to represent dynamically the relations occurring when two substance-like quantities exchange energy, modifying their potential. By means of this software the user can graphically choose the dependent and independent variables and leave the other parameters fixed. The software has been initially evaluated, during a course of science education with a group of primary school teachers-to-be, to test the ability of the software to improve teachers' way of thinking in terms of substance-like quantities and their effects (graphical representation of the extensive, intensive variables and their mutual relations); moreover, the software has been tested with a group of primary school teachers, asking their opinion about the software didactical relevance in the class work.

  3. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  4. 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, on behalf of the Organising Committee

    2014-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here. The School will be held in the Netherlands from 18 June to 1 July 2014. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 14 FEBRUARY 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries could be considered for financial support.

  5. 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, on behalf of the Organising Committee

    2014-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here. The School will be held in the Netherlands from 18 June to 1 July 2014. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS HAS BEEN EXTENDED TO 21 FEBRUARY 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries could be considered for financial support.

  6. A Multidisciplinary Research Framework on Green Schools: Infrastructure, Social Environment, Occupant Health, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Mayer, Adam P.; Barr, Stephanie; Bohren, Lenora; Dunbar, Brian; Manning, Dale; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Schaeffer, Joshua W.; Suter, Jordan; Cross, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sustainable school buildings hold much promise to reducing operating costs, improve occupant well-being and, ultimately, teacher and student performance. However, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effects of sustainable school buildings on health and performance indicators. We sought to create a framework for a multidisciplinary…

  7. Decentralized energy conversion of biomass from Amstelland. The feasibility of decentralized use of energy from green wastes in the municipality Amstelveen and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, H.D.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to determine the enviro-technical and economical feasibility of decentralized biomass conversion as part of the green area and energy infrastructure of the region Amstelland, Netherlands. The parts of the study concern a regional inventory of green wastes in Amstelland, an energy demand analysis of conversion sites in the region, a logistic analysis, an evaluation of technical options (cogeneration, combustion, gasification), business economical analysis of the investments, determining the support and willingness to contribute and cooperate, and drafting a final report. Based on the results of the report decisions can be made whether or not the design and installation of a decentralized biomass conversion system should be elaborated in detail. 16 refs

  8. The energy turnaround in the head. Neuomarketing for a targeted branding in the green energy sector; Die Energiewende im Kopf. Neuromarketing zur gezielten Markenbildung im Oekostromsektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonk, Bennet

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the neuromarketing for the targeted branding in the green energy sector. The author wants to show by means of examples, how companies can make available the state of research in order to find a more sensitive and effective access to the customer. After a definition of the terms the fundamentals of neuromarketing and the electricity market in Germany are described.

  9. Luminescent properties and energy transfer in the green phosphors LaBSiO5:Tb3+, Ce3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengliang; Cheng, Ping; He, Pei; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Yayun; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    LaBSiO5 phosphors doped with Ce(3+) and Tb(3+) were synthesized using the conventional solid-state method at 1100 °C. The phase purity and luminescent properties of these phosphors are investigated. LaBSiO5:Tb(3+) phosphors show intense green emission, and LaBSiO5 phosphors doped with Ce(3+) show blue-violet emission under UV light excitation. LaBSiO5 phosphors co-doped with Ce(3+) and Tb(3+) exhibit blue-violet and green emission under excitation by UV light. The blue-violet emission is due to the 5d-4f transition of Ce(3+) and the green emission is ascribed to the (5) D4 → (7) F5 transition of Tb(3+). The spectral overlap between the excitation band of Tb(3+) and the emission band of Ce(3+) supports the occurrence of energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+), and the energy transfer process was investigated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Proceedings of the 14. Annual national conference of the Canadian Wind Energy Association: emissions trading and green power : profitability for buyers and sellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are gaining significance in the newly deregulated electricity markets. While much emphasis was placed on wind energy, this conference also presented the advantages of other renewables including solar, small hydro, and the capturing of methane gas from landfills. Consumers have become aware that, compared to fossil fuels, renewables provide many advantages including reduced atmospheric emissions and improved air quality. Renewable energy sources are regarded as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and a response to the threat of climate change. The Conference addressed customer attitudes towards green energy, government initiatives in promoting renewable energy sources, and the mechanics and marketing of green power. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Webinar: Making the Connection: Linking IAQ, Energy Efficiency and Preventive Maintenance Together for Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the February 22, 2018, Energy Savings Plus Health for Schools Webinar Series Webinar: Making the Connection: Linking IAQ, Energy Efficiency and Preventive Maintenance Together for Healthy Schools

  12. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  13. School of Analytic Computing in Theoretical High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a huge progress has been made on computing rates for production processes of direct relevance to experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Crucial to that remarkable advance has been our understanding and ability to compute scattering amplitudes and cross sections. The aim of the School is to bring together young theorists working on the phenomenology of LHC physics with those working in more formal areas, and to provide them the analytic tools to compute amplitudes in gauge theories. The school is addressed to Ph.D. students and post-docs in Theoretical High-Energy Physics. 30 hours of lectures and 4 hours of tutorials will be delivered over the 6 days of the School.

  14. 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found at:    http://physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/ESHEP/ESHEP2015/default.html   The School will be held in Bulgaria from 2-15 September 2015. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 8 May 2015 The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics.  Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries may be considered for the award of financial support.   Nick Ellis (On behalf of the Organising Committee)

  15. 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found at: http://physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/ESHEP/ESHEP2015/default.html The School will be held in Bulgaria from 2-15 September 2015. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 8 May 2015. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries may be considered for the award of financial support. Nick Ellis (On behalf of the Organising Committee)

  16. General Retarded Contact Self-energies in and beyond the Non-equilibrium Green's Functions Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Tillmann; He, Yu; Andrawis, Robert; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Retarded contact self-energies in the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions allow to model the impact of lead structures on the device without explicitly including the leads in the actual device calculation. Most of the contact self-energy algorithms are limited to homogeneous or periodic, semi-infinite lead structures. In this work, the complex absorbing potential method is extended to solve retarded contact self-energies for arbitrary lead structures, including irregular and randomly disordered leads. This method is verified for regular leads against common approaches and on physically equivalent, but numerically different irregular leads. Transmission results on randomly alloyed In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As structures show the importance of disorder in the leads. The concept of retarded contact self-energies is expanded to model passivation of atomically resolved surfaces without explicitly increasing the device's Hamiltonian. (paper)

  17. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  18. Building beyond the Evaluation Of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in African Schools and Communities: The Women Global Green Action Network (WGGAN) Africa Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Community Health Education and School Sanitation (CHESS) Project, an initiative by the Women Global Green Action Network International to support community-based environmental projects in Africa. The CHESS Project uses women, children and youth to develop more sustainable health and sanitation systems in urban and rural…

  19. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  20. Is Germany's energy transition a case of successful green industrial policy? Contrasting wind and solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegels, Anna; Lütkenhorst, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the challenge of Germany's energy transition (Energiewende) as the centrepiece of the country's green industrial policy. In addition to contributing to global climate change objectives, the Energiewende is intended to create a leading position for German industry in renewable energy technologies, boost innovative capabilities and create employment opportunities in future growth markets at the least possible cost. The success in reaching these aims, and indeed the future of the entire concept, is hotly debated. The paper aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of what has become a fierce controversy by comparing solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy along five policy objectives: (1) competitiveness, (2) innovation, (3) job creation, (4) climate change mitigation, and (5) cost. We find mixed evidence that Germany reaches its green industrial policy aims at reasonable costs. Wind energy seems to perform better against all policy objectives, while the solar PV sector has come under intense pressure from international competition. However, this is only a snapshot of current performance, and the long term and systemic perspective required for the energy sector transformation suggests a need for a balanced mix of a variety of clean energy sources. - Highlights: • We give an up-to-date assessment of costs and benefits of Germany's Energiewende. • We compare solar PV and wind to show key elements of policy success. • Considered policy objectives: competitiveness, innovation, jobs, emissions, costs. • Wind energy seems to perform better than solar PV against all policy objectives. • The results are a snapshot: a deep transformation requires energy diversification

  1. 1993 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Gavela, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These Proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, CP violation, radiative corrections, cosmology, particle detectors and e + e - accelerators, as well as reports on results from HERA and LEP and accounts of particle physics research at CERN and in Poland and Russia. (orig.)

  2. Proceedings of 2011 European School of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grojean, C; Mulders, M [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on quantum field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, cosmology, heavy ion physics, statistical data analysis, as well as an account for the physics results with the data accumulated during the first run of the LHC.

  3. 2011 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; ESHEP2011; ESHEP 2011

    2014-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on quantum field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, cosmology, heavy ion physics, statistical data analysis, as well as an account for the physics results with the data accumulated during the first run of the LHC.

  4. 1996 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N; Neubert, M [eds.

    1997-07-02

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Physics, Neutrino Physics, Collider Physics and Astrophysics, as well as reports on Heavy-Ion Physics, the Large Hadron Collider Project and Physics in JINR/Russia. (orig.)

  5. 1997 European School of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Neubert, M.

    1998-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics, Flavour Physics, Physics at LEP II and Heavy Ion physics, as well as reports on Cosmology, Dark Matter and a Quantum Theory of two-dimensional space-time. (orig.)

  6. 1996 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Neubert, M.

    1997-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Physics, Neutrino Physics, Collider Physics and Astrophysics, as well as reports on Heavy-Ion Physics, the Large Hadron Collider Project and Physics in JINR/Russia. (orig.)

  7. 1994 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N [ed.; Gavela, B [ed.

    1995-06-30

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These Proceedings contain lectures on field theory, the Standard Model, physics beyond the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics and CP violation, as well as reports on the search for gravitational waves, stellar death and accounts of particle physics at CERN and JINR. Two local subjects are also treated: Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius. (orig.).

  8. 1997 European School of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N; Neubert, M [eds.

    1998-05-20

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics, Flavour Physics, Physics at LEP II and Heavy Ion physics, as well as reports on Cosmology, Dark Matter and a Quantum Theory of two-dimensional space-time. (orig.)

  9. 1994 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Gavela, B.

    1995-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These Proceedings contain lectures on field theory, the Standard Model, physics beyond the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics and CP violation, as well as reports on the search for gravitational waves, stellar death and accounts of particle physics at CERN and JINR. Two local subjects are also treated: Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius. (orig.)

  10. Magnon specific heat and free energy of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes: Green's function approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Bin-Zhou, E-mail: mbzfjerry2008@126.com [Department of Basic Curriculum, North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601 (China); Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhai, Liang-Jun [The School of Mathematics and Physics, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Hua, Ling-Ling [Department of Basic Curriculum, North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The effect of magnetic spin correlation on the thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes are comprehensively investigated by use of the double-time Green's function method. The influence of temperature, spin quantum number, diameter of the tube, anisotropy strength and external magnetic field to internal energy, free energy, and magnon specific heat are carefully calculated. Compared to the mean field approximation, the consideration of the magnetic correlation effect significantly improves the internal energy values at finite temperature, while it does not so near zero temperature, and this effect is related to the diameter of the tube, anisotropy strength, and spin quantum number. The magnetic correlation effect lowers the internal energy at finite temperature. As a natural consequence of the reduction of the internal energy, the specific heat is reduced, and the free energy is elevated. - Highlights: • Magnon specific heat and free energy of Heisenberg ferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes (HFM-SWNTs) are investigated. • The magnetic correlations effect has a considerable contribution to the thermodynamics properties of HFM-SWNTs. • Magnetic correlation effects are always to lower the internal energy at finite temperature. • At Curie point, magnetic correlation energy is much less than zero. • The peak values of magnon specific heat curves rise and shift right towards higher temperatures with the diameter of tubes, the anisotropy strength, and the spin quantum number rising.

  11. Survey of public green energy research, development and demonstration in Denmark; Kortlaegning af offentlig groen energiforskning, -udvikling og -demonstration i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    The Danish energy research has a leading position in the world - both in terms of volume and quality. This is the result of a survey of the public green energy research, development and demonstration. The Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building and the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education have prepared the survey, which provides a factual status with a number of key figures for the public green energy-related RD and D. The survey shows the basic fact that Denmark has a good foundation for RD and D in green energy. Moreover, the survey shows that prioritisation of energy research can be a major driving force behind increased growth and employment. (LN)

  12. Notions of energy at the secondary school level: introducing nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kespy, A.

    1994-01-01

    In science, understanding of nature laws is the whole part of general education at school. Particularly, the knowledge of energy phenomena will help the future citizen to assume its liability toward society and its environment, and to be able to decide on essential questions which have more and more technical aspects. Teaching physical science encloses social and economical aspects. Energy of all kind including nuclear energy should be taught, without useless formalism, as soon as possible. A particular notice about 'gray energy' will be set out for all technological applications

  13. Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating systems : a case study for industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Green building rating (GBR) systems are developed to provide independent assessment standards that evaluate in a few categories about the performance and sustainability of buildings. However, same category might weight differently in each of the GBR systems. A particular system might favor certain

  14. Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating systems : a case study for industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Green Building Rating (GBR) systems are developed to provide independent assessment standards that evaluate in a few categories about the performance and sustainability of buildings. However, same category might weight differently in each of the GBR systems, which are different in objectives. A

  15. The governance of green IT The role of processes in reducing data center energy requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Spafford, George

    2008-01-01

    To sustain support, IT must implement processes to ensure proper value creation and protection of organizational goals.  To this end, this book sets forth a Green IT process that will enable value creation and protection in the areas of data center power and cooling.

  16. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  17. An Approach to Energy Education for High School, Junior High School and Elementary School Students at Aichi Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukita, Kazuto; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Yasuyuki

    This paper discusses the methods of implementation and improvement adopted in the energy education program of “Marugoto Taiken World” (“Total Experience World”) at Aichi Institute of Technology. The program, which is aimed at high school, junior high school and elementary school students, has been carried on at Aichi Institute of Technology for a number of years now, and the authors have been involved in the energy education project for the past four years. During that time, the following four courses have been held : 1) Let's use wind power to generate electricity, 2) Let's use flowers to build a solar battery, 3) Let's use bottles to build a fuel cell battery, 4) Let's make all sorts of batteries.

  18. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Aziziankohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology:  In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings:  The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  19. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziziankohan, A.; Jolai, F.; Khalilzadeh, M.; Soltani, R.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology: In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings: The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  20. Green supply chain management using the queuing theory to handle congestion and reduce energy consumption and emissions from supply chain transportation fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziziankohan, A.; Jolai, F.; Khalilzadeh, M.; Soltani, R.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, governments and people pay more attention to use green products due to environmental pollution, irreplaceable energy and shortage of resources. Green products are resulted from the application of green supply chain management strategies to the organizations' performance strategies, so that we can reduce environmental pollutants and wastes and take a step towards saving energy with limited resources. Methodology: In this paper, the effect of reducing energy consumption in green supply chain is examined by using queuing theory and transportation models. Data was generated and solved by a commercial optimization epackage. Findings: The findings indicate that suitable assignment of existing transportation fleet with specified capacity, and using queueing theory in a closed-loop network to reduce the queue length and handle congestion, can cause a reduction in energy consumption by optimizing transportation and waiting times in a green supply chain. Originality/value: Adopting investment strategy in improving the environmental performance of the supply chain, will yield in many advantages and benefits. This article investigates the effect of queuing theory on reducing waiting time, optimizing energy consumption in green supply chain, and consequently decreasing pollution.

  1. Performance of two Vermont elementary school integrated energy conservation/solar energy retrofit projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.

    1980-01-01

    Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.

  2. Vibrational energy flow through the green fluorescent protein-water interface: communication maps and thermal boundary conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Leitner, David M

    2014-07-17

    We calculate communication maps for green fluorescent protein (GFP) to elucidate energy transfer pathways between the chromophore and other parts of the protein in the ground and excited state. The approach locates energy transport channels from the chromophore to remote regions of the protein via residues and water molecules that hydrogen bond to the chromophore. We calculate the thermal boundary conductance between GFP and water over a wide range of temperature and find that the interface between the protein and the cluster of water molecules in the β-barrel poses negligible resistance to thermal flow, consistent with facile vibrational energy transfer from the chromophore to the β-barrel waters observed in the communication maps.

  3. China's transition to green energy systems: The economics of home solar water heaters and their popularization in Dezhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Song Guojun; Beresford, Melanie; Ma, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Studying the popularization of solar water heaters (SWHs) is significant for understanding China's transition to green energy systems. Using Dezhou as a case study, this paper presents new angles on analyzing SWH deployment in China by addressing both the economic potential and the institutional dimensions at the local level. Using estimates from the demand-side of hot water for a typical three-person household in Dezhou, the paper evaluates the economic potential of a SWH in saving electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Then, expanding the analysis beyond economics, we take an institutionalist approach to study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success in SWH adoptions. By examining the five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime, we find that Dezhou's SWH deployment is driven by an urge to develop businesses and the local economy, and its success results from at least five unique factors, including the development of SWH industrial clusters in Dezhou, big manufacturers' market leadership in SWH innovations, a tight private enterprise-local government relation, geographic location within the SWH industrial belt, and the adaptive attitude of Dezhou's households towards natural resource scarcity. - Highlights: → We study the popularization of solar water heaters in Dezhou, China. → We study the institutional factors that contribute to Dezhou's success. → Five main actors in Dezhou's energy regime are examined. → Dezhou's success results from at least five unique factors. → This leads to important directions for improving China'ss green innovation adoption.

  4. Casimir energies in M4≥/sup N/ for even N. Green's-function and zeta-function techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantowski, R.; Milton, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Green's-function technique developed in the first paper in this series is generalized to apply to massive scalar, vector, second-order tensor, and Dirac spinor fields, as a preliminary to a full graviton calculation. The Casimir energies are of the form u/sub Casimir/ = (1/a 4 )[α/sub N/lna/b)+β/sub N/], where N (even) is the dimension of the internal sphere, a is its radius, and b/sup -1/ is an ultraviolet cutoff (presumably at the Planck scale). The coefficient of the divergent logarithm, α/sub N/, is unambiguously obtained for each field considered. The Green's-function technique gives rise to no difficulties in the evaluation of imaginary-mass-mode contributions to the Casimir energy. In addition, a new, simplified zeta-function technique is presented which is very easily implemented by symbolic programs, and which, of course, gives the same results. An error in a previous zeta-function calculation of the Casimir energy for even N is pointed out

  5. Greening Spanish primary schools: students and teachers attitudes to centres committed to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poza-Vilches María de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An environmental audit study is presented, based on the opinions of students and teachers about the possibilities of improvements to the environmental resource management of twelve primary education centres in the region of Andalucía (Spain, and the guidelines for implementing programs for curriculum greening that are committed to the environment and that makes it possible to undertake actions of sustainable development both inside and outside the classroom. The research follows a diagnostic methodology, focused on describing the models of environmental resources management at primary education centres in Andalucía, as well as their sustainability actions, commitments and programs from the perspective of both teachers and students. Finally, the results have been confirmed that there is a need to redefine the strategies for environmental management, intervention and participation of the entire educational community, approaching this from the design of educationally innovative actions focused on the socio-environmental problems of the local area.

  6. Green eggs and ham: Strategies to address the growing phenomenon of selling a medical school's name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falit, Benjamin P; Halperin, Edward C; Loeffler, Jay S

    2014-12-01

    In 2008, the authors published a review that highlighted an emerging trend for medical schools to change their names to those of wealthy donors. Since 2008, the names of ten benefactors have been added to the medical schools receiving their gifts. Twenty-three of the 141 U.S. medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education are currently named after donors. Large donations have the potential to positively affect all stakeholders by improving the resources that are available for research, teaching, and clinical care, but the rapid increase in the naming of medical schools after wealthy benefactors raises important concerns for those same stakeholders. In this perspective, the authors explore such concerns and identify mitigating strategies that institutions facing these issues in the future can use to ensure that the benefit associated with a gift outweighs any adverse impact. The authors argue for a strong presumption of impropriety when a donor possesses a conflict of interest with the potential to affect clinicians' judgment. They go on to assess how donors' control of funds may have an impact on institutional mission and research agenda, and analyze the right of an organization to remove a benefactor's name for alleged wrongdoing. The perspective considers how renaming may negatively affect brand recognition and the associated impact on students, residents, faculty, and alumni. Finally, it concludes with an analysis of taxpayer-funded organizations and the concern that educational renaming will lead to a slippery slope in which other public goods are effectively purchased by wealthy donors.

  7. The School of Energy Policy and Diplomacy of MGIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays when aspects of global energy security advanced to the forefront and Russia is going to reinforce its leading role in the world energy community, International institute of energy policy and diplomacy (MIEP organized for the first time in Russia the training of world class experts in the field of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, economics, law, management and public relations, all focused on international energy cooperation. Such energy professionals are extremely sought after by public authorities and international institutions as well as by major international energy companies. MIEP MGIMO is the only study center in Russia and in the whole worlds which is successfully training specialists armed with fundamental academic knowledge and detailed studying of global processes in the sphere of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, international energy cooperation. Alumni of MIEP are outstanding high-caliber professionals who can fluently speak several foreign languages. This day MIEP is a large study, methodic and scientific center ensuring high-quality professional and fundamental training based on the best practices of Russian education as well as on the practices of worldleading universities and business schools.This year International institute of energy policy and diplomacy celebrates its 15th anniversary. This article describes history, evolution of MIEP; unique specific departments and international institutions created in cooperation with prestige European universities; reveals specific features of training of specialists. Soon MIEP plans to accomplish a lot of research and development projects assisted by the best academic staff in close cooperation with international organizations, administrations of the largest petroleum producing regions, top oil and gas corporations-strategic partners (Rosneft, Transneft, Rosseti, Gazprombank, top universities and scientific centers all over the world.

  8. How does Germany's green energy policy affect electricity market volatility? An application of conditional autoregressive range models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a dynamic model for the high/low range of electricity prices, this article analyses the effects of Germany's green energy policy on the volatility of the electricity market. Using European Energy Exchange data from 2000 to 2015, we find rather high volatility in the years 2000–2009 but also that the weekly price range has significantly declined in the period following the year 2009. This period is characterised by active regulation under the Energy Industry Law (EnWG), the EU Emissions Trading Directive (ETD) and the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). In contrast to the preceding period, price jumps are smaller and less frequent (especially for day-time hours), implying that current policy measures are effective in promoting renewable energies while simultaneously upholding electricity market stability. This is because the regulations strive towards a more and more flexible and market-oriented structure which allows better integration of renewable energies and supports an efficient alignment of renewable electricity supply with demand. - Highlights: • We estimate a CARR model for German electricity price data. • We augment the model by dummies capturing important regulations. • We find a significant decline in the price range after the year 2009. • This implies effective price stabilisation by German energy policy.

  9. Ionizing radiation, nuclear energy and radiation protection for school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, E.A.; Reis, R.G.; Pinho, A.S.; Alves, A.S.; Rio, M.A.P.; Reis, A.A.; Silva, J.W.S.; Paula, G.A. de; Goncalves Junior, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, ionizing radiation has been applied in many sectors of society, such as medicine, industry, safety, construction, engineering and research. However, population is unaware of both the applications of ionizing radiation and their risks and benefits. It can be seen that most people associate the terms 'radiation' and 'nuclear energy' with the atomic bomb or cancer, most likely because of warlike applications and the stealthy way radioactivity had been treated in the past. Thus, it is necessary to clarify the population about the main aspects related to the applications, risks and associated benefits. These knowledge can be disseminated in schools. Brazilian legislation for basic education provides for topics such as nuclear energy and radioactivity to high school students. However, some factors hamper such an educational practice, namely, few hours of class, textbooks do not address the subject, previous concepts obtained in the media, difficulty in dealing with the subject in the classroom, phobia, etc. One solution would be the approximation between schools and institutions that employ technologies involving radioactivity, which would allow students to know the practices, associated radiological protection, as well as the risks and benefits to society. Currently, with the increasing application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine, it is necessary to demystify the use of radioactivity. (author)

  10. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  11. Energy 80 for the 1981-82 School Year. [Student Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    Energy 80 is a booklet of energy topics for junior/high/middle school students. The topics are presented in 16 short sections (spreads). Topics include: energy forms; energy rules; solar energy; food energy; origin of fossil fuels; coal; oil and gas production and consumption; nuclear fission; renewable energy sources; history of United States…

  12. The greenGain project - Biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work for renewable energy production in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clalüna, Aline; Baumgarten, Wibke; García Galindo, Daniel; Lenz, Klaus; Doležal, Jan; De Filippi, Federico; Lorenzo, Joaquín; Montagnoli, Louis

    2017-04-01

    The project greenGain is looking for solutions to increase the energy production with regional and local biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work, which is performed in the public interest. The relevant resources analysed in the greenGain model regions are, among others, biomass residues from clearing invasive vegetation in marginal agricultural lands in Spain, and residues from abandoned vineyards and olive groves in landscape protected areas in Italy. The main target groups are regional and local players who are responsible for maintenance and conservation work and for the biomass residue management in their regions. Moreover, the focus will be on service providers - including farmers and forest owners, their associations, NGOs, energy providers and consumers. Local companies, municipalities and public authorities are collaborating to identify the still underutilised non-food biomass resources and to discuss the way to integrate them into the local and regional biomass markets. Since the start of the three year project in January 2015, the partners from Italy, Spain, Czech Republic and Germany analysed, among other, the biomass feedstock potential coming from landscape maintenance work, and assessed various technological options to utilise this type of biomass. Further, political, legal and environmental aspects as well as awareness raising and public acceptance actions regarding the energetic use of biomass from public areas were assessed. greenGain also facilitates the exchange between model regions and other similar relevant players in the EU and shares examples of good practice. General guidelines will be prepared to guarantee a wide dissemination to other regions in the EU. Thus, the project shows how to build-up reliable knowledge on local availability of this feedstock and provides know-how concerning planning, harvesting, pre-treatment, storage and sustainable conversion pathways to a wide range of stakeholders in the EU.

  13. Behavioral intention and its relationship with gender: a study of green school students in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrudin, I. A.; Karyanto, P.; Ramli, M.

    2018-05-01

    The environmental problems faced today have had a great impact on human beings. The root causes of all environmental problems are related to injudicious human behavior. Since human behavior is determined by Behavioral Intention (BI), it is crucial to examine the role of BI with regard to the study of environmentally friendly behavior. As such, in this research, BI was scrutinized; in particular, this study aimed to identify the factors affecting the particular degree of BI from the perspective of gender. This study was conducted with 334 high school student participants in the district of Surakarta, Indonesia. According to the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) result, the BI possessed by high school students does not sufficiently promote environmentally friendly behavior. This research also found that there is no significant link between BI and gender.

  14. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  15. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  16. On the impact of D2D traffic offloading on energy efficiency in green LTE-A HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2014-08-11

    In this paper, the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications in the long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-advanced (LTE-A) cellular systems is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. In addition, an energy-efficient approach for putting base stations in sleep mode in an LTE-A heterogeneous network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s base stations. The presented techniques are investigated in the framework of orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking resource allocation and intercell interference into account. Results show that the proposed approach leads to energy savings for both the operator and the MTs, while leading to enhanced quality of service for mobile users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sparse Beamforming for Real-time Resource Management and Energy Trading in Green C-RAN

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Ariffin, Wan Nur Suryani Firuz; Zhang, Xinruo; Nakhai, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers cloud radio access network with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer and finite capacity fronthaul, where the remote radio heads are equipped with renewable energy resources and can trade energy with the grid. Due to uneven distribution of mobile radio traffic and inherent intermittent nature of renewable energy resources, the remote radio heads may need real-time energy provisioning to meet the users’ demands. Given the amount of available energy resource...

  18. 1995 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N; Neubert, M [eds.

    1996-06-11

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimentalists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, the Standard Model, Physics beyond the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics and Deep Inelastic Scattering, B-Physics and CP Violation, Neutrino Oscillations, Dark Matter, Experimental Techniques, as well as reports on Heavy Ions and Collider Physics and an account of particle physics at JINR. Two local subjects are also treated: Conditions for Science in Russia, and Search for Heavy Elements. (orig.).

  19. Proceedings of the School for Young High Energy Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 School for Young High Energy Physicists was attended by 44 first year graduate students - probably the largest number since it was started in 1972. It took place in September, at the Cosener's House, Abingdon, and was organised and funded by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Published here are the lectures that were given in the mornings. These were supplemented and reinforced by the work in the afternoons, which were devoted to problems and tutorials. At the end of the intensive two week course the students emerged exhausted, but with a thorough grounding in the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics, on which most of them are performing their experimental work. (Author)

  20. 1995 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Neubert, M.

    1996-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimentalists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, the Standard Model, Physics beyond the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics and Deep Inelastic Scattering, B-Physics and CP Violation, Neutrino Oscillations, Dark Matter, Experimental Techniques, as well as reports on Heavy Ions and Collider Physics and an account of particle physics at JINR. Two local subjects are also treated: Conditions for Science in Russia, and Search for Heavy Elements. (orig.)