WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy flux boundary

  1. An outgoing energy flux boundary condition for finite difference ICRP antenna models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    For antennas at the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) modeling in vacuum can now be carried out to a high level of detail such that shaping of the current straps, isolating septa, and discrete Faraday shield structures can be included. An efficient approach would be to solve for the fields in the vacuum region near the antenna in three dimensions by finite methods and to match this solution at the plasma-vacuum interface to a solution obtained in the plasma region in one dimension by Fourier methods. This approach has been difficult to carry out because boundary conditions must be imposed at the edge of the finite difference grid on a point-by-point basis, whereas the condition for outgoing energy flux into the plasma is known only in terms of the Fourier transform of the plasma fields. A technique is presented by which a boundary condition can be imposed on the computational grid of a three-dimensional finite difference, or finite element, code by constraining the discrete Fourier transform of the fields at the boundary points to satisfy an outgoing energy flux condition appropriate for the plasma. The boundary condition at a specific grid point appears as a coupling to other grid points on the boundary, with weighting determined by a kemel calctdated from the plasma surface impedance matrix for the various plasma Fourier modes. This boundary condition has been implemented in a finite difference solution of a simple problem in two dimensions, which can also be solved directly by Fourier transformation. Results are presented, and it is shown that the proposed boundary condition does enforce outgoing energy flux and yields the same solution as is obtained by Fourier methods.

  2. Analysis of turbulent flow properties and energy fluxes in optimally controlled wind-farm boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goit, Jay P.; Meyers, Johan

    2014-06-01

    In the present work our focus is to improve the performance of a wind farm by coordinated control of all turbines with the aim to increase the overall energy extraction by the farm. To this end, we couple flow simulations performed using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with gradient based optimization to control individual turbines in a farm. The control parameters are the disk-based thrust coefficient of individual turbines as a function of time. They indirectly represent the effect of control actions that would correspond to blade-pitching of the turbines. We employ a receding-horizon predictive control setting and solve the optimization problem iteratively at each time horizon based on the gradient information obtained from the evolution of the flow field and the adjoint computation. We find that the extracted farm power increases by approximately 16% for a cost functional that is based on total energy extraction. However, this energy is gained from a slow deceleration of the boundary layer which is sustained for approximately 1 hour. We further analyze the turbulent stresses and compare to wind farms without optimal control.

  3. Grain Boundary Energies in Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ramli

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The dependence of grain boundary energy on boundary orientation was studied in copper annealed at 1000 ^circC. Grain boundary orientations and the disorientations across the boundaries were measured. A rotation matrix notation is used to interpret selected area electron channelling patterns observed in a scanning electron microscope. The Herring and Shewmon torque terms were investigated using wire specimens having a "bamboo" structure. The Herring torque terms were determined using the Hess relation. The (110) section of the Sigma 11 gamma-plot (i.e. the variation of grain boundary energy with boundary orientation) was evaluated. In this plot, minima in energies were found at the (311) and (332) mirror planes. Sigma 3 and Sigma9 boundaries were investigated in sheet specimens. The (110) and (111) sections of the Sigma3 gamma -plot were evaluated. In addition to the sharp cusps occurring at the Sigma3 {111} planes, the further shallower cusps occur at the incoherent Sigma 3 boundaries with the interfacial planes approximately parallel to {322} in one crystal and {11.44} in the other crystal. Flat and curved Sigma9 boundaries were investigated. The break up of Sigma9 boundaries into two Sigma3 boundaries and the relation between the Sigma3 and Sigma 9 gamma-plots was also examined. The (110) section of the Sigma9 gamma-plot was constructed.

  4. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  5. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  6. Environmental boundaries to energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Public concern about the environment, health and safety consequences of energy technology has been growing steadily for more than two decades in the United States. This concern forms an important boundary condition as the United States seeks to develop a new National Energy Strategy. Furthermore, the international aspects of the energy/environment interface such as acid rain global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion are very prominent in US thinking. In fact, the energy systems of the world are becoming more closely coupled environmentally and otherwise. Now where is this coupling more important than that between the industrialized and developing world; the choices made by each will have profound effects on the other. The development of energy technologies compatible with both economic growth and improving and sustaining environmental quality represents a major R D challenge to the US and USSR. Decision about adoption of new technology and R D priorities can be improved by better measurements of how energy sources and uses are changing throughout the world and better methods to project the potential consequences of these decisions. Such projection require understanding relative risks of alternating existing and evolving technologies. All of these R D areas, technology improvement energy system monitoring and projection and comparative risk assessment are the topics of this seminar. Progress in each may be enhanced by collaboration and cooperation between our two countries. 7 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Determination of Energy Fluxes Over Agricultural Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Argete

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An energy budget was conducted over two kinds if surfaces: grass and corn canopy. The net radiative flux and the soil heat flux were directly measured while the latent and sensible heat flux were calculated from the vertical profiles if wet and dry-bulb temperature and wind speed. The crop storage flux was also estimated. Using the gradient or aerodynamic equations, the calculated fluxes when compared to the measured fluxes in the context of an energy budget gave an SEE = 63 Wm-2 over grass and SEE = 81 Wm-2 over corn canopy. The calculated fluxes compared reasonably well with those obtained using the Penman equations.For an energy budget research with limited instrumentation, the aerodynamic method performed satisfactorily in estimating the daytime fluxes, when atmospheric conditions are fully convective, but failed when conditions were stably stratified as during nighttime.

  8. About Merging Threshold and Critical Flux Concepts into a Single One: The Boundary Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Stoller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades much effort was put in understanding fouling phenomena on membranes. One successful approach to describe fouling issues on membranes is the critical flux theory. The possibility to measure a maximum value of the permeate flux for a given system without incurring in fouling issues was a breakthrough in membrane process design. However, in many cases critical fluxes were found to be very low, lower than the economic feasibility of the process. The knowledge of the critical flux value must be therefore considered as a good starting point for process design. In the last years, a new concept was introduced, the threshold flux, which defines the maximum permeate flow rate characterized by a low constant fouling rate regime. This concept, more than the critical flux, is a new practical tool for membrane process designers. In this paper a brief review on critical and threshold flux will be reported and analyzed. And since the concepts share many common aspects, merged into a new concept, called the boundary flux, the validation will occur by the analysis of previously collected data by the authors, during the treatment of olive vegetation wastewater by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes.

  9. About merging threshold and critical flux concepts into a single one: the boundary flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Marco; Ochando-Pulido, Javier M

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades much effort was put in understanding fouling phenomena on membranes. One successful approach to describe fouling issues on membranes is the critical flux theory. The possibility to measure a maximum value of the permeate flux for a given system without incurring in fouling issues was a breakthrough in membrane process design. However, in many cases critical fluxes were found to be very low, lower than the economic feasibility of the process. The knowledge of the critical flux value must be therefore considered as a good starting point for process design. In the last years, a new concept was introduced, the threshold flux, which defines the maximum permeate flow rate characterized by a low constant fouling rate regime. This concept, more than the critical flux, is a new practical tool for membrane process designers. In this paper a brief review on critical and threshold flux will be reported and analyzed. And since the concepts share many common aspects, merged into a new concept, called the boundary flux, the validation will occur by the analysis of previously collected data by the authors, during the treatment of olive vegetation wastewater by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes.

  10. Lidar Scanning of Momentum Flux in the Marine Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael

    Momentum flux measurements are important for describing the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer, modeling the atmospheric flow over water, the accounting of exchange processes between air and sea, etc. It is also directly related to the friction velocity, which is a velocity scale...... required for wind engineering. Estimations of friction velocity over the sea can be performed by combining wind speed measurements, a sea roughness length formulation and the surface-layer wind profile, i.e. a bulk-derived method. This method was tested in Peña et al. (2008) by comparison with direct...

  11. Flow under standing waves Part 1. Shear stress distribution, energy flux and steady streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The conditions for energy flux, momentum flux and the resulting streaming velocity are analysed for standing waves formed in front of a fully reflecting wall. The exchange of energy between the outer wave motion and the near bed oscillatory boundary layer is considered, determining the horizontal...... energy flux inside and outside the boundary layer. The momentum balance, the mean shear stress and the resulting time averaged streaming velocities are determined. For a laminar bed boundary layer the analysis of the wave drift gives results similar to the original work of Longuet-Higgins from 1953...

  12. Volume dependence of computed grain boundary energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, P.D.; Brokman, A.

    1980-08-01

    Over the past five years there have been numerous studies of grain boundary structure using the method of computer molecular statics which assume pairwise central potentials for the interatomic interaction. Emphasis is usually placed on relative grain boundary energies but these may be inaccurate due to various, but related, approximations and constraints implicity imposed on the calculation-namely central forces, finite model size, fixed border conditions and volume dependent contributions to the energy of the system. It is the purpose of this work to clarify how these particular properties of the model can affect the computed grain boundary energy and demonstrate instances in which the quoted energy has strictly been inaccurate. The implication of these results, especially on how they affect the method of relaxation and the resulting grain boundary structure is discussed.

  13. Energy gain induced by boundary crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abud, C Vieira; de Carvalho, R Egydio

    2011-09-01

    We consider a nonlinear system and show the unexpected and surprising result that, even for high dissipation, the mean energy of a particle can attain higher values than when there is no dissipation in the system. We reconsider the time-dependent annular billiard in the presence of inelastic collisions with the boundaries. For some magnitudes of dissipation, we observe the phenomenon of boundary crisis, which drives the particles to an asymptotic attractive fixed point located at a value of energy that is higher than the mean energy of the nondissipative case and so much higher than the mean energy just before the crisis. We should emphasize that the unexpected results presented here reveal the importance of a nonlinear dynamics analysis to explain the paradoxical strategy of introducing dissipation in the system in order to gain energy.

  14. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  15. Fluxes of ammonia in the coastal marine boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L.L.; Hertel, O.; Skjøth, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of ammonia in air and ammonium in surface water were measured from a platform in the Southern North Sea close to the Dutch coast. Fluxes were derived from the measurements applying Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and exchange velocities calculated. The fluxes and air concentrations...

  16. Estimation of boundary heat flux using experimental temperature data in turbulent forced convection flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.

    2015-03-01

    Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.

  17. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-TR-8155 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model... Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) by Clayton Walker and Gail Vaucher Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...2017 June 28 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ROTC Internship

  18. Probabilistic Forecasting of the Wave Energy Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Reikard, G.; Bidlot, J.-R.

    2012-01-01

    markets. A methodology for the probabilistic forecasting of the wave energy flux is introduced, based on a log-Normal assumption for the shape of predictive densities. It uses meteorological forecasts (from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts – ECMWF) and local wave measurements......Wave energy will certainly have a significant role to play in the deployment of renewable energy generation capacities. As with wind and solar, probabilistic forecasts of wave power over horizons of a few hours to a few days are required for power system operation as well as trading in electricity......% and 70% in terms of Continuous Rank Probability Score (CRPS), depending upon the test case and the lead time. It is finally shown that the log-Normal assumption can be seen as acceptable, even though it may be refined in the future....

  19. Generating energy dependent neutron flux maps for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For activation analysis and irradiation scheme of miniature neutron source reactor, designers or engineers usually require information on thermal neutron flux levels and other energy group flux levels (such as fast, resonance and epithermal). A methodology for readily generating such flux maps and flux profiles for any ...

  20. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy from Western Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, John M.; He, Ruoying; Muglia, Michael; Lowcher, Caroline F.; Gong, Yanlin; Haines, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model-based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500-1,000 W m-2. Significant fluctuations occur with periods of 3-20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power.

  1. The asymptotic equivalence of fixed heat flux and fixed temperature thermal boundary conditions for rapidly rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Julien, Keith; Nieves, David; Driggs, Derek; Marti, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fixed temperature and fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions on rapidly rotating convection in the plane layer geometry is investigated for the case of stress-free mechanical boundary conditions. It is shown that whereas the leading order system satisfies fixed temperature boundary conditions implicitly, a double boundary layer structure is necessary to satisfy the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions. The boundary layers consist of a classical Ekman layer adjacent to the solid boundaries that adjust viscous stresses to zero, and a layer in thermal wind balance just outside the Ekman layers adjusts the temperature such that the fixed heat flux thermal boundary conditions are satisfied. The influence of these boundary layers on the interior geostrophically balanced convection is shown to be asymptotically weak, however. Upon defining a simple rescaling of the thermal variables, the leading order reduced system of governing equations are therefore equivalent for both boundary condit...

  2. Low energy planes for tilt grain boundaries in gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodhew, P. J.; Tan, T. Y.; Balluffi, R. W.

    1977-05-01

    Thin film bicrystals of gold were annealed to create a large variety of grain boundaries of controlled crystal misorientation. The faceting of these boundaries was studied, and some low-energy boundary planes were identified. Tilt boundaries with a (100) misorientation axis were found to facet more readily than those with a (100) axis. The results were considered in terms of O-lattices and coincident site lattices, but neither of these approaches is able to explain all the observations. Consequently, no simple and general criteria, based on geometrical considerations, were found for the occurrence of grain boundary planes of low energy. A further set of observations relates to the dissociation of some specific high-angle grain boundaries into a twin and another low-energy boundary. Boundaries with a ..sigma..33 coincidence site lattice relationship frequently appear to be characterized by a relatively low energy. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  3. One Year of Doppler Lidar Observations Characterizing Boundary Layer Wind, Turbulence, and Aerosol Structure During the Indianapolis Flux Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Salmon, O. E.; Heimburger, A. M. F.; Davis, K. J.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Podolske, J. R.; Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.; Possolo, A.; Prasad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is aimed at improving methods for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions at urban scales. INFLUX observational components include several-times-per-month aircraft measurements of gas concentrations and meteorological parameters, as well as a number of towers observing CO2, CH4, and CO and a single continuously operating Doppler lidar to estimate wind, turbulence and aerosol structure in the boundary layer. The observations are used to develop top-down emissions estimates from the aircraft measurements and as input to inversion models. The Doppler lidar provides information on boundary layer structure for both the aircraft and inversion studies. A commercial Doppler lidar characterized by low pulse energy and high pulse repetition rate has operated for well over a year at a site NE of downtown Indianapolis. The lidar produces profiles of horizontal wind speed, vertical velocity variance, and aerosol structure two to three times per hour. These data are then used to investigate boundary layer mixing and thickness and horizontal transport as inputs for the flux calculations. During its one year deployment the lidar generally operated reliably with few outages. Comparisons with aircraft spirals over the site and with the NOAA High Resolution research Doppler lidar deployed to Indianapolis for one month during May, 2014, were used to assess the performance of the INFLUX lidar. Measurements agreed quite well when aerosol loading was sufficient for lidar observations throughout the boundary layer. However, low aerosol loading during some periods limited the range of the lidar and precluded characterization of the full boundary layer. We present an overall assessment of the commercial Doppler lidar for providing the needed information on boundary layer structure for emission estimations, and show variability of the boundary layer observations over diurnal, seasonal, and annual cycles. Recommendations on system design changes to

  4. Measurements and determination of the marine coarse aerosol fluxes in near marine boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Petelski, Tomasz; Zielinski, Tymon; Strzalkowska, Agata; Pakszys, Paulina; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Kowalczyk, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosols emitted from the sea surface help to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosols have many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. During a number of cruises conducted on board of r/v Oceania between 2008 and 2012 we collected much data which were further used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Measurements were carried out using a gradient method. For this method we used a Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one of the masts of the boat. Measurements were performed at five different levels above the sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. The vertical aerosol concentration gradient was obtained from a minimum of 4 measurement series. Thus each result consists of a 1 hour series with the average sampling time at each elevation equaling to 8 minutes. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, and using the Monin Obukhov theory, profiles of vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer were calculated. Using the results from those experiments the sea spray emission fluxes have been calculated for all particles of sizes at ranges from 0.5 μm to 8 μm, as well as for particles of sizes from fifteen channels of 0.5 μm width. Using these fluxes we calculated the Sea Salt Generation Function (SSGF) over the Baltic Sea. This function provides information on the emission of particles of different sizes, depending on environmental parameters. The emission of sea spray depends on the magnitude of energy lost by the wind waves in the process of their collapse. The support for this study

  5. Mechanisms of bottom boundary fluxes in a numerical model of the Shetland shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Arjav; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Across-slope bottom boundary layer (BBL) fluxes on the shelf-edge connect this region to deeper waters. Two proposed ways in which across-slope BBL fluxes can occur, in regions that have a slope current aligned to the bathymetry, are the frictional veering of bottom currents termed the `Ekman drain' and through local wind-forced downwelling (wind-driven surface Ekman flow with an associated bottom flow). We investigate the variability, magnitude and spatial scale of BBL fluxes on the Shetland shelf, which has a prominent slope current, using a high-resolution (˜2 km) configuration of the MITgcm model. Fluxes are analysed in the BBL at the shelf break near the 200 m isobath and are found to have a seasonal variability with high/low volume transport in winter/summer respectively. By using a multivariate regression approach, we find that the locally wind-driven Ekman transport plays no explicit role in explaining daily bottom fluxes. We can better explain the variability of the across-slope BBL flux as a linear function of the speed and across-slope component of the interior flow, corresponding to an Ekman plus mean-flow flux. We estimate that the mean-flow is a greater contributor than the Ekman flux to the BBL flux. The spatial heterogeneity of the BBL fluxes can be attributed to the mean-flow, which has a much shorter decorrelation length compared to the Ekman flux. We conclude that both the speed and direction of the interior current determines the daily BBL flux. The wind does not explicitly contribute through local downwelling, but may influence the interior current and therefore implicitly the BBL fluxes on longer timescales.

  6. Global distribution of energetic proton precipitations equatorward of the boundary of isotropic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, N. V.; Yahnina, T. A.; Yahnin, A. G.; Demekhov, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Based on data of the NOAA POES satellite, the global distribution of the occurrence rate of precipitations of energetic protons ( E > 30 keV) equatorward of the boundary of isotropic fluxes has been constructed for the first time. It has been shown that the occurrence rate of proton precipitations inside the zone of anisotropic fluxes is maximum in daytime hours (1100-1600 MLT) at latitudes L = 6-9 and decreases in evening and morning hours. Comparison of the obtained results about proton precipitations with the spatial distribution of the occurrence rate of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the equatorial magnetosphere according to results of satellite observations demonstrates a close relationship between them. This corroborates that precipitations of energetic protons equatorward of the boundary of isotropic fluxes are a consequence of the development of the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial magnetosphere.

  7. On the effect of laterally varying boundary heat flux on rapidly rotating spherical shell convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod

    2017-08-01

    The onset of convection in a rotating spherical shell subject to laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary is considered in this paper. The focus is on the geophysically relevant regime of rapid rotation (low Ekman number) where the natural length scale of convection is significantly smaller than the length scale imposed by the boundary heat flux pattern. Contrary to earlier studies at a higher Ekman number, we find a substantial reduction in the onset Rayleigh number Rac with increasing lateral variation. The decrease in Rac is shown to be closely correlated to the equatorial heat flux surplus in the steady, basic state solution. The consistency of such a correlation makes the estimation of Rac possible without solving the full stability problem. The steady baroclinic flow has a strong cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in the kinetic helicity only for equatorially symmetric lateral variations, with possible implications for dynamo action. Equatorially antisymmetric variations, on the other hand, break the symmetry of the mean flow, in turn negating its helicity. Analysis of the perturbation solution reveals strongly localized clusters through which convection rolls drift in and out at a frequency higher than that for the reference case with homogeneous boundary heat flux. Large lateral variations produce a marked decrease in the azimuthal length scale of columns, which indicates that small-scale motions are essential to the transport of heat in rapidly rotating, localized convection. With an equatorially antisymmetric heat flux pattern, convection in individual clusters goes through an asynchronous wax-wane cycle whose frequency is much lower than the drift rate of the columns. These continual variations in convection intensity may in turn result in fluctuations in the magnetic field intensity, an effect that needs to be considered in dynamo models. Finally, there is a notable analogy between the role of a laterally varying boundary heat flux and the role of a

  8. Asymptotic domination of cold relativistic MHD winds by kinetic energy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1994-01-01

    We study the conditions which lead to the conversion of most Poynting flux into kinetic energy flux in cold, relativistic hydromagnetic winds. It is shown that plasma acceleration along a precisely radial flow is extremely inefficient due to the near cancellation of the toroidal magnetic pressure and tension forces. However, if the flux tubes in a flow diverge even slightly faster than radially, the fast magnetosonic point moves inward from infinity to a few times the light cylinder radius. Once the flow becomes supermagnetosonic, further divergence of the flux tubes beyond the fast point can accelerate the flow via the 'magnetic nozzle' effect, thereby further converting Poynting flux to kinetic energy flux. We show that the Grad-Shafranov equation admits a generic family of kinetic energy-dominated asymptotic wind solutions with finite total magnetic flux. The Poynting flux in these solutions vanishes logarithmically with distance. The way in which the flux surfaces are nested within the flow depends only on the ratio of angular velocity to poliodal 4-velocity as a function of magnetic flux. Radial variations in flow structure can be expressed in terms of a pressure boundary condition on the outermost flux surface, provided that no external toriodal field surrounds the flow. For a special case, we show explicitly how the flux surfaces merge gradually to their asymptotes. For flows confined by an external medium of pressure decreasing to zero at infinity we show that, depending on how fast the ambient pressure declines, the final flow state could be either a collimated jet or a wind that fills the entire space. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results for jets from active galactic nuclei and for free pulsar winds such as that believed to power the Crab Nebula.

  9. Determination of the carbon budget of a pasture: effect of system boundaries and flux uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Raphael; Bretscher, Daniel; Münger, Andreas; Neftel, Albrecht; Ammann, Christof

    2016-05-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in the soil is considered as a potential important mechanism to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the agricultural sector. It can be quantified by the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) describing the change of soil C as the sum of all relevant import and export fluxes. NECB was investigated here in detail for an intensively grazed dairy pasture in Switzerland. Two budget approaches with different system boundaries were applied: NECBtot for system boundaries including the grazing cows and NECBpast for system boundaries excluding the cows. CO2 and CH4 exchange induced by soil/vegetation processes as well as direct emissions by the animals were derived from eddy covariance measurements. Other C fluxes were either measured (milk yield, concentrate feeding) or derived based on animal performance data (intake, excreta). For the investigated year, both approaches resulted in a small near-neutral C budget: NECBtot -27 ± 62 and NECBpast 23 ± 76 g C m-2 yr-1. The considerable uncertainties, depending on the approach, were mainly due to errors in the CO2 exchange or in the animal-related fluxes. The comparison of the NECB results with the annual exchange of other GHG revealed CH4 emissions from the cows to be the major contributor in terms of CO2 equivalents, but with much lower uncertainty compared to NECB. Although only 1 year of data limit the representativeness of the carbon budget results, they demonstrate the important contribution of the non-CO2 fluxes depending on the chosen system boundaries and the effect of their propagated uncertainty in an exemplary way. The simultaneous application and comparison of both NECB approaches provides a useful consistency check for the carbon budget determination and can help to identify and eliminate systematic errors.

  10. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  11. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  12. Wave energy fluxes and multi-decadal shoreline changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of multidecadal shoreline changes in two microtidal, low-energetic embayments of southern Zealand, Denmark, were investigated by using the directional distribution of wave energy fluxes. The sites include a barrier island system attached to moraine bluffs, and a recurved spit...... variability of directional distributions of wave energy fluxes furthermore outlined potential sediment sources and sinks for the evolution of the barrier island system and for the evolution of the recurved spit....

  13. Observational constraints on Arctic boundary-layer clouds, surface moisture and sensible heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Boisvert, L.; Klaus, D.; Dethloff, K.; Ganeshan, M.

    2016-12-01

    The dry, cold environment and dynamic surface variations make the Arctic a unique but difficult region for observations, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Spaceborne platforms have been the key vantage point to capture basin-scale changes during the recent Arctic warming. Using the AIRS temperature, moisture and surface data, we found that the Arctic surface moisture flux (SMF) had increased by 7% during 2003-2013 (18 W/m2 equivalent in latent heat), mostly in spring and fall near the Arctic coastal seas where large sea ice reduction and sea surface temperature (SST) increase were observed. The increase in Arctic SMF correlated well with the increases in total atmospheric column water vapor and low-level clouds, when compared to CALIPSO cloud observations. It has been challenging for climate models to reliably determine Arctic cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 and assuming a more efficient Bergeron-Findeisen process with generalized subgrid-scale variability for total water content, we were able to produce a cloud distribution that is more consistent with the CloudSat/CALIPSO observations. More importantly, the modified schemes decrease (increase) the cloud water (ice) content in mixed-phase clouds, which help to improve the modeled CRF and energy budget at the surface, because of the dominant role of the liquid water in CRF. Yet, the coupling between Arctic low clouds and the surface is complex and has strong impacts on ABL. Studying GPS/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) refractivity profiles in the Arctic coldest and driest months, we successfully derived ABL inversion height and surface-based inversion (SBI) frequency, and they were anti-correlated over the Arctic Ocean. For the late summer and early fall season, we further analyzed Japanese R/V Mirai ship measurements and found that the open-ocean surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) can explain 10 % of the ABL height variability, whereas mechanisms such as cloud

  14. Magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakiwaka Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents magnetic flux concentration methods for magnetic energy harvesting module. The purpose of this study is to harvest 1 mW energy with a Brooks coil 2 cm in diameter from environmental magnetic field at 60 Hz. Because the harvesting power is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux density, we consider the use of a magnetic flux concentration coil and a magnetic core. The magnetic flux concentration coil consists of an air­core Brooks coil and a resonant capacitor. When a uniform magnetic field crossed the coil, the magnetic flux distribution around the coil was changed. It is found that the magnetic field in an area is concentrated larger than 20 times compared with the uniform magnetic field. Compared with the air­core coil, our designed magnetic core makes the harvested energy ten­fold. According to ICNIRP2010 guideline, the acceptable level of magnetic field is 0.2 mT in the frequency range between 25 Hz and 400 Hz. Without the two magnetic flux concentration methods, the corresponding energy is limited to 1 µW. In contrast, our experimental results successfully demonstrate energy harvesting of 1 mW from a magnetic field of 0.03 mT at 60 Hz.

  15. Energy flux in chemical engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, H.B.

    1982-10-01

    Energy, money, materials and engineering are all intricately intermixed in the process of design and especially in chemical engineering design. Energy potential and density are important to rates of reaction, flow, and heat transfer for example, which all intimately affect capital charges and operating costs. Different driving forces and rates of change may operate in opposite directions, so the issues involved need to be reconciled. Energy is fundamental to chemical engineering, but its price is now largely determined by politics rather than economics. So Chemical Engineers must use energy to its best advantage for the people of the world they serve.

  16. Exploring a Plume-Based Mass-Flux Scheme in the Boundary-Layer Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, M.; Heus, T.; Neggers, R.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the behavior of plume-based mass flux parameterizations in the gray zone of boundary layer convection, to inform the development of scale-aware and scale-adaptive parameterizations. To this end, the Eddy Diffusivity Mass Flux scheme with multiple plumes, named ED(MF)n, is implemented in a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. This way, the LES is used as a non-hydrostatic larger-scale model, providing a convenient platform for investigating the behavior of parameterizations across the boundary-layer gray zone. First, as a feasibility study, a single plume is launched in every column of the LES in an offline, diagnostic way, without affecting the simulation. We find that the plumes are sensitive to the LES columns in which they rise, feeling the presence of LES clouds. A plume budget analysis shows that the plume termination height is mostly determined by the mixing term, and not so much by the buoyancy term. Then, the ED(MF)n is made interactive with the resolved flow, replacing the LES-subgrid scheme. The work performed by the scheme reduces with increasing LES resolution, due to the size-filtering applied in the ED(MF)n framework. An encouraging result is that the total specific humidity flux is conserved across the investigated range of LES resolutions, covering the gray zone between 10m (large-eddy resolving) and 10km (regional-scale). The sensitivity of the results to various model parameters is assessed.

  17. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  18. The sensivity of geomagnetic reversal frequency to core-mantle boundary heat flux magnitude and heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metman, Maurits; de Groot, Lennart; Thieulot, Cedric; Biggin, Andrew; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    For a number of decades the core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux has been thought to be a key parameter controlling the geomagnetic field. A CMB heat flow increase is assumed to destabilize the geodynamo, increasing and decreasing the reversal frequency and dipole moment, respectively. The opposite case where a CMB flux decrease induces a relatively high dipole moment, as well as a low reversal frequency, would correspond to the characteristics of a superchron (Biggin et al., 2012). So far, only the magnitude of the CMB heat flux has been subject of research. However, the temporal and spatial heat flux distribution across the CMB also appears to have an influence on the geomagnetic reversal frequency. For example, the amount of heat flux heterogeneity may also be associated with a destabilization of the dynamo, increasing the reversal frequency (Olson et al., 2010). In this work we set out to assess: - (1) How the geomagnetic field intensity and reversals are predominantly sensitive to CMB heat flux magnitude or heterogeneity; - (2) what combination of magnitude and heterogeneity best reproduces the geomagnetic record on the 10 Myr timescale. To this end we use the PARODY software and test for a number of CMB heat flow modes (spherical harmonics of increasing degree and order, with an amplitude of 10 mW/m^2) and magnitudes (ranging from 20 to 100 mW/m^2). We will show our modeling results of how CMB heat flow magnitude and heterogeneity control the paleomagnetic record in terms of reversal frequency and dipole moment. Also relevant snapshots in time of outer core convection and thermal/magnetic structure will be shown. References Biggin et al. (2012). Nature Geoscience, 5(8):526-533. Olson et al. (2010). PEPI, 180(1-2):66 - 79.

  19. Motion and Magnetic Flux Changes of Coronal Bright Points Relative to Supergranular Cell Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, M.; Safari, H.; Attie, R.; Alipour, N.

    2016-01-01

    To calculate the magnetic flux and the horizontal movement of coronal bright points (CBPs) in relation to supergranular cell boundaries, the time series of the SDO/HMI visible-light continuum images and SDO/AIA EUV images for 13 February 2011 have been studied. The supergranular lanes were detected in HMI continuum images using the automatic supergranular cell recognition method. The automatic identification and tracking method was applied for detecting the CBPs in AIA 193 Å images. By applying the ball-tracking method on HMI continuum images, the underlying flow fields were determined. By using the velocity fields and the automatic supergranular cell recognition method, the lanes and boundaries were detected. The locations of CBPs were projected on the photospheric co-spatial and co-temporal images. We found that about 90 % of the locations of CBPs correspond to the lane of the supergranular cell boundaries (network CBPs or NCBPs) of which about 40 % of them appeared at junctions. The remaining 10 % appeared within the supergranular regions (internetwork CBPs or INCBPs). The horizontal velocities for NCBPs and INCBPs were about 1.6±0.1 km s^{-1} and 1.7±0.1 km s^{-1}, respectively. Using the magnetic field extrapolation, we were able to detect the bipoles underlying CBPs, and we studied their magnetic evolution. The orientation of CBPs observed in the 171, 193, and 211 Å images and the orientation of their magnetic bipoles are positively correlated. For out of 50 INCBPs, 54 % showed cancellation, 32 % emergence, and 12 % complex flux changes. Out of 90 NCBPs, 60 % presented cancellation, 20 % showed emergence, and 20 % showed complex flux changes.

  20. Energy flux as a tool in locating tsunami secondary sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea levels recorded in the wake of Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 and of the Kuril Island Tsunami of November 2006 show strong tsunami signal enhancement of the late arriving secondary waves. Using these tsunami eventswe demonstrate thatsudden changes caused by higher energy pulses in the intermittent tsunami wave trains can be assessed by energy fluxes. Therefore, to delineate the regions of tsunami wave amplification and travel time we propose to use energy flux.A series of numerical experimentsdefinedinexplicitwaythe bathymetric features which scatter tsunami signal towards ports, like Crescent City. Identification of the distant bathymetric featureswas achievable sincethe energy fluxvectordelineatedthe energy pathways that coupled distant bathymetric features to portslocated thousands of kilometers apart. Calculations of the energy flux vector involves simple formulas based on two components of velocity and sea level. The maximum of the energy flux (which has no directional properties can be evaluated from the sea level amplitude, hence both observed and computed sea level can be used for this purpose. The main task of this paper is to suggest that tsunami warning and prediction services should use numerical-hydrodynamical models with wider scope of physical processes by incorporating the energy balance equation into presently used tools.

  1. Methane fluxes on the water-atmosphere boundary in the Sea of Okhotsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishukova, G. I.; Shakirov, R. B.; Obzhirov, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    High variability in methane fluxes at the water-atmosphere boundary was found for the first time for the period 1990-2016 using expeditionary data. Variability from absorption to emission with values of more than 5 kg km-2 day-1 was found in the whole sea area and over time. Increased emission in the Sea of Okhotsk is associated with distribution areas of through and composite anomalous gas-geochemical gas fields migrating from lithospheric sources. The interannual methane discharge into the atmosphere has an oscillatory seismic dependent nature.

  2. Obtaining evapotranspiration and surface energy fluxes with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land), a remote sensing based evapotranspiration model, has been applied with Landsat ETM+ sensor for the estimation of actual ... The land uses in this study area consists of irrigated agriculture, rain-fed agriculture and livestock grazing. The obtained results ...

  3. Low energy intake plus low energy expenditure (low energy flux), not energy surfeit, predicts future body fat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David John; Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric

    2016-06-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have prospectively tested the energy surfeit theory of obesity with the use of objectively estimated energy intake and energy expenditure in humans. An alternative theory is that homeostatic regulation of body weight is more effective when energy intake and expenditure are both high (high energy flux), implying that low energy flux should predict weight gain. We aimed to examine the predictive relations of energy balance and energy flux to future weight gain and tested whether results were replicable in 2 independent samples. Adolescents (n = 154) and college-aged women (n = 75) underwent 2-wk objective doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, and percentage of body fat measures at baseline. Percentage of body fat was measured annually for 3 y of follow-up for the adolescent sample and for 2 y of follow-up for the young adult sample. Low energy flux, but not energy surfeit, predicted future increases in body fat in both studies. Furthermore, high energy flux appeared to prevent fat gain in part because it was associated with a higher resting metabolic rate. Counter to the energy surfeit model of obesity, results suggest that increasing energy expenditure may be more effective for reducing body fat than caloric restriction, which is currently the treatment of choice for obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02084836. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Solar neutrino flux at keV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Edoardo; Redondo, Javier; Raffelt, Georg

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the solar neutrino and antineutrino flux in the keV energy range. The dominant thermal source processes are photo production (γ e→ e νbar nu), bremsstrahlung (e+Ze→ Ze+e+νbar nu), plasmon decay (γ→νbar nu), and νbar nu emission in free-bound and bound-bound transitions of partially ionized elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. These latter processes dominate in the energy range of a few keV and thus carry information about the solar metallicity. To calculate their rate we use libraries of monochromatic photon radiative opacities in analogy to a previous calculation of solar axion emission. Our overall flux spectrum and many details differ significantly from previous works. While this low-energy flux is not measurable with present-day technology, it could become a significant background for future direct searches for keV-mass sterile neutrino dark matter.

  5. Unsteady Heat-Flux Measurements of Second-Mode Instability Waves in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat- flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet-wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was developed to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  6. Energy flux simulation in heterogeneous cropland - a two year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Biernath, Christian; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies show that uncertainties in regional and global climate and weather simulations are partly due to inadequate descriptions of the energy flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere [Stainforth et al. 2005]. One major shortcoming is the limitation of the grid-cell resolution, which is recommended to be about at least 3x3 km² in most models due to limitations in the model physics. To represent each individual grid cell most models select one dominant soil type and one dominant land use type. This resolution, however, is often too coarse in regions where the spatial heterogeneity of soil and land use types are high, e.g. in Central Europe. The relevance of vegetation (e.g. crops), ground cover, and soil properties to the moisture and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere is well known [McPherson 2007], but the impact of vegetation growth dynamics on energy fluxes is only partly understood [Gayler et al. 2014]. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mosaic approach. This approach is part of the recently developed ecosystem model framework Expert-N [Biernath et al. 2013] . The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of five managed field plots, planted with winter wheat, potato and maize on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. The simulated energy fluxes were compared with eddy flux tower measurements between the respective fields at the research farm Scheyern, North-West of Munich, Germany. To perform these simulations, we coupled the ecosystem model Expert-N to an analytical footprint model [Mauder & Foken 2011] . The coupled model system has the ability to calculate the mixing ratio of the surface energy fluxes at a given point within one grid cell (in this case at the flux tower between the two fields). The approach accounts for the temporarily and spatially

  7. Moisture flux and mixing processes in the daytime continental convective boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert L.; Gamage, Nimal

    1995-12-01

    This study is used to introduce a conditional sampling technique associated with a heuristic model of the convective boundary layer (CBL) based upon top-down, bottom-up physical processes. A new concept of a distribution of neutral buoyancy levels associated with those two classes of physical processes is included in the CBL model. Analysis of surface, aircraft, and sounding data from June 6, 1987, during FIFE showed two periods of drying in an otherwise moistening fair weather CBL with 7 to 9 ms-1 southerly winds. One period was during the so-called morning boundary layer transition, when the mixed layer was growing rapidly and the other during quasi-steady state afternoon conditions. Similar drying periods were observed on June 1 and 4. On June 6, however, morning and afternoon National Center for Atmospheric Research King Air missions were specifically designed to investigate time variations in the daytime CBL. The conditional sampling technique and the CBL model are used to investigate the composition of the moisture flux and flux divergence. We conclude that the drying effect of strong surface thermals carrying upward moving moist air was substantially decreased by overturning thermals and that compensating downdrafts were the dominant process associated with the net positive flux divergence responsible for part of the observed drying during the morning transition. The remainder was inferred to be due to a combination of vertical and horizontal advection. By afternoon drying due to compensating downdrafts had ceased and was due entirely to advection mitigated by turbulent processes which were moistening the mixed layer. The drying and inversion rise were coupled phenomena that were due to moist surface thermals which penetrated a weak lower inversion into an elevated mixed layer (EML). The EML was left from the previous day, and was well below a much stronger capping inversion. This penetrative convection into the EML suddenly removed moisture from the lower

  8. Comprehensive Analysis of Convective Heat Transfer in Parallel Plate Microchannel with Viscous Dissipation and Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Hari Mohan; Sahu, Santosh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed, laminar, incompressible, forced convective heat transfer characteristics of gaseous flows through a parallel plate microchannel with different constant heat flux boundary conditions. The first order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered in the analysis. Here, three different thermal boundary conditions such as: both plates kept at different constant heat fluxes, both plates kept at equal constant heat fluxes and one plate kept at constant heat flux and other one insulated are considered for the analysis. The deviation in Nusselt number between the model that considers both first order velocity slip and temperature jump and the one that considers only velocity slip is reported. Also, the effect of various heat flux ratios on the Nusselt number is reported in this analysis. In addition, the deviation in Nusselt number between first and second order slip model is discussed in this study.

  9. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  10. Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Douma, Huub; Vasconcelos, Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Existing methods for Green's function extraction give the Green's function from the correlation of field fluctuations recorded at those points. In this work it is shown that the Green's function for acoustic waves can be retrieved from measurements of the integrated energy flux through a closed surface taken from three experiments where two time-harmonic sources first operate separately, and then simultaneously. This makes it possible to infer the Green's function in acoustics from measurements of the energy flux through an arbitrary closed surface surrounding both sources. The theory is also applicable to quantum mechanics where the Green's function can be retrieved from measurement of the flux of scattered particles through a closed surface.

  11. Boundary plasma heat flux width measurements for poloidal magnetic fields above 1 Tesla in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Dan; Labombard, Brian; Kuang, Adam; Terry, Jim; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2017-10-01

    The boundary heat flux width, along with the total power flowing into the boundary, sets the power exhaust challenge for tokamaks. A multi-machine boundary heat flux width database found that the heat flux width in H-modes scaled inversely with poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and was independent of machine size. The maximum Bp in the database was 0.8 T, whereas the ITER 15 MA, Q =10 scenario will be 1.2 T. New measurements of the boundary heat flux width in Alcator C-Mod extend the international database to plasmas with Bp up to 1.3 T. C-Mod was the only experiment able to operate at ITER-level Bp. These new measurements are from over 300 plasma shots in L-, I-, and EDA H-modes spanning essentially the whole operating space in C-Mod. We find that the inverse-Bp dependence of the heat flux width in H-modes continues to ITER-level Bp, further reinforcing the empirical projection of 500 μm heat flux width for ITER. We find 50% scatter around the inverse-Bp scaling and are searching for the `hidden variables' causing this scatter. Supported by USDoE award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Surface energy, CO2 fluxes and sea ice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gulev, SK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of observation, parameterization and evaluation of surface air-sea energy and gas fluxes, and sea ice, for the purposes of monitoring and predicting the state of the global ocean. The last 10 years have been...

  13. Modeling energy and mass fluxes from prairie canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The main emphasis of this research project is on partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between vegetation and soil at the FIFE site, preparation of data from the FIFE Information System for an international thermal data set comparison, and studying the relation between surface temperatures observed from satellites and in situ measurements of surface temperature.

  14. The Total Energy Flux Leaving the Ocean's Mixed Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimac, Antonija; von Storch, Jin-Song; Eden, Carsten

    The total energy flux leaving the ocean’s spatially and seasonally varying mixed layer is estimated using a global ⅝1/10° ocean general circulation model. From the total wind-power input of 3.33 TW into near-inertial waves (0.35 TW), subinertial fluctuations (0.87 TW), and the time-mean circulation

  15. Carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over a semi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    Key words: Eddy covariance; semi-evergreen forest; surface energy balance; Carbon dioxide. 25 flux; Indian .... following forest types and biomes (Champion and Seth 1968), namely Eastern wet alluvial. 86 grasslands ..... Turbulence characteristics of the site were analyzed (table 2 a-b)during whole period. 197 and four ...

  16. Biosignatures in the Context of Low Energy Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Many of the features that are thought of as biosignatures - including the mediation of chemical and physical processes with speed, specificity, and selectivity - result directly or indirectly from life's unique capability to mediate and direct energy flux. As such, it is important to consider the impact that differences in energy flux may have on the quantity and quality of evidence for life. Earth differs from every other body in our solar system in the magnitude of biologically-usable energy flux into a liquid water environment. On a global basis, the capture of light energy into photosynthesis and the flux of chemical energy represented in the products of that photosynthesis (organic material + O2) are about six and four orders of magnitude larger, respectively, than the flux of energy represented in geochemical sources. Our conception of what an inhabited world "looks like" and our intuition about how to search for life are based in this high-energy context. Energy fluxes on worlds beyond Earth may be better approximated by the million-fold smaller flux provided to Earth's biosphere by geochemical sources. As a result, the nature, abundance, and quality of evidence for life that could be expected on an inhabited extraterrestrial world within our solar system may differ profoundly from that found on Earth. Understanding this potential difference in quantitative terms provides important context for the formulation of life detection strategies. The influence of energy flux on biosignatures can be evaluated through reference to the two basic purposes into which life partitions energy flux: (1) Life expends energy to sustain existing biomass in a metabolic steady state (metabolically functional but non-growing). The formal representation of this relationship in the traditional microbiology literature equates biomass directly with energy flux. The direct implication is that worlds having lower energy flux will have correspondingly lower potential to support biomass

  17. Measurement of grain boundary triple line energy in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Verhasselt, J.Ch. [Sparing Roehl Henseler, Rethelstr. 123, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Shvindlerman, L.S. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)] [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow District 142432 (Russian Federation)] [State Technological University, Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (Russian Federation); Gottstein, G., E-mail: Gottstein@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that grain boundary triple junctions are crystal defects with specific thermodynamic and kinetic properties. In this study we address the energy of triple lines. Previously, a geometrical model was proposed to determine the grain boundary line tension. The current study introduces a thermodynamically correct approach which allows direct and precise measurement of the triple line energy. The experimental technique utilizes the measurement of the surface topography of a crystal in the vicinity of a triple junction by atomic force microscopy. The grain boundary triple line tension {gamma}{sub TP}{sup l} of a random triple line in a copper tricrystal was measured to be 6.3 {+-} 2.8 x 10{sup -9} J m{sup -1}.

  18. Modeling energy fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes employing a mosaic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that uncertainties in regional and global climate and weather simulations are partly due to inadequate descriptions of the energy flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. One major shortcoming is the limitation of the grid-cell resolution, which is recommended to be about at least 3x3 km² in most models due to limitations in the model physics. To represent each individual grid cell most models select one dominant soil type and one dominant land use type. This resolution, however, is often too coarse in regions where the spatial diversity of soil and land use types are high, e.g. in Central Europe. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mosaic approach. This approach is part of the recently developed ecosystem model framework Expert-N 5.0. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of two managed fields, planted with winter wheat and potato, on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. The simulated energy fluxes were compared with eddy flux tower measurements between the respective fields at the research farm Scheyern, North-West of Munich, Germany. To perform these simulations, we coupled the ecosystem model Expert-N 5.0 to an analytical footprint model. The coupled model system has the ability to calculate the mixing ratio of the surface energy fluxes at a given point within one grid cell (in this case at the flux tower between the two fields). This approach accounts for the differences of the two soil types, of land use managements, and of canopy properties due to footprint size dynamics. Our preliminary simulation results show that a mosaic approach can improve modeling and analyzing energy fluxes when the land surface is heterogeneous. In this case our applied method is a promising approach to extend weather and climate models on the regional and on the global scale.

  19. Was That Assumption Necessary? Reconsidering Boundary Conditions for Analytical Solutions to Estimate Streambed Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Charles H.; Tonina, Daniele; Applebee, Ralph; DeWeese, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Two common refrains about using the one-dimensional advection diffusion equation to estimate fluid fluxes and thermal conductivity from temperature time series in streambeds are that the solution assumes that (1) the surface boundary condition is a sine wave or nearly so, and (2) there is no gradient in mean temperature with depth. Although the mathematical posing of the problem in the original solution to the problem might lead one to believe these constraints exist, the perception that they are a source of error is a fallacy. Here we develop a mathematical proof demonstrating the equivalence of the solution as developed based on an arbitrary (Fourier integral) surface temperature forcing when evaluated at a single given frequency versus that derived considering a single frequency from the beginning. The implication is that any single frequency can be used in the frequency-domain solutions to estimate thermal diffusivity and 1-D fluid flux in streambeds, even if the forcing has multiple frequencies. This means that diurnal variations with asymmetric shapes or gradients in the mean temperature with depth are not actually assumptions, and deviations from them should not cause errors in estimates. Given this clarification, we further explore the potential for using information at multiple frequencies to augment the information derived from time series of temperature.

  20. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy

  1. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy

  2. Energy-latitude dispersion patterns near the isotropy boundaries of energetic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaeva, S. A.; Apatenkov, S. V.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Dubyagin, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Non-adiabatic motion of plasma sheet protons causes pitch-angle scattering and isotropic precipitation to the ionosphere, which forms the proton auroral oval. This mechanism related to current sheet scattering (CSS) provides a specific energy-latitude dispersion pattern near the equatorward boundary of proton isotropic precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB), with precipitation sharply decreasing at higher (lower) latitude for protons with lower (higher) energy. However, this boundary maps to the inner magnetosphere, where wave-induced scattering may provide different dispersion patterns as recently demonstrated by Liang et al. (2014). Motivated by the potential usage of the IBs for the magnetotail monitoring as well as by the need to better understand the mechanisms forming the proton IB, we investigate statistically the details of particle flux patterns near the proton IB using NOAA-POES polar spacecraft observations made during September 2009. By comparing precipitated-to-trapped flux ratio (J0/J90) at >30 and >80 keV proton energies, we found a relatively small number of simple CSS-type dispersion events (only 31 %). The clear reversed (wave-induced) dispersion patterns were very rare (5 %). The most frequent pattern had nearly coinciding IBs at two energies (63 %). The structured precipitation with multiple IBs was very frequent (60 %), that is, with two or more significant J0/J90 dropouts. The average latitudinal width of multiple IB structures was about 1°. Investigation of dozens of paired auroral zone crossings of POES satellites showed that the IB pattern is stable on a timescale of less than 2 min (a few proton bounce periods) but can evolve on a longer (several minutes) scale, suggesting temporal changes in some mesoscale structures in the equatorial magnetosphere. We discuss the possible role of CSS-related and wave-induced mechanisms and their possible coupling to interpret the emerging complicated patterns of proton isotropy boundaries.

  3. AMANDA Observations Constrain the Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    A number of experimental techniques are currently being deployed in an effort to make the first detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. To accomplish this goal, techniques using radio and acoustic detectors are being developed, which are optimally designed for studying neutrinos with energies in the PeV-EeV range and above. Data from the AMANDA experiment, in contrast, has been used to place limits on the cosmic neutrino flux at less extreme energies (up to {approx}10 PeV). In this letter, we show that by adopting a different analysis strategy, optimized for much higher energy neutrinos, the same AMANDA data can be used to place a limit competitive with radio techniques at EeV energies. We also discuss the sensitivity of the IceCube experiment, in various stages of deployment, to ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  4. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Med udgangspunkt i kompleksistetsforskning og studiet af selvorganiserende systemer beskriver lb Ravn den fysiske og biologiske evolution og menneskets udvikling. Han fortolker begreber som kultur, sprog, frihed, værdier, mening, smerte og det ondes problem i lyset af en procesbaseret ontologi...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  5. Energy Input Flux in the Global Quiet-Sun Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Cormack, Cecilia; Vásquez, Alberto M.; López Fuentes, Marcelo; Nuevo, Federico A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, CC 67—Suc 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering (CLaSP), University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present first results of a novel technique that provides, for the first time, constraints on the energy input flux at the coronal base ( r ∼ 1.025 R {sub ⊙}) of the quiet Sun at a global scale. By combining differential emission measure tomography of EUV images, with global models of the coronal magnetic field, we estimate the energy input flux at the coronal base that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. The technique is described in detail and first applied to data provided by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument, on board the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, for two solar rotations with different levels of activity. Our analysis indicates that the typical energy input flux at the coronal base of magnetic loops in the quiet Sun is in the range ∼0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 5} (erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), depending on the structure size and level of activity. A large fraction of this energy input, or even its totality, could be accounted for by Alfvén waves, as shown by recent independent observational estimates derived from determinations of the non-thermal broadening of spectral lines in the coronal base of quiet-Sun regions. This new tomography product will be useful for the validation of coronal heating models in magnetohydrodinamic simulations of the global corona.

  6. Scale dependent controls of stream water temperatures - interaction of advective and diffusive energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Weiler, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal stream water temperature amplitudes (WTA) have a large impact on local ecohydrological conditions, e.g. aquatic habitat quality or biogeochemical cycling. Depending on discharge, streambed geomorphology, connectivity to the groundwater, hyporheic exchange flow and other local factors such as shading and climate conditions observable WTAs vary strongly from up- to downstream and can locally even exceed seasonal temperature variations. The main process which is responsible for the local expression of WTA is the energy balance which can be either dominated by advective energy fluxes (e. g. discharge and upwelling groundwater) or by diffusive energy fluxes (e. g. radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, heat exchange with the streambed). In recent years research has mainly focused on improving our knowledge how groundwater-surface water interaction, hyporheic exchange and shading processes influence locally observable WTA in smaller streams, while for larger streams or rivers WTA might even be non-observable throughout the year. Within this study we analyze the scaling behavior of advective and diffusive energy fluxes from small to large streams to better understand on which scales and under which conditions WTA might be dominated either by advective or diffusive energy fluxes and how groundwater - surface water interaction influences this relationship. For this purpose, we carried out a synthetic model study. Using published hydraulic geometry relations for different types of rivers, we apply a conceptual energy balance- and mixing model, which includes GW-SW interaction, discharges from 100 l/s up to 50 m3/s on length scales from 100 m up to 50 km. Simulated boundary conditions were constant discharges at the upstream boundary and constant and uniformly distributed exchange fluxes to the groundwater. Upstream water temperatures were 15 °C (WTA of 5 °C), while groundwater temperature was assumed to be cooler than the stream with 9°C. Net diffusive energy

  7. Allocating and Splitting Free Energy to Maximize Molecular Machine Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aidan I; Sivak, David A

    2018-02-01

    Biomolecular machines transduce between different forms of energy. These machines make directed progress and increase their speed by consuming free energy, typically in the form of nonequilibrium chemical concentrations. Machine dynamics are often modeled by transitions between a set of discrete metastable conformational states. In general, the free-energy change associated with each transition can increase the forward rate constant, decrease the reverse rate constant, or both. In contrast to previous optimizations, we find that in general flux is maximized neither by devoting all free-energy changes to increasing forward rate constants nor by solely decreasing reverse rate constants. Instead, the optimal free-energy splitting depends on the detailed dynamics. Extending our analysis to machines with vulnerable states (from which they can break down), in the strong driving corresponding to in vivo cellular conditions, processivity is maximized by reducing the occupation of the vulnerable state.

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over a lake: comparison between eddy covariance, floating chambers and boundary layer method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-M. Erkkilä

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwaters bring a notable contribution to the global carbon budget by emitting both carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 to the atmosphere. Global estimates of freshwater emissions traditionally use a wind-speed-based gas transfer velocity, kCC (introduced by Cole and Caraco, 1998, for calculating diffusive flux with the boundary layer method (BLM. We compared CH4 and CO2 fluxes from BLM with kCC and two other gas transfer velocities (kTE and kHE, which include the effects of water-side cooling to the gas transfer besides shear-induced turbulence, with simultaneous eddy covariance (EC and floating chamber (FC fluxes during a 16-day measurement campaign in September 2014 at Lake Kuivajärvi in Finland. The measurements included both lake stratification and water column mixing periods. Results show that BLM fluxes were mainly lower than EC, with the more recent model kTE giving the best fit with EC fluxes, whereas FC measurements resulted in higher fluxes than simultaneous EC measurements. We highly recommend using up-to-date gas transfer models, instead of kCC, for better flux estimates. BLM CO2 flux measurements had clear differences between daytime and night-time fluxes with all gas transfer models during both stratified and mixing periods, whereas EC measurements did not show a diurnal behaviour in CO2 flux. CH4 flux had higher values in daytime than night-time during lake mixing period according to EC measurements, with highest fluxes detected just before sunset. In addition, we found clear differences in daytime and night-time concentration difference between the air and surface water for both CH4 and CO2. This might lead to biased flux estimates, if only daytime values are used in BLM upscaling and flux measurements in general. FC measurements did not detect spatial variation in either CH4 or CO2 flux over Lake Kuivajärvi. EC measurements, on the other hand, did not show any spatial variation in CH4 fluxes but did show a clear difference

  9. Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swinburn, Boyd A; Sacks, Gary; Lo, Sing Kai; Westerterp, Klaas R; Rush, Elaine C; Rosenbaum, Michael; Luke, Amy; Schoeller, Dale A; DeLany, James P; Butte, Nancy F; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    ...) and total energy intake (TEI), or energy flux (EnFlux = TEE = TEI). The objective was to develop an equation relating EnFlux to body weight in adults for estimating the rise in EnFlux associated with the obesity epidemic...

  10. Determination of regional surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscapes by integrating satellite remote sensing with boundary layer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: satellite remote sensing, surface layer observations, atmospheric boundary layer observations, land surface variables, vegetation variables, land surface heat fluxes, validation, heterogeneous landscape,

  11. Determination of regional surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscapes by integrating satellite remote sensing with boundary layer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: satellite remote sensing, surface layer observations, atmospheric boundary layer observations, land surface variables, vegetation variables, land surface heat fluxes, validation, heterogeneous landscape,

  12. Observation of distinct, temperature dependent flux noise near bicrystal grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-x films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, K. R.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the magnetic flux noise in high temperature superconducting thin-films of yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa2Cu3O7) in the vicinity of artificial grain boundaries have been studied by means of a low critical temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID...

  13. The total energy flux leaving the ocean's mixed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimac, Antonija; von Storch, Jin-Song; Eden, Carsten

    2017-04-01

    Interior density mixing contributes to drive the large-scale ocean circulation. The energy needed for this mixing is believed to be supplied predominantly by the tidal and wind forcing. In this study, we focus on the wind-power input to three different types of motions, that is, near-inertial waves, sub-inertial fluctuations, and time-mean flows. Surface winds can generate near-inertial waves which propagate freely into the ocean's interior and after escaping the mixed layer contribute to interior mixing. Winds also input power into the ocean to maintain the time-mean circulation and to generate sub-inertial fluctuations, either by the vertical or horizontal shear instability of the large-scale flows, or directly via wind induced fluctuations at the ocean surface. The energy of both the sub-inertial fluctuations and the time-mean flow will be eventually dissipated (or transferred to the internal gravity wave field or small scale turbulence). However, the exact portion of the power that escapes the turbulent mixed layer and that can potentially affect the interior mixing, is still unknown. The total energy flux leaving the ocean's spatially and seasonally varying mixed layer is estimated using a global 1/10° ocean general circulation model. From the total wind-power input of 3.33 TW into near-inertial waves (0.35 TW) sub-inertial fluctuations (0.87 TW), and the time-mean circulation (2.11 TW), 0.92 TW leave the mixed layer; with 0.04 TW (11.4%) due to near-inertial motions, 0.07 TW (8.3%) due to sub-inertial fluctuations, and 0.81 TW (38.4%) due to time-mean motions. Of the 0.81 TW from the time-mean motions, 0.5 TW result from the projection of the horizontal flux onto the sloped bottom of the mixed layer. This projection is negligible for the transient fluxes. The spatial structure of the vertical flux is determined principally by the wind stress curl. The mean and sub-inertial fluxes leaving the mixed layer are approximately 40-50% smaller than the respective

  14. Energy Conversion Loops for Flux-Switching PM Machine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction and synchronous machines have traditionally been the first choice of automotive manufacturers for electric/hybrid vehicles. However, these conventional machines are not able anymore to meet the increasing demands for a higher energy density due to space limitation in cars. Flux-switching PM (FSPM machines with their high energy density are very suitable to answer this demand. In this paper, the energy conversion loop technique is implemented on FSPM for the first time. The energy conversion technique is a powerful tool for the visualization of machine characteristics, both linear and nonlinear. Further, the technique provides insight into the torque production mechanism. A stepwise explanation is given on how to create these loops for FSPM along with the machine operation.

  15. Carbon balance and energy fluxes of a Mediterranean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Consoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a long-term mass (carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy (solar radiation balance monitoring programme carried out during years 2010 and 2012 in an irrigated orange orchard in Sicily, using the Eddy Covariance (EC method. Orange (Citrus sinensis L. is one of the main fruit crops worldwide and its evergreen orchard may have a great potential for carbon sequestration, but few data are currently available. In the study, the role of the orchard system in sequestering atmospheric CO2 was analyzed, thus contributing to assess the carbon balance of the specie in the specific environment.Vertical energy fluxes of net radiation, soil heat, sensible heat and latent heat fluxes were measured at orchard scale by EC. Evapotranspiration (ET values were compared with upscaled transpiration data determined by the sap flow heat pulse technique, evidencing the degree of correspondence between instantaneous transpirational flux at tree level and the micrometeorological measurement of ET at orchard level.

  16. Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows

    KAUST Repository

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-05-14

    Two well-known turbulence models to describe the inertial and dissipative ranges simultaneously are by Pao~[Phys. Fluids {\\\\bf 8}, 1063 (1965)] and Pope~[{\\\\em Turbulent Flows.} Cambridge University Press, 2000]. In this paper, we compute energy spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k)$ and $\\\\Pi(k)$ to be of the form $\\\\exp(-k)$, and verify the model predictions using numerical simulations. The shell-to-shell energy transfers for the turbulent flows are {\\\\em forward and local} for both inertial and dissipative range, but those for the laminar flows are {\\\\em forward and nonlocal}.

  17. β-distribution for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux in relaxation turbulent boundary layer of compression ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YanChao; Bi, WeiTao; Li, ShiYao; She, ZhenSu

    2017-12-01

    A challenge in the study of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) is to understand the non-equilibrium relaxation process after sep-aration and reattachment due to shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. The classical boundary layer theory cannot deal with the strong adverse pressure gradient, and hence, the computational modeling of this process remains inaccurate. Here, we report the direct numerical simulation results of the relaxation TBL behind a compression ramp, which reveal the presence of intense large-scale eddies, with significantly enhanced Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux. A crucial finding is that the wall-normal profiles of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux obey a β-distribution, which is a product of two power laws with respect to the wall-normal distances from the wall and from the boundary layer edge. In addition, the streamwise decays of the excess Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux also exhibit power laws with respect to the streamwise distance from the corner of the compression ramp. These results suggest that the relaxation TBL obeys the dilation symmetry, which is a specific form of self-organization in this complex non-equilibrium flow. The β-distribution yields important hints for the development of a turbulence model.

  18. Assessment of surface turbulent fluxes using geostationary satellite surface skin temperatures and a mixed layer planetary boundary layer scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, George R.; Stewart, Tod R.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the fluxes of sensible and latent heating at the land surface, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes in a composite surface layer-mixed layer representation of the planetary boundary layer. The basic prognostic model is tested by comparison with synoptic station information at sites where surface evaporation climatology is well known. The remote sensing version of the model, using satellite-measured surface temperature changes, is then used to quantify the sharp spatial gradient in surface heating/evaporation across the central United States. An error analysis indicates that perhaps five levels of evaporation are recognizable by these methods and that the chief cause of error is the interaction of errors in the measurement of surface temperature change with errors in the assigment of surface roughness character. Finally, two new potential methods for remote sensing of the land-surface energy balance are suggested which will relay on space-borne instrumentation planned for the 1990s.

  19. Reconstruction of soil surface temperature via Fourier analysis to quantify surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Gabriele; Wollschläger, Ute; Roth, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Quantifying the surface energy and water balance is a prerequisite for understanding the complex interplay between the atmospheric and terrestrial part of the earth. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the partitioning of the incoming solar energy into ground heat flux, latent and sensible heat. The amount of evaporating water can be measured by the expensive and elaborated eddy-covariance method, but in general measurements of surface fluxes are difficult to obtain. This is why they are often determined from more theoretical approaches based on energy budget calculations at the soil surface. To compute, e.g., the latent heat portion, this indirect methods, like Penman-Monteith, make use of various atmospheric quantities, but usually lack information about the temperature right at the soil surface which therefore needs to be approximated. We investigate synthetic and field measured soil temperature data via Fourier analysis to extract the frequency information of temperature readings in different depths. This allows us to determine the apparent thermal soil diffusivity and to project back all frequency components from within the soil profile towards the surface. This yields a reconstruction of the temperature at the upper soil boundary which can directly be used to calculate the energy balance at the interface to the atmosphere. We will present the performance of the projection for synthetic data for which the method could be validated very well. Assumptions and approximations made will be discussed. Furthermore, we will demonstrate its application to field-measured data from our test site next to Heidelberg, Germany.

  20. An adjoint view on flux consistency and strong wall boundary conditions to the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stück, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Inconsistent discrete expressions in the boundary treatment of Navier-Stokes solvers and in the definition of force objective functionals can lead to discrete-adjoint boundary treatments that are not a valid representation of the boundary conditions to the corresponding adjoint partial differential equations. The underlying problem is studied for an elementary 1D advection-diffusion problem first using a node-centred finite-volume discretisation. The defect of the boundary operators in the inconsistently defined discrete-adjoint problem leads to oscillations and becomes evident with the additional insight of the continuous-adjoint approach. A homogenisation of the discretisations for the primal boundary treatment and the force objective functional yields second-order functional accuracy and eliminates the defect in the discrete-adjoint boundary treatment. Subsequently, the issue is studied for aerodynamic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes problems in conjunction with a standard finite-volume discretisation on median-dual grids and a strong implementation of noslip walls, found in many unstructured general-purpose flow solvers. Going out from a base-line discretisation of force objective functionals which is independent of the boundary treatment in the flow solver, two improved flux-consistent schemes are presented; based on either body wall-defined or farfield-defined control-volumes they resolve the dual inconsistency. The behaviour of the schemes is investigated on a sequence of grids in 2D and 3D.

  1. Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid in the presence of second order slip, constant heat flux and zero nanoparticles flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Rashdi, Maryam H. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Pop, I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid is investigated. • Second order slip increases the rate of shear stress and decreases the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid. • In nanofluid flow zero normal flux of the nanoparticles at the surface is realistic to apply. • Multiple solutions are identified for certain values of the parameter space. • The upper branch solution is found to be stable, hence physically realizable. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of the second order slip, constant heat flux, and zero normal flux of the nanoparticles due to thermophoresis on the convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics in a nanofluid using Buongiorno's model over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied theoretically. The nonlinear coupled similarity equations are solved using the function bvp4c using Matlab. Similarity solutions of the flow, heat transfer and nanoparticles volume fraction are presented graphically for several values of the model parameters. The results show that the application of second order slip at the interface is found to be increased the rate of shear stress and decreased the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid, so need to be taken into account in nanofluid modeling. The results further indicate that multiple solutions exist for certain values of the parameter space. The stability analysis provides guarantee that the lower branch solution is unstable, while the upper branch solution is stable and physically realizable.

  2. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  3. Thermodynamic limit and boundary energy of the SU(3) spin chain with non-diagonal boundary fields

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Fakai; Yang, Tao; Yang, Zhanying; Cao, Junpeng; Hao, Kun; Yang, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic limit of the su(n) -invariant spin chain models with unparallel boundary fields. It is found that the contribution of the inhomogeneous term in the associated T – Q relation to the ground state energy does vanish in the thermodynamic limit. This fact allows us to calculate the boundary energy of the system. Taking the su(2) (or the XXX) spin chain and the su(3) spin chain as concrete examples, we have studied the corresponding boundary energies of the models. ...

  4. Surface energy balance closure in an arid region: role of soil and heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Berkowicz, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The large soil heat fluxes in hot desert regions are very important in energy balance studies. Surface energy balance (SEB) observations, however, reveal that there is an imbalance in Surface flux measurements and that it is difficult to isolate those flux measurements causing the imbalance errors.

  5. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes

    OpenAIRE

    I. P. Pakhotin; A. Y. Drozdov; Yuri Shprits; R. J. Boynton; D. A. Subbotin; M. A. Balikhin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system ...

  6. Radiative forcing from aircraft emissions of NOx: model calculations with CH4 surface flux boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two independent chemistry-transport models with troposphere-stratosphere coupling are used to quantify the different components of the radiative forcing (RF from aircraft emissions of NOx, i.e., the University of L'Aquila climate-chemistry model (ULAQ-CCM and the University of Oslo chemistry-transport model (Oslo-CTM3. The tropospheric NOx enhancement due to aircraft emissions produces a short-term O3 increase with a positive RF (+17.3 mW/m2 (as an average value of the two models. This is partly compensated by the CH4 decrease due to the OH enhancement (−9.4 mW/m2. The latter is a long-term response calculated using a surface CH4 flux boundary condition (FBC, with at least 50 years needed for the atmospheric CH4 to reach steady state. The radiative balance is also affected by the decreasing amount of CO2 produced at the end of the CH4 oxidation chain: an average CO2 accumulation change of −2.2 ppbv/yr is calculated on a 50 year time horizon (−1.6 mW/m2. The aviation perturbed amount of CH4 induces a long-term response of tropospheric O3 mostly due to less HO2 and CH3O2 being available for O3 production, compared with the reference case where a constant CH4 surface mixing ratio boundary condition is used (MBC (−3.9 mW/m2. The CH4 decrease induces a long-term response of stratospheric H2O (−1.4 mW/m2. The latter finally perturbs HOx and NOx in the stratosphere, with a more efficient NOx cycle for mid-stratospheric O3 depletion and a decreased O3 production from HO2+NO in the lower stratosphere. This produces a long-term stratospheric O3 loss, with a negative RF (−1.2 mW/m2, compared with the CH4 MBC case. Other contributions to the net NOx RF are those due to NO2 absorption of UV-A and aerosol perturbations (the latter calculated only in the ULAQ-CCM. These comprise: increasing sulfate due to more efficient oxidation of SO2, increasing inorganic and organic nitrates and the net aerosols indirect effect on warm clouds

  7. Heat transfer augmentation using nanofluids in an elliptic annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Dawood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work reports numerical simulation for three dimensional laminar mixed convective heat transfers at different nanofluids flow in an elliptic annulus with constant heat flux. A numerical model is carried out by solving the governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy using the finite volume method (FVM with the assistance of SIMPLE algorithm. Four different types of nanofluids Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and ZnO, with different nanoparticles size 20, 40, 60 and 80 nm, and different volume fractions ranged from 0% to 4% using water as a base fluid were used. This investigation covers a Reynolds number in the range of 200 to 1000. The results revealed that SiO2–Water nanofluid has the highest Nusselt number, followed by Al2O3–Water, ZnO–Water, CuO–Water, and lastly pure water. The Nusselt number increased as the nanoparticle volume fraction and Reynolds number increased; however, it decreased as the nanoparticle diameter increased. It is found that the glycerine–SiO2 shows the best heat transfer enhancement compared with other tested base fluids.

  8. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrich R.; Holzwarth, Volkmar; Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and Jupiter, along with those of rapidly rotating, low-mass stars, are generated by convection-driven dynamos that may operate similarly (the slowly rotating Sun generates its field through a different dynamo mechanism). The field strengths of planets and stars vary over three orders of magnitude, but the critical factor causing that variation has hitherto been unclear. Here we report an extension of a scaling law derived from geodynamo models to rapidly rotating stars that have strong density stratification. The unifying principle in the scaling law is that the energy flux available for generating the magnetic field sets the field strength. Our scaling law fits the observed field strengths of Earth, Jupiter, young contracting stars and rapidly rotating low-mass stars, despite vast differences in the physical conditions of the objects. We predict that the field strengths of rapidly rotating brown dwarfs and massive extrasolar planets are high enough to make them observable.

  9. Regional warming of hot extremes accelerated by surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Strong regional differences exist in how hot temperature extremes increase under global warming. Using an ensemble of coupled climate models, we examine the regional warming rates of hot extremes relative to annual average warming rates in the same regions. We identify hot spots of accelerated warming of model-simulated hot extremes in Europe, North America, South America, and Southeast China. These hot spots indicate where the warm tail of a distribution of temperatures increases faster than the average and are robust across most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. Exploring the conditions on the specific day when the hot extreme occurs demonstrates that the hot spots are explained by changes in the surface energy fluxes consistent with drying soils. However, the model-simulated accelerated warming of hot extremes appears inconsistent with observations, except over Europe. The simulated acceleration of hot extremes may therefore be unreliable, a result that necessitates a reevaluation of how climate models resolve the relevant terrestrial processes.

  10. Fluxes of water and energy in physically heterogeneous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breshears, D.D.; Barnes, F.J.; Davenport, D.W. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluxes of water and energy at the near-surface environment are tightly interrelated with a heterogeneous vegetation pattern that is a mosaic of tree canopies and intercanopy area. The objective was to improve the ability to predict these interrelationships, which are not well quantified. The authors (1) quantified how vegetation overstory determines the patterns of soil moisture and near-ground solar radiation, (2) developed spatial neighborhood analyses that demonstrated how woody plants exploit canopy/intercanopy heterogeneity, (3) developed a spatially explicit model for predicting near-ground solar radiation for sites along a grassland-forest continuum, (4) developed a water balance model that predicted temporal shifts in soil moisture between canopy and intercanopy patches, and (5) used the collective results to assess large-scale ecosystem responses to climate variations that lead to accelerated soil erosion.

  11. Revisit boundary conditions for the self-adjoint angular flux formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We revisit the boundary conditions for SAAF. We derived the equivalent parity variational form ready for coding up. The more rigorous approach of evaluating odd parity should be solving the odd parity equation coupled with the even parity. We proposed a symmetric reflecting boundary condition although neither positive definiteness nor even-odd decoupling is achieved. A simple numerical test verifies the validity of these boundary conditions.

  12. Observations of elevated Atlantic water heat fluxes at the boundary of the Arctic Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Benjamin; Rippeth, Tom; Lenn, Yueng; Bacon, Sheldon

    2014-05-01

    The well documented decline in Arctic Sea Ice cover over the past 30 years has outpaced global models as warming in Polar Regions occurs faster than the global mean. The thermohaline circulation brings warm water from the Atlantic Ocean into the Arctic basin. This Atlantic water circulates at depth and contains sufficient heat to melt the sea ice cover several times over. Recent studies have shown that this Atlantic water has warmed and shoaled over recent decades (Polyakov et al, 2010). The stability of the upper Arctic Ocean has also changed, with stratification reduced in the Eurasian basin but increased in the Canada basin. Along with an increased availability of heat the reduction in sea ice cover allows greater potential for wind to input energy to the ocean to vertically mix heat to the surface and further melt sea ice. Direct measurements of vertical mixing rates across the Arctic are essential to understanding the changes in this supply of heat from below, but are scarce due to the challenges of making such measurements in the harsh Arctic environment. We present measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (ɛ) within the top 500 m of the water column using microstructure measurements made both in open water and under ice during 4 different years. Mean rates of dissipation in the Atlantic water thermocline are calculated and compared for data collected in the European, Siberian and Canadian Arctic, including measurements from 2007 and 2012 when record minimum sea ice extents were recorded. Diapycnal heat fluxes from the mean Atlantic water dissipation rates were calculated from these mean dissipation rates and show significant variation across the Arctic Basin. Profiles in the deep basin generally revealed very low rates of dissipation were low ɛJournal of Physical Oceanography (2010)

  13. Scalings for unsteady natural convection boundary layers on an evenly heated plate with time-dependent heating flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenxian; Armfield, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    It is of fundamental significance, especially with regard to application, to fully understand the flow behavior of unsteady natural convection boundary layers on a vertical plate heated by a time-dependent heat flux. Such an understanding is currently scarce. In this paper, the scaling analysis by Lin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 79, 066313 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.066313] using a simple three-region structure for the unsteady natural convection boundary layer of a homogeneous Newtonian fluid with Pr >1 under isothermal heating was substantially extended for the case when the heating is due to a time-varying sinusoidal heat flux. A series of scalings was developed for the thermal boundary thickness, the plate temperature, the viscous boundary thicknesses, and the maximum vertical velocity within the boundary layer, which are the major parameters representing the flow behavior, in terms of the governing parameters of the flow, i.e., the Rayleigh number Ra, the Prandtl number Pr, and the dimensionless natural frequency fn of the time-varying sinusoidal heat flux, at the start-up stage, at the transition time scale which represents the ending of the start-up stage and the beginning of the transitional stage of the boundary-layer development, and at the quasi-steady stage. These scalings were validated by comparison to 10 full numerical solutions of the governing equations with Ra, Pr, and fn in the ranges 106≤Ra≤109, 3≤Pr≤100, and 0.01≤fn≤0.1 and were shown in general to provide an accurate description of the flow at different development stages, except for high-Pr runs in which a further, although weak, Pr dependence is present, which cannot be accurately predicted by the current scaling analysis using the simple three-region structure, attributed to the non-boundary-layer nature of the velocity field with high-Pr fluids. Some scalings at the transition time scale and at the quasi-steady stage also produce noticeable deviations from the numerical results when

  14. Potential feedbacks between snow cover, soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stordal, Frode

    2017-04-01

    At high latitudes, the snow season has become shorter during the past decades because snowmelt is highly sensitive to a warmer climate. Snowmelt influences the energy balance by changing the albedo and the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. It further influences the water balance by changing the runoff and soil moisture. In a previous study, we identified southern Norway as a region where significant temperature changes in summer could potentially be explained by land-atmosphere interactions. In this study we hypothesise that changes in snow cover would influence the summer surface fluxes in the succeeding weeks or months. The exceptionally warm summer of 2014 was chosen as a test bed. In Norway, evapotranspiration is not soil moisture limited, but energy limited, under normal conditions. During warm summers, however, such as in 2014, evapotranspiration can be restricted by the available soil moisture. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model we replace the initial ground conditions for 2014 with conditions representative of a snow-poor spring and a snow-rich spring. WRF was coupled to Noah-MP at 3 km horizontal resolution in the inner domain, and the simulations covered mid-May through September 2014. Boundary conditions used to force WRF were taken from the Era-Interim reanalysis. Snow, runoff, soil moisture and soil temperature observational data were provided by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate for validation. The validation shows generally good agreement with observations. Preliminary results show that the reduced snowpack, hereafter "sim1" increased the air temperature by up to 5 K and the surface temperature by up to 10 K in areas affected by snow changes. The increased snowpack, hereafter "sim2", decreased the air and surface temperature by the same amount. These are weekly mean values for the first eight simulation weeks from mid May. Because of the higher net energy available ( 100 Wm-2) in sim 1, both

  15. The magnitude of the snow-sourced reactive nitrogen flux to the boundary layer in the Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zatko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr  =  NO, NO2, HONO and volatile organic carbon emissions from oil and gas extraction activities play a major role in wintertime ground-level ozone exceedance events of up to 140 ppb in the Uintah Basin in eastern Utah. Such events occur only when the ground is snow covered, due to the impacts of snow on the stability and depth of the boundary layer and ultraviolet actinic flux at the surface. Recycling of reactive nitrogen from the photolysis of snow nitrate has been observed in polar and mid-latitude snow, but snow-sourced reactive nitrogen fluxes in mid-latitude regions have not yet been quantified in the field. Here we present vertical profiles of snow nitrate concentration and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N collected during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study 2014 (UBWOS 2014, along with observations of insoluble light-absorbing impurities, radiation equivalent mean ice grain radii, and snow density that determine snow optical properties. We use the snow optical properties and nitrate concentrations to calculate ultraviolet actinic flux in snow and the production of Nr from the photolysis of snow nitrate. The observed δ15N(NO3− is used to constrain modeled fractional loss of snow nitrate in a snow chemistry column model, and thus the source of Nr to the overlying boundary layer. Snow-surface δ15N(NO3− measurements range from −5 to 10 ‰ and suggest that the local nitrate burden in the Uintah Basin is dominated by primary emissions from anthropogenic sources, except during fresh snowfall events, where remote NOx sources from beyond the basin are dominant. Modeled daily averaged snow-sourced Nr fluxes range from 5.6 to 71  ×  107 molec cm−2 s−1 over the course of the field campaign, with a maximum noontime value of 3.1  ×  109 molec cm−2 s−1. The top-down emission estimate of primary, anthropogenic NOx in Uintah and Duchesne counties is at least 300 times higher than

  16. Electron Flux Models for Different Energies at Geostationary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, R. J.; Balikhin, M. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walker, S. N.; Billings, S. A.; Ganushkina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Forecast models were derived for energetic electrons at all energy ranges sampled by the third-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These models were based on Multi-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous inputs methodologies. The model inputs include the solar wind velocity, density and pressure, the fraction of time that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the IMF contribution of a solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function proposed by Boynton et al. (2011b), and the Dst index. As such, this study has deduced five new 1 h resolution models for the low-energy electrons measured by GOES (30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV, 200-350 keV, and 350-600 keV) and extended the existing >800 keV and >2 MeV Geostationary Earth Orbit electron fluxes models to forecast at a 1 h resolution. All of these models were shown to provide accurate forecasts, with prediction efficiencies ranging between 66.9% and 82.3%.

  17. Effect of boundary heat flux on solidification in a forced liquid metal flow: a phase-field simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lifei; Zhang, Rong

    2014-12-01

    A phase-field model coupling with velocity field is employed to study the effect of boundary heat flux on the microstructure formation of a Ni-40.8%Cu alloy with liquid flow during the solidification, and an anti-trapping current is introduced to suppress the solute trapping due to the larger interface width used in simulations than a real solidifying material. The effect of the flow field coupling with boundary heat extractions on the microstructure formation as well as distributions of concentration and temperature fields are analyzed and discussed. The forced liquid flow can significantly affect the heat and solute diffusions, thus influencing morphology formation, concentration and temperature distributions during the solidification. The solute segregation and concentration diffusion are changed by boundary heat extractions, and the morphology, concentration and temperature distributions are significantly influenced by increasing the heat extraction, which relatively makes the effect of liquid flow constrained. By increasing the initial velocity of liquid flow, the lopsided rate of the primary dendrite arm is enlarged and the growth manner of dendrite arms gets changed, and the transition of the microstructure from dendrite to cellular moves to the large heat extraction direction. Therefore, there exists the competition between the heat flux, temperature gradient and forced liquid flow that finally determines the microstructure formation during directional solidification.

  18. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter ...

  19. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, ...

  20. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy covariance technique ... Eddy covariance; Indian deciduous forests; CO2 flux; heat flux. ... National Remote Sensing Centre (ISRO), Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037, India.

  1. Explicit Solutions for the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s Mushy Zone Model with Convective or Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo A. Tarzia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We complete the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s mushy zone model (Solomon, 1982 for the one-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem by obtaining explicit solutions when a convective or heat flux boundary condition is imposed on the fixed face for a semi-infinite material. We also obtain the necessary and sufficient condition on data in order to get the explicit solutions for both cases which is new with respect to the original model. Moreover, when these conditions are satisfied, the two phase-change problems are equivalent to the same problem with a temperature boundary condition on the fixed face and therefore an inequality for the coefficient which characterized one of the two free interfaces of the model is also obtained.

  2. A bulk similarity approach in the atmospheric boundary layer using radiometric skin temperature to determine regional surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Sugita, Michiaki

    1991-01-01

    Profiles of wind velocity and temperature in the outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were used together with surface temperature measurements, to determine regional shear stress and sensible heat flux by means of transfer parameterizations on the basis of bulk similarity. The profiles were measured by means of radiosondes and the surface temperatures by infrared radiation thermometry over hilly prairie terrain in northeastern Kansas during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). In the analysis, the needed similarity functions were determined and tested.

  3. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  4. Relationships Among Canopy Scale Energy Fluxes and Isoprene Flux Using Eddy Covariance Measurements Over Multiple Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B. K.; Westberg, H.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is one of the most abundant biogenic trace gases in the troposphere. Biogenic trace gases affect tropospheric chemistry by forming gaseous and particulate secondary products in conjunction with anthropogenic emissions that contribute to the degradation of air quality. Our understanding of the impact isoprene has on tropospheric photochemistry is hampered by our limited knowledge of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange process, and thus the inability to accurately quantify the biogenic emission inventory. Isoprene emissions are regulated by many environmental variables; the most important variables are known to be temperature and light. The research summarized here seeks to improve our understanding of biogenic emissions from forest ecosystems as a basis for advancing our ability to describe the role of biogenics in regional and global atmospheric chemical cycles. Biogenic emission models, such as BEIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory System) rely on above canopy environmental parameters and below canopy scaling factors to estimate canopy scale biogenic hydrocarbon fluxes. This type of model can predict biogenic emissions well, however, the required input is extensive, and for regional applications, it can be cumbersome. Based on the assumption that isoprene emission rates are enzymatic (a function of temperature, light, and historical temperature), we propose that sensible heat flux can be a surrogate for above canopy temperature and light when estimating isoprene fluxes at the canopy scale. In addition, sensible heat flux may be a better indicator of the canopy interaction with incoming energy, as opposed to scaling above canopy parameters. Thus, the use of surface energy fluxes such as sensible heat flux is an attempt to combine the biological (enzymatic) and meteorological processes that affect the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene. Since surface energy budgets are an integral part of mesoscale meteorological models, this could potentially be a useful

  5. Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.

    2002-01-01

    km x 2 km) model, and the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20-km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary-layer height. In this situation...... of the grid resolution of the HIRLAM model and therefore poorly resolved. For northerly winds, the water fetch to the measuring site is about 100 km. Both models reproduce the characteristics of the height of the marine boundary layer. This suggests that the HIRLAM model adequately resolves a water fetch...... of 100 km with respect to predictions of the height of the marine boundary layer....

  6. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used

  7. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the vertical...

  8. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the simulated...

  9. Carbon and energy fluxes in cropland ecosystems: a model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokupitiya, E.; Denning, A.S.; Schaefer, K.; Ricciuto, D.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Barr, A. G.; Chen, G.; Chen, J.M.; Ciais, P.; Cook, D.R.; Dietze, M.C.; El Maayar, M.; Fischer, M.; Grant, R.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, C.; Jain, A.; Kucharik, C.J.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Li, L.; Matamala, R.; Peylin, P.; Price, D.; Running, S. W.; Sahoo, A.; Sprintsin, M.; Suyker, A.E.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, Christina; Torn, M.S.; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, S.B.; Xue, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Croplands are highly productive ecosystems that contribute to land–atmosphere exchange of carbon, energy, and water during their short growing seasons. We evaluated and compared net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent heat flux (LE), and sensible heat flux (H) simulated by a suite of ecosystem models at five agricultural eddy covariance flux tower sites in the central United States as part of the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis project. Most of the models overestimated H and underestimated LE during the growing season, leading to overall higher Bowen ratios compared to the observations. Most models systematically under predicted NEE, especially at rain-fed sites. Certain crop-specific models that were developed considering the high productivity and associated physiological changes in specific crops better predicted the NEE and LE at both rain-fed and irrigated sites. Models with specific parameterization for different crops better simulated the inter-annual variability of NEE for maize-soybean rotation compared to those models with a single generic crop type. Stratification according to basic model formulation and phenological methodology did not explain significant variation in model performance across these sites and crops. The under prediction of NEE and LE and over prediction of H by most of the models suggests that models developed and parameterized for natural ecosystems cannot accurately predict the more robust physiology of highly bred and intensively managed crop ecosystems. When coupled in Earth System Models, it is likely that the excessive physiological stress simulated in many land surface component models leads to overestimation of temperature and atmospheric boundary layer depth, and underestimation of humidity and CO2 seasonal uptake over agricultural regions.

  10. Carbon and energy fluxes in cropland ecosystems: a model-data comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokupitiya, E.; Denning, A. S.; Schaefer, K.; Ricciuto, D.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I.; Barr, A. G.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. M.; Ciais, P.; Cook, D. R.; Dietze, M.; El Maayar, M.; Fischer, M.; Grant, R.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, C.; Jain, A.; Kucharik, C.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Li, L.; Matamala, R.; Peylin, P.; Price, D.; Running, S. W.; Sahoo, A.; Sprintsin, M.; Suyker, A. E.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Torn, M.; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, S. B.; Xue, Y.

    2016-06-03

    Croplands are highly productive ecosystems that contribute to land–atmosphere exchange of carbon, energy, and water during their short growing seasons. We evaluated and compared net ecosystem exchange (NEE), latent heat flux (LE), and sensible heat flux (H) simulated by a suite of ecosystem models at five agricultural eddy covariance flux tower sites in the central United States as part of the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis project. Most of the models overestimated H and underestimated LE during the growing season, leading to overall higher Bowen ratios compared to the observations. Most models systematically under predicted NEE, especially at rain-fed sites. Certain crop-specific models that were developed considering the high productivity and associated physiological changes in specific crops better predicted the NEE and LE at both rain-fed and irrigated sites. Models with specific parameterization for different crops better simulated the inter-annual variability of NEE for maize-soybean rotation compared to those models with a single generic crop type. Stratification according to basic model formulation and phenological methodology did not explain significant variation in model performance across these sites and crops. The under prediction of NEE and LE and over prediction of H by most of the models suggests that models developed and parameterized for natural ecosystems cannot accurately predict the more robust physiology of highly bred and intensively managed crop ecosystems. When coupled in Earth System Models, it is likely that the excessive physiological stress simulated in many land surface component models leads to overestimation of temperature and atmospheric boundary layer depth, and underestimation of humidity and CO2 seasonal uptake over agricultural regions.

  11. Single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a nearly uniform heat flux boundary condition in microchannels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Man

    2012-02-22

    A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Half-Space Temperature Field with a Movable Thermally Thin-Coated Boundary Under External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Vlasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice analytical methods of the mathematical theory of heat conduction hold a special place. This is due to many reasons, in particular, because of the fact that the solutions of the relevant problems represented in analytically closed form, can be used not only for a parametric analysis of the studied temperature field and to explore the specific features of its formation, but also to test the developed computational algorithms, which are aimed at solving real-world application heat and mass transfer problems. Difficulties arising when using the analytical mathematical theory methods of heat conduction in practice are well known. Also they are significantly exacerbated if the boundaries of the system under study are movable, even in the simplest case, when the law of motion is known.The main goal of the conducted research is to have an analytically closed-form problem solution for finding the orthotropic half-space temperature field, a boundary of which has thermally thin coating exposed to extremely concentrated stationary external heat flux and uniformly moves parallel to itself.The assumption that the covering of the boundary is thermally thin, allowed to realize the idea of \\concentrated capacity", that is to accept the hypothesis that the mean-thickness coating temperature is equal to the temperature of its boundaries. This assumption allowed us to reduce the problem under consideration to a mixed problem for a parabolic equation with a specific boundary condition.The Hankel integral transform of zero order with respect to the radial variable and the Laplace transform with respect to the temporal variable were used to solve the reduced problem. These techniques have allowed us to submit the required solution as an iterated integral.

  13. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Folini, Doris; Schwarz, Matthias; Zyta Hakuba, Maria; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland). This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation). Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  14. GEOTAIL observation of tilted X-line formation during flux transfer events (FTEs in the dayside magnetospheric boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nowada

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic field and plasma structures during two successive crossings of the subsolar magnetospheric boundary layers (i.e. MagnetoPause Current Layer (MPCL and Low-Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL under the southward-dawnward IMF are examined on the basis of the data obtained by the GEOTAIL spacecraft. A significant and interesting feature is found, that is, Flux Transfer Events (FTEs occur in association with the formation of the tilted X-line. During the first inbound MPCL/LLBL crossing, the ion velocity enhancement (in particular, the Vl component negatively increases can be observed in association with simultaneous typical bipolar signature (positive followed by negative in the Bn component. In addition, a clear D-shaped ion distribution whose origin is the magnetosheath can also be found in the dawnward direction. A few minutes later, the satellite experiences outbound MPCL crossing. The negative enhancement of the Vm component can be found as well as the positive enhancement of the Vl component. Simultaneously, a typical bipolar signature with the polarity (negative followed by positive opposite that observed in the first encounter can also be observed. The ions from the magnetosheath flow predominantly in the duskward direction, although the D-shaped ion distribution cannot be observed. These results indicate that the satellite initially observes one part of a reconnected flux tube formed by FTEs whose magnetospheric side is anchored to the Southern Hemisphere. The ions confined in this partial flux tube are flowing in the south-dawnward direction. Then, the satellite observes the other part of the reconnected flux tube whose magnetospheric side is anchored to the Northern Hemisphere. The ions confined in this flux tube flow dominantly in the north-duskward direction. Furthermore, it can be considered that the second MPCL crossing is a direct cut through the diffusion

  15. Progress towards modeling tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and understanding its role in setting divertor heat flux widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2017-10-01

    QCMs (quasi-coherent modes) are well characterized in the edge of Alcator C-Mod, when operating in the Enhanced Dα (EDA) H-mode, a promising alternative regime for ELM (edge localized modes) suppressed operation. To improve the understanding of the physics behind the QCMs, three typical C-Mod EDA H-Mode discharges are simulated by BOUT + + using a six-field two-fluid model (based on the Braginskii equations). The simulated characteristics of the frequency versus wave number spectra of the modes is in reasonable agreement with phase contrast imaging data. The key simulation results are: 1) Linear spectrum analysis and the nonlinear phase relationship indicate the dominance of resistive-ballooning modes and drift-Alfven wave instabilities; 2) QCMs originate inside the separatrix; (3) magnetic flutter causes the mode spreading into the SOL; 4) the boundary electric field Er changes the turbulent characteristics of the QCMs and controls edge transport and the divertor heat flux width; 5) the magnitude of the divertor heat flux depends on the physics models, such as sources and sinks, sheath boundary conditions, and parallel heat flux limiting coefficient. The BOUT + + simulations have also been performed for inter-ELM periods of DIII-D and EAST discharges, and similar quasi-coherent modes have been found. The parallel electron heat fluxes projected onto the target from these BOUT + + simulations follow the experimental heat flux width scaling, in particular the inverse dependence of the width on the poloidal magnetic field with an outlier. Further turbulence statistics analysis shows that the blobs are generated near the pedestal peak gradient region inside the separatrix and contribute to the transport of the particle and heat in the SOL region. To understand the Goldston heuristic drift-based model, results will also be presented from self-consistent transport simulations with the electric and magnetic drifts in BOUT + + and with the sheath potential included in the

  16. Infrared thermography with non-uniform heat flux boundary conditions on the rotor endwall of an axial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzi Gazzini, S.; Schädler, R.; Kalfas, A. I.; Abhari, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    It is technically challenging to measure heat fluxes on the rotating components of gas turbines, yet accurate knowledge of local heat loads under engine-representative conditions is crucial for ensuring the reliability of the designs. In this work, quantitative image processing tools were developed to perform fast and accurate infrared thermography measurements on 3D-shaped film-heaters directly deposited on the turbine endwalls. The newly developed image processing method and instrumentation were used to measure the heat load on the rotor endwalls of an axial turbine. A step-transient heat flux calibration technique is applied to measure the heat flux generated locally by the film heater, thus eliminating the need for a rigorously iso-energetic boundary condition. On-board electronics installed on the rotor record the temperature readings of RTDs installed in the substrate below the heaters in order to evaluate the conductive losses in the solid. Full maps of heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature are produced for two different operating conditions, demonstrating the sensitivity of the technique to local flow features and variations in heat transfer due to Reynolds number effect.

  17. Dislocation structure and energy of high angle (001) twist boundaries: A computer simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D.; Bristowe, P. D.; Vitek, V.

    1987-06-01

    High angle (001) twist boundaries have been investigated experimentally and the presence of grain boundary dislocations (GBD's) and associated cusps in the dependence of the boundary energy on misorientation, is in this case well established. However, in previous computer simulations neither localized GBD's nor distinct energy cusps have been identified. The aim of this study is to clarify this discrepancy between observations and computer modelling. For this purpose the structure and energy of a number of long period (high Sigma) twist boundaries with misorientations very close to Sigma - 5 have been calculated using empirical pair and n-body potentials to describe interatomic forces. Furthermore, an isolated GBD embedded into a Sigma - 5 boundary has been modeled. Well-defined cusps at Sigma - 5 misorientation and localized GBD's have been found but the reference Sigma - 5 structure is always the lowest energy structure which, in general, does not possess the symmetry of the coincidence site lattice. The misorientation dependence of the boundary energy is then discussed using coincidence site lattice. The misorientation dependence of the boundary energy is then discussed using a Read-Shockley type model. The cusps are always very shallow and may have an unconventional shape which is related to the dependence of the elastic energy on misorientation that is not the same for twist and tilt boundaries, contrary to what is usually assumed. Finally, some remaining discrepancies between observed types of GBD's and those found in the present study are discussed in the light of the previously proposed multiplicities of boundary structures.

  18. An Estimation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Energy Dissipation Rate Based on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Similarity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  19. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  20. Observations of Turbulent Fluxes and Turbulence Dynamics in the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    91 [-iwocosh(k(z + h)) Aik-w] where Ak is the spectral amplitude of the wave at each wavenumber, k. Following Mei (1989) and Dean and Dalrymple (1984...James A. Yoder MIT Director of Joint Program WHOI Dean of Graduate Studies Observations of Turbulent Fluxes and Turbulence Dynamics in the Ocean Surface...values of m, and Jm is the Bessel function of the first kind, of order m. The potential associated with the reflected component is (Mei 1989; Dean and

  1. Dislocation structure and energy of high angle (001) twist boundaries: A computer simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.; Bristowe, P.D.; Vitek, V.

    1987-06-01

    High angle (001) twist boundaries have been frequently investigated experimentally and the presence of grain boundary dislocations (gbd's) and associated cusps in the dependence of the boundary energy on misorientation, is in this case well established. However, in previous computer simulations of these boundaries neither localized gbd's nor distinct energy cusps have been identified. Aim of the present study is to clarify this discrepancy between observations and computer modelling. For this purpose the structure and energy of a number of long period (high ) twist boundaries with misorientations very close to = 5 have been calculated using empirical pair and n-body potentials to describe interatomic forces. Furthermore, an isolated gbd embedded into an = 5 boundary has been modeled. Well-defined cusps at = 5 misorientation and localized gbd's have been found but the reference = 5 structure is always the lowest energy structure which, in general, does not possess the symmetry of the coincidence site lattice. The misorientation dependence of the boundary energy is then discussed using a Read-Shockley type model. The cusps are always very shallow and may have an unconventional shape which is related to the dependence of the elastic energy on misorientation that is not the same for twist and tilt boundaries, contrary to what is usually assumed. Finally, some remaining discrepancies between observed types of gbd's and those found in the present study are discussed in the light of the previously proposed multiplicities of boundary structures.

  2. Sensible Heat Flux Related to Variations in Atmospheric Turbulence Kinetic Energy on a Sandy Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FLUX RELATED TO VARIATIONS IN ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE KINETIC ENERGY ON A SANDY BEACH by Jessica S. Koscinski June 2017 Thesis Advisor...KINETIC ENERGY ON A SANDY BEACH 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jessica S. Koscinski 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Sensible heat flux, turbulence kinetic energy , surf zone 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  3. On the diurnal cycle of surface energy fluxes in the North American monsoon region using the WRF-Hydro modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tiantian; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Gochis, David J.; Mascaro, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The diurnal cycles of surface energy fluxes are important drivers of atmospheric boundary layer development and convective precipitation, particularly in regions with heterogeneous land surface conditions such as those under the influence of the North American monsoon (NAM). Characterization of diurnal surface fluxes and their controls has not been well constrained due to the paucity of observations in the NAM region. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the uncoupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in its ability to represent soil moisture, turbulent heat fluxes, and surface temperature observations and compare these to operational analyses from other commonly used land surface models (LSMs). After a rigorous model evaluation, we quantify how the diurnal cycles of surface energy fluxes vary during the warm season for the major ecosystems in a regional basin. We find that the diurnal cycle of latent heat flux is more sensitive to ecosystem type than sensible heat flux due to the response of plant transpiration to variations in soil water content. Furthermore, the peak timing of precipitation affects the shape and magnitude of the diurnal cycle of plant transpiration in water-stressed ecosystems, inducing mesoscale heterogeneity in land surface conditions between the major ecosystems within the basin. Comparisons to other LSMs indicate that ecosystem differences in the diurnal cycle of turbulent fluxes are underestimated in these products. While this study shows how land surface heterogeneity affects the simulated diurnal cycle of turbulent fluxes, additional coupled modeling efforts are needed to identify the potential impacts of these spatial differences on convective precipitation.

  4. A methodology for the design and testing of atmospheric boundary layer models for wind energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sanz Rodrigo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS 1, 2 and 3 are used to develop a methodology for the design and testing of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS atmospheric boundary layer (ABL models for wind energy applications. The first two GABLS cases are based on idealized boundary conditions and are suitable for verification purposes by comparing with results from higher-fidelity models based on large-eddy simulation. Results from three single-column RANS models, of 1st, 1.5th and 2nd turbulence closure order, show high consistency in predicting the mean flow. The third GABLS case is suitable for the study of these ABL models under realistic forcing such that validation versus observations from the Cabauw meteorological tower are possible. The case consists on a diurnal cycle that leads to a nocturnal low-level jet and addresses fundamental questions related to the definition of the large-scale forcing, the interaction of the ABL with the surface and the evaluation of model results with observations. The simulations are evaluated in terms of surface-layer fluxes and wind energy quantities of interest: rotor equivalent wind speed, hub-height wind direction, wind speed shear and wind direction veer. The characterization of mesoscale forcing is based on spatially and temporally averaged momentum budget terms from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF simulations. These mesoscale tendencies are used to drive single-column models, which were verified previously in the first two GABLS cases, to first demonstrate that they can produce similar wind profile characteristics to the WRF simulations even though the physics are more simplified. The added value of incorporating different forcing mechanisms into microscale models is quantified by systematically removing forcing terms in the momentum and heat equations. This mesoscale-to-microscale modeling approach is affected, to a large extent, by the input uncertainties of the mesoscale

  5. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo. PMID:24926191

  6. Tear film dynamics with evaporation, wetting, and time-dependent flux boundary condition on an eye-shaped domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Maki, K. L.; Henshaw, W. D.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2014-05-01

    We study tear film dynamics with evaporation on a wettable eye-shaped ocular surface using a lubrication model. The mathematical model has a time-dependent flux boundary condition that models the cycles of tear fluid supply and drainage; it mimics blinks on a stationary eye-shaped domain. We generate computational grids and solve the nonlinear governing equations using the OVERTURE computational framework. In vivo experimental results using fluorescent imaging are used to visualize the influx and redistribution of tears for an open eye. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with the experiment. The model captures the flow around the meniscus and other dynamic features of human tear film observed in vivo.

  7. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboure, Vincent M.; Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids [1] in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment [2], in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework [3] using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  8. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent M. Laboure; Yaqi Wang; Mark D. DeHart

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment, in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  9. Origin of the High-energy Neutrino Flux at IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceller, J. M.; Illana, J. I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the spectrum of the different components in the astrophysical neutrino flux reaching the Earth, and the possible contribution of each component to the high-energy IceCube data. We show that the diffuse flux from cosmic ray (CR) interactions with gas in our galaxy implies just two events among the 54-event sample. We argue that the neutrino flux from CR interactions in the intergalactic (intracluster) space depends critically on the transport parameter δ describing the energy dependence in the diffusion coefficient of galactic CRs. Our analysis motivates a {E}-2.1 neutrino spectrum with a drop at PeV energies that fits the data well, including the non-observation of the Glashow resonance at 6.3 PeV. We also show that a CR flux described by an unbroken power law may produce a neutrino flux with interesting spectral features (bumps and breaks) related to changes in the CR composition.

  10. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop and test a calibration approach on a spatially distributed groundwater-surface water catchment model (MIKE SHE) coupled to a land surface model component with particular focus on the water and energy fluxes. The model is calibrated against time series of eddy flux measure...

  11. estimation of surface energy fluxes from bare ground in a tropical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. This investigation was designed to test the performance of Priestley Taylor method in the parti- tioning of the available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes in a tropical site. Compared to eddy covariance measured fluxes, the conventional Priestley Taylor constant (αPT) of 1.25 gave low coefficient of ...

  12. Estimation of Surface Energy Fluxes from Bare Ground in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was designed to test the performance of Priestley Taylor method in the partitioning of the available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes in a tropical site. Compared to eddy covariance measured fluxes, the conventional Priestley Taylor constant (αPT) of 1.25 gave low coefficient of determination and ...

  13. On the analytical solution of the S{sub N} equation in a rectangle assuming an exponential exiting angular flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalez, Tifani T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: csegatto@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report an analytical solution for the set of S{sub N} equations for the angular flux, in a rectangle, using the double Laplace transform technique. Its main idea comprehends the steps: application of the Laplace transform in one space variable, solution of the resulting equation by the LTS{sub N} method and reconstruction of the double Laplace transformed angular flux using the inversion theorem of the Laplace transform. We must emphasize that we perform the Laplace inversion by the LTS{sub N} method in the x direction, meanwhile we evaluate the inversion in the y direction performing the calculation of the corresponding line integral solution by the Stefest method. We have also to figure out that the application of Laplace transform to this type of boundary value problem introduces additional unknown functions associated to the partial derivatives of the angular flux at boundary. Based on the good results attained by the nodal LTS{sub N} method, we assume that the angular flux at boundary is also approximated by an exponential function. By analytical we mean that no approximation is done along the solution derivation except for the exponential hypothesis for the exiting angular flux at boundary. For sake of completeness, we report numerical comparisons of the obtained results against the ones of the literature. (author)

  14. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis-based global net surface energy flux and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    The net surface energy flux is central to the climate system yet observational limitations lead to substantial uncertainty (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2013; Roberts et al., 2016). A combination of satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) adjusted using the latest estimation of the net heat uptake of the Earth system, and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to estimate surface energy flux globally (Liu et al., 2015). Land surface fluxes are adjusted through a simple energy balance approach using relations at each grid point with the consideration of snowmelt to improve regional realism. The energy adjustment is redistributed over the oceans using a weighting function to avoid meridional discontinuities. Uncertainties in surface fluxes are investigated using a variety of approaches including comparison with a range of atmospheric reanalysis input data and products. Zonal multiannual mean surface flux uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5 Wm-2 but much larger uncertainty is likely for regional monthly values. The meridional energy transport is calculated using the net surface heat fluxes estimated in this study and the result shows better agreement with observations in Atlantic than before. The derived turbulent fluxes (difference between the net heat flux and the CERES EBAF radiative flux at surface) also have good agreement with those from OAFLUX dataset and buoy observations. Decadal changes in the global energy budget and the hemisphere energy imbalances are quantified and present day cross-equator heat transports is re-evaluated as 0.22±0.15 PW southward by the atmosphere and 0.32±0.16 PW northward by the ocean considering the observed ocean heat sinks (Roemmich et al., 2006) . Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res., Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  15. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhotin, I P; Drozdov, A Y; Shprits, Y Y; Boynton, R J; Subbotin, D A; Balikhin, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed.

  16. HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES FLUX ORIGIN IN THE CLOUDS, DARK LIGHTNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem of high-energy particles flux origin in clouds is discussed. Conditions in which dark lightning preceding the ordinary one and creating additional ionization, fluxes of fast electrons with MeV energy prior to the earthquake detected among lightning initiating ball-lightning, glow, sprites are considered. All above phenomena appear to be of general nature founded on quantum entanglement of hydrogen bonds protons in water clasters inside clouds.

  17. The effect of soil surface letter residue on energy and carbon fluxes in a deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Surface Energy (ALEX) balance model is an analytical formulation of the energy and mass transport within the soil and the vegetation canopy used for simulating energy, evapotranspiration, and CO2 fluxes in a wide range of vegetation environments. The objective of this st...

  18. Climatological evaluation of some fluxes of the surface energy and soil water balances over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Choisnel

    Full Text Available This paper presents some statistical evaluations of the surface energy and soil water balance fluxes, for a prairie-type canopy, using the Earth model with a double-reservoir system for the management of the soil water reserve and the regulation of actual evapotranspiration. The mean values of these fluxes are estimated from energy and water balance simulations done on a 30-year climatic reference period (1951–1980. From values of these fluxes calculated for each meteorological synoptic station, mappings of net radiation, actual evapotranspiration, drainage and conduction fluxes have been made over French territory. Lastly, a few conclusions pertaining to the spatial variability of fluxes and to the partition of rainfall between run-off and drainage on the one hand and replenishment of the soil water reserve on the other hand are drawn from these preliminary results.

  19. Electromagnetic reflection, transmission and energy density at boundaries of nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2016-01-01

    We consider a semi-infinite spatially dispersive dielectric with unequal transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities. The effect of the boundary is characterized by arbitrary reflection coefficients for polarization waves in the material that propagate to the surface. Specific values of these coefficients correspond to various additional boundary conditions (ABC) for Maxwell's equations. We derive the electromagnetic reflection and transmission coefficients at the boundary and investigate their dependence on material parameters and ABC. We also investigate the electromagnetic zero-point and thermal spectral energy density outside the dielectric. The nonlocal response removes the boundary divergence of the spectral energy density that is present in a local model. The spectral energy density shows a large dependence on the difference between the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, even at distances up to 10nm from the boundary.

  20. Variable enstrophy flux and energy spectrum in two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Mahendra K

    2012-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations reveal that in the forward cascade regime, the energy spectrum of two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction deviates from Kraichnan's prediction of $k^{-3}$ power spectrum. In this letter we explain this observation using an analytic model based on variable enstrophy flux arising due to Ekman friction. We derive an expression for the enstrophy flux which exhibits a logarithmic dependence in the inertial range for the Ekman-friction dominated flows. The energy spectrum obtained using this enstrophy flux shows a power law scaling for large Reynolds number and small Ekman friction, but has an exponential behaviour for large Ekman friction and relatively small Reynolds number.

  1. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  2. The Mass Flux of Non-renewable Energy for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Edwin

    The global energy supply relies on non-renewable energy sources, coal, crude oil, and natural gas, along with nuclear power from uranium and these finite resources are located within the upper few kilometers of the Earth's crust. The total quantity of non-renewable energy resources consumed relative to the total quantity available is an essential question facing humanity. Analyses of energy consumption was conducted for the period 1800--2014 using data from the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and World Energy Production, 1800--1985 to determine the balance between non-renewable energy resources consumed and ultimately recoverable reserves. Annual energy consumption was plotted for each non-renewable resource followed by analyses to determine annual growth rates of consumption. Results indicated total energy consumption grew approximately exponentially 3.6% per year from 1800--1975 and was linear from 1975--2014. The ultimately recoverable reserves (URR) plus the total quantity consumed to date equals the total energy resource reserve prior to exploitation (7.15 x 1018 grams). Knowing the original resource quantity and the annual consumption and growth rates, we can forecast the duration of remaining resources using different scenarios. Alternatively, we can use population growth models and consumption trends to determine the per capita allocation trends and model that into the future. Alternative modeling of future resource allocation on a per capita bases suggests that resource lifetime may be significantly less than that predicted from consumption and production dynamics alone.

  3. Flux Measurements of Trace Gases, Aerosols and Energy from the Urban Core of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Molina, L.; Lamb, B.; Pressley, S.; Grivicke, R.; Westberg, H.; Jobson, T.; Allwine, E.; Coons, T.; Jimenez, J.; Nemitz, E.; Alexander, L. M.; Worsnop, D.; Ramos, R.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 we deployed a flux system in a busy district of Mexico City surrounded by congested avenues. The flux system consisted of a tall tower instrumented with fast-response sensors coupled with eddy covariance (EC) techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, aerosols and energy. The measured fluxes represent direct measurements of emissions that include all major and minor emission sources from a typical residential and commercial district. In a previous study we demonstrated that the EC techniques are valuable tools to evaluate emissions inventories in urban areas, and understand better the atmospheric chemistry and the role that megacities play in global change. We measured fluxes of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS) and the EC technique, fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique, fluxes of CO2 and H2O with an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) and the EC technique, fluxes of CO using a modified gradient method and a commercial CO instrument, and fluxes of aerosols (organics, nitrates and sulfates) using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the EC technique. In addition we used a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system to extend the number of VOCs. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site using gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). We also measured fluxes of sensible and latent heat by EC and the radiation components with a net radiometer. Overall, these flux measurements confirm the results of our previous flux measurements in Mexico City in terms of the magnitude, composition, and distribution. We found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns show clear anthropogenic signatures, with important contributions from

  4. Signatures of Energy Flux in Particle Production: A Black Hole Birth Cry and Death Gasp

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2015-01-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  5. High energy astrophysical neutrino flux and modified dispersion relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, J. L. Bazo; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the interest in searches for violation of CPT invariance, we study its possible effects in the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos coming from cosmic accelerators. In particular, we focus on the effect of an energy independent new physics contribution to the neutrino flavour osci...

  6. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially...

  7. The open-ocean sensible heat flux and its significance for Arctic boundary layer mixing during early fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganeshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multi-year Japanese cruise-ship observations from R/V Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean–atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime, yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure followed by the highly stable (stratus regime. Overall, it can explain  ∼  10 % of the open-ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the R/V Mirai for

  8. The Open-Ocean Sensible Heat Flux and Its Significance for Arctic Boundary Layer Mixing During Early Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Wu, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing ice-free area during late summer has transformed the Arctic to a climate system with more dynamic boundary layer (BL) clouds and seasonal sea ice growth. The open-ocean sensible heat flux, a crucial mechanism of excessive ocean heat loss to the atmosphere during the fall freeze season, is speculated to play an important role in the recently observed cloud cover increase and BL instability. However, lack of observations and understanding of the resilience of the proposed mechanisms, especially in relation to meteorological and interannual variability, has left a poorly constrained BL parameterization scheme in Arctic climate models. In this study, we use multiyear Japanese cruise-ship observations from RV Mirai over the open Arctic Ocean to characterize the surface sensible heat flux (SSHF) during early fall and investigate its contribution to BL turbulence. It is found that mixing by SSHF is favored during episodes of high surface wind speed and is also influenced by the prevailing cloud regime. The deepest BLs and maximum ocean-atmosphere temperature difference are observed during cold air advection (associated with the stratocumulus regime), yet, contrary to previous speculation, the efficiency of sensible heat exchange is low. On the other hand, the SSHF contributes significantly to BL mixing during the uplift (low pressure) followed by the highly stable (stratus) regime. Overall, it can explain 10 of the open ocean BL height variability, whereas cloud-driven (moisture and radiative) mechanisms appear to be the other dominant source of convective turbulence. Nevertheless, there is strong interannual variability in the relationship between the SSHF and the BL height which can be intensified by the changing occurrence of Arctic climate patterns, such as positive surface wind speed anomalies and more frequent conditions of uplift. This study highlights the need for comprehensive BL observations like the RV Mirai for better understanding and

  9. Dislocation structure and energy of high angle (001) twist boundaries: A computer simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.; Bristowe, P.D.; Vitek, V.

    1988-03-01

    High angle (001) twist boundaries have been frequently investigated experimentally and the presence of grain boundary dislocations (gbd's) and associated cusps in the dependence of the boundary energy on misorientation is in this case well established. However, in previous computer simulations of these boundaries neither localised gbd's nor distinct energy cusps have been identified. The principal aim of the present study is to clarify this discrepancy between observations and computer modelling. For this purpose the structure and energy of a number of long period (high ..sigma..) twist boundaries with misorientations very close to ..sigma.. = 5 have been calculated using empirical pair and n-body potentials to describe interatomic forces. Furthermore, an isolated gbd embedded into a ..sigma.. = 5 boundary has been modelled. Well defined cusps at ..sigma.. = 5 misorientation and localised gbd's have been found but the reference ..sigma.. = 5 structure is always the lowest energy structure which, in general, does not possess the symmetry of the coincidence site lattice. The misorientation dependence of the boundary energy is then discussed using a Read-Shockley type model. The cusps are always very shallow and may have an uncoventional shape which is related to the dependence of the elastic energy on misorientation that is not the same for twist and tilt boundaries, contrary to what is usually assumed. Finally, some remaining discrepancies between observed types of gbd's and those found in the present study are discussed in the light of the previously proposed multiplicities of boundary structures.

  10. Simulated solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere: influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Modolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere is investigated by means of 3-D multi-species hybrid simulations. The influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is examined by comparing two simulations describing the two extreme states of the solar cycle. The hybrid formalism allows a kinetic description of each ions species and a fluid description of electrons. The ionization processes (photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange are included self-consistently in the model where the production rate is computed locally, separately for each ionization act and for each neutral species. The results of simulations are in a reasonable agreement with the observations made by Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The position of the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is weakly dependent of the solar EUV flux. The motional electric field creates strong asymmetries for the two plasma boundaries.

  11. Analytical solutions for tomato peeling with combined heat flux and convective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.; Metallo, A.

    2017-11-01

    Peeling of tomatoes by radiative heating is a valid alternative to steam or lye, which are expensive and pollutant methods. Suitable energy densities are required in order to realize short time operations, thus involving only a thin layer under the tomato surface. This paper aims to predict the temperature field in rotating tomatoes exposed to the source irradiation. Therefore, a 1D unsteady analytical model is presented, which involves a semi-infinite slab subjected to time dependent heating while convective heat transfer takes place on the exposed surface. In order to account for the tomato rotation, the heat source is described as the positive half-wave of a sinusoidal function. The problem being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform Method. In addition, an easy-to-handle solution for the problem at hand is presented, which assumes a differentiable function for approximating the source while neglecting convective cooling, the latter contribution turning out to be negligible for the context at hand. A satisfying agreement between the two analytical solutions is found, therefore, an easy procedure for a proper design of the dry heating system can be set up avoiding the use of numerical simulations.

  12. Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Falahat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE, and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3, supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK and in the western Pacific (IZU. A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.

  13. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations.

    We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%.

    This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The

  14. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations. We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%. This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The advantages of ASCs, compared to the space-born imagers, are

  15. Flux normalized charged current neutrino cross sections up to neutrino energies of 260 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Barish, B C; Blair, R; Bodek, A; Edwards, D N; Edwards, H; Fackler, O; Fisk, E; Fukushima, Y; Jenkins, K; Kerns, Q; Kondo, T; Krafczyk, G; Lee, J; Linsay, P; Ludwig, J; Marsh, W; Messner, R; Nease, D; Sciulli, F; Segler, S; Shaevitz, M; Theriot, D

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary measurements of flux normalized charged current neutrino cross sections are presented. From a sample of 6000 neutrino events with energies between 50 and 260 GeV the authors find that sigma /sub nu //E/sub nu /=(0.67+or-0.04)*10/sup -38/ cm/sup 2//GeV independent of neutrino energy. (0 refs).

  16. Turbulent flux variability and energy balance closure in the TERENO prealpine observatory: a hydrometeorological data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Mauder, Matthias; Laux, Patrick; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-07-01

    The temporal multiscale variability of the surface heat fluxes is assessed by the analysis of the turbulent heat and moisture fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) technique at the TERrestrial ENvironmental Observatories (TERENO) prealpine region. The fast and slow response variables from three EC sites located at Fendt, Rottenbuch, and Graswang are gathered for the period of 2013 to 2014. Here, the main goals are to characterize the multiscale variations and drivers of the turbulent fluxes, as well as to quantify the energy balance closure (EBC) and analyze the possible reasons for the lack of EBC at the EC sites. To achieve these goals, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) and a climatological turbulent flux footprint analysis. The results show significant differences in the mean diurnal variations of the sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE) fluxes, because of variations in the solar radiation, precipitation patterns, soil moisture, and the vegetation fraction throughout the year. LE was the main consumer of net radiation. Based on the first principal component (PC1), the radiation and temperature components with a total mean contribution of 29.5 and 41.3%, respectively, were found to be the main drivers of the turbulent fluxes at the study EC sites. A general lack of EBC is observed, where the energy imbalance values amount 35, 44, and 35% at the Fendt, Rottenbuch, and Graswang sites, respectively. An average energy balance ratio (EBR) of 0.65 is obtained in the region. The best closure occurred in the afternoon peaking shortly before sunset with a different pattern and intensity between the study sites. The size and shape of the annual mean half-hourly turbulent flux footprint climatology was analyzed. On average, 80% of the flux footprint was emitted from a radius of approximately 250 m around the EC stations. Moreover, the overall shape of the flux footprints was in good agreement with the prevailing wind direction for all three TERENO EC sites.

  17. MHD boundary layer slip flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid along a stretching cylinder with prescribed heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Zafar Hayat; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Ali Shah, Inayat

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of ferrofluid along a stretching cylinder. The velocity slip and prescribed surface heat flux boundary conditions are employed on the cylinder surface. Water as conventional base fluid containing nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) is used. Comparison between magnetic (Fe3O4) and non-magnetic (Al2O3) nanoparticles is also made. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically using shooting method. Present results are compared with the available data in the limiting cases. The present results are found to be in an excellent agreement. It is observed that with an increase in the magnetic field strength, the percent difference in the heat transfer rate of magnetic nanoparticles with Al2O3 decreases. Surface shear stress and the heat transfer rate at the surface increase as the curvature parameter increases, i.e curvature helps to enhance the heat transfer.

  18. Wettability Modification of Nanomaterials by Low-Energy Electron Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torchinsky I

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controllable modification of surface free energy and related properties (wettability, hygroscopicity, agglomeration, etc. of powders allows both understanding of fine physical mechanism acting on nanoparticle surfaces and improvement of their key characteristics in a number of nanotechnology applications. In this work, we report on the method we developed for electron-induced surface energy and modification of basic, related properties of powders of quite different physical origins such as diamond and ZnO. The applied technique has afforded gradual tuning of the surface free energy, resulting in a wide range of wettability modulation. In ZnO nanomaterial, the wettability has been strongly modified, while for the diamond particles identical electron treatment leads to a weak variation of the same property. Detailed investigation into electron-modified wettability properties has been performed by the use of capillary rise method using a few probing liquids. Basic thermodynamic approaches have been applied to calculations of components of solid–liquid interaction energy. We show that defect-free, low-energy electron treatment technique strongly varies elementary interface interactions and may be used for the development of new technology in the field of nanomaterials.

  19. Low energy secondary cosmic ray flux (gamma rays) monitoring and its constrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Anil; Bhaskar, Ankush; Yadav, Virendra; Bijewar, Nitinkumar

    2015-02-01

    Temporal variation of secondary cosmic rays (SCR) flux was measured during the full and new moon and days close to them at Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai (Geomagnetic latitude: 10.6 °N), India. The measurements were done by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector with energy threshold of 200 keV. The SCR flux showed sudden enhancement for approximately about 2 hour during few days out of all observations. The maximum enhancement in SCR flux is about 200 % as compared to the diurnal trend of SCR temporal variations. Weather parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were continuously monitored during all observations. The influences of geomagnetic field, interplanetary parameters and tidal effect on SCR flux have been considered. Summed spectra corresponding to enhancement duration indicates appearance of atmospheric radioactivity which shows single gamma ray line. Detail investigation revealed the presence of radioactive Ar41. Present study indicates origin of Ar41 could be due to anthropogenic source or due to gravitational tidal forces. This measurements point out limitations on low energy SCR flux monitoring. This study will help many researchers in measurements of SCR flux during eclipses and to find unknown mechanism behind decrease/increase in SCR flux during solar/lunar eclipse.

  20. Doppler lidar observations of sensible heat flux and intercomparisons with a ground-based energy balance station and WRF model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study (COPS, a scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Baden-Wüttemberg, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles ('rays' through the boundary layer were measured every 3 seconds with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case study of convective boundary layer development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity-temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The sensible heat flux values calculated from Doppler lidar data are compared with a surface based energy balance station and output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model.

  1. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Ana; Kustas, William. P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Carrara, Arnaud; Patrocinio Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for his importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). The ecosystem is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with recurrent and severe droughts. Over the last decades the Dehesa has faced multiple environmental threats, derived from intensive agricultural use and socio-economic changes, which have caused environmental degradation of the area, namely reduction in tree density and stocking rates, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al. 2004; Schnabel and Ferreira, 2004; Montoya 1998; Pulido and Díaz, 2005). Understanding the hydrological, atmospheric and physiological processes that affect the functioning of the ecosystem will improve the management and conservation of the Dehesa. One of the key metrics in assessing ecosystem health, particularly in this water-limited environment, is the capability of monitoring evaporation (ET). To make large area assessments requires the use of remote sensing. Thermal-based energy balance techniques that distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in such semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) and Kustas and Norman (1999) has shown to be robust for a wide range of partially-vegetated landscapes. The TSEB formulation is evaluated at a flux tower site located in center Spain (Majadas del Tietar, Caceres). Its application in this environment is

  2. Energy and Water Fluxes across a Heterogeneous Landscape in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, J. E.; Williams, I. N.; Kueppers, L. M.; Lu, Y.; Torn, M. S.; Biraud, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fluxes of energy and water between the atmosphere and the land surface influence weather and climate. These fluxes depend on the state of the landscape, which contributes to differences in land-atmosphere coupling strength over space and time. One region with potentially strong land-atmosphere coupling is the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in North America. In this region, managed vegetation plays a key role in moderating the surface energy through effects on surface albedo, transpiration, precipitation interception, and other surface properties. However accurately modeling these effects is challenging because the vegetation in this region is very heterogeneous. Winter wheat is the dominant crop, but pasture, hayfields, corn, and recently introduced crops such as canola cover significant portions of the landscape as well. Winter wheat has a unique phenology with fall planting, maximum leaf area in late spring, and harvest in early summer. This phenology contrasts significantly with most other crops and with pastures and hayfields in the region, which have more typical spring-fall growing seasons. Therefore, to sufficiently model and assess land-atmosphere interactions in this region accurate characterization of differences in the seasonality of water and energy fluxes between vegetation types are necessary. We used observations including eddy covariance flux estimates, soil moisture data, state-of-the-art longwave and shortwave radiation measurements, and other observations available for several facilities within the SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas. We compared the timing and variations in fluxes of water and energy between winter wheat and other land cover types, focusing on vegetation influences on rates of soil dry-down following precipitation events. We found distinct differences in fluxes between winter wheat and other land types. These flux differences had a nonlinear dependency on disparities in

  3. Litter Fall and Energy Flux in a Mangrove Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafar, S.; Untawale, A. G.; Wafar, M.

    1997-01-01

    Production, elemental composition and in situdecomposition of litter of Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Sonneratia albaand Avicenna officinaliswere studied in a mangrove ecosystem fringing Madovi-Zuari Estuaries on the Central West Coast of India. Litter yield ranged from 10.2 tonnes ha -1year -1in A. officinalisthrough 11.8 ( R. apiculataand R. mucronata) to 17 tonnes ha -1year -1in S. alba. Seasonally maximum litter fall was in pre- and post-monsoon monthe, with the lowest production in the monsoon. Modelling of litter fall as a function of Julian day and six environmental parameters showed that the observed changes can be explained in terms of dry/wet season and wind speed, with a 1000. Total decomposition (98-100% loss in dry weight and C, and >90% loss in N and P) of yellow leaves was within 15 weeks in the two Rhizosporaspp. and S. alba, and within 8 weeks in A. officinalis. In all four species, mass changes during decomposition obeyed first-order kinetics. Comparison of C, N and P fluxes from the decomposing mangrove litter with phytoplankton, bacterial and secondary production in the estuarine waters showed that mangrove production is important mainly for the C budget of the Estuaries and in sustaining the microbial food chain and nutrient regeneration, rather than the particulate food chain directly.

  4. Effect of roughness lengths on surface energy and the planetary boundary layer height over high-altitude Ngoring Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Wen, Lijuan; Zhao, Lin; Meng, Xianhong; Ao, Yinhuan

    2017-08-01

    The special climate environment creates a distinctive air-lake interaction characteristic in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) lakes, where the variations of surface roughness lengths also differ somewhat from those of other regions. However, how different categories of roughness lengths affect the lake surface energy exchange and the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) remains unclear in the TP lakes. In this study, we used a tuned Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 to investigate the responses of the freeze-up date, turbulent fluxes, meteorological variables, and PBLH to surface roughness length variations in Ngoring Lake. Of all meteorological variables, the lake surface temperature responded to roughness length variations most sensitively; increasing roughness lengths can put the lake freeze-up date forward. The effect of momentum roughness length on wind speed was significantly affected by the fetch length. The increase in the roughness length for heat can induce the increment of the nightly PBLH in most months, especially for the central lake area in autumn. The primary factors that contribute to sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (LE) were the roughness lengths for heat and momentum during the ice-free period, respectively. Increasing roughness length for heat can increase the nightly PBLH, and decreasing roughness length for moisture can also promote growth of the PBLH, but there was no obvious correlation between the momentum roughness length and the PBLH.

  5. Energy fluxes in helical magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renormalized viscosity, renormalized resistivity, and various energy fluxes are calculated for helical magnetohydrodynamics using perturbative field theory. The calculation is of first-order in perturbation. Kinetic and magnetic helicities do not affect the renormalized parameters, but they induce an inverse cascade of ...

  6. ENERGY AND MASS FLUX SIMULATIONS IN URBAN AREA USING THE ACASA MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Sirca, C.; Miglietta, F.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Population who lives in urban areas is increasing and the exchanges of water, energy and carbon into and out of cities are key to the sustainable design of cities. In this context, it is important to provide quantitative estimate of the urban metabolism components using both observations and modeling of physical flows. Today, Eddy Covariance technique and accurate models are available to simulate the energy and mass flux exchanges in urban environment with a good spatial resolution. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model, developed by University of California, Davis (UCD), is one of the most sophisticated models for estimating energy and mass fluxes between surface and the atmosphere. ACASA was recently modified to simulate energy and mass fluxes in urban environment. ACASA treats the surface and associated fluxes as an interconnected system The atmosphere, the urban surface and the soil are represented as a multilayer system. ACASA incorporates higher-order closure principles for turbulent statistics to predict the effects that higher-order turbulent kinetic and thermodynamic processes have on the surface microenvironment and associated fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and carbon. It allows counter-gradient transport that simpler models are unable to describe. Using a set of governing equations, ACASA creates vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, mean wind, and CO2 concentration. ACASA was run for the city of Florence (Italy), which is a case study of the European project “Bridge”. The simulations were compared with in situ measurements taken continuously from 2006 using an eddy covariance system located in the city centre. Different measurement periods were used to parameterize and validate the model. From the preliminary results, good agreement was obtained between simulated and observed fluxes with small

  7. Carbon, water, and energy fluxes in a semiarid cold desert grassland during and following multiyear drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, David R.; Bethers-Marchetti, S.; Lunch, C.K.; Grote, E.E.; Belnap, J.

    2010-01-01

    The net exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy were examined in a perennial Colorado Plateau grassland for 5 years. The study began within a multiyear drought and continued as the drought ended. The grassland is located near the northern boundary of the influence of the North American monsoon, a major climatic feature bringing summer rain. Following rain, evapotranspiration peaked above 8 mm d-1 but was usually much smaller (2-4 mm d-1). Net productivity of the grassland was low compared to other ecosystems, with peak hourly net CO2 uptake in the spring of 4 (mu or u)mol m-2 s-1 and springtime carbon gain in the range of 42 + or - 11 g C m-2 (based on fluxes) to 72 + or - 55 g C m-2 (based on carbon stocks; annual carbon gain was not quantified). Drought decreased gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and total ecosystem respiration, with a much larger GEP decrease. Monsoon rains led to respiratory pulses, lasting a few days at most, and only rarely resulted in net CO2 gain, despite the fact that C4 grasses dominated plant cover. Minor CO2 uptake was observed in fall following rain. Spring CO2 uptake was regulated by deep soil moisture, which depended on precipitation in the prior fall and winter. The lack of CO2 uptake during the monsoon and the dependence of GEP on deep soil moisture are in contrast with arid grasslands of the warm deserts. Cold desert grasslands are most likely to be impacted by future changes in winter and not summer precipitation.

  8. Research and Evaluation of the Energy Flux Density of the Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses variations in the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of 10 mobile phones depending on distance. The studies have been conducted using three modes: sending a text message, receiving a text message and connecting a mobile phone to the Internet. When text messages are received or sent from a mobile phone, the values of the energy flux density of the mobile phone electromagnetic field exceed the safe allowable limit and make 10 μW / cm². A distance of 10, 20 and 30 cm from a mobile phone is effective protection against the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field when writing texts, receiving messages or connecting to the mobile Internet.Article in Lithuanian

  9. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer High Energy (IBEX-Hi) Neutral Atom Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Allegrini, F.; Bochsler, P.; Dunn, G.; Ellis, S.; Everett, D.; Fagan, M. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Granoff, M.; Gruntman, M.; Guthrie, A. A.; Hanley, J.; Harper, R. W.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kihara, K. H.; King, B.; Kucharek, H.; Manzo, M. P.; Maple, M.; Mashburn, K.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Nolin, J.; Piazza, D.; Pope, S.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Rodriguez, B.; Roelof, E. C.; Saul, L.; Turco, S.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wurz, P.; Zaffke, S.

    2009-08-01

    The IBEX-Hi Neutral Atom Imager of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission is designed to measure energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) originating from the interaction region between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). These ENAs are plasma ions that have been heated in the interaction region and neutralized by charge exchange with the cold neutral atoms of the LISM that freely flow through the interaction region. IBEX-Hi is a single pixel ENA imager that covers the ENA spectral range from 0.38 to 6 keV and shares significant energy overlap and overall design philosophy with the IBEX-Lo sensor. Because of the anticipated low flux of these ENAs at 1 AU, the sensor has a large geometric factor and incorporates numerous techniques to minimize noise and backgrounds. The IBEX-Hi sensor has a field-of-view (FOV) of 6.5°×6.5° FWHM, and a 6.5°×360° swath of the sky is imaged over each spacecraft spin. IBEX-Hi utilizes an ultrathin carbon foil to ionize ENAs in order to measure their energy by subsequent electrostatic analysis. A multiple coincidence detection scheme using channel electron multiplier (CEM) detectors enables reliable detection of ENAs in the presence of substantial noise. During normal operation, the sensor steps through six energy steps every 12 spacecraft spins. Over a single IBEX orbit of about 8 days, a single 6.5°×360° swath of the sky is viewed, and re-pointing of the spin axis toward the Sun near perigee of each IBEX orbit moves the ecliptic longitude by about 8° every orbit such that a full sky map is acquired every six months. These global maps, covering the spectral range of IBEX-Hi and coupled to the IBEX-Lo maps at lower and overlapping energies, will answer fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the interaction region between the heliosphere and the LISM.

  10. An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2008-07-15

    The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.

  11. Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2016-01-01

    Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.

  12. ENSO/PDO-Like Variability of Tropical Ocean Surface Energy Fluxes Over the Satellite Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Miller, Tim L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent variations of tropical climate on interannual to near-decadal scales have provided a useful target for studying the nature of climate feedback processes. A strong warm / cold ENSO couplet (e.g. 1997-2000) along with several subsequent weaker events are prominent interannual signals that are part of an apparent longer term strengthening of the Walker circulation during the mid to late 1990's with some weakening thereafter. Decadal scale changes in tropical SST structure during the 1990s are accompanied by focusing of precipitation over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and an increase in tropical ocean evaporation of order 1.0 % /decade. Associated with ENSO and PDO-like tropical SST changes are surface freshwater and radiative fluxes which have important implications for heat and energy transport variations. In this study we examine how surface fluxes attending interannual to decadal SST fluctuations, e.g. precipitation (GPCP, TRMM), turbulent fluxes (OAFlux), and radiative fluxes (ERBE/CERES, SRB) are coupled. Using these data we analyze vertically-integrated divergence of moist static energy, divMSE, and its dry static energy and latent energy components. We examine consistency between these data sets and explore relationships between SST variations, flux changes and modulation of tropical Walker and Hadley circulations. Strong signatures ofMSE flux transport linking ascending and descending regions of tropical circulations are found. Relative strengths of these fluxes and transports are interpreted as a measure of efficiency in the overall process of tropical heat balance during episodes of warm or cold tropical SST.

  13. Hyperspatial mapping of water, energy and carbon fluxes with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Sheng; Köppl, Christian Josef; Bandini, Filippo

    Having spatially distributed estimates of energy, water and carbon fluxes between the land and the atmosphere is of critical importance for improving water resource management, agricultural production, weather forecasting, and climate prediction. Traditionally, satellite based remote sensing data...... biomass, plant diseases or stress, water uptake.......Having spatially distributed estimates of energy, water and carbon fluxes between the land and the atmosphere is of critical importance for improving water resource management, agricultural production, weather forecasting, and climate prediction. Traditionally, satellite based remote sensing data...

  14. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2017-09-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  15. Spatial Variation of Surface Energy Fluxes Due to Land Use Changes across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjun Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the heat flux changes caused by the projected land transformation over the next 40 years across China to improve the understanding of the impacts of land dynamics on regional climate. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to investigate these impacts in four representative land transformation zones, where reclamation, overgrazing, afforestation, and urbanization dominates the land use and land cover changes in each zone respectively. As indicated by the significant variance of albedo due to different land use and cover changes, different surface properties cause great spatial variance of the surface flux. From the simulation results, latent heat flux increases by 2 and 21 W/m2 in the reclamation and afforestation regions respectively. On the contrary, overgrazing and urban expansion results in decrease of latent heat flux by 5 and 36 W/m2 correspondingly. Urban expansion leads to an average increase of 40 W/m2 of sensible heat flux in the future 40 years, while reclamation, afforestation, as well as overgrazing result in the decrease of sensible heat flux. Results also show that reclamation and overgrazing lead to net radiation decrease by approximately 4 and 7 W/m2 respectively, however, afforestation and urbanization lead to net radiation increase by 6 and 3 W/m2 respectively. The simulated impacts of projected HLCCs on surface energy fluxes will inform sustainable land management and climate change mitigation.

  16. Estimating regional greenhouse gas fluxes: An uncertainty analysis of planetary boundary layer techniques and bottom-up inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of regional greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is essential for establishing mitigation strategies and evaluating their effectiveness. Here, we used multiple top-down approaches and multiple trace gas observations at a tall tower to estimate GHG regional fluxes and evaluate the GHG fluxes de...

  17. Gaseous elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer and air-sea flux in the Southern Ocean in austral summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Feiyue; Kang, Hui

    2017-12-15

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the marine boundary layer (MBL), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater of the Southern Ocean were measured in the austral summer from December 13, 2014 to February 1, 2015. GEM concentrations in the MBL ranged from 0.4 to 1.9ngm -3 (mean±standard deviation: 0.9±0.2ngm -3 ), whereas DGM concentrations in surface seawater ranged from 7.0 to 75.9pgL -1 (mean±standard deviation: 23.7±13.2pgL -1 ). The occasionally observed low GEM in the MBL suggested either the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion in summer, or the transport of GEM-depleted air from the Antarctic Plateau. Elevated GEM concentrations in the MBL and DGM concentrations in surface seawater were consistently observed in the ice-covered region of the Ross Sea implying the influence of the sea ice environment. Diminishing sea ice could cause more mercury evasion from the ocean to the air. Using the thin film gas exchange model, the air-sea fluxes of gaseous mercury in non-ice-covered area during the study period were estimated to range from 0.0 to 6.5ngm -2 h -1 with a mean value of 1.5±1.8ngm -2 h -1 , revealing GEM (re-)emission from the East Southern Ocean in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Black hole kinematics: The "in"-vacuum energy density and flux for different observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suprit; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the local invariant scalar observables—energy density and flux—which explicitly depend on the kinematics of the concerned observers in the thin null shell gravitational collapse geometry. The use of globally defined null coordinates allows for the definition of a unique in-vacuum for the scalar field propagating in this background. Computing the stress-energy tensor for this scalar field, we work out the energy density and flux for the static observers outside the horizon and then consider the radially in-falling observers who fall in from some specified initial radius all the way through the horizon and inside to the eventual singularity. Our results confirm the thermal Tolman-shifted energy density and fluxes for the static observers which diverge at the horizon. For the in-falling observer starting from far off, both the quantities—energy density and flux—at the horizon crossing are regular and finite. For example, the flux at the horizon for the in-falling observer from infinity is approximately 24 times the flux for the observer at infinity. Compared with the static observers in the near-horizon region, this is quite small. Both the quantities grow as the in-fall progresses inside the horizon and diverge at the singularity.

  19. Monitoring the latent and sensible heat fluxes in vineyard by applying the energy balance model METRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Piqueras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Surface Energy Fluxes During Autumn Ice Advance: Observations and Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, O. P. G.; Blomquist, B.; Grachev, A. A.; Guest, P. S.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Solomon, A.; Cox, C. J.; Capotondi, A.; Fairall, C. W.; Intrieri, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    From Oct 4 to Nov 5, 2015, the Office of Naval Research - sponsored Sea State cruise in the Beaufort Sea with the new National Science Foundation R/V Sikuliaq obtained extensive in-situ and remote sensing observations of the lower troposphere, the advancing sea ice, wave state, and upper ocean conditions. In addition, a coupled atmosphere, sea ice, upper-ocean model, based on the RASM model, was run at NOAA/PSD in a hindcast mode for this same time period, providing a 10-day simulation of the atmosphere/ice/ocean evolution. Surface energy fluxes quantitatively represent the air-ice, air-ocean, and ice-ocean interaction processes, determining the cooling (warming) rate of the upper ocean and the growth (melting) rate of sea ice. These fluxes also impact the stratification of the lower troposphere and the upper ocean. In this presentation, both direct and indirect measurements of the energy fluxes during Sea State will be used to explore the spatial and temporal variability of these fluxes and the impacts of this variability on the upper ocean, ice, and lower atmosphere during the autumn ice advance. Analyses have suggested that these fluxes are impacted by atmospheric synoptic evolution, proximity to existing ice, ice-relative wind direction, ice thickness and snow depth. In turn, these fluxes impact upper-ocean heat loss and timing of ice formation, as well as stability in the lower troposphere and upper ocean, and hence heat transport to the free troposphere and ocean mixed-layer. Therefore, the atmospheric structure over the advancing first-year ice differs from that over the nearby open water. Finally, these observational analyses will be used to provide a preliminary validation of the spatial and temporal variability of the surface energy fluxes and the associated lower-tropospheric and upper-ocean structures in the simulations.

  1. Inverse estimation of Vcmax, leaf area index, and the Ball-Berry parameter from carbon and energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Wolf; Kanat Akshalov; Nicanor Saliendra; Douglas A. Johnson; Emilio A. Laca

    2006-01-01

    Canopy fluxes of CO2 and energy can be modeled with high fidelity using a small number of environmental variables and ecosystem parameters. Although these ecosystem parameters are critically important for modeling canopy fluxes, they typically are not measured with the same intensity as ecosystem fluxes. We developed an algorithm to estimate leaf...

  2. Energy flux through the horizon in the black hole-domain wall systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Dejan E-mail: dejans@umich.edu

    2004-09-01

    We study various configurations in which a domain wall (or cosmic string), described by the Nambu-Goto action, is embedded in a background space-time of a black hole in (3+1) and higher dimensional models. We calculate energy fluxes through the black hole horizon. In the simplest case, when a static domain wall enters the horizon of a static black hole perpendicularly, the energy flux is zero. In more complicated situations, where parameters which describe the domain wall surface are time and position dependent, the flux is non-vanishing is principle. These results are of importance in various conventional cosmological models which accommodate the existence of domain walls and strings and also in brane world scenarios. (author)

  3. Three-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Circular Heat Flux Gauges Mounted in a Flat Plate with a Surface Temperature Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, M.; Haddad, G. F.; Chen, R.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed in an effort to determine thermal boundary layer correction factors for circular convective heat flux gauges (such as Schmidt-Boelter and plug type)mounted flush in a flat plate subjected to a stepwise surface temperature discontinuity. Turbulent flow solutions with temperature-dependent properties are obtained for a free stream Reynolds number of 1E6, and freestream Mach numbers of 2 and 4. The effect of gauge diameter and the plate surface temperature have been investigated. The 3-D CFD results for the heat flux correction factors are compared to quasi-21) results deduced from constant property integral solutions and also 2-D CFD analysis with both constant and variable properties. The role of three-dimensionality and of property variations on the heat flux correction factors has been demonstrated.

  4. PREFACE: XXX International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, V. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Efremov, V. P.; Sultanov, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is a preface to the proceedings of the XXX International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter, which was held in Elbrus settlement, in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation, from March 1-6, 2015.

  5. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the

  6. How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kochendorfer; Tilden P. Meyers; John Frank; William J. Massman; Mark W. Heuer

    2012-01-01

    Sonic anemometers are capable of measuring the wind speed in all three dimensions at high frequencies (10­50 Hz), and are relied upon to estimate eddy-covariance-based fluxes of mass and energy over a wide variety of surfaces and ecosystems. In this study, wind-velocity measurement errors from a three-dimensional sonic anemometer with a nonorthogonal transducer...

  7. Estimation of sensible heat flux using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and ATSR measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Su, Z.; Hurk, van den B.; Menenti, M.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Baselga Yrisarry, J.J.; Ibanez, M.; Cuesta, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified version of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) as regards the use of radiometric data from space and presents the results of a large area validation study on estimated sensible heat flux, extended over several months. The improvements were made possible by the

  8. Explanation for the low flux of high-energy astrophysical muon neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakvasa, Sandip; Joshipura, Anjan; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2013-04-26

    There has been some concern about the unexpected paucity of cosmic high-energy muon neutrinos in detectors probing the energy region beyond 1 PeV. As a possible solution we consider the possibility that some exotic neutrino property is responsible for reducing the muon neutrino flux at high energies from distant sources; specifically, we consider (i) neutrino decay and (ii) neutrinos being pseudo-Dirac-particles. This would provide a mechanism for the reduction of high-energy muon events in the IceCube detector, for example.

  9. Energy Fluxes above Three Disparate Surfaces in a Temperate Mesoscale Coastal Catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Rasmus; Herbst, Mathias; Friborg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    was about 500 mm for the wet grassland and spruce plantation, while it was about 300 mm for the irrigated agricultural site. In winter, the actual evapotranspiration rate of the grassland and the forest were much larger than the available energy evaluated from the radiation balance, while at the same time...... evapotranspiration. In late summer, evapotranspiration rates at the meadow and forest sites again increased signifi cantly compared with radiative available energy, and again sensible heat flux directed toward the ground was observed....

  10. A Didactic Model of the Seasonal Cycle in Energy Fluxes and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, A.; Battisti, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the annual mean, the polar regions receive a deficit of solar insolation relative to the global average. The local energy budget is balanced primarily by atmospheric heat transport into the region, with smaller contributions from ocean heat transport and anomalously low outgoing longwave radiation (relative to the global average). In contrast, the annual cycle features large seasonal anomalies (departures from the local annual average) in solar insolation in the polar regions that are primarily balanced by ocean heat storage anomalies; changes in meridional heat transport, emitted long wave radiation, and atmospheric heat storage play a decreasingly important role in the seasonal energy balance. Land-ocean contrasts also have a large impact on the seasonal energetics of the polar climate system. Over the ocean, zonal heat transport from the land domain is maximized during the summer, and the sum of the insolation and zonal heat transport anomalies is balanced by ocean heat storage. In contrast, over the land, the primary summertime balance is excess solar insolation balanced by an enhanced zonal heat export. In this study we examine the global scale climate and the aforementioned seasonal cycle of energy fluxes using an aquaplanet atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean and a simplified energy balance model that interacts with the underlying ocean. The gross climate and seasonal energetics in both models are highly sensitive to the specification of ocean mixed layer depth. The observed seasonal cycle of energy fluxes and the land and ocean temperatures are also replicated in a simplified energy balance model that includes land-ocean contrast and the hemispheric differences in fractional land area. The sensitivity of the seasonal cycle in climate (atmosphere and ocean temperatures) - and in the gross partitioning of the mix of energy flux processes that determine the climate - to the fractional land area is further explored in an ensemble of

  11. Modeling surface energy fluxes from a patchwork of fields with different soils and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    Agroecosystems are a dominant terrestrial land-use on planet earth and cover about 36% of the ice-free surface (12% pasture, 26% agriculture) [Foley2011]. Within this land use type, management practices vary strongly due to climate, cultural preferences, degree of industrialization, soil properties, crop rotations, field sizes, degree of land use sustainability, water availability, sowing and harvest dates, tillage, etc. These management practices influence abiotic environmental factors like water flow and heat transport within the ecosystem leading to changes of land surface fluxes. The relevance of vegetation (e.g. crops), ground cover, and soil properties to the moisture and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere is well known [McPherson 2007], but the impact of vegetation growth dynamics on energy fluxes is only partly understood [Gayler et al. 2014]. Thus, the structure of turbulence and the albedo evolve during the cropping period and large variations of heat can be measured on the field scale [Aubinet2012]. One issue of local distributed mixture of different land use is the measurement process which makes it challenging to evaluate simulations. Unfortunately, for meteorological flux-measurements like the Flux-Gradient or the Eddy Covariance (EC) method, comparability with simulations only exists in the ideal case, where fields have to be completely uniform in land use and flat within the reach of the footprint. Then a model with one specific land use would have the same underlying source area as the measurement. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mixed approach, which was recently implemented into the ecosystem model framework Expert-N [Biernath et al. 2013]. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of five managed field plots, planted with winter wheat, potato and maize on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the

  12. Convergence of Phase-Field Free Energy and Boundary Force for Molecular Solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shibin; Li, Bo; Lu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    We study a phase-field variational model for the solvation of charged molecules with an implicit solvent. The solvation free-energy functional of all phase fields consists of the surface energy, solute excluded volume and solute-solvent van der Waals dispersion energy, and electrostatic free energy. The surface energy is defined by the van der Waals-Cahn-Hilliard functional with squared gradient and a double-well potential. The electrostatic part of free energy is defined through the electrostatic potential governed by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in which the dielectric coefficient is defined through the underlying phase field. We prove the continuity of the electrostatics—its potential, free energy, and dielectric boundary force—with respect to the perturbation of the dielectric boundary. We also prove the {Γ}-convergence of the phase-field free-energy functionals to their sharp-interface limit, and the equivalence of the convergence of total free energies to that of all individual parts of free energy. We finally prove the convergence of phase-field forces to their sharp-interface limit. Such forces are defined as the negative first variations of the free-energy functional; and arise from stress tensors. In particular, we obtain the force convergence for the van der Waals-Cahn-Hilliard functionals with minimal assumptions.

  13. Free energy and boundary anomalies on S^a × H^b spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Russo, Jorge G.

    2017-10-01

    We compute free energies as well as conformal anomalies associated with boundaries for a conformal free scalar field. To that matter, we introduce the family of spaces of the form S^a × H^b , which are conformally related to {S^a}^{+b} . For the case of a = 1, related to the entanglement entropy across {S^b}^{-1} , we provide some new explicit computations of entanglement entropies at weak coupling. We then compute the free energy for spaces S^a × H^b for different values of a and b. For spaces S^{2n+1}× H^{2k} we find an exact match with the free energy on S^{2n+2k+1} . For ℍ2 k + 1 and S^3 × H^3 we find conformal anomalies originating from boundary terms. We also compute the free energy for strongly coupled theories through holography, obtaining similar results.

  14. Hormesis enables cells to handle accumulating toxic metabolites during increased energy flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Zemva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy production is inevitably linked to the generation of toxic metabolites, such as reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, known as major contributors to ageing and degenerative diseases. It remains unclear how cells can adapt to elevated energy flux accompanied by accumulating harmful by-products without taking any damage. Therefore, effects of a sudden rise in glucose concentrations were studied in yeast cells. This revealed a feedback mechanism initiated by the reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal, which is formed non-enzymatically during glycolysis. Low levels of methylglyoxal activate a multi-layered defence response against toxic metabolites composed of prevention, detoxification and damage remission. The latter is mediated by the protein quality control system and requires inducible Hsp70 and Btn2, the aggregase that sequesters misfolded proteins. This glycohormetic mechanism enables cells to pre-adapt to rising energy flux and directly links metabolic to proteotoxic stress. Further data suggest the existence of a similar response in endothelial cells.

  15. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    VDTLBs, represent ˜67% of the Barrow Peninsula surface area, accounting for ˜59% of the regional flux signal. Though the Medium and Young VDTLBs represent ˜11% of the surface area, they account for a large portion, ˜35%, of the total regional flux. The remaining ˜22% of the surface area are lakes and contributed the remaining ˜6% of the total regional flux. Previous studies treated vegetated areas of the region as a single surface type with measurements from a few study sites; doing so could underestimate the regional flux by ˜22%. The San Diego State University Sky Arrow 650TCN Environmental Research Aircraft proved to be an effective tool in characterizing land-atmosphere fluxes of energy, CO2 and water across heterogeneous landscapes at the scale of 1 km, and was capable of discriminating fluxes from the various ecosystem and land surface types a few kilometers distant. Here, we demonstrate that SERA-based approaches have the ability to cover large spatial scales while measuring the turbulent fluxes across a number of surfaces and combined with ground- and satellite-based measurements provide a valuable tool for both scaling and validation of regional-scale fluxes.

  16. Turbulent exchange of energy, momentum, and reactive gases between high vegetation and the atmospheric boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapkalijevski, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the representation of the exchange of energy, momentum and chemically reactive compounds between the land, covered by high vegetation, and the lowest part of the atmosphere, named as atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The study presented in this thesis introduces the roughness

  17. Energy dissipation in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model with open boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate energy dissipation caused by traffic in the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model with open boundary conditions (OBC). Boundary results in excess energy dissipation. The effects of the stochastic boundary conditions on energy dissipation are discussed. The behaviors of energy dissipation in different traffic phase are distinct. As an order parameter, energy dissipation rate E d characterizes the phase transition behaviors well. It is shown that there is no true free-flow state in nondeterministic NaSch model with OBC. We refer to this non-true free-flow state as quasi-free-flow (QFF) phase in which there are interactions between vehicles caused by stochastic braking but no backward moving jam exists. In the maximum current phase, E d is minimal thus the social payoff is maximal. Energy dissipation profiles in QFF, jammed and maximum current phase are presented. Theoretical analyses are in good agreement with numerical results for the case v max = 1.

  18. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  19. Ion shell distributions as free energy source for plasma waves on auroral field lines mapping to plasma sheet boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion shell distributions are hollow spherical shells in velocity space that can be formed by many processes and occur in several regions of geospace. They are interesting because they have free energy that can, in principle, be transmitted to ions and electrons. Recently, a technique has been developed to estimate the original free energy available in shell distributions from in-situ data, where some of the energy has already been lost (or consumed. We report a systematic survey of three years of data from the Polar satellite. We present an estimate of the free energy available from ion shell distributions on auroral field lines sampled by the Polar satellite below 6 RE geocentric radius. At these altitudes the type of ion shells that we are especially interested in is most common on auroral field lines close to the polar cap (i.e. field lines mapping to the plasma sheet boundary layer, PSBL. Our analysis shows that ion shell distributions that have lost some of their free energy are commonly found not only in the PSBL, but also on auroral field lines mapping to the boundary plasma sheet (BPS, especially in the evening sector auroral field lines. We suggest that the PSBL ion shell distributions are formed during the so-called Velocity Dispersed Ion Signatures (VDIS events. Furthermore, we find that the partly consumed shells often occur in association with enhanced wave activity and middle-energy electron anisotropies. The maximum downward ion energy flux associated with a shell distribution is often 10mWm-2 and sometimes exceeds 40mWm-2 when mapped to the ionosphere and thus may be enough to power many auroral processes. Earlier simulation studies have shown that ion shell distributions can excite ion Bernstein waves which, in turn, energise electrons in the parallel direction. It is possible that ion shell distributions are the link between the X-line and the auroral wave activity and electron

  20. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos that challenges the Waxman-Bahcall bound predictions. Neutrino identification is attempted using the broad time structure of the signals expected in the SD stations, and is efficiently done for neutrinos of all flavors interacting in the atmosphere at large zenith angles, as well as for "Earth-skimming" neutrino interactions in the case of tau neutrinos. In this paper the searches for downward-going neutrinos in the zenith angle bins 60°-75° and 75°-90° as well as for upward-going neutrinos, are combined to give a single limit. The 90% C.L. single-flavor limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos with an E-2 spectrum in the energy range 1.0 ×1 017 eV - 2.5 ×1 019 eV is Eν2d Nν/d Eν<6.4 ×10-9 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 .

  1. Evaluation of energy fluxes in the NCEP climate forecast system version 2.0 (CFSv2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Archana; Saha, Subodh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The energy fluxes at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA) from a long free run by the NCEP climate forecast system version 2.0 (CFSv2) are validated against several observation and reanalysis datasets. This study focuses on the annual mean energy fluxes and tries to link it with the systematic cold biases in the 2 m air temperature, particularly over the land regions. The imbalance in the long term mean global averaged energy fluxes are also evaluated. The global averaged imbalance at the surface and at the TOA is found to be 0.37 and 6.43 Wm-2, respectively. It is shown that CFSv2 overestimates the land surface albedo, particularly over the snow region, which in turn contributes to the cold biases in 2 m air temperature. On the other hand, surface albedo is highly underestimated over the coastal region around Antarctica and that may have contributed to the warm bias over that oceanic region. This study highlights the need for improvements in the parameterization of snow/sea-ice albedo scheme for a realistic simulation of surface temperature and that may have implications on the global energy imbalance in the model.

  2. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  3. Evaluating the influence of plant-specific physiological parameterizations on the partitioning of land surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, Mauro; Langensiepen, Matthias; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Schickling, Anke; Simmer, Clemens; Kollet, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation has a significant influence on the partitioning of radiative forcing, the spatial and temporal variability of soil water and soil temperature. Therefore plant physiological properties play a key role in mediating and amplifying interactions and feedback mechanisms in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Because of the direct impact on latent heat fluxes, these properties may also influence weather generating processes, such as the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In land surface models, plant physiological properties are usually obtained from literature synthesis by unifying several plant/crop species in predefined vegetation classes. In this work, crop-specific physiological characteristics, retrieved from detailed field measurements, are included in the bio-physical parameterization of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is a component of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP). The measured set of parameters for two typical European mid-latitudinal crops (sugar beet and winter wheat) is validated using eddy covariance measurements (sensible heat and latent heat) over multiple years from three measurement sites located in the North Rhine-Westphalia region, Germany. We found clear improvements of CLM simulations, when using the crop-specific physiological characteristics of the plants instead of the generic crop type when compared to the measurements. In particular, the increase of latent heat fluxes in conjunction with decreased sensible heat fluxes as simulated by the two new crop-specific parameter sets leads to an improved quantification of the diurnal energy partitioning. These findings are cross-validated using estimates of gross primary production extracted from net ecosystem exchange measurements. This independent analysis reveals that the better agreement between observed and simulated latent heat using the plant-specific physiological properties largely stems from an improved simulation of the

  4. Nanostructured fuzz growth on tungsten under low-energy and high-flux He irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; You, Yu-Wei; Liu, Lu; Fan, Hongyu; Ni, Weiyuan; Liu, Dongping; Liu, C. S.; Benstetter, Günther; Wang, Younian

    2015-06-01

    We report the formation of wave-like structures and nanostructured fuzzes in the polycrystalline tungsten (W) irradiated with high-flux and low-energy helium (He) ions. From conductive atomic force microscope measurements, we have simultaneously obtained the surface topography and current emission images of the irradiated W materials. Our measurements show that He-enriched and nanostructured strips are formed in W crystal grains when they are exposed to low-energy and high-flux He ions at a temperature of 1400 K. The experimental measurements are confirmed by theoretical calculations, where He atoms in W crystal grains are found to cluster in a close-packed arrangement between {101} planes and form He-enriched strips. The formations of wave-like structures and nanostructured fuzzes on the W surface can be attributed to the surface sputtering and swelling of He-enriched strips, respectively.

  5. Predicting carbon dioxide and energy fluxes with empirical approaches in FLUXNET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Jung, Martin; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Ichii, Kazuhito; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Ráduly, Botond; Reichstein, Markus; Altaf Arain, M.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Kiely, Gerard; Merbold, Lutz; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Sickert, Sven; Wolf, Sebastian; Papale, Dario

    2017-04-01

    Global spatio-temporal fields of land-atmosphere fluxes derived from data-driven models and eddy covariance measurements can complement simulations by process-based Land Surface Models. Furthermore, they are also increasingly used for analyzing variations of the global carbon and energy cycles. However, while a number of strategies for empirical models with eddy covariance flux data have been applied, a systematic intercomparison of these methods is missing so far. Here, we report the results of a cross-validation experiment for predicting carbon dioxide, latent heat, sensible heat and net radiation fluxes, across different ecosystem types. That experiment was performed in the context of the FLUXCOM activities that aims at providing an array of improved data-driven flux products. Empirical models were derived by eleven machine learning (ML) methods from four different classes (kernel methods, neural networks, tree methods, and regression splines). Fluxes data were taken by more than 200 eddy covariance study sites over the globe. Two complementary experimental setups have been carried out: (1) 8-day average fluxes based on remotely sensed data, and (2) daily mean fluxes based on meteorological data and mean seasonal cycle of remotely sensed variables. The pattern of predictions from different ML and experimental setups were highly consistent. Instead there were systematic differences in performance among the fluxes, with the following ascending order: net ecosystem exchange (R20.6), gross primary production (R2>0.7), latent heat (R2>0.7), sensible heat (R2>0.7), net radiation (R2>0.8). The ML methods predicted very well the across site variability and the mean seasonal cycle of the observed fluxes (R2> 0.7), while the 8-day deviations from the mean seasonal cycle were not well predicted (R2extreme climates or less represented by training data (e.g. the tropics). The evaluated large ensemble of ML based empirical models were used to derive two complementary sets of

  6. Radiation Boundary Conditions for the Two-Dimensional Wave Equation from a Variational Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Broeze, Jan; van Daalen, Edwin F.G.; van Daalen, E.F.G.

    1992-01-01

    A variational principle is used to derive a new radiation boundary condition for the two-dimensional wave equation. This boundary condition is obtained from an expression for the local energy flux velocity on the boundary in normal direction. The wellposedness of the wave equation with this boundary

  7. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  8. REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE ENERGY FLUX MODELS TO DERIVE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CROP COEFFICIENT

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Barbagallo; Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli; Simona Consoli; Vincenzo Tamburino; Attilio Toscano

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques using high resolution satellite images provide opportunities to evaluate daily crop water use and its spatial and temporal distribution on a field by field basis. Mapping this indicator with pixels of few meters of size on extend areas allows to characterize different processes and parameters. Satellite data on vegetation reflectance, integrated with in field measurements of canopy coverage features and the monitoring of energy fluxes through the soil-plant-atmospher...

  9. Effects of K and Ca doping on twin boundary energy of cupperate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshnevisan, Bahram [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Mahnaz, E-mail: m.mohammadi_2@grad.kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qom University of Technology, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ab initio simulation for twin boundary energy in YBCO and doped YBCO system for the 1st time. • Local charge transfer and charge redistribution on the twin planes. • Structural and electronic properties of YBKCO and YCBCO systems. • Effect of Ca and K doping on twin boundary. • This explain the effect of twin boundaries in agreement with experimental data. • Structural and electronic properties of twined YBKCO and YCBCO systems. - Abstract: Ab-initio calculations under GGA approximation have been employed to find out the effect Ba substitution by K and Ca on the structural and electronic properties twined and untwined YBCO system. In this regard, the twin boundary energy, γ, and impact of the substitution on the boundary's charge distribution have been of special consideration. Our results show that despite the structural changes the presence of K (Ca) modifies substantially density of levels at the Fermi level, which could be responsible for empirical reports of decreasing the critical temperature (T{sub c}) by increasing the K(Ca) content. Although, the K doping reduces the γ value in YBa{sub 2–x}K{sub x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} system, after calcium doping it remains more or less unchanged. In addition, reduction of the carrier density occurs at twin boundary in CuO{sub 2} layer for the substituted system with respect to the untwined YBCO system. Our results would be noticeable in conjunction with the experimentally reported twinned and alkali substituted superconductive properties of the YBCO samples.

  10. Quantifying the Sensitivity of Energy Fluxes to Land Surface Parameter Selection Using the Active Subspace Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, J.; Gilbert, J. M.; Maxwell, R. M.; Constantine, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Complex hydrologic models are commonly used as computational tools to assess and quantify fluxes at the land surface and for forecasting and prediction purposes. When estimating water and energy fluxes from vegetated surfaces, the equations solved within these models require that multiple input parameters be specified. Some parameters characterize land cover properties while others are constants used to model physical processes like transpiration. As a result, it becomes important to understand the sensitivity of output flux estimates to uncertain input parameters. The active subspace method identifies the most important direction in the high-dimensional space of model inputs. Perturbations of input parameters in this direction influence output quantities more, on average, than perturbations in other directions. The components of the vector defining this direction quantify the sensitivity of the model output to the corresponding inputs. Discovering whether or not an active subspace exists is computationally efficient compared to several other sensitivity analysis methods. Here, we apply this method to evaluate the sensitivity of latent, sensible and ground heat fluxes from the ParFlow-Common Land Model (PF-CLM). Of the 19 input parameters used to specify properties of a grass covered surface, between three and six parameters are identified as important for heat flux estimates. Furthermore, the 19-dimenision input parameter space is reduced to one active variable and the relationship between the inputs and output fluxes for this case is described by a quadratic polynomial. The input parameter weights and the input-output relationship provide a powerful combination of information that can be used to understand land surface dynamics. Given the success of this proof-of-concept example, extension of this method to identify important parameters within the transpiration computation will be explored.

  11. Cross-ecosystem differences in stability and the principle of energy flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rip, J M K; McCann, K S

    2011-08-01

    Here, we review consumer-resource (C-R) theory to show that the paradox of enrichment is a special case of a more general theoretical result. That is, we show that increased energy flux, relative to the consumer loss rate, makes C-R interactions top heavy (i.e., greater C:R biomass ratio) and less stable. We then review the literature on the attributes of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to argue that empirical estimates of parameters governing energy flux find that aquatic ecosystems have higher rates of relative energy flux than terrestrial ecosystems. Consistent with theory, we then review empirical work that shows aquatic ecosystems have greater herbivore:plant biomass ratios while we produce novel data to show that aquatic ecosystems have greater variability in population dynamics than their terrestrial counterparts. We end by arguing that theory, allometric relationships and a significant, negative correlation between body size and population variability suggest that these results may be driven by the smaller average body sizes of aquatic organisms relative to terrestrial organisms. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE ENERGY FLUX MODELS TO DERIVE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CROP COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques using high resolution satellite images provide opportunities to evaluate daily crop water use and its spatial and temporal distribution on a field by field basis. Mapping this indicator with pixels of few meters of size on extend areas allows to characterize different processes and parameters. Satellite data on vegetation reflectance, integrated with in field measurements of canopy coverage features and the monitoring of energy fluxes through the soil-plant-atmosphere system, allow to estimate conventional irrigation components (ET, Kc thus improving irrigation strategies. In the study, satellite potential evapotranspiration (ETp and crop coefficient (Kc maps of orange orchards are derived using semi-empirical approaches between reflectance data from IKONOS imagery and ground measurements of vegetation features. The monitoring of energy fluxes through the orchard allows to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa using energy balance and the Surface Renewal theory. The approach indicates substantial promise as an efficient, accurate and relatively inexpensive procedure to predict actual ET fluxes and Kc from irrigated lands.

  13. Hourly interaction between wind speed and energy fluxes in Brazilian Wetlands - Mato Grosso - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO R. RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Matter and energy flux dynamics of wetlands are important to understand environmental processes that govern biosphere-atmosphere interactions across ecosystems. This study presents analyses about hourly interaction between wind speed and energy fluxes in Brazilian Wetlands - Mato Grosso - Brazil. This study was conducted in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH SESC, 16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''W in Brazilian Wetland. According to Curado et al. (2012, the wet season occurs between the months of January and April, while the June to September time period is the dry season. Results presented same patterns in energies fluxes in all period studied. Wind speed and air temperature presented same patterns, while LE was relative humidity presented inverse patterns of the air temperature. LE was predominant in all seasons and the sum of LE and H was above 90% of net radiation. Analyses of linear regression presented positive interactions between wind speed and LE, and wind speed and H in all seasons, except in dry season of 2010. Confidence coefficient regression analyses present statistical significance in all wet and dry seasons, except dry season of 2010, suggest that LE and H had interaction with other micrometeorological variables.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle – ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001–2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within

  15. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueri Dang; Chun-Ta Lai; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew J. Schauer; Jingfeng Xiao; J. William Munger; Clenton Owensby; James R. Ehleringer

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling...

  16. The Impact of Local Microclimate Boundary Conditions on Building Energy Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local environmental boundaries play an important role in determining microclimate conditions affecting thermal-energy behavior of buildings. In this scenario, the purpose of the present work is to investigate how residential buildings are affected by different local microclimate conditions. To this aim, the continuous microclimate monitoring of (i a rural area; (ii a suburban area; and (iii an urban area is carried out, and the comparative analysis of the different boundary conditions is performed. In particular, the effect of the presence of a large lake in the rural area on building energy demand for heating and cooling is evaluated, both in winter and summer. Coupled degree hour method and numerical analysis are performed in order to predict the energy requirement of buildings subject to local microclimate boundary conditions. The main results show higher air temperature and relative humidity values for the rural area. No significant mitigation effect due to the lake presence is found in urban and suburban areas because of the peculiar wind regime of the region. Additionally, the dynamic thermal-energy simulation shows a decrease of 14% and 25% in the heating consumption and an increase of 58% and 194% in cooling requirements of buildings situated in the rural area around the lake compared to the urban and suburban areas, respectively.

  17. Analytic calculation of energy transfer and heat flux in a one-dimensional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; van den Broeck, C.

    2005-10-01

    In the context of the problem of heat conduction in one-dimensional systems, we present an analytical calculation of the instantaneous energy transfer across a tagged particle in a one-dimensional gas of equal-mass, hard-point particles. From this, we obtain a formula for the steady-state energy flux, and identify and separate the mechanical work and heat conduction contributions to it. The nature of the Fourier law for the model, and the nonlinear dependence of the rate of mechanical work on the stationary drift velocity of the tagged particle, are analyzed and elucidated.

  18. Coupled Wave Energy and Erosion Dynamics along a Salt Marsh Boundary, Hog Island Bay, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Priestas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lateral erosion of salt marshes and wind waves is studied in Hog Island Bay, Virginia USA, with high-resolution field measurements and aerial photographs. Marsh retreat is compared to wave climate calculated in the bay using the spectral wave-model Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN. We confirm the existence of a linear relationship between long-term salt marsh erosion and wave energy, and show that wave power can serve as a good proxy for average salt-marsh erosion rates. At each site, erosion rates are consistent across several temporal scales, ranging from months to decades, and are strongly related to wave power. On the contrary, erosion rates vary in space and weakly depend on the spatial distribution of wave energy. We ascribe this variability to spatial variations in geotechnical, biological, and morphological marsh attributes. Our detailed field measurements indicate that at a small spatial scale (tens of meters, a positive feedback between salt marsh geometry and wave action causes erosion rates to increase with boundary sinuosity. However, at the scale of the entire marsh boundary (hundreds of meters, this relationship is reversed: those sites that are more rapidly eroding have a marsh boundary which is significantly smoother than the marsh boundary of sheltered and slowly eroding marshes.

  19. CO2 and energy fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Herbst, Mathias; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding in Indonesia due to global increased demand of palm oil. Such plantations are usually set in previously forested land and in Sumatra, massive transformation of lowland forest into oil palm plantations is taking place. These land transformations have been identified as a potential driver of climate change, as they might result in changes of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, very limited information is available on GHG fluxes from oil palm plantations and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale is yet unknown. An eddy covariance tower was therefore installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, Sumatra (1° 50' 7'S, 103° 17' 44'E), with the aim of studying carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes during the non-productive phase of oil palm cultivation. The canopy was not yet closed and trees were around 2m high. The eddy covariance system consists of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek Anemometer, operating at 10 Hz and installed on a 7m tower. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, the site is equipped with a weather station, measuring short and long wave radiation, PAR, rainfall, profiles of air temperature, air humidity and wind speed, soil temperature and moisture and soil heat fluxes. Measurements started in July 2013 until January 2014, in order to capture possible differences which may happen during the dry (July-October) and wet (November-February) seasons. A large CO2 uptake would have been expected at this young oil palm plantation, as palm trees during this period of their cultivation are growing fast. However, our preliminary results show that during the first 5 months of measurements, the ecosystem was a small carbon source (below 10 g CO2 m-2). Latent heat flux was higher than sensible heat flux during the period of study, indicative of the high evaporation taking place. Our results show that both for CO2 and energy fluxes, large differences were observed between the

  20. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA version 2017: a database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wild

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA is a database for the central storage of the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface, maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland. This paper documents the status of the GEBA version 2017 dataset, presents the new web interface and user access, and reviews the scientific impact that GEBA data had in various applications. GEBA has continuously been expanded and updated and contains in its 2017 version around 500 000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components measured at 2500 locations. The database contains observations from 15 surface energy flux components, with the most widely measured quantity available in GEBA being the shortwave radiation incident at the Earth's surface (global radiation. Many of the historic records extend over several decades. GEBA contains monthly data from a variety of sources, namely from the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC in St. Petersburg, from national weather services, from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD, from peer-reviewed publications, project and data reports, and from personal communications. Quality checks are applied to test for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA has played a key role in various research applications, such as in the quantification of the global energy balance, in the discussion of the anomalous atmospheric shortwave absorption, and in the detection of multi-decadal variations in global radiation, known as global dimming and brightening. GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible through the internet via http://www.geba.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873078.

  1. Estimating energy fluxes within the stream-aquifer interface of the Avenelles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrhouma, Asma; Rivière, Agnès; Goblet, Patrick; Cucchi, Karina; Rubin, Yoram; Baudin, Aurélien; Ansart, Patrick; Flipo, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of water temperature evolution and its associated energy fluxes is important to follow the aquatic habitats evolution and to predict future modifications induced by climate change. The spatio-temporal energy balance dynamics within the stream-aquifer interface is complex because of the multitude of physical, morphological and meteorological parameters on which it depends. This critical interface is involving numerous physical and bio-geochemical processes which are taking place at different time and spatial scales. The energy balance estimation at this interface depends mainly on the direction, magnitude and variability of water exchanges and the temporal variation of river and aquifer temperatures as well as the thermal porous media properties. In this work, a combined numerical and experimental approach is used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the energy budget along 6 km of the stream network of the Avenelles watershed. With an area of 46 km2, the Avenelles watershed is located 70 km east from Paris. The Avenelles river presents different types of connectivity with the underlying aquifers. Five Local Monitoring Stations (LOMOS) have been deployed along the hydraulic corridor to monitor the water and thermal exchanges between the stream and aquifer over years, based on continuous pressure and temperature measurements in the river, the hyporheic zone (HZ) and the underlying aquifer. A 2D finite element thermo-hydrogeological model (METIS) coupled with a parameters screening script is used to determine the hydrogeological and thermal properties of the HZ and of the underlying aquifers by inversion at five LOMOS. Once the local models are calibrated, water and heat fluxes through the stream - aquifer interface are assessed over years (2012-2015) along the stream network. This work offers a new understanding of the stream-aquifer interface functioning, shifting from a pure hydrological characterizing toward a more subtle view that

  2. Simulating land surface energy fluxes using a microscopic root water uptake approach in a northern temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Schneider, C.

    2012-12-01

    The predictive accuracy of current land surface models has been limited by uncertainties in modeling transpiration and its sensitivity to the plant-available water in the root zone. Models usually distribute vegetation transpiration demand as sink terms in one-dimensional soil-water accounting model, according to the vertical root density profile. During water-limited situations, the sink terms are constrained using a heuristic "Feddes-type" water stress function. This approach significantly simplifies the actual three-dimensional physical process of root water uptake and may predict an early onset of water-limited transpiration. Recently, a microscopic root water uptake approach was proposed to simulate the three-dimensional radial moisture fluxes from the soil to roots, and water flux transfer processes along the root systems. During dry conditions, this approach permits the compensation of decreased root water uptake in water-stressed regions by increasing uptake density in moister regions. This effect cannot be captured by the Feddes heuristic function. This study "loosely" incorporates the microscopic root water uptake approach based on aRoot model into an ecohydrological model tRIBS+VEGGIE. The ecohydrological model provides boundary conditions for the microscopic root water uptake model (e.g., potential transpiration, soil evaporation, and precipitation influx), and the latter computes the actual transpiration and profiles of sink terms. Based on the departure of the actual latent heat flux from the potential value, the other energy budget components are adjusted. The study is conducted for a northern temperate mixed forest near the University of Michigan Biological Station. Observational evidence for this site suggests little-to-no control of transpiration by soil moisture yet the commonly used Feddes-type approach implies severe water limitation on transpiration during dry episodes. The study addresses two species: oak and aspen. The effects of differences

  3. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia Garcia, Monica; Nieto Solana, Hector

    2013-01-01

    A two-source model (TSM) for surface energy balance, considering explicitly soil and vegetation components, was tested under water stress conditions. The TSM evaluated estimates the sensible heat flux (H) using the surface-air thermal gradient and the latent heat flux (LE) as a residual from the ...

  4. Intermittency and energy fluxes in the surface layer of free-surface turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Troiani, Guido; Olivieri, Angelo; Casciola, Carlo Massimo

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing hot-wire velocity data taken in an open channel flow, an unambiguous definition of surface-layer thickness is here provided in terms of the cross-over scale between backward and forward energy fluxes. It is shown that the turbulence in the surface layer does not conform to the classical description of two-dimensional turbulence, since the direct energy cascade persists at scales smaller than the cross-over scale, comparable with the distance from the free-surface. The multifractal analysis of the one-dimensional surrogate of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in terms of generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum indicates that intermittency is strongly depleted in the surface layer, as shown by the singularity spectrum contracted to a single point. The combination of intermittency indicators and energy fluxes allowed to identify the specific nature of the surface layer as alternative to classical paradigms of three- and two-dimensional turbulence which cannot fully capture the gl...

  5. Origin of the Differential Fluxes of Low-energy Electrons in the Inner Heliosheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, H. J. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Krimigis, S. M. [Office of Space Research and Technology, Academy of Athens, 10679 Athens (Greece); Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Sylla, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Ferreira, S. E. S.; Potgieter, M. S., E-mail: hf@tp4.rub.de [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2017-10-10

    The study addresses the question of the origin of low-energy electrons measured by Voyager 1 in the multi-keV range in the inner heliosheath. It intends to demonstrate that the observed keV-fluxes of electrons are consistent with their transmission through the termination shock under the influence of the associated electrostatic field. A power-law representation of the electron velocity distribution just downstream of the solar wind termination shock is motivated and formulated in terms of a so-called κ -distribution function. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes in the range 40–70 keV are derived and compared to the data. It is shown that with κ -values between 7 and 8 the data can be satisfactorily explained. Given these comparatively high κ -values, it is concluded that the electron distribution just downstream of the termination shock relaxes toward but does not reach a Maxwellian shape in the inner heliosheath.

  6. UH-FLUX: Compact, Energy Efficient Superconducting Asymmetric Energy Recovery LINAC for Ultra-high Fluxes of X-ray and THz Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konoplev, Ivan [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). JAI, Dept. of Physics; Ainsworth, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Burt, Graeme [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Cockcroft Inst.; Seryi, Andrei [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). JAI, Dept. of Physics

    2016-06-01

    The conventional ERLs have limited peak beam current because increasing the beam charge and repetition rate leads to appearance of the beam break-up instabilities. At this stage the highest current, from the SRF ERL, is around 300 mA. A single-turn (the beam will be transported through the accelerating section, interaction point and deceleration section of the AERL only once) Asymmetric Energy Recovery LINAC (AERL) is proposed. The RF cells in different sections of the cavity are tuned in such a way that only operating mode is uniform inside all of the cells. The AERL will drive the electron beams with typical energies of 10 - 30 MeV and peak currents above 1 A, enabling the generation of high flux UV/X-rays and high power coherent THz radiation. We aim to build a copper prototype of the RF cavity for a compact AERL to study its EM properties. The final goal is to build AERL based on the superconducting RF cavity. Preliminary design for AERL's cavity has been developed and will be presented. The results of numerical and analytical models and the next steps toward the AERL operation will also be discussed.

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of satellite derived land surface parameters and energy flux densities for LITFASS-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tittebrand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on satellite data in different temporal and spatial resolution, the current use of frequency distribution functions (PDF for surface parameters and energy fluxes is one of the most promising ways to describe subgrid heterogeneity of a landscape. Objective of this study is to find typical distribution patterns of parameters (albedo, NDVI for the determination of the actual latent heat flux (L.E determined from highly resolved satellite data within pixel on coarser scale.

    Landsat ETM+, Terra MODIS and NOAA-AVHRR surface temperature and spectral reflectance were used to infer further surface parameters and radiant- and energy flux densities for LITFASS-area, a 20×20 km2 heterogeneous area in Eastern Germany, mainly characterised by the land use types forest, crop, grass and water. Based on the Penman-Monteith-approach L.E, as key quantity of the hydrological cycle, is determined for each sensor in the accordant spatial resolution with an improved parametrisation. However, using three sensors, significant discrepancies between the inferred parameters can cause flux distinctions resultant from differences of the sensor filter response functions or atmospheric correction methods. The approximation of MODIS- and AVHRR- derived surface parameters to the reference parameters of ETM (via regression lines and histogram stretching, respectively, further the use of accurate land use classifications (CORINE and a new Landsat-classification, and a consistent parametrisation for the three sensors were realized to obtain a uniform base for investigations of the spatial variability.

    The analyses for 4 scenes in 2002 and 2003 showed that for forest clear distribution-patterns for NDVI and albedo are found. Grass and crop distributions show higher variability and differ significantly to each other in NDVI but only marginal in albedo. Regarding NDVI-distribution functions NDVI was found to be the key variable for L.E-determination.

  8. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, S., E-mail: sandra.rafael@ua.pt; Martins, H.; Sá, E.; Carvalho, D.; Borrego, C.; Lopes, M.

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of + 200 W m{sup −2}) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of − 62.8 and − 35 W m{sup −2}, respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. - Graphical abstract: A combination of white roofs and increased green urban areas has the potential do reduce the sensible heat flux of urban areas, being of great effectiveness in improving the thermal comfort of the urban population under future climate. - Highlights: • Evaluation of energy fluxes behaviour under RCP8.5 climate change scenario • Increase in the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat waves • Cities must become resilient to be able to deal with climate change

  9. Dielectric Boundary Force in Molecular Solvation with the Poisson-Boltzmann Free Energy: A Shape Derivative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Zhengfang

    2011-01-01

    In an implicit-solvent description of molecular solvation, the electrostatic free energy is given through the electrostatic potential. This potential solves a boundary-value problem of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in which the dielectric coefficient changes across the solute-solvent interface-the dielectric boundary. The dielectric boundary force acting on such a boundary is the negative first variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of the boundary. In this work, the concept of shape derivative is used to define such variations and formulas of the dielectric boundary force are derived. It is shown that such a force is always in the direction toward the charged solute molecules.

  10. Dielectric Boundary Force in Molecular Solvation with the Poisson–Boltzmann Free Energy: A Shape Derivative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    In an implicit-solvent description of molecular solvation, the electrostatic free energy is given through the electrostatic potential. This potential solves a boundary-value problem of the Poisson–Boltzmann equation in which the dielectric coefficient changes across the solute-solvent interface—the dielectric boundary. The dielectric boundary force acting on such a boundary is the negative first variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of the boundary. In this work, the concept of shape derivative is used to define such variations and formulas of the dielectric boundary force are derived. It is shown that such a force is always in the direction toward the charged solute molecules. PMID:24058212

  11. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  12. On the Generation of Flux-Tube Waves in Stellar Convection Zones. IV. Longitudinal Wave Energy Spectra and Fluxes for Stars with Nonsolar Metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.

    2002-07-01

    In the previous papers of this series, we developed an analytical method describing the generation of longitudinal tube waves in stellar convection zones and used it to compute the wave energy spectra and fluxes for late-type stars with the solar metal abundance (Population I). We now extend these calculations to Population II stars with effective temperatures ranging from Teff=2500 to 10,000 K, gravities logg=3-5, and with three different metal abundances: 1/10, 1/100, and 1/1000 of solar metallicity. The obtained results are valid for a single magnetic flux, and they show that the effects of metallicity are important only for cool stars with Teff<6000 K and that the amount of the generated wave energy decreases roughly by an order of magnitude for every decrease of the metallicity by an order of magnitude. The maximum wave energy flux generated in Population II stars is 7×108 ergs cm-2 s-1, and it is practically the same for stars of different gravities and metallicities. The computed spectra and fluxes can be used to construct theoretical models of magnetic regions in chromospheres of Population II stars.

  13. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    introduced in this paper is much easier to use and is computational faster. This method is derived based on the “apparent energy.” Calculation of the nonlinear flux linkage from this energy avoids numerical differentiation, which is sensitive to numerical errors but is required in the traditional energy...

  15. Influence of hadronic interaction models on characteristics of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, A. D.; Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    The high-energy conventional atmospheric neutrino fluxes are calculated with the hadronic interaction models: Kimel & Mokhov, QGSJET II-03(04), SIBYL 2.1(2.3), EPOS LHC. The influence of hadron-nuclear interactions on the neutrino flux ratios, v/\\bar{v},({v}μ +{\\bar{v}}μ )/({v}e+{\\bar{v}}e), is studied. A comparison of calculations obtained with use of two different approaches, {\\mathscr{Z}}(E,h) -functions method and the Matrix Cascade Equations (MCEQ), demonstrates close agreement in whole but some of partial contrubutions. The comparison of calculated muon neutrino spectra with the latest experimental data justifies reliability of performed computation which describes correctly the atmospheric neutrino production. The calculation made with the model EPOS LHC, combined with Hillas & Gaisser parametrization of the cosmic ray spectrum, is in close agreement with the best fit of IceCube for energy spetrum of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the energy range 1–500 TeV.

  16. Mixed convection boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid past a horizontal circular cylinder: Case of constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Rahimah; Afiqah Rawi, Noraihan; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Shafie, Sharidan

    2017-09-01

    The steady of two-dimensional convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic nanofluid over a circular cylinder is investigated in this paper. Carboxymethyl cellulose solution (CMC) is chosen as the base fluid and copper as a nanoparticle with the Prandtl number Pr = 6.2. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless forms. Then they are solved numerically by using the Keller-Box method. This paper focus on the effects of selected parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics and be presented in graphs. The results show that, the velocity profiles and the temperature profiles are increased by increasing the values of nanoparticles volume fraction. While velocity profile decreases when viscoelastic parameter is increase. The reverse trend is observed for the temperature profiles. Also, the values of reduced skin friction are increased by increasing mixed convection parameter, but the values of heat transfer coefficient produce an opposite behaviour with an increasing in mixed convection parameter.

  17. Cs diffusion in SiC high-energy grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunseok; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2017-09-01

    Cesium (Cs) is a radioactive fission product whose release is of concern for Tristructural-Isotropic fuel particles. In this work, Cs diffusion through high energy grain boundaries (HEGBs) of cubic-SiC is studied using an ab-initio based kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The HEGB environment was modeled as an amorphous SiC, and Cs defect energies were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). From defect energies, it was suggested that the fastest diffusion mechanism is the diffusion of Cs interstitial in an amorphous SiC. The diffusion of Cs interstitial was simulated using a kMC model, based on the site and transition state energies sampled from the DFT. The Cs HEGB diffusion exhibited an Arrhenius type diffusion in the range of 1200-1600 °C. The comparison between HEGB results and the other studies suggests not only that the GB diffusion dominates the bulk diffusion but also that the HEGB is one of the fastest grain boundary paths for the Cs diffusion. The diffusion coefficients in HEGB are clearly a few orders of magnitude lower than the reported diffusion coefficients from in- and out-of-pile samples, suggesting that other contributions are responsible, such as radiation enhanced diffusion.

  18. Determining the Flavour Content of the Low-Energy Solar Neutrino Flux

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouvêa, A; Gouvea, Andre de; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of the HELLAZ and Borexino solar neutrino experiments on discriminating the neutrino species nu_e, anti-nu_e, nu_{mu,tau}, anti-nu_{mu,tau}, and nu_{sterile} using the difference in the recoil electron kinetic energy spectra in elastic neutrino-electron scattering. We find that one can observe a non-vanishing nu_{mu,tau} component in the solar neutrino flux, especially when the nu_e survival probability is low. Also, if the data turn out to be consistent with nu_e nu_{mu,tau} oscillations, an anti-nu_e component can be excluded effectively.

  19. The Flux and Energy Spectra of the Protons in the Inner Van Allen Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, John E.; Kniffen, Donald A.

    1961-01-01

    A cylindrical stack of G-5 nuclear emulsions housed in the payload section of a four-stage research rocket was flown into the northern edge of the inner Van Allen belt on September 19, 1960. The experimental design permitted, for the first time, measurements of the particle fluxes and energy spectra as functions of position along the rocket trajectory. Eight points along the trajectory have been selected for analysis. Results are presented herein for three of these points, and they are discussed in the light of various theories on the trapped radiation.

  20. Particle propagation, wave growth and energy dissipation in a flaring flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Melrose, D. B.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Wave amplification by downgoing particles in a common flare model is investigated. The flare is assumed to occur at the top of a coronal magnetic flux loop, and results in the heating of plasma in the flaring region. The hot electrons propagate down the legs of the flux tube towards increasing magnetic field. It is simple to demonstrate that the velocity distributions which result in this model are unstable to both beam instabilities and cyclotron maser action. An explanation is presented for the propagation effects on the distribution, and the properties of the resulting amplified waves are explored, concentrating on cyclotron maser action, which has properties (emission in the z mode below the local gyrofrequency) quite different from maser action by other distributions considered in the context of solar flares. The z mode waves will be damped in the coronal plasma surrounding the flaring flux tube and lead to heating there. This process may be important in the overall energy budget of the flare. The downgoing maser is compared with the loss cone maser, which is more likely to produce observable bursts.

  1. Modeling of the Near-Earth Low-Energy Antiproton Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The local interstellar antiproton spectrum is simulated taking into account antineutron decay, (He,p interaction, secondary and tertiary antiproton production, and the solar modulation in the “force field” approximation. Inclusive invariant cross-sections were obtained through a Monte Carlo procedure using the Multistage Dynamical Model code simulating various processes of the particle production. The results of the simulations provided flux values of 4⋅10−3 to 10−2 and 10−2 to 1.7⋅10−2 antiprotons/(2 s sr GeV at energies of 0.2 and 1 GeV, respectively, for the solar maximum and minimum epochs. Simulated flux of the trapped antiprotons in the inner magnetosphere due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR interactions with the atmospheric constituents exceeds the galactic antiproton flux up to several orders. These simulation results considering the assumptions with the attendant limitations are in comprehensive agreement with the experimental data including the PAMELA ones.

  2. High-latitude electromagnetic and particle energy flux during an event with sustained strongly northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a prolonged interval of strongly northward orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field on 16 July 2000, 16:00-19:00 UT to characterize the energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere for conditions associated with minimum solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. With reconnection occurring tailward of the cusp under northward IMF conditions, the reconnection dynamo should be separated from the viscous dynamo, presumably driven by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability. Thus, these conditions are also ideal for evaluating the contribution of a viscous interaction to the coupling process. We derive the two-dimensional distribution of the Poynting vector radial component in the northern sunlit polar ionosphere from magnetic field observations by the constellation of Iridium satellites together with drift meter and magnetometer observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 and F15 satellites. The electromagnetic energy flux is then compared with the particle energy flux obtained from auroral images taken by the far-ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft. The electromagnetic energy input to the ionosphere of 51 GW calculated from the Iridium/DMSP observations is eight times larger than the 6 GW due to particle precipitation all poleward of 78° MLAT. This result indicates that the energy transport is significant, particularly as it is concentrated in a small region near the magnetic pole, even under conditions traditionally considered to be quiet and is dominated by the electromagnetic flux. We estimate the contributions of the high and mid-latitude dynamos to both the Birkeland currents and electric potentials finding that high-latitude reconnection accounts for 0.8 MA and 45kV while we attribute <0.2MA and ~5kV to an interaction at lower latitudes having the sense of a viscous interaction. Given that these

  3. Grazing effects on surface energy fluxes in a desert steppe on the Mongolian Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changliang; Chen, Jiquan; Li, Linghao; Dong, Gang; Han, Juanjuan; Abraha, Michael; John, Ranjeet

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying the surface energy fluxes of grazed and ungrazed steppes is essential to understand the roles of grasslands in local and global climate and in land use change. We used paired eddy-covariance towers to investigate the effects of grazing on energy balance (EB) components: net radiation (Rn ), latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H), and soil heat (G) fluxes on adjacent grazed and ungrazed areas in a desert steppe of the Mongolian Plateau for a two-year period (2010-2012). Near 95% of Rn was partitioned as LE and H, whereas the contributions of G and other components of the EB were 5% at an annual scale. H dominated the energy partitioning and shared ~50% of Rn . When comparing the grazed and the ungrazed desert steppe, there was remarkably lower Rn and a lower H, but higher G at the grazed site than at the ungrazed site. Both reduced available energy (Rn - G) and H indicated a "cooling effect" feedback onto the local climate through grazing. Grazing reduced the dry year LE but enhanced the wet year LE. Energy partitioning of LE/Rn was positively correlated with the canopy conductivity, leaf area index, and soil moisture. H/Rn was positively correlated with the vapor pressure deficit but negatively correlated with the soil moisture. Boosted regression tree results showed that LE/Rn was dominated by soil moisture in both years and at both sites, while grazing shifted the H/Rn domination from temperature to soil moisture in the wet year. Grazing not only caused an LE shift between the dry and the wet year, but also triggered a decrease in the H/Rn because of changes in vegetation and soil properties, indicating that the ungrazed area had a greater resistance while the grazed area had a greater sensitivity of EB components to the changing climate. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Particle fluxes and energy deposition in infinite homogeneous air due to protons of energy 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T. A.; Bishop, B. L.; Amburgey, J. D.; Barish, J.

    1977-12-01

    Calculations have been carried out to determine the spatial dependence of the energy deposition and the spatial and energy dependence of particle fluxes in infinite homogeneous air without hydrogen due to protons of energy 5-, 10-, and 20-GeV. The fluxes are broken down into nine particle types. The energy deposition is divided among seven categories. The spatial dependence of the energy deposition is also presented for 1- and 10-GeV protons incident on infinite homogeneous air with hydrogen. The spatially integrated production of various residual nuclei is included.

  5. Inter-comparison of energy balance and hydrological models for land surface energy flux estimation over a whole river catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, R.; Nieto, H.; Stisen, S.

    2015-01-01

    , distributed hydrological model, while the energy-balance approach is often used with remotely sensed observations of, for example, the land surface temperature (LST) and the state of the vegetation. In this study we compare the catchment-scale output of two remote sensing models based on the two-source energy......-balance (TSEB) scheme, against a hydrological model, MIKE SHE, calibrated over the Skjern river catchment in western Denmark. The three models utilize different primary inputs to estimate ET (LST from different satellites in the case of remote sensing models and modelled soil moisture and heat flux in the case....... The temporal patterns produced by the remote sensing and hydrological models are quite highly correlated (r ≈ 0.8). This indicates potential benefits to the hydrological modelling community of integrating spatial information derived through remote sensing methodology (contained in the ET maps...

  6. Seasonal Variations of Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor and Energy Fluxes in Tropical Indian Mangroves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Reddy Rodda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present annual estimates of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE of carbon dioxide (CO2 accumulated over one annual cycle (April 2012 to March 2013 in the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem, Sundarbans (India, using the eddy covariance method. An eddy covariance flux tower was established in April 2012 to study the seasonal variations of carbon dioxide fluxes due to soil and vegetation-atmosphere interactions. The half-hourly maximum of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE varied from −6 µmol·m−2·s−1 during the summer (April to June 2012 to −10 µmol·m−2·s−1 during the winter (October to December 2012, whereas the half-hourly maximum of H2O flux varied from 5.5 to 2.5 mmol·m−2·s−1 during October 2013 and July 2013, respectively. During the study period, the study area was a carbon dioxide sink with an annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP = −NEE of 249 ± 20 g·C m−2·year−1. The mean annual evapotranspiration (ET was estimated to be 1.96 ± 0.33 mm·day−1. The gap-filled NEE was also partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP and Ecosystem Respiration (Re. The total GPP and Re over the study area for the annual cycle were estimated to be1271 g C m−2·year−1 and 1022 g C m−2·year−1, respectively. The closure of the surface energy balance accounted for of about 78% of the available energy during the study period. Our findings suggest that the Sundarbans mangroves are currently a substantial carbon sink, indicating that the protection and management of these forests would lead as a strategy towards reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.

  7. Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vellinga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES'07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps. The segments are delineated using an average footprint length, based on all flights, and segment lengths, which are variable in space but not in time. The method results in segment averaged carbon and energy fluxes, which are shown to be representative of regional fluxes. Our analysis is focussed on carbon dioxide, heat and evaporative fluxes around solar noon. We will show that spatial and seasonal variations in the fluxes can be linked to the underlying landscape. In addition, a comparison between the airborne data and ground flux data is made to support our results. However, due to the incompleteness of ground data for some predominant vegetation types (even in such a data dense context, upscaling of ground data to regional fluxes was not possible. Without the comparison, we are still able to demonstrate that aircraft can provide direct and meaningful estimates of regional fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide.

  8. Reynolds number effects on scale energy analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    Scale energy analysis combines two approaches of studying wall- bounded turbulent flows - analysis in physical space and analysis in scale space. Previously, scale energy analysis has been performed on DNS channel flow data for a range of friction Reynolds numbers Reτ= 180-934 and dual plane PIV boundary layer data at Reτ= 1100. The dual plane technique allows determination of the full velocity gradient tensor in the measurement plane. Dual Plane PIV data were acquired in streamwise-spanwise planes in the logarithmic region of a water channel boundary layer at two higher Reynolds numbers - Reτ= 2400 and 3000. The results of this study will be described and compared with the lower Re data. It is observed that in general, the production and scale transfer terms of the turbulent kinetic energy increase with increasing Reynolds number. The cross-over scale, which divides the range of scales into a transfer-dominated region and a production- dominated region, increases with increasing Reynolds numbers, resulting in a larger range of transfer-dominated scales at higher Reynolds numbers.

  9. Element Cycling and Energy Flux Responses in Ecosystem Simulations Conducted at the Chinese Lunar Palace-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Xie, Beizhen; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) address interactions between organisms and their environment as an integrated system through the study of factors that regulate the pools and fluxes of materials and energy through ecological systems. As a simple model, using BLSS is very important in the investigation of element cycling and energy flux for sustainable development on Earth. A 105-day experiment with a high degree of closure was carried out in this system from February to May, 2014, with three volunteers. The results indicate that 247 g·d-1 carbon was imported into the system from stored food. Most hydrogen is circulated as water, and more than 99% H2O can be lost through leaf transpiration into the atmosphere. A total of 1.8 g·d-1 "unknown oxygen" emerged between the input and output of the plant growth module. For the urine processing module, 20.5% nitrogen was reused and 5.35 g·d-1 was put into the nutrient solution.

  10. Fluctuations of energy flux in a simple dissipative out-of-equilibrium system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Claudio; Falcon, Eric

    2009-04-01

    We report the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the energy flux in an electronic RC circuit driven with a stochastic voltage. The fluctuations of the power injected in the circuit are measured as a function of the damping rate and the forcing parameters. We show that its distribution exhibits a cusp close to zero and two asymmetric exponential tails, with the asymmetry being driven by the mean dissipation. This simple experiment allows one to capture the qualitative features of the energy flux distribution observed in more complex dissipative systems. We also show that the large fluctuations of injected power averaged on a time lag do not verify the fluctuation theorem even for long averaging time. This is in contrast to the findings of previous experiments due to their small range of explored fluctuation amplitude. The injected power in a system of N components either correlated or not is also studied to mimic systems with large number of particles, such as in a dilute granular gas.

  11. Multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux in solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, E.; Rosenbauer, H.; Tu, C.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    The geometrical and scaling properties of the energy flux of the turbulent kinetic energy in the solar wind have been studied. By present experimental technology in solar wind measurements, we cannot directly measure the real volumetric dissipation rate, epsilon(t), but are constrained to represent it by surrogating the energy flux near the dissipation range at the proton gyro scales. There is evidence for the multifractal nature of the so defined dissipation field epsilon(t), a result derived from the scaling exponents of its statistical q-th order moments. The related generalized dimension D(q) has been determined and reveals that the dissipation field has a multifractal structure. which is not compatible with a scale-invariant cascade. The associated multifractal spectrum f(alpha) has been estimated for the first time for MHD turbulence in the solar wind. Its features resemble those obtained for turbulent fluids and other nonlinear multifractal systems. The generalized dimension D(q) can, for turbulence in high-speed streams, be fitted well by the functional dependence of the p-model with a comparatively large parameter, p = 0.87. indicating a strongly intermittent multifractal energy cascade. The experimental value for D(p)/3, if used in the scaling exponent s(p) of the velocity structure function, gives an exponent that can describe some of the observations. The scaling exponent mu of the auto correlation function of epsilon(t) has also been directly evaluated. It has the value of 0.37. Finally. the mean dissipation rate was determined, which could be used in solar wind heating models.

  12. Approximate albedo boundary conditions for energy multigroup X,Y-geometry discrete ordinates nuclear global calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Davi J.M.; Nunes, Carlos E.A.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ceanunes@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Secretaria Municipal de Educacao de Itaborai, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Novra Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-11-01

    Discussed here is the accuracy of approximate albedo boundary conditions for energy multigroup discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) eigenvalue problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for criticality calculations in neutron fission reacting systems, such as nuclear reactors. The multigroup (S{sub N}) albedo matrix substitutes approximately the non-multiplying media around the core, e.g., baffle and reflector, as we neglect the transverse leakage terms within these non-multiplying regions. Numerical results to a typical model problem are given to illustrate the accuracy versus the computer running time. (author)

  13. Low-Energy Dislocation Structure (LEDS) character of dislocation boundaries aligned with slip planes in rolled aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    For the specific slip geometry of two sets of coplanar systems (a total of four systems) in fcc metals, the range of dislocation networks in boundaries aligned with one of the two active slip planes is predicted from the Frank equation for boundaries free of long-range elastic stresses. Detailed...... comparison with experimental data for eight dislocation boundaries in cold-rolled aluminium grains of the 45° ND rotated Cube orientation is conducted. It is concluded that the boundaries are Low-Energy Dislocation Structures, which are in good agreement with the Frank equation while also lowering the energy...... by dislocation reactions. Cross slip plays a role in the boundary formation process....

  14. On the Generation of Flux-Tube Waves in Stellar Convection Zones. III. Longitudinal Tube Wave-Energy Spectra and Fluxes for Late-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.

    2000-09-01

    The wave-energy spectra and fluxes for longitudinal tube waves generated in stellar convection zones are computed by using analytical methods developed in the two previous papers of this series. The main physical process responsible for the generation of these waves is the interaction between a thin and vertically oriented magnetic flux tube and the external turbulent convection. The spatial component of the turbulent convection is represented by an extended Kolmogorov turbulent energy spectrum, and its temporal component by a modified Gaussian frequency factor. The calculations are performed for Population I stars with effective temperatures ranging from Teff=2000 K to 10,000 K, and with gravities logg=3-5. The obtained results can be used to construct theoretical models of magnetic regions in stellar chromospheres.

  15. Low flux and low energy helium ion implantation into tungsten using a dedicated plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecoste, Lucile [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Thomann, Anne-Lise, E-mail: anne-lise.thomann@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Melhem, Amer; Caillard, Amael; Cuynet, Stéphane; Lecas, Thomas; Brault, Pascal [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Desgardin, Pierre; Barthe, Marie-France [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex2 (France)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the first stages of defect formation in tungsten (W) due to the accumulation of helium (He) atoms inside the crystal lattice. To reach the required implantation conditions, i.e. low He ion fluxes (10{sup 11}–10{sup 14} ions.cm{sup 2}.s{sup −1}) and kinetic energies below the W atom displacement threshold (about 500 eV for He{sup +}), an ICP source has been designed and connected to a diffusion chamber. Implantation conditions have been characterized by means of complementary diagnostics modified for measurements in this very low density helium plasma. It was shown that lowest ion fluxes could only be reached for the discharge working in capacitive mode either in α or γ regime. Special attention was paid to control the energy gained by the ions by acceleration through the sheath at the direct current biased substrate. At very low helium pressure, in α regime, a broad ion energy distribution function was evidenced, whereas a peak centered on the potential difference between the plasma and the biased substrate was found at higher pressures in the γ mode. Polycrystalline tungsten samples were exposed to the helium plasma in both regimes of the discharge and characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy in order to detect the formed vacancy defects. It was found that W vacancies are able to be formed just by helium accumulation and that the same final implanted state is reached, whatever the operating mode of the capacitive discharge.

  16. Energy flux in a natural population of the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A M M

    1975-06-01

    Energy flux in a population of Cepaea nemoralis L. living on a sand dune system was estimated in 1970 and 1971. Numbers and dynamics of the adults were studied by a capture-mark-recapture method, juveniles by quadrat sampling. Adult numbers were around a mean of 2.14 m-2 (mean annual biomass 14.7 kJ m-2 1970; 13.4 kJ m-2 1971).Eggs were laid in June, July and August and peak numbers of small juveniles (mucus production which was almost half the total. Juvenile production was calculated from quadrat sampling data. Total population production was 34.3 kJ m-2 in 1970 and 25.9 kJ m-2 in 1971.Adult respiration was measured in an open flow respirometer with gas analysis by gas chromatograph. Measurements were made in 1971 on field acclimated animals. Juvenile respiration measurements were made in Warburg respirometers. Population respiratory losses were 62.8 kJ m-2 and 41.8 kJ m-2 in the 2 years. In the calculation of population respiration, allowance was made for low metabolic rates during periods of aestivation and hibernation. Population activity was reduced by 90% after 5 days without rain. Population consumption, was estimated at 316.6 kJ m-2 and 239.0 kJ m-2 and assimilation efficiencies were from 30-40% on natural foods.Annual energy budgets were constructed and energy flux (P+R) was 97.0 kJ m-2 in 1970 and 77.6 kJ m-2 in 1971. The plot of log respiration against log production fell lower than that for most long-lived poikilotherms due to the inflation of the production estimate by mucus production.

  17. High-energy neutrino fluxes from AGN populations inferred from X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Idunn B.; Wu, Kinwah; On, Alvina Y. L.; Saxton, Curtis J.

    2015-08-01

    High-energy neutrinos and photons are complementary messengers, probing violent astrophysical processes and structural evolution of the Universe. X-ray and neutrino observations jointly constrain conditions in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets: their baryonic and leptonic contents, and particle production efficiency. Testing two standard neutrino production models for local source Cen A (Koers & Tinyakov and Becker & Biermann), we calculate the high-energy neutrino spectra of single AGN sources and derive the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected for the current epoch. Assuming that accretion determines both X-rays and particle creation, our parametric scaling relations predict neutrino yield in various AGN classes. We derive redshift-dependent number densities of each class, from Chandra and Swift/BAT X-ray luminosity functions (Silverman et al. and Ajello et al.). We integrate the neutrino spectrum expected from the cumulative history of AGN (correcting for cosmological and source effects, e.g. jet orientation and beaming). Both emission scenarios yield neutrino fluxes well above limits set by IceCube (by ˜4-106 × at 1 PeV, depending on the assumed jet models for neutrino production). This implies that: (i) Cen A might not be a typical neutrino source as commonly assumed; (ii) both neutrino production models overestimate the efficiency; (iii) neutrino luminosity scales with accretion power differently among AGN classes and hence does not follow X-ray luminosity universally; (iv) some AGN are neutrino-quiet (e.g. below a power threshold for neutrino production); (v) neutrino and X-ray emission have different duty cycles (e.g. jets alternate between baryonic and leptonic flows); or (vi) some combination of the above.

  18. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC KINK WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES: PHASE MIXING AND ENERGY CASCADE TO SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-04-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.

  19. Energy scales in YBaCuO grain boundary biepitaxial Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafuri, F., E-mail: tafuri@na.infn.it [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Stornaiuolo, D. [DPMC, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Lucignano, P. [CNR-ISC, sede di Tor Vergata, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Galletti, L. [Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Massarotti, D. [Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Montemurro, D. [NEST and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Papari, G. [INPAC - Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Nanoscale Superconductivity and Magnetism Pulsed Fields Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Barone, A.; Tagliacozzo, A. [Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Self-assembled nanoscale channels may naturally arise in the growth process of grain boundaries (GBs) in high critical temperature superconductor (HTS) systems, and deeply influence the transport properties of the GB Josephson junctions (JJs). By isolating nano-channels in YBCO biepitaxial JJs and studying their properties, we sort out specific fingerprints of the mesoscopic nature of the contacts. The size of the channels combined to the characteristic properties of HTS favors a special regime of the proximity effect, where normal state coherence prevails on the superconducting coherence in the barrier region. Resistance oscillations from the current-voltage characteristic encode mesoscopic information on the junction and more specifically on the minigap induced in the barrier. Thouless energy emerges as a characteristic energy of these types of Josephson junctions. Possible implications on the understanding of coherent transport of quasiparticles in HTS and of the dissipation mechanisms are discussed, along with elements to take into account when designing HTS nanostructures.

  20. Measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux by Super-Kamiokande: energy spectra, geomagnetic effects, and solar modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, E; Abe, K; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, T; Nakano, Y; Nakayama, S; Orii, A; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Tomura, T; Wendell, R A; Akutsu, R; Irvine, T; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Nishimura, Y; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Gustafson, J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Berkman, S; Nantais, C M; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Goldhaber, M; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Weatherly, P; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Park, R G; Himmel, A; Li, Z; OSullivan, E; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Jang, J S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Friend, M; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Yano, T; Cao, S V; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Fukuda, Y; Choi, K; Itow, Y; Suzuki, T; Mijakowski, P; Frankiewicz, K; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Li, X; Palomino, J L; Wilking, M J; Yanagisawa, C; Fukuda, D; Ishino, H; Kayano, T; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Xu, C; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Suda, Y; Yokoyama, M; Bronner, C; Hartz, M; Martens, K; Marti, Ll; Suzuki, Y; Vagins, M R; Martin, J F; Konaka, A; Chen, S; Zhang, Y; Wilkes, R J

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy region from sub-GeV up to several TeV using the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector is presented in this paper. The energy and azimuthal spectra of the atmospheric ${\

  1. Average fast neutron flux in three energy ranges in the Quinta assembly irradiated by two types of beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strugalska-Gola Elzbieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed within the international project “Energy plus Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes” (E&T - RAW for investigations of energy production and transmutation of radioactive waste of the nuclear power industry. 89Y (Yttrium 89 samples were located in the Quinta assembly in order to measure an average high neutron flux density in three different energy ranges using deuteron and proton beams from Dubna accelerators. Our analysis showed that the neutron density flux for the neutron energy range 20.8 - 32.7 MeV is higher than for the neutron energy range 11.5 - 20.8 MeV both for protons with an energy of 0.66 GeV and deuterons with an energy of 2 GeV, while for deuteron beams of 4 and 6 GeV we did not observe this.

  2. Constraints on the flux of Ultra-High Energy neutrinos from WSRT observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, O; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2010-04-02

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims. By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHEneutrino flux. Methods. The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrow band radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth?s ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results. With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  3. Origin of the Differential Fluxes of Low-energy Electrons in the Inner Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Krimigis, S. M.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Sylla, A.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The study addresses the question of the origin of low-energy electrons measured by Voyager 1 in the multi-keV range in the inner heliosheath. It intends to demonstrate that the observed keV-fluxes of electrons are consistent with their transmission through the termination shock under the influence of the associated electrostatic field. A power-law representation of the electron velocity distribution just downstream of the solar wind termination shock is motivated and formulated in terms of a so-called κ-distribution function. From this initial function spectral electron fluxes in the range 40-70 keV are derived and compared to the data. It is shown that with κ-values between 7 and 8 the data can be satisfactorily explained. Given these comparatively high κ-values, it is concluded that the electron distribution just downstream of the termination shock relaxes toward but does not reach a Maxwellian shape in the inner heliosheath.

  4. Air-Sea Spray Airborne Radar Profiler Characterizes Energy Fluxes in Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Esteban-Fermandez, D.

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses ASAP (Air-sea Spray Airborne Profiler), a dual-wavelength radar profiler that provides measurement information about the droplet size distribution (DSD) of sea-spray, which can be used to estimate heat and moisture fluxes for hurricane research. Researchers have recently determined that sea spray can have a large effect on the magnitude and distribution of the air-sea energy flux at hurricane -force wind speeds. To obtain information about the DSD, two parameters of the DSD are required; for example, overall DSD amplitude and DSD mean diameter. This requires two measurements. Two frequencies are used, with a large enough separation that the differential frequency provides size information. One frequency is 94 GHz; the other is 220 GHz. These correspond to the Rayleigh and Mie regions. Above a surface wind speed of 10 m/ s, production of sea spray grows exponentially. Both the number of large droplets and the altitude they reach are a function of the surface wind speed.

  5. Using optical-microwave synergy for estimating surface energy fluxes over semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troufleau, D.; Vidal, A.; Beaudoin, A.; Moran, M. S.; Weltz, M. A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Washburn, J.; Rahman, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    First results of the Walnut Gulch '92 (Arizona, U.S.) experiment concerning the combined use of radar backscattering (ERS-1) and thermal infrared (LANDSAT TM (Thematic Mapper)) data to estimate surface sensible heat flux are reported. The first step investigates the potential use of ERS-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images for surface soil moisture monitoring of the watershed using five calibrated images acquired during the year 1992 (dry to wet conditions). Results show that despite the typical low level of biomass of semi arid rangeland, an attenuation of the soil backscatter (up to 2 dB) can occur during the rainy season mainly due to the vegetation characteristics. A statistical relationship is then used to retrieve the volumetric surface soil moisture from ERS-1 backscattering (sensitivity of 0.23 dB/% moisture) with a resulting root mean square error of 1.3% of soil moisture. In a second step a semi empirical approach based on energy balance relates soil temperatures to this estimated surface soil moisture. Vegetation temperature is then deduced from soil temperatures and LANDSAT TM composite temperature in order to estimate sensible heat flux according to a two layer type model providing an RMSE of 29 W/sq m.

  6. CWEX: Crop/wind-energy experiment: Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large wind turbines perturb mean and turbulent wind characteristics, which modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could create significant changes in surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds ...

  7. Crop/Wind-energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perturbations of mean and turbulent wind characteristics by large wind turbines modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could significantly change surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds of s...

  8. Combining Observations in the Reflective Solar and Thermal Domains for Improved Mapping of Carbon, Water and Energy FLuxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, Rasmus; Anderson, Martha; Kustas, Bill; Rodell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of integrating remotely sensed estimates of leaf chlorophyll (C(sub ab)) into a thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model that estimates land-surface CO2 and energy fluxes using an analytical, light-use-efficiency (LUE) based model of canopy resistance. Day to day variations in nominal LUE (LUE(sub n)) were assessed for a corn crop field in Maryland U.S.A. through model calibration with CO2 flux tower observations. The optimized daily LUE(sub n) values were then compared to estimates of C(sub ab) integrated from gridded maps of chlorophyll content weighted over the tower flux source area. Changes in Cab exhibited a curvilinear relationship with corresponding changes in daily calibrated LUE(sub n) values derived from the tower flux data, and hourly water, energy and carbon flux estimation accuracies from TSEB were significantly improved when using C(sub ab) for delineating spatio-temporal variations in LUE(sub n). The results demonstrate the synergy between thermal infrared and shortwave reflective wavebands in producing valuable remote sensing data for monitoring of carbon and water fluxes.

  9. Properties of a cusp diamagnetic cavity boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Walsh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available While crossing through the high-altitude dayside cusp on 29 September 1978 and again on 30 October 1978, the ISEE-1 spacecraft observed enhanced energetic particle flux and a depressed and turbulent magnetic field, the signature characteristics of a cusp diamagnetic cavity. As ISEE-1 approached the cavity during each event, a boundary sounding technique was used to measure properties of an emitting boundary. Sounding over multiple energy channels reveals an energy dependent boundary with lower energy particles filling a larger cavity than higher energy particles. Relative motion of the boundary as well as boundary orientation are also measured. The two cusp events were measured at different locations and during different geomagnetic and solar wind conditions; however, they show similar results.

  10. Properties of a cusp diamagnetic cavity boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Fritz, T. A.; Chen, J.

    2008-11-01

    While crossing through the high-altitude dayside cusp on 29 September 1978 and again on 30 October 1978, the ISEE-1 spacecraft observed enhanced energetic particle flux and a depressed and turbulent magnetic field, the signature characteristics of a cusp diamagnetic cavity. As ISEE-1 approached the cavity during each event, a boundary sounding technique was used to measure properties of an emitting boundary. Sounding over multiple energy channels reveals an energy dependent boundary with lower energy particles filling a larger cavity than higher energy particles. Relative motion of the boundary as well as boundary orientation are also measured. The two cusp events were measured at different locations and during different geomagnetic and solar wind conditions; however, they show similar results.

  11. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  12. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  13. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  14. Optical characteristics of recrystallized tungsten mirrors exposed to low-energy, high flux D plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, A.I. [National Technical University ' Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute' , 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Alimov, V.Kh., E-mail: vkahome@mail.ru [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Galuza, A.A. [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Isobe, K. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Scientific Center ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' , 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Savchenko, A.A.; Slatin, K.A. [National Technical University ' Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute' , 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Voitsenya, V.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, National Scientific Center ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' , 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-06-01

    The surface topography and optical properties of recrystallized tungsten exposed to a low-energy (38 eV/D), high flux (10{sup 22} D/m{sup 2s}) deuterium plasma with an ion fluence of 10{sup 26} D/m{sup 2} at various temperatures was investigated. It was found that the surface morphology weakly depends on the exposure temperature in the range 320-695 K with the exception of the narrow temperature region around 535 K, where large changes to all optical characteristics occurs. After plasma exposure at this temperature, the surface topography of the W sample is characterized by active blistering as has already been indicated in previous publications. The reflectance found in direct measurements at normal incidence drops in the wavelength interval 220-650 nm, whereas the estimations of reflectance using the ellipsometry data demonstrate some increase.

  15. Eccentric-orbit EMRI gravitational wave energy fluxes to 7PN order

    CERN Document Server

    Forseth, Erik; Hopper, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We present new results through 7PN order on the energy flux from eccentric extreme-mass-ratio binaries. The black hole perturbation calculations are made at very high accuracy (200 decimal places) using a Mathematica code based on the Mano-Suzuki-Takasugi (MST) analytic function expansion formalism. All published coefficients in the expansion through 3PN order are confirmed and new analytic and numeric terms are found to high order in $e^2$ at orders between 3.5PN and 7PN. We also show original work in finding (nearly) arbitrarily accurate expansions for hereditary terms at 1.5PN, 2.5PN, and 3PN orders. We fit to a model where at each PN order an eccentricity singular function is factored out, improving substantially the fit even as $e \\to 1$.

  16. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  17. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  18. Doppler lidar measurements in the marine boundary layer for offshore wind-energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichugina, Y.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, R.; Sandberg, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate measurement of wind-speed profiles aloft in the marine boundary layer is a difficult challenge. The development of offshore wind energy is an application that requires accurate information on wind speeds above the surface at the levels occupied by turbine blades. Little measured data are available at these heights, and the behavior of near-surface winds is often unrepresentative of that at the required heights. As a consequence, numerical model data, another potential source of information, is unverified at these levels of the atmosphere. A motion-compensated, high-resolution Doppler lidar measurements of the marine wind flow will be presented. The system, which has been evaluated in several ways, has been used in several ship-borne measurement campaigns over the past decade, and a sampling of data from the 2004 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) shows the kind of analysis and information available. Although individual Doppler lidar scans have been shown to provide useful images of the flow structure, the emphasis here is on high-resolution (wind speed and direction averaged over 15-min, calculated from the scan data. Examples include time-height cross sections, time series, and profiles of wind speed and direction aloft, and distributions of quantities such as wind speed, shear through the blade layer, and deviations between values of wind speed at hub height calculated from power-law profiles and those measured by the Doppler lidar. These results show strong spatial and temporal variability to the wind field in the marine boundary layer. Winds near the coast show diurnal behavior, and frequent occurrences of low-level jet structure are evident especially during nocturnal periods. Persistent patterns of spatial variability of the flow field due to coastal irregularities should be of particular concern for wind energy planning, because this affects the representativeness of fixed-location measurements and implies that some areas would be favored for

  19. Artificial Light at Night Affects Organism Flux across Ecosystem Boundaries and Drives Community Structure in the Recipient Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Manfrin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night (ALAN is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a 2-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-naïve riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using two-way generalized least squares (GLS model and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact. Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.

  20. Precipitation of subrelativistic-energy electrons near the polar boundary of the Earth radiation belt according to the data of measurements on the Vernov and Lomonosov satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Petrov, V. L.; Yashin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The work is devoted to observations of sharp growths of magnetospheric electron fluxes in the vicinity of the polar boundary of the outer radiation belt of the Earth according to the data of measurements on the Vernov and Lomonosov satellites. This precipitation was observed at the high-latitude boundary of the outer radiation belt toward the equator from the isotropization boundary, and can be caused by scattering waves of various physical natures, including electromagnetic and electrostatic waves.

  1. Convective kinetic energy equation under the mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2015-03-01

    The present paper originally derives the convective kinetic energy equation under mass-flux subgrid-scale parameterization in a formal manner based on the segmentally-constant approximation (SCA). Though this equation is long since presented by Arakawa and Schubert (1974), a formal derivation is not known in the literature. The derivation of this formulation is of increasing interests in recent years due to the fact that it can explain basic aspects of the convective dynamics such as discharge-recharge and transition from shallow to deep convection. The derivation is presented in two manners: (i) for the case that only the vertical component of the velocity is considered and (ii) the case that both the horizontal and vertical components are considered. The equation reduces to the same form as originally presented by Arakwa and Schubert in both cases, but with the energy dissipation term defined differently. In both cases, nevertheless, the energy "dissipation" (loss) term consists of the three principal contributions: (i) entrainment-detrainment, (ii) outflow from top of convection, and (iii) pressure effects. Additionally, inflow from the bottom of convection contributing to a growth of convection is also formally counted as a part of the dissipation term. The eddy dissipation is also included for a completeness. The order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the convective kinetic energy "dissipation" is dominated by the pressure effects, and it may be approximately described by Rayleigh damping with a constant time scale of the order of 102-103 s. The conclusion is also supported by a supplementary analysis of a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation. The Appendix discusses how the loss term ("dissipation") of the convective kinetic energy is qualitatively different from the conventional eddy-dissipation process found in turbulent flows.

  2. Quantifying energy and water fluxes in dry dune ecosystems of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, B. R.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Witte, J. P. M.

    2015-09-01

    Coastal and inland dunes provide various ecosystem services that are related to groundwater, such as drinking water production and biodiversity. To manage groundwater in a sustainable manner, knowledge of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) for the various land covers in dunes is essential. Aiming at improving the parameterization of dune vegetation in hydrometeorological models, this study explores the magnitude of energy and water fluxes in an inland dune ecosystem in the Netherlands. Hydrometeorological measurements were used to parameterize the Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration model for four different surfaces: bare sand, moss, grass and heather. We found that the net longwave radiation (Rnl) was the largest energy flux for most surfaces during daytime. However, modeling this flux by a calibrated FAO-56 Rnl model for each surface and for hourly time steps was unsuccessful. Our Rnl model, with a novel submodel using solar elevation angle and air temperature to describe the diurnal pattern in radiative surface temperature, improved Rnl simulations considerably. Model simulations of evaporation from moss surfaces showed that the modulating effect of mosses on the water balance is species-dependent. We demonstrate that dense moss carpets (Campylopus introflexus) evaporate more (5 %, +14 mm) than bare sand (total of 258 mm in 2013), while more open-structured mosses (Hypnum cupressiforme) evaporate less (-30 %, -76 mm) than bare sand. Additionally, we found that a drought event in the summer of 2013 showed a pronounced delayed signal on lysimeter measurements of ETa for the grass and heather surfaces, respectively. Due to the desiccation of leaves after the drought event, and their feedback on the surface resistance, the potential evapotranspiration in the year 2013 dropped by 9 % (-37 mm) and 10 % (-61 mm) for the grass and heather surfaces, respectively, which subsequently led to lowered ETa of 8 % (-29 mm) and 7 % (-29 mm). These feedbacks are of importance for

  3. CFD modelling of small particle dispersion: The influence of the turbulence kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlé, C.; van Beeck, J.; Rambaud, P.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    When considering the modelling of small particle dispersion in the lower part of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations, the particle paths depend on the velocity profile and on the turbulence kinetic energy, from which the fluctuating velocity components are derived to predict turbulent dispersion. It is therefore important to correctly reproduce the ABL, both for the velocity profile and the turbulence kinetic energy profile. For RANS simulations with the standard k- ɛ model, Richards and Hoxey (1993. Appropriate boundary conditions for computational wind engineering models using the k-ɛ turbulence model. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 46-47, 145-153.) proposed a set of boundary conditions which result in horizontally homogeneous profiles. The drawback of this method is that it assumes a constant profile of turbulence kinetic energy, which is not always consistent with field or wind tunnel measurements. Therefore, a method was developed which allows the modelling of a horizontally homogeneous turbulence kinetic energy profile that is varying with height. By comparing simulations performed with the proposed method to simulations performed with the boundary conditions described by Richards and Hoxey (1993. Appropriate boundary conditions for computational wind engineering models using the k-ɛ turbulence model. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 46-47, 145-153.), the influence of the turbulence kinetic energy on the dispersion of small particles over flat terrain is quantified.

  4. Estimation of surface energy fluxes in the Arctic tundra using the remote sensing thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jordi; Prakash, Anupma; Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Kane, Douglas L.

    2017-03-01

    The Arctic has become generally a warmer place over the past decades leading to earlier snow melt, permafrost degradation and changing plant communities. Increases in precipitation and local evaporation in the Arctic, known as the acceleration components of the hydrologic cycle, coupled with land cover changes, have resulted in significant changes in the regional surface energy budget. Quantifying spatiotemporal trends in surface energy flux partitioning is key to forecasting ecological responses to changing climate conditions in the Arctic. An extensive local evaluation of the Two-Source Energy Balance model (TSEB) - a remote-sensing-based model using thermal infrared retrievals of land surface temperature - was performed using tower measurements collected over different tundra types in Alaska in all sky conditions over the full growing season from 2008 to 2012. Based on comparisons with flux tower observations, refinements in the original TSEB net radiation, soil heat flux and canopy transpiration parameterizations were identified for Arctic tundra. In particular, a revised method for estimating soil heat flux based on relationships with soil temperature was developed, resulting in significantly improved performance. These refinements result in mean turbulent flux errors generally less than 50 W m-2 at half-hourly time steps, similar to errors typically reported in surface energy balance modeling studies conducted in more temperate climatic regimes. The MODIS leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing product proved to be useful for estimating energy fluxes in Arctic tundra in the absence of field data on the local biomass amount. Model refinements found in this work at the local scale build toward a regional implementation of the TSEB model over Arctic tundra ecosystems, using thermal satellite remote sensing to assess response of surface fluxes to changing vegetation and climate conditions.

  5. Field evaluation of polymer capacitive humidity sensors for Bowen ratio energy balance flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  6. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  7. Molecular System Bioenergics of the Heart: Experimental Studies of Metabolic Compartmentation and Energy Fluxes versus Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdur Saks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we analyze the recent important and remarkable advancements in studies of compartmentation of adenine nucleotides in muscle cells due to their binding to macromolecular complexes and cellular structures, which results in non-equilibrium steady state of the creatine kinase reaction. We discuss the problems of measuring the energy fluxes between different cellular compartments and their simulation by using different computer models. Energy flux determinations by 18O transfer method have shown that in heart about 80% of energy is carried out of mitochondrial intermembrane space into cytoplasm by phosphocreatine fluxes generated by mitochondrial creatine kinase from adenosine triphosphate (ATP, produced by ATP Synthasome. We have applied the mathematical model of compartmentalized energy transfer for analysis of experimental data on the dependence of oxygen consumption rate on heart workload in isolated working heart reported by Williamson et al. The analysis of these data show that even at the maximal workloads and respiration rates, equal to 174 µmol O2 per min per g dry weight, phosphocreatine flux, and not ATP, carries about 80–85% percent of energy needed out of mitochondria into the cytosol. We analyze also the reasons of failures of several computer models published in the literature to correctly describe the experimental data.

  8. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Kleissl, J.; Allen, R. G.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Scott, R. L.; Steinwand, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico), San Pedro Basin (Arizona), and Owens Valley (California). We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  9. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1981-11-30

    There are three distinct but not mutually exclusive areas of research in this contract, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across nearshore density fronts, and advances in understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to require distinctive biological approaches. The studies of the food web run through our work on both of the frontal regimes, but certain aspects have become subjects in their own right. We have developed a simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web which we believe to be more realistic than previous ones of its type. We have examined several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms. Methods have been developed under this contract to measure both the chelating capacity of naturally occurring organic materials and the copper concentration in the water. It has been possible to characterize the effects, both toxic and stimulatory, of copper on photosynthesis of naturally occurring phytoplankton populations. It is possible to characterize in considerable detail the course of biological events associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream. We are now in a position to explain the limits to biological productivity of the outer continental shelf of the southeastern US and the reasons why that biological production moves through the food web in the characteristic way that it does.

  10. Scaling Characteristics of Mesoscale Wind Fields in the Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Implications for Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliyanpilakkil, Velayudhan Praju

    Atmospheric motions take place in spatial scales of sub-millimeters to few thousands of kilometers with temporal changes in the atmospheric variables occur in fractions of seconds to several years. Consequently, the variations in atmospheric kinetic energy associated with these atmospheric motions span over a broad spectrum of space and time. The mesoscale region acts as an energy transferring regime between the energy generating synoptic scale and the energy dissipating microscale. Therefore, the scaling characterizations of mesoscale wind fields are significant in the accurate estimation of the atmospheric energy budget. Moreover, the precise knowledge of the scaling characteristics of atmospheric mesoscale wind fields is important for the validation of the numerical models those focus on wind forecasting, dispersion, diffusion, horizontal transport, and optical turbulence. For these reasons, extensive studies have been conducted in the past to characterize the mesoscale wind fields. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies focused on near-surface and upper atmosphere mesoscale regimes. The present study attempt to identify the existence and to quantify the scaling of mesoscale wind fields in the lower atmospheric boundary layer (ABL; in the wind turbine layer) using wind observations from various research-grade instruments (e.g., sodars, anemometers). The scaling characteristics of the mesoscale wind speeds over diverse homogeneous flat terrains, conducted using structure function based analysis, revealed an altitudinal dependence of the scaling exponents. This altitudinal dependence of the wind speed scaling may be attributed to the buoyancy forcing. Subsequently, we use the framework of extended self-similarity (ESS) to characterize the observed scaling behavior. In the ESS framework, the relative scaling exponents of the mesoscale atmospheric boundary layer wind speed exhibit quasi-universal behavior; even far beyond the inertial range of turbulence (Delta

  11. Ivabradine reduces heart rate while preserving metabolic fluxes and energy status of healthy normoxic working hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Benjamin; Vaillant, Fanny; Gélinas, Roselle; Bouchard, Bertrand; Brownsey, Roger; Thorin, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Heart rate reduction (HRR) is an important target in the management of patients with chronic stable angina. Most available drugs for HRR, such as β-blockers, have adverse effects, including on cardiac energy substrate metabolism, a well-recognized determinant of cardiac homeostasis. This study aimed at 1) testing whether HRR by ivabradine (IVA) alters substrate metabolism in the healthy normoxic working heart and 2) comparing the effect of IVA with that of the β-blocker metoprolol (METO). This was assessed using our well-established model of ex vivo mouse heart perfusion in the working mode, which enables concomitant evaluation of myocardial contractility and metabolic fluxes using (13)C-labeled substrates. Hearts were perfused in the absence (controls; n = 10) or presence of IVA (n = 10, 3 μM) with or without atrial pacing to abolish HRR in the IVA group. IVA significantly reduced HR (35 ± 5%) and increased stroke volume (39 ± 9%) while maintaining similar cardiac output, contractility, power, and efficiency. Effects of IVA on HR and stroke volume were reversed by atrial pacing. At the metabolic level, IVA did not impact on substrate selection to citrate formation, rates of glycolysis, or tissue levels of high-energy phosphates. In contrast, METO, at concentrations up to 40 μM, decreased markedly cardiac function (flow: 25 ± 6%; stroke volume: 30 ± 10%; contractility: 31 ± 9%) as well as glycolysis (2.9-fold) but marginally affected HR. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IVA selectively reduces HR while preserving energy substrate metabolism of normoxic healthy working mouse hearts perfused ex vivo, a model that mimics to some extent the denervated transplanted heart. Our results provide the impetus for testing selective HRR by IVA on cardiac substrate metabolism in pathological models.

  12. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model and medium resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, A.; González-Dugo, M. P.; Kustas, William P.; Polo, M. J.; Anderson, M. C.

    2013-10-01

    The dehesa, the most widespread agroforest ecosystem in Europe (≍ 3 million ha), is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for its importance in rural economy. It is characterized by widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus Ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and shrubs in the sub-canopy region. The estimation of the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing may assist the monitoring of its state from local to regional scales, improving the management and the conservation of the ecosystem. Thermal-based energy balance techniques which distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in the estimation of the energy surface fluxes, and therefore in the estimation of ET. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. and Kustas and Norman has shown to be robust for semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. With the objective of evaluating the model over this environment, an energy flux measurement system has been used. It was installed in a dehesa located in Southern Spain (38°12' N; 4°17' W, 736m a.s.l) with 1 km homogeneous fetch in wind direction. The quality of the measured data fluxes has been tested with the energy-balance closure criterion yielding an average closure of 86% which is within the error range found in similar studies. The TSEB model was evaluated in the area for 2012 summer season, using images from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor and ground measured meteorological data. The half-hourly estimates were compared with the flux tower measurements, obtaining a RMSD between modeled and measured energy fluxes within the closure balance error.

  13. Surface energy balance closure and turbulent flux parameterisation on a mid-latitude mountain glacier, Purcell Mountains, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Noel; Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian

    2017-09-01

    In the majority of glacier surface energy balance studies, parameterisation rather than direct measurement is used to estimate one or more of the individual heat fluxes, with others, such as the rain and ground heat fluxes, often deemed negligible. Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are commonly parameterised using the bulk aerodynamic technique. This method was developed for horizontal, uniform surfaces rather than sloped, inhomogeneous glacier terrain, and significant uncertainty remains regarding the selection of appropriate roughness length values, and the validity of the atmospheric stability functions employed. A customised weather station, designed to measure all relevant heat fluxes, was installed on an alpine glacier over the 2014 melt season. Eddy covariance techniques were used to observe the turbulent heat fluxes, and to calculate site-specific roughness values. The obtained dataset was used to drive a point ablation model, and to evaluate the most commonly used bulk methods and roughness length schemes in the literature. Modelled ablation showed good agreement with observed rates at seasonal, daily, and sub-daily timescales, effectively closing the surface energy balance, and giving a high level of confidence in the flux observation method. Net radiation was the dominant contributor to melt energy over the season (65.2%), followed by the sensible heat flux (29.7%), while the rain heat flux was observed to be a significant contributor on daily timescales during periods of persistent heavy rain (up to 20% day-1). Momentum roughness lengths observed for the study surface (snow: 10-3.8 m; ice: 10-2.2 m) showed general agreement with previous findings, while the scalar values (temperature: 10-4.6 m; water vapour: 10-6 m) differed significantly from those for momentum, disagreeing with the assumption of equal roughness lengths. Of the three bulk method stability schemes tested, the functions based on the Monin-Obukhov length returned mean daily

  14. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  15. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent paper by Morillas et al. [Morillas, L. et al. Using radiometric surface temperature for surface energy flux estimation in Mediterranean drylands from a two-source perspective, Remote Sens. Environ. 136, 234-246, 2013] evaluates the two-source model (TSM) of Norman et al. (1995) with revi...

  16. Simulating carbon, water and energy fluxes of a rainforest and an oil palm plantation using the Community Land Model (CLM4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuanchao; Bernoux, Martial; Roupsard, Olivier; Panferov, Oleg; Le Maire, Guerric; Tölle, Merja; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation driven by the expansion of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations has become the major source of GHG emission in Indonesia. Changes of land surface properties (e.g. vegetation composition, soil property, surface albedo) associated with rainforest to oil palm conversion might alter the patterns of land-atmosphere energy, water and carbon cycles and therefore affect local or regional climate. Land surface modeling has been widely used to characterize the two-way interactions between climate and human disturbances on land surface. The Community Land Model (CLM) is a third-generation land model that simulates a wide range of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. This project utilizes the land-cover/land-use change (LCLUC) capability of the latest CLM versions 4/4.5 to characterize quantitatively how anthropogenic land surface dynamics in Indonesia affect land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes. Before simulating land use changes, the first objective is to parameterize and validate the CLM model at local rainforest and oil palm plantation sites through separate point simulations. This entails creation and parameterization of a new plant functional type (PFT) for oil palm, as well as sensitivity analysis and adaptation of model parameters for the rainforest PFTs. CLM modelled fluxes for the selected sites are to be compared with field observations from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers (e.g. a rainforest site in Bariri, Sulawesi; an oil palm site in Jambi, Sumatra). After validation, the project will proceed to parameterize land-use transformation system using remote sensing data and to simulate the impacts of historical LUCs on carbon, water and energy fluxes. Last but not least, the effects of future LUCs in Indonesia on the fluxes and carbon sequestration capacity will be investigated through scenario study. Historical land cover changes, especially oil palm coverage, are retrieved from Landsat or MODIS archival

  17. Feasibility Study for Using a Linear Transverse Flux Machine as part of the Structure of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pereira da Costa Cunha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a feasibility study for the generation of wave energy by means of a transverse flux machine connected to a device for converting wave energy known as Point Absorber. The article contains literature review on the topic and analysis of data obtained by means of a prototype built in the laboratory. Based on the results, the study concludes that this use is feasible.

  18. Polar observations of ion/electron bursts at the pre-dawn polar cap boundary: evidence for internal reconnection of overdraped lobe flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations made by Polar of ion-electron bursts on the dawn side of the polar cap are presented. They occurred when conditions external to the magnetosphere corresponded to that of the sheath region of a magnetic cloud, which was characterized by very high densities/dynamic pressure and a magnetic field which was strong in all components and which was tilted antisunward (Bx<0 and northward (Bz>0 with its clock angle lying between 20 and 90° (By: 8–15 nT. A clear temporal development in the energy range spanned by the individual ion bursts (from 0.2–2 keV to 1–10 keV was present. We relate this to a corresponding temporal evolution in the cloud sheath field and plasma. We analyze the solar wind-magnetosphere aspects of the observations using the concepts of (i (i overdraped lobe flux, (ii Bx- and By-regulated sequential reconnections in opposite hemispheres (magnetopause and internal modes, and (iii newly-closed magnetic flux. In particular, we find that the most energetic ion bursts (accompanied by bi-directionally streaming electrons at 1–10 keV and intense magnetosheath-origin fluxes are located on newly closed field lines generated by internal reconnection occurring between overdraped lobe field lines and the closed geomagnetic field. This result corroborates a topology of lobe reconnection under conditions of dipole tilt and/or nonzero IMF Bx component advanced by Watanabe et al. (2006, which in our case is adapted to nonzero IMF By conditions.

  19. Calculation of conventional and prompt lepton fluxes at very high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gaisser, Thomas K; Riehn, Felix; Stanev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating inclusive conventional and prompt atmospheric leptons fluxes is presented. The coupled cascade equations are solved numerically by formulating them as matrix equation. The presented approach is very flexible and allows the use of different hadronic interaction models, realistic parametrizations of the primary cosmic-ray flux and the Earth's atmosphere, and a detailed treatment of particle interactions and decays. The power of the developed method is illustrated by calculating lepton flux predictions for a number of different scenarios.

  20. Global changes of extreme coastal wave energy fluxes triggered by intensified teleconnection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Dosio, Alessandro; Feyen, Luc

    2017-03-01

    In this study we conducted a comprehensive modeling analysis to identify global trends in extreme wave energy flux (WEF) along coastlines in the 21st century under a high emission pathway (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5). For the end of the century, results show a significant increase up to 30% in 100 year return level WEF for the majority of the coastal areas of the southern temperate zone, while in the Northern Hemisphere large coastal areas are characterized by a significant negative trend. We show that the most significant long-term trends of extreme WEF can be explained by intensification of teleconnection patterns such as the Antarctic Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, and North Atlantic Oscillation. The projected changes will have broad implications for ocean engineering applications and disaster risk management. Especially low-lying coastal countries in the Southern Hemisphere will be particularly vulnerable due to the combined effects of projected relative sea level rise and more extreme wave activities.

  1. Measuring energy flux of magneto-acoustic wave in the magnetic elements by using IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Pereira, Tiago; Leenaarts, Jorritt; Carlsson, Mats

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has opened a new window to explore the chromospheric/coronal waves that potentially energize the solar atmosphere. By using an imaging spectrograph covering the Si IV and Mg II h&k lines as well as a slit-jaw imager centered at Si IV and Mg II k onboard IRIS, we can determine the nature of propagating magneto-acoustic waves just below and in the transition region. In this study, we compute the vertically emergent intensity of the Si IV and Mg II h&k lines from a time series of snapshots of a magnetic element in a two-dimensional Radiative MHD simulation from the Bifrost code. We investigate the synthetic line profiles to detect the slow magneto-acoustic body wave (slow mode) which becomes a slow shock at the lower chromosphere in the magnetic element. We find that the Doppler shift of the line core gives the velocity amplitude of the longitudinal magneto-acoustic body wave. The contribution function of the line core indicates that the formation of Mg II h&k lines is associated with the propagating shocks and therefore the time evolution of the line core intensity represents the propagating shocks projected on the optical surface. We will report on measurement of the energy flux of slow modes in the magnetic elements by using IRIS observations.

  2. Towards the geophysical regime in numerical dynamo models: studies of rapidly-rotating convection driven dynamos with low Pm and constant heat flux boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.

    We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....

  3. Outburst of GX304-1 Monitored with INTEGRAL: Positive Correlation Between the Cyclotron Line Energy and Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, D.; Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, I.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of many accreting pulsars exhibit significant variations as a function of flux and thus of mass accretion rate. In some of these pulsars, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line(s), which characterizes the magnetic field strength at the site of the X-ray emission, has been found to vary systematically with flux. Aims. GX304-1 is a recently established cyclotron line source with a line energy around 50 keV. Since 2009, the pulsar shows regular outbursts with the peak flux exceeding one Crab. We analyze the INTEGRAL observations of the source during its outburst in January-February 2012. Methods. The observations covered almost the entire outburst, allowing us to measure the source's broad-band X-my spectrum at different flux levels. We report on the variations in the spectral parameters with luminosity and focus on the variations in the cyclotron line. Results. The centroid energy of the line is found to be positively correlated with the luminosity. We interpret this result as a manifestation of the local sub-Eddington (sub-critical) accretion regime operating in the source.

  4. Impact of Land Cover Change Induced by a Fire Event on the Surface Energy Fluxes Derived from Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Sánchez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires affect the natural cycle of the vegetation, and the structure and functioning of ecosystems. As a consequence of defoliation and vegetation mortality, surface energy flux patterns can suffer variations. Remote sensing techniques together with surface energy balance modeling offer the opportunity to explore these changes. In this paper we focus on a Mediterranean forest ecosystem. A fire event occurred in 2001 in Almodóvar del Pinar (Spain affecting a pine and shrub area. A two-source energy balance approach was applied to a set of Landsat 5-TM and Landsat 7-EMT+ images to estimate the surface fluxes in the area. Three post-fire periods were analyzed, six, seven, nine, and 11 years after the fire event. Results showed the regeneration of the shrub area in 6–7 years, in contrast to the pine area, where an important decrease in evapotranspiration, around 1 mm·day−1, remained. Differences in evapotranspiration were mitigated nine and 11 years after the fire in the pine area, whereas significant deviations in the rest of the terms of the energy balance equation were still observed. The combined effect of changes in the vegetation structure and surface variables, such as land surface temperature, albedo, or vegetation coverage, is responsible for these variations in the surface energy flux patterns.

  5. A simple temperature domain two-source model for estimating agricultural field surface energy fluxes from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Yu, Jian; Chen, Jiquan; Liu, Shaomin; Lin, Yi; Fisher, Joshua B.; McVicar, Tim R.; Cheng, Jie; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xie, Xianhong; Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liang

    2017-05-01

    A simple and robust satellite-based method for estimating agricultural field to regional surface energy fluxes at a high spatial resolution is important for many applications. We developed a simple temperature domain two-source energy balance (TD-TSEB) model within a hybrid two-source model scheme by coupling "layer" and "patch" models to estimate surface heat fluxes from Landsat thematic mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM+) imagery. For estimating latent heat flux (LE) of full soil, we proposed a temperature domain residual of the energy balance equation based on a simplified framework of total aerodynamic resistances, which provides a key link between thermal satellite temperature and subsurface moisture status. Additionally, we used a modified Priestley-Taylor model for estimating LE of full vegetation. The proposed method was applied to TM/ETM+ imagery and was validated using the ground-measured data at five crop eddy-covariance tower sites in China. The results show that TD-TSEB yielded root-mean-square-error values between 24.9 (8.9) and 78.2 (21.4) W/m2 and squared correlation coefficient (R2) values between 0.60 (0.51) and 0.97 (0.90), for the estimated instantaneous (daily) surface net radiation, soil, latent, and sensible heat fluxes at all five sites. The TD-TSEB model shows good accuracy for partitioning LE into soil (LEsoil) and canopy (LEcanopy) components with an average bias of 11.1% for the estimated LEsoil/LE ratio at the Daman site. Importantly, the TD-TSEB model produced comparable accuracy but requires fewer forcing data (i.e., no wind speed and roughness length are needed) when compared with two other widely used surface energy balance models. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that this accurate operational model provides an alternative method for mapping field surface heat fluxes with satisfactory performance.

  6. Design and characterization of axial flux permanent magnet energy harvester for vehicle magnetorheological damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    An axial flux permanent magnet energy harvester (AFPMEH) is proposed and analyzed for a vehicle magneto-rheological (MR) damper. The relationship between the output voltage and the input excitations are analytically developed. Under different constant rotation speeds and sinusoidal excitations, the harvesting energy is numerically computed for different loads of pure resistance and coil in the MR damper. To check the performance of the proposed AFPMEH for the MR damper, the AFPMEH and MR damper are fabricated individually. Experiments are performed to measure the harvesting energy of the AFPMEH and the damping characteristics of the MR damper under different excited conditions. The excited conditions include three constant rotation speeds and sinusoidal inputs. Load inputs of the pure resistance and the coil of the MR damper are considered. The results show that the time history of the generated voltage of the AFPMEH in experiment is agreed well with that of the AFPMEH in simulation. Under constant rotation speeds, the root mean square (rms) of loaded voltage will increase with the increment of load, whereas the rms of power will be affected by the amplitude of load. The MR damper powered by the AFPMEH can almost obtain the similar damping characteristics of that external power supply. Under sinusoidal inputs, the rms of loaded voltage will increase with the increment of external loads, whereas the rms of power will be almost kept as a constant. The damping range of the MR damper can also be enlarged over 30% comparing to off-state damping force. A quarter car model with an MR damper powered by the AFPMEH is developed to investigate the control performance. The on-off skyhook control is adopted to tune the input current of the MR damper. The vibration performance of the MR suspension is investigated under different roads and vehicle speeds. The numerical results show that the MR suspension with the AFPMEH under on-off skyhook control can achieve better ride comfort

  7. A model for the estimation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture of the cloud topped marine atmospheric boundary layer from satellite measurable parameters. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed for the estimation of the surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture of the cloud topped marine atmospheric boundary layer by use of satellite remotely sensed parameters. The parameters chosen for the problem are the integrated liquid water content, q sub li, the integrated water vapor content, q sub vi, the cloud top temperature, and either a measure of the 10 meter neutral wind speed or the friction velocity at the surface. Under the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous, well-mixed boundary layer, the model calculates the equivalent potential temperature and total water profiles of the boundary layer along with the boundary layer height from inputs of q sub li, q sub vi, and cloud top temperature. These values, along with the 10m neutral wind speed or friction velocity and the sea surface temperature are then used to estimate the surface fluxes. The development of a scheme to parameterize the integrated water vapor outside of the boundary layer for the cases of cold air outbreak and California coastal stratus is presented.

  8. MECHANICAL ENERGY FLUXES ASSOCIATED WITH SATURATED CORONAL HEATING IN M DWARFS: COMPARISON WITH PREDICTIONS OF A TURBULENT DYNAMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, D. J. [Bartol Research Institute, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); MacDonald, J., E-mail: mullan@udel.edu [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Empirically, the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} from M dwarfs has been found to have an upper limit of about 0.2% of the bolometric flux L{sub bol}. In the limit where magnetic fields in M dwarfs are generated in equipartition with convective motions, we use stellar models to calculate the energy flux of Alfvén waves F{sub A} as a function of depth in the sub-surface convection zone. Since Alfvén waves have the optimal opportunity for wave modes to reach the corona, we suggest that F{sub A} sets an upper limit on the mechanical flux F{sub mech} which causes coronal heating. This suggestion accounts quantitatively for the “saturated” values of L{sub X}/L{sub bol} which have been reported empirically for M dwarfs.

  9. An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Boyer, Dana; Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Fang, Andrew; Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik; Cohen, Elliot; Rao-Ghorpade, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment. Delhi’s community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%-82%) of Delhi’s FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints. Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi’s FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.

  10. On the mechanics of continua with boundary energies and growing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Areti; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-06-01

    Many biological systems are coated by thin films for protection, selective absorption, or transmembrane transport. A typical example is the mucous membrane covering the airways, the esophagus, and the intestine. Biological surfaces typically display a distinct mechanical behavior from the bulk; in particular, they may grow at different rates. Growth, morphological instabilities, and buckling of biological surfaces have been studied intensely by approximating the surface as a layer of finite thickness; however, growth has never been attributed to the surface itself. Here, we establish a theory of continua with boundary energies and growing surfaces of zero thickness in which the surface is equipped with its own potential energy and is allowed to grow independently of the bulk. In complete analogy to the kinematic equations, the balance equations, and the constitutive equations of a growing solid body, we derive the governing equations for a growing surface. We illustrate their spatial discretization using the finite element method, and discuss their consistent algorithmic linearization. To demonstrate the conceptual differences between volume and surface growth, we simulate the constrained growth of the inner layer of a cylindrical tube. Our novel approach toward continua with growing surfaces is capable of predicting extreme growth of the inner cylindrical surface, which more than doubles its initial area. The underlying algorithmic framework is robust and stable; it allows to predict morphological changes due to surface growth during the onset of buckling and beyond. The modeling of surface growth has immediate biomedical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, and tumor invasion. Beyond biomedical applications, the scientific understanding of growth-induced morphological instabilities and surface wrinkling has important implications in material sciences, manufacturing, and microfabrication, with applications in

  11. Integrative measurements focusing on carbon, energy and water fluxes at the forest site 'Hohes Holz' and the grassland 'Grosses Bruch'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Corinna; Claudia, Schütze; Sara, Marañón-Jiménez; Sebastian, Gimper; Matthias, Zink; Luis, Samaniego; Matthias, Cuntz

    2017-04-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the optimization of Carbon sequestration by ecosystems have become priority objectives for current climate change policies. In this context, the long term research project TERENO and the research infrastructure ICOS have been established. The eddy covariance technique allows obtaining an integrative estimate of the ecosystem carbon, water and energy balances at the ecosystem level. The relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration as well as carbon sources and sinks need, however, to be determined separately for thorough process understanding. Two different ecosystem observatories have recently been established in the Magdeburger Börde: a deciduous forest (Hohes Holz) and a meadow (Grosses Bruch). A comprehensive system of instrumentation provides continuous data for the evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes at the 1500 ha large forest site, including a 50 m high eddy covariance (EC) tower for micrometeorological investigations in different heights above and below canopy, throughfall and stem flow sensors, a soil moisture and temperature sensor network, soil respiration chambers, sap flow sensors, and ancillary analysis of trees such a dendrometer and leaf area index measurements. Eddy covariance measurements allow the assessment of the carbon (Net Ecosystem Exchange, NEE) and water balance at the ecosystem scale. To better understand the contributing processes we partition water und carbon fluxes of the forest ecosystem by different methods. Tower-based data of NEE are therefore complemented and validated by continuous automatic and manual campaign measurements of soil effluxes and their drivers. Water fluxes into the ecosystem are partitioned by stem flow and throughfall measurements and a distributed soil moisture network. Gap fraction in the forest has a strong influence on the distribution on the water fluxes and is therefore determined on a regular basis. Since the establishment of the

  12. Comparison of GHG fluxes from conventional and energy crop production from adjacent fields in the UK, using novel technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, James Benjamin; Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Stockdale, James; Vallack, Harry; Blei, Emanuel; Bentley, Mark; Howarth, Steve

    2016-04-01

    With combustion of fossil fuels driving anthropogenic climate change, allied to a diminishing global reserve of these resources it is vital for alternative sources of energy production to be investigated. One alternative is biomass; ethanol fermented from corn (Zea mays) or sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) has long been used as a petroleum substitute, and oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) is the principal feedstock for biodiesel production in Germany, the third biggest producer of this fuel globally. Diverting food crops into energy production would seem counter-productive, given there exists genuine concern regarding our ability to meet future global food demand, thus attention has turned to utilising lignocellulosic material: woody tissue and non-food crop by-products such as corn stover. For this reason species such as the perennial grass Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) are being cultivated for energy production, and these are referred to as second generation energy crops. They are attractive since they do not deplete food supplies, have high yields, require less fertiliser input than annual arable crops, and can be grown on marginal agricultural land. To assess the effectiveness of a crop for bioenergy production, it is vital that accurate quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes is obtained for their cultivation in the field. We will present data from a series of studies investigating the GHG fluxes from the energy crops OSR and Miscanthus under various nutrient additions in a comparison with conventional arable cropping at the same site in the United Kingdom (UK). A combination of methods were employed to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from both soil and vegetation, at various temporal and spatial scales. Conventional manual chambers were deployed on a monthly regime to quantify soil GHG fluxes, and were supplemented with automated soil flux chambers measuring soil respiration at an hourly frequency. Additionally, two novel automated chamber systems

  13. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  14. PREFACE: International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects (EFRE-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects 2014 (EFRE 2014) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 21-26, 2014. The organizers of the Congress were the Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS and Tomsk Polytechnic University. EFRE 2014 combines three international conferences which are regularly held in Tomsk, Russia: the 18th International Symposium on High-Current Electronics (18th SHCE), the 12th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows (12th CMM) and the 16th International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter (16th RPC). The International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of the fundamental problems of physical and chemical non-linear processes in condensed matter (mainly inorganic dielectrics) under the action of particle and photon beams of all types including pulsed power laser radiation. The International Symposium on High-Current Electronics is held biannually in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the conferences covers a wide range of scientific and technical areas including pulsed power technology, ion and electron beams, high-power microwaves, plasma and particle beam sources, modification of materials, and pulsed power applications in chemistry, biology and medicine. The 12th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental and applied issues in the field of modification of materials properties with particle beams and plasma flows. The six-day Congress brought together more than 250 specialists and scientists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussion on the topics of interest. The proceedings were edited by Victor Lisitsyn, Vladimir

  15. Optimization of permeate flux produced by solar energy driven membrane distillation process using central composite design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguecha, Salah T; Boubakri, Ali; Aly, Samir E; Al-Beirutty, Mohammad H; Hamdi, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is considered as a relatively high-energy requirement. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended to couple the MD process with solar energy as the renewable energy source in order to provide heat energy required to optimize its performance to produce permeate flux. In the present work, an original solar energy driven direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) pilot plant was built and tested under actual weather conditions at Jeddah, KSA, in order to model and optimize permeate flux. The dependency of permeate flux on various operating parameters such as feed temperature (46.6-63.4°C), permeate temperature (6.6-23.4°C), feed flow rate (199-451L/h) and permeate flow rate (199-451L/h) was studied by response surface methodology based on central composite design approach. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that all independent variables had significant influence on the model (where P-value <0.05). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9644 and R(adj)(2) = 0.9261) obtained by ANOVA demonstrated good correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response. The optimized conditions, determined using desirability function, were T(f) = 63.4°C, Tp = 6.6°C, Q(f) = 451L/h and Q(p) = 451L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum permeate flux of 6.122 kg/m(2).h was achieved, which was close to the predicted value of 6.398 kg/m(2).h.

  16. Variability of surface characteristics and energy flux patterns of sunn hemp ( Crotalaria juncea L.) under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Keiko; Kimura, Reiji; Şaylan, Levent

    2009-05-01

    There is not much information in the literature about the energy partitioning and micrometeorological features of sunn hemp. Therefore, in this study, the variations in the energy-balance components and plant characteristics such as aerodynamic and surface conductance, crop coefficient, albedo, short- and long wave down- and upward radiation have been measured and estimated for the time period from August to October 2004 over an irrigated sand field at the Arid Land Research Center in Tottori, Japan. The Bowen ratio energy-balance method was used to calculate the partitioning of heat fluxes of sunn hemp. The Bowen ratio values at the first growing stages in August were found to be higher than the Bowen ratio values at the latest growing stages in September and October because of the heavy rain and high soil-water content. The daytime averaged Bowen ratio was 0.19. During the measurement period, the daytime average net radiation, and soil, latent and sensible heat fluxes were approximately 231, 28, 164, and 39 W m-2, respectively. The net radiation and soil heat flux showed decreasing trends from the beginning to the end of the experiment period due to the atmospheric and crop growth conditions. The daytime averages of aerodynamic and surface conductance for sunn hemp were around 31 and 17 mm s-1, respectively. Also, the daytime average albedo of sunn hemp was around 19%. Finally, the high precipitation amount due to typhoons, high soil-water content, low available energy and low vapor-pressure deficit lead to decreasing trend of the energy fluxes during the generative phase of sunn hemp.

  17. Quantification of urban atmospheric boundary layer greenhouse gas dry mole fraction enhancements in the dormant season: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Miles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as of January 2013 and data from these sites are the focus of this paper. A background site, chosen such that it is on the predominantly upwind side of the city, is utilized to quantify enhancements caused by urban emissions. Afternoon averaged mole fractions are studied because this is the time of day during which the height of the boundary layer is most steady in time and the area that influences the tower measurements is likely to be largest. Additionally, atmospheric transport models have better performance in simulating the daytime convective boundary layer compared to the nighttime boundary layer. Averaged from January through April of 2013, the mean urban dormant-season enhancements range from 0.3 ppm CO2 at the site 24 km typically downwind of the edge of the city (Site 09 to 1.4 ppm at the site at the downwind edge of the city (Site 02 to 2.9 ppm at the downtown site (Site 03. When the wind is aligned such that the sites are downwind of the urban area, the enhancements are increased, to 1.6 ppm at Site 09, and 3.3 ppm at Site 02. Differences in sampling height affect the reported urban enhancement by up to 50%, but the overall spatial pattern remains similar. The time interval over which the afternoon data are averaged alters the calculated urban enhancement by an average of 0.4 ppm

  18. Predicting carbon dioxide and energy fluxes across global FLUXNET sites with regression algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Jung, Martin; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Ichii, Kazuhito; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Ráduly, Botond; Reichstein, Markus; Altaf Arain, M.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Kiely, Gerard; Merbold, Lutz; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Sickert, Sven; Wolf, Sebastian; Papale, Dario

    2016-07-01

    Spatio-temporal fields of land-atmosphere fluxes derived from data-driven models can complement simulations by process-based land surface models. While a number of strategies for empirical models with eddy-covariance flux data have been applied, a systematic intercomparison of these methods has been missing so far. In this study, we performed a cross-validation experiment for predicting carbon dioxide, latent heat, sensible heat and net radiation fluxes across different ecosystem types with 11 machine learning (ML) methods from four different classes (kernel methods, neural networks, tree methods, and regression splines). We applied two complementary setups: (1) 8-day average fluxes based on remotely sensed data and (2) daily mean fluxes based on meteorological data and a mean seasonal cycle of remotely sensed variables. The patterns of predictions from different ML and experimental setups were highly consistent. There were systematic differences in performance among the fluxes, with the following ascending order: net ecosystem exchange (R2 0.6), gross primary production (R2> 0.7), latent heat (R2 > 0.7), sensible heat (R2 > 0.7), and net radiation (R2 > 0.8). The ML methods predicted the across-site variability and the mean seasonal cycle of the observed fluxes very well (R2 > 0.7), while the 8-day deviations from the mean seasonal cycle were not well predicted (R2 predicted at forested and temperate climate sites than at sites in extreme climates or less represented by training data (e.g., the tropics). The evaluated large ensemble of ML-based models will be the basis of new global flux products.

  19. Do the energy fluxes and surface conductance of boreal coniferous forests in Europe scale with leaf area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launiainen, Samuli; Katul, Gabriel G; Kolari, Pasi; Lindroth, Anders; Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Varlagin, Andrej; Grelle, Achim; Vesala, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Earth observing systems are now routinely used to infer leaf area index (LAI) given its significance in spatial aggregation of land surface fluxes. Whether LAI is an appropriate scaling parameter for daytime growing season energy budget, surface conductance (G s ), water- and light-use efficiency and surface-atmosphere coupling of European boreal coniferous forests was explored using eddy-covariance (EC) energy and CO 2 fluxes. The observed scaling relations were then explained using a biophysical multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model as well as by a bulk G s representation. The LAI variations significantly alter radiation regime, within-canopy microclimate, sink/source distributions of CO 2 , H 2 O and heat, and forest floor fluxes. The contribution of forest floor to ecosystem-scale energy exchange is shown to decrease asymptotically with increased LAI, as expected. Compared with other energy budget components, dry-canopy evapotranspiration (ET) was reasonably 'conservative' over the studied LAI range 0.5-7.0 m 2 m -2 . Both ET and G s experienced a minimum in the LAI range 1-2 m 2 m -2 caused by opposing nonproportional response of stomatally controlled transpiration and 'free' forest floor evaporation to changes in canopy density. The young forests had strongest coupling with the atmosphere while stomatal control of energy partitioning was strongest in relatively sparse (LAI ~2 m 2 m -2 ) pine stands growing on mineral soils. The data analysis and model results suggest that LAI may be an effective scaling parameter for net radiation and its partitioning but only in sparse stands (LAI energy exchange. In denser forests, any LAI dependency varies with physiological traits such as light-saturated water-use efficiency. The results suggest that incorporating species traits and site conditions are necessary when LAI is used in upscaling energy exchanges of boreal coniferous forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Flux measurements of energy and trace gases in urban Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, I.; Schade, G. W.; Adams, S.; Park, C.

    2008-12-01

    We describe the setup and some first year results of a new flux measurements tower in an urban area. An existing radio communications tower 4 km north of downtown Houston was equipped with micrometeorological instrumentation and trace gas sampling lines in spring 2007. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity are recorded at five levels between 12 and 60 m above ground; 3-D wind speed measurements, solar and net radiances, and trace gas sampling are established from the 60 m level. A closed path IRGA is used for CO2 and water vapor fluxes, and independent instrumentation for criteria pollutant and VOC fluxes. Two CSI data loggers and software control the measurements, and EdiRe software is used to analyze turbulence data and compute fluxes. A project description is provided at http://atmo.tamu.edu/yellowcabtower. Surface properties as calculated from the gradient measurements show the site to be surprisingly uniform, with displacement heights between 5 and 9 m and roughness lengths between 0.4 and 0.7 m, despite urban heterogeneity. The latter is investigated through visible/near IR orthoimagery and LIDAR data, which are incorporated into a local GIS. Net radiation was also only marginally affected by surface heterogeneity. At this urban location it is balanced by roughly equal amounts of sensible heat, latent heat, and storage fluxes. Latent heat flux, however, is smaller outside the growing season, with an equivalent increase in winter storage fluxes, as expected. Significant differences are also observed with direction during summer, showing decreased Bowen ratios and lower CO2 emissions from sectors with a larger urban tree canopy cover in the footprint. The largely mature, dominantly oak urban canopy cover alleviates approximately 100 W m- 2 during typical summer days. On the other hand, anthropogenic CO2 emissions dominate over photosynthetic uptake all year round. Measured carbon fluxes peak during morning rush-hour traffic, especially when increasing

  1. Where is the Open Flux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Jon A.; Downs, Cooper; Caplan, Ronald M.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Riley, Pete; Henney, Carl John; Arge, Charles; Owens, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Sun’s magnetic field has been observed in the photosphere from ground- and space-based observatories for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full disk magnetograms (either built up over a solar rotation, or evolved using flux transport models) are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Maps from different observatories typically agree qualitatively but often disagree quantitatively. Estimation of the coronal/solar wind physics can range from potential field source surface (PFSS) models with empirical prescriptions to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models with realistic energy transport and sub-grid scale descriptions of heating and acceleration. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) The open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes observed in emission, and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. We have investigated the July 2010 time period, using PFSS and MHD models computed using several available magnetic maps, coronal hole boundaries detected from STEREO and SDO EUV observations, and estimates of the interplanetary magnetic flux from in situ ACE measurements. We show that for all the model/map combinations, models that agree for (1) underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match (2), the modeled open field regions are larger than observed coronal holes. Alternatively, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining detected coronal hole boundaries with observatory synoptic magnetic maps, and show that this method also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. We discuss possible resolutions.Research supported by NASA, AFOSR, and NSF.

  2. Current-voltage and kinetic energy flux relations for relativistic field-aligned acceleration of auroral electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent spectroscopic observations of Jupiter's "main oval" auroras indicate that the primary auroral electron beam is routinely accelerated to energies of ~100 keV, and sometimes to several hundred keV, thus approaching the relativistic regime. This suggests the need to re-examine the classic non-relativistic theory of auroral electron acceleration by field-aligned electric fields first derived by Knight (1973, and to extend it to cover relativistic situations. In this paper we examine this problem for the case in which the source population is an isotropic Maxwellian, as also assumed by Knight, and derive exact analytic expressions for the field-aligned current density (number flux and kinetic energy flux of the accelerated population, for arbitrary initial electron temperature, acceleration potential, and field strength beneath the acceleration region. We examine the limiting behaviours of these expressions, their regimes of validity, and their implications for auroral acceleration in planetary magnetospheres (and like astrophysical systems. In particular, we show that for relativistic accelerating potentials, the current density increases as the square of the minimum potential, rather than linearly as in the non-relativistic regime, while the kinetic energy flux then increases as the cube of the potential, rather than as the square.

  3. Analysis of Voyager Observed High-Energy Electron Fluxes in the Heliosheath Using MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washimi, Haruichi; Webber, W. R.; Zank, Gary P.; Hu, Qiang; Florinski, Vladimir; Adams, James; Kubo, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft (V1 and V2) observed electrons of 6-14 MeV in the heliosheath which showed several incidences of flux variation relative to a background of gradually increasing flux with distance from the Sun. The increasing flux of background electrons is thought to result from inward radial diffusion. We compare the temporal electron flux variation with dynamical phenomena in the heliosheath that are obtained from our MHD simulations. Because our simulation is based on V2 observed plasma data before V2 crossed the termination shock, this analysis is effective up to late 2008, i.e., about a year after the V2-crossing, during which disturbances, driven prior to the crossing time, survived in the heliosheath. Several electron flux variations correspond to times directly associated with interplanetary shock events. One noteworthy example corresponds to various times associated with the March 2006 interplanetary shock, these being the collision with the termination shock, the passage past the V1 spacecraft, and the collision with the region near the heliopause, as identified by W.R. Webber et al. for proton/helium of 7-200 MeV. Our simulations indicate that all other electron flux variations, except one, correspond well to the times when a shock-driven magneto-sonic pulse and its reflection in the heliosheath either passed across V1/V2, or collided with the termination shock or with the plasma sheet near the heliopause. This result suggests that variation in the electron flux should be due to either direct or indirect effects of magnetosonic pulses in the heliosheath driven by interplanetary shocks

  4. Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux-ADER schemes with application to hyperbolic conservation laws with geometric source terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Montilla, A.; Murillo, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an arbitrary order HLL-type numerical scheme is constructed using the flux-ADER methodology. The proposed scheme is based on an augmented Derivative Riemann solver that was used for the first time in Navas-Montilla and Murillo (2015) [1]. Such solver, hereafter referred to as Flux-Source (FS) solver, was conceived as a high order extension of the augmented Roe solver and led to the generation of a novel numerical scheme called AR-ADER scheme. Here, we provide a general definition of the FS solver independently of the Riemann solver used in it. Moreover, a simplified version of the solver, referred to as Linearized-Flux-Source (LFS) solver, is presented. This novel version of the FS solver allows to compute the solution without requiring reconstruction of derivatives of the fluxes, nevertheless some drawbacks are evidenced. In contrast to other previously defined Derivative Riemann solvers, the proposed FS and LFS solvers take into account the presence of the source term in the resolution of the Derivative Riemann Problem (DRP), which is of particular interest when dealing with geometric source terms. When applied to the shallow water equations, the proposed HLLS-ADER and AR-ADER schemes can be constructed to fulfill the exactly well-balanced property, showing that an arbitrary quadrature of the integral of the source inside the cell does not ensure energy balanced solutions. As a result of this work, energy balanced flux-ADER schemes that provide the exact solution for steady cases and that converge to the exact solution with arbitrary order for transient cases are constructed.

  5. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  6. Reply to comment by Mauder on "How well can we measure the vertical wind speed? Implications for fluxes of energy and mass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kochendorfer; Tilden P. Meyers; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; Mark W. Heuer

    2013-01-01

    In Kochendorfer et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 145:383-398, 2012, hereafter K2012) the vertical wind speed (w) measured by a non-orthogonal three-dimensional sonic anemometer was shown to be underestimated by 12%. Turbulent statistics and eddycovariance fluxes estimated using w were also affected by this underestimate in w. Methodologies used in K2012 are clarified...

  7. Scaling water and energy fluxes in climate systems - Three land-atmospheric modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Lakshmi, Venkataraman

    1993-01-01

    Three numerical experiments that investigate the scaling of land-surface processes - either of the inputs or parameters - are reported, and the aggregated processes are compared to the spatially variable case. The first is the aggregation of the hydrologic response in a catchment due to rainfall during a storm event and due to evaporative demands during interstorm periods. The second is the spatial and temporal aggregation of latent heat fluxes, as calculated from SiB. The third is the aggregation of remotely sensed land vegetation and latent and sensible heat fluxes using TM data from the FIFE experiment of 1987 in Kansas. In all three experiments it was found that the surface fluxes and land characteristics can be scaled, and that macroscale models based on effective parameters are sufficient to account for the small-scale heterogeneities investigated.

  8. Micro-scale modelling of energy fluxes over a small Fluxnet forest site in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Dellwik, Ebba; Boegh, Eva

    2012-01-01

    qualitative agreement with high-resolution (60 m and 120 m) remote-sensing data of the effective surface temperature of the area near the site in focus: the forested areas are colder in daytime and warmer in night time than surrounding open areas. In contrast to the remote sensing approach, SCADIS provides......Most forests, especially in Europe, are too small to fulfil strict fetch requirements associated with idealized flux observations in undisturbed, homogeneous flow. As a consequence of limited fetch, the flux measured above the canopy will often deviate from the source strength underlying...... model; Sogachev et al., 2002, Tellus 54B, 784-819) has been successfully applied especially in the region adjacent to a forest edge in order to improve flux data interpretation. Most of the analyses were done for the neutral case and in two-dimensional mode. When analyzing the effect of a forest edge...

  9. Mapping energy balance fluxes and root zone soil moisture in the White Volta Basin using optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho; Friesen, Jan; Compaore, Halidou; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Rodgers, Charles; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2006-05-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture is critical for evaluation of background characteristics. Since these fluxes are subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine their spatial and temporal distributions over large areas from ground measurements alone. Therefore, prediction from remote sensing images is very attractive as it enables extensive area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land as implemented at New Mexico Tech (SEBAL NM) is used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes in the White Volta Basin of Ghana, West Africa. The objectives are (i) to demonstrate a SEBAL NM application in a part of the world were ground measurements are very scarce and (ii) to compare evapotranspiration (ET) maps obtained from Landsat and MODIS imagery, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL NM can be applied for mapping sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture over areas where few or no ground measurements are available using common satellite products (Landsat and MODIS).

  10. Characteristics of absorbing aerosols during winter foggy period over the National Capital Region of Delhi: Impact of planetary boundary layer dynamics and solar radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S.; Tiwari, S.; Mishra, A.; Singh, S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Singh, Surender; Attri, S. D.

    2017-05-01

    Severe air pollution in the northern India coupled with the formation of secondary pollutants results in severe fog conditions during the winter. Black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) play a vital role within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to degrade atmospheric visibility. These species were continuously monitored during the winter of 2014 in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. The average BC concentration was 8.0 ± 3.1 μg/m3 with the January mean (11.1 ± 5.4 μg/m3) approximately two times higher than February (5.9 ± 2.1 μg/m3). The average PM2.5 concentration was 137 ± 67 μg/m3 with monthly area-average maximum and minima in December and February, respectively. Higher concentrations of BC at 10:00 local standard time LST (8.5 μg/m3) and 22:00 LST (9.7 μg/m3) were consistently observed and assigned to morning and evening rush-hour traffic across Delhi. Daily average solar fluxes, varied between 17.9 and 220.7 W/m2 and had a negative correlation (r = - 0.5) with BC during fog episodes. Ventilation coefficient (VC) reduced from 'no fog' to fog phase over Palam Airport (PLM) (0.49) times and Hindon Airport (HND) (0.28) times and from fog to prolonged fog (> 14 h) phase over PLM (0.35) times and HND (0.41) times, respectively, indicating high pollution over the NCR of Delhi. Ground measurements showed that daily mean aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD500) varied between 0.32 and 1.18 with mean AOD500 nm being highest during the prolonged fog (> 14 h) episodes (0.98 ± 0.08) consistent with variations in PM2.5 and BC. Angstrom exponent (α) and Angstrom turbidity coefficient (β) were found to be > 1 and 0.2, respectively, during fog showing the dominance of fine mode particles in the atmosphere.

  11. Intercomparison of Surface Energy Fluxes Estimates from the FEST-EWB and TSEB Models over the Heterogeneous REFLEX 2012 Site (Barrax, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Timmermans, Wim; Andreu, Ana

    2015-12-01

    An intercomparison between the Energy Water Balance model (FEST-EWB) and the Two-Source Energy Balance model (TSEB) is performed over a heterogeneous agricultural area. TSEB is a residual model which uses Land Surface Temperature (LST) from remote sensing as a main input parameter so that energy fluxes are computed instantaneously at the time of data acquisition. FEST-EWB is a hydrological model that predicts soil moisture and the surface energy fluxes on a continuous basis. LST is then a modelled variable. Ground and remote sensing data from the Regional Experiments For Land-atmosphere Exchanges (REFLEX) campaign in 2012 in Barrax gave the opportunity to validate and compare spatially distributed energy fluxes. The output of both models matches the ground observations quite well. However, a spatial analysis reveals significant differences between the two approaches for latent and sensible heat fluxes over relatively small fields characterized by high heterogeneity in vegetation cover.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O- ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-11-01

    O- ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O- energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O- ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O- ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O- ion, O- particle flux in order of 1018 m-2 s-1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O- ion on the ITO target by one Ar+ ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10-3 as the minimum value.

  13. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperate grassland ecosystem; Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 52 135–149. Mahrt L and Dean V 2002 Relationship of area-averaged carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes to atmospheric variables; Agric. For. Meteor. 112 195–202. Ohtaki E 1984 Application of an infrared carbon dioxide and humidity instrument to studies of ...

  14. Scale - dependent effects on the surface energy fluxes modelling in Iberian oak-savanna (dehesa) using the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Ana; Nieto, Hector; Gómez-Giráldez, Pedro; González-Dugo, Maria P.

    2017-04-01

    Iberian semi-arid oak-savannas (dehesas) are complex ecosystems where bare soil and different layers of vegetation (grass/scrubs/trees) are distributed following heterogeneous patterns. An assumption of the two source energy balance models is that the effective source/sink for turbulent flux exchange at the surface(canopy/soil) is described by a bulk radiometric surface temperature (TRAD) and resistance. Therefore, the agreement of the TRAD used as an input to these models, with the "bulk" concept (determined by the spatial resolution), will influence the final energy fluxes estimations. The representativeness of the field-ground measurements, the spatial resolution of sensors, the averaging and the up-scaling of TRAD and the ecosystem vegetation parameters, will be crucial for the precision of the results, more than in homogeneous landscapes. The aim of this study is to analyze the scale-effects derived from TSEB application, comparing the observed energy fluxes and the estimated ones obtained from multiple TRAD data sources of different nature: tree/grass/soil ground-based observations, tower footprint, hyperspectral reflectance imagery acquired with an airborne platform, medium (Landsat) and low spatial resolution satellite data (Sentinel 3, MODIS), and how the up-scaling of the vegetation structural characteristics contribute to the discrepancies. The study area selected for this purpose is a dehesa site (Santa Clotilde, Cordoba), which present canopy mosaics (oak, annual grasses and bushes) differing in phenology, physiology and functioning, and bare soil, all of them influencing the turbulent and radiative exchanges.

  15. The Effect of Satellite Observing System Changes on MERRA Water and Energy Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Miller, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Because reanalysis data sets offer state variables and fluxes at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Although one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics, another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that continual but discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record (approx. the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on the reanalysis of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 and, more prominently, with improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We first examine MERRA fluxes from the perspective of how physical modes of variability (e.g. ENSO events, Pacific Decadal Variability) are contained by artificial step-like trends induced by the onset of new moisture data these two satellite observing systems. Secondly, we show how Redundancy Analysis, a statistical regression methodology, is effective in relating these artifact signals in the moisture and temperature analysis increments to their presence in the physical flux terms (e.g. precipitation, radiation). This procedure is shown to be effective greatly reducing the artificial trends in the flux quantities.

  16. Study of the ANTARES detector sensitivity to a diffuse high-energy cosmic neutrino flux; Etude de la sensibilite du detecteur ANTARES a un flux diffus de neutrinos cosmiques de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer, A

    2003-04-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to built an underwater neutrino telescope, 2 400 m deep, 40 km from Toulon (France). This detector is constituted by 12 strings, each one comprising 90 photomultipliers. Neutrinos are detected through their charged current interaction in the medium surrounding the detector (water or rock) leading to the production of a muon in the final state. Its Cherenkov light emitted all along its travel is detected by a three dimensional array of photomultipliers. The diffuse neutrino flux is constituted by the addition of the neutrino emission of sources. Only astrophysical ones have been discussed. The different theoretical models predicting such a flux have been listed and added to the simulation possibilities. As the muon energy reconstruction was a crucial parameter in this analysis, a new energy estimator has been developed. It gives a resolution of a factor three on the muon energy above 1 TeV. Discriminant variables have been also developed in order to reject the atmospheric muon background. Including all these developments, the ANTARES sensitivity is found to be around 8.10{sup -8} GeV-cm{sup -2}-s{sup -1}-sr{sup -1} after one year of data taking for an E{sup -2} spectrum and a 10 string detector. (author)

  17. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange

  18. Surface heterogeneity impacts on boundary layer dynamics via energy balance partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of land-atmosphere interactions under heterogeneous surface conditions is investigated in order to identify mechanisms responsible for altering surface heat and moisture fluxes. Twelve coupled land surface – large eddy simulation scenarios with four different length scales of surface variab...

  19. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  20. Integrated analysis of 454 and Illumina transcriptomic sequencing characterizes carbon flux and energy source for fatty acid synthesis in developing Lindera glauca fruits for woody biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zixin Lin; Jiyong An; Jia Wang; Jun Niu; Chao Ma; Libing Wang; Guanshen Yuan; Lingling Shi; Lili Liu; Jinsong Zhang; Zhixiang Zhang; Ji Qi; Shanzhi Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background Lindera glauca fruit with high quality and quantity of oil has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of carbon flux and energy...

  1. Central accumulation of magnetic flux in massive Seyfert galaxies as a possible engine to trigger ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. C.; Coimbra-Araújo, C. H.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we investigate the production of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) from Seyferts. We discuss the UHECR luminosities obtained by two possible engine trigger models: pure radiative transfer and the energy extraction from poloidal magnetic flux. The first case is modeled by Kerr slim disk or Bondi accretion mechanisms. Since it is assumed that the broadband spectra of Seyferts indicate that at least the outer portions of their accretion disks are cold and geometrically thin, and since our results point that the consequent radiative energy transfer is inefficient, we build the second approach based on massive Seyferts with sufficient central poloidal magnetic field to trigger an outflow of magnetically driven charged particles capable to explain the observed UHECRs and gamma rays in Earth experiments from a given Seyfert source.

  2. Airborne flux measurements and budget estimates of trace species over the Amazon Basin during the GTE/ABLE 2B expedition. [Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    In situ airborne measurements of turbulent heat, moisture, momentum, ozone, and carbon monoxide fluxes in a convective boundary layer were obtained over a tropical rain forest between 1100 and 1630 LT on May 4, 1987. The aircraft flight path was chosen so as to fly over the tower site at the Ducke Forest Reserve near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Both turbulence statistics and mean quantities were used to study the budgets of heat, water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The ozone budget study shows an accumulation rate in the boundary layer of 0.3 + or - 0.2 ppbv/h. The surface resistance to ozone during this flight was determined to be 0.06 + or - 0.03 s/cm, while the aerodynamic resistance was 0.14-0.17 s/cm. Results from the CO budget analysis show a midday accumulation rate of 0.6 + or - 0.3 ppbv/h in the Amazonian boundary layer. The evidence suggests production of CO in the PBL. A source of CO may exist below the lowest flight level (about 150 m), although it was not possible to determine what part of the flux at flight level was due to chemical production and what part may be due to surface emission.

  3. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland-atmosphere system

  4. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water, and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Peters, W.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to model boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat, and CO2 in a cropland–atmosphere system at

  5. Effects of shear in the convective boundary layer: analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of convective and mechanical turbulence at the entrainment zone are studied through the use of systematic Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) experiments. Five LES experiments with different shear characteristics in the quasi-steady barotropic boundary layer were conducted by increasing the value of

  6. Wind Energy-Related Atmospheric Boundary Layer Large-Eddy Simulation Using OpenFOAM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M.J.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J.G.; Moriarty, P.J.

    2010-08-01

    This paper develops and evaluates the performance of a large-eddy simulation (LES) solver in computing the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over flat terrain under a variety of stability conditions, ranging from shear driven (neutral stratification) to moderately convective (unstable stratification).

  7. Symplectic Hamiltonina formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, A.J.; Jeltsema, D

    2007-01-01

    The classical Langrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions. The method is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Langrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  8. Symplectic Hamiltonian Formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    The classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions. This extension is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Lagrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  9. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    The classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions, The method is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Lagrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  10. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Peters, W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland–atmosphere system

  11. Shallow soil moisture – ground thaw interactions and controls – Part 2: Influences of water and energy fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper (Guan et al., 2010 demonstrated variable interactions and correlations between shallow soil moisture and ground thaw in soil filled areas along a wetness spectrum in a subarctic Canadian Precambrian Shield landscape. From wetter to drier, these included a wetland, peatland and soil filled valley. Herein, water and energy fluxes were examined for these same subarctic study sites to discern the key controlling processes on the found patterns. Results showed the presence of surface water was the key control in variable soil moisture and frost table interactions among sites. At the peatland and wetland sites, accumulated water in depressions and flow paths maintained soil moisture for a longer duration than at the hummock tops. These wet areas were often locations of deepest thaw depth due to the transfer of latent heat accompanying lateral surface runoff. Although the peatland and wetland sites had large inundation extent, modified Péclet numbers indicated the relative influence of external and internal hydrological and energy processes at each site were different. Continuous inflow from an upstream lake into the wetland site caused advective and conductive thermal energies to be of equal importance to ground thaw. The absence of continuous surface flow at the peatland and valley sites led to dominance of conductive thermal energy over advective energy for ground thaw. The results suggest that the modified Péclet number could be a very useful parameter to differentiate landscape components in modeling frost table heterogeneity. The calculated water and energy fluxes, and the modified Péclet number provide quantitative explanations for the shallow soil moisture-ground thaw patterns by linking them with hydrological processes and hillslope storage capacity.

  12. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  13. Investigation of thermal energy transport from an anisotropic central heating element to the adjacent channels: A multipoint flux approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-02-01

    The problem of heat transfer from a central heating element pressed between two clad plates to cooling channels adjacent and outboard of the plates is investigated numerically. The aim of this work is to highlight the role of thermal conductivity anisotropy of the heating element and/or the encompassing plates on thermal energy transport to the fluid passing through the two channels. When the medium is anisotropic with respect to thermal conductivity; energy transport to the neighboring channels is no longer symmetric. This asymmetry in energy fluxes influence heat transfer to the coolant resulting in different patterns of temperature fields. In particular, it is found that the temperature fields are skewed towards the principal direction of anisotropy. In addition, the heat flux distributions along the edges of the heating element are also different as a manifestation of thermal conductivity anisotropy. Furthermore, the peak temperature at the channel walls change location and magnitude depending on the principal direction of anisotropy. Based on scaling arguments, it is found that, the ratio of width to the height of the heating system is a key parameter which can suggest when one may ignore the effect of the cross-diagonal terms of the full conductivity tensor. To account for anisotropy in thermal conductivity, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) is employed. Using this technique, it is possible to find a finite difference stencil which can handle full thermal conductivity tensor and in the same time enjoys the simplicity of finite difference approximation. Although the finite difference stencil based on MPFA is quite complex, in this work we apply the recently introduced experimenting field approach which construct the global problem automatically.

  14. Estimation of surface energy fluxes under complex terrain of Mt. Qomolangma over the Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo; Ma, Y.; Yang, K.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    Surface solar radiation is an important parameter in surface energy balance models and in estimation of evapotranspiration. This study developed a DEM based radiation model to estimate instantaneous clear sky solar radiation for surface energy balance system to obtain accurate energy absorbed by the

  15. Quantifying Energy and Mass Fluxes Controlling Godthåbsfjord Freshwater Input in a 5-km Simulation (1991–2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, P.L.; Mottram, R.H.; Christensen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater runoff to fjords with marine-terminating glaciers along the Greenland Ice Sheet margin has an impact on fjord circulation and potentially ice sheet mass balance through increasing heat transport to the glacier front. Here, the authors use the high-resolution (5.5 km) HIRHAM5 regional...... with observations (typically .0.9), there are biases that impact the results. In particular, overestimated albedo leads to underestimation of melt and runoff at low elevations. In the model simulation (1991–2012), the ice sheet experiences increasing energy input from the surface turbulent heat flux (up...

  16. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  17. A weighting lysimeter for a laboratory experiment on water and energy fluxes measurements and hydrological models verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; paleari, roberto; mantovani, federico; tarro, stefano; mancini, marco

    2017-04-01

    Weighting lysimeters allow a direct measurement of water loss from the soil, determining the soil water balance, and thus providing an interesting tool to validate hydrological models. Lysimeters, which world originates from the greek words "lysis" (movement) and "metron" (to measure) have been used to measure percolation of water through the soils for over 300 years. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to perform water and energy flux measurements under different meteorological conditions, irrigation practice (surface flood, drip and groundwater capillary rise), and soil coverage (bare soil and basil crop), 2) to verify hydrological model FEST-EWB parameterization at the lysimeter scale. A weighting lysimeter has been constructed in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. It consists of a steel box of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1 m containing reconstructed soil. The box is mounted on a scale with four load cells with a nominal weight of 6000 kg and a precision of 0,5 kg. The lysimeter is fully instrumented to measure all the main components of the hydrological cycle. Profiles of soil moisture and temperature are provided by 7 probes; ground heat flux is measured by a heat flux plate and two thermocouples; the drainage flux is measured by a tipping bucket rain gauge; the four components of radiation are provided by a net radiometer; air temperature and humidity are measured by a thermo-hygrometer. Data are collected every 10 minutes on a datalogger. A thermal camera is also installed to provide accurate maps of land surface temperature. The different instruments have been subjected to a rigorous calibration process. A low cost station is also installed based on an Arduino micro-controller measuring soil moisture and temperature, air humidity and temperature and solar radiation. The idea is to understand whether low cost instruments can be used to monitor the fundamental hydrological variables. The measured fluxes (e.g. evapotranspiration, soil moisture, land surface

  18. Boundary layer heights and surface fluxes of momentum and heat derived from ECMWF data for use in pollutant dispersion models - problems with data accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wotawa, G. [Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Inst. of Meteorology and Physics, Vienna (Austria); Stohl, A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Certain boundary layer parameters, especially boundary layer heights, are very important for pollutant dispersion modelling. On the regional scale (>- 100 km), data of the numerical weather prediction model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are often used for that purpose. Based on ECMWF data, the meteorological preprocessor FLEXTRA for Lagrangian air quality simulation models and the Lagrangian particle diffusion model FLEXPART have been developed. Using analyses and short term forecasts, a temporal resolution of three hours can be achieved. Some alternative methods to obtain boundary layer parameters can be applied, producing different results which affect all subsequent calculations, for instance the calculation of boundary layer trajectories and the dispersion of air pollutants. (au)

  19. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  20. Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems: quantum-classical comparison, flux network, and robustness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianlan; Liu, Fan; Ma, Jian; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu

    2012-11-07

    Following the calculation of optimal energy transfer in thermal environment in our first paper [J. L. Wu, F. Liu, Y. Shen, J. S. Cao, and R. J. Silbey, New J. Phys. 12, 105012 (2010)], full quantum dynamics and leading-order "classical" hopping kinetics are compared in the seven-site Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex. The difference between these two dynamic descriptions is due to higher-order quantum corrections. Two thermal bath models, classical white noise (the Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model) and quantum Debye model, are considered. In the seven-site FMO model, we observe that higher-order corrections lead to negligible changes in the trapping time or in energy transfer efficiency around the optimal and physiological conditions (2% in the HSR model and 0.1% in the quantum Debye model for the initial site at BChl 1). However, using the concept of integrated flux, we can identify significant differences in branching probabilities of the energy transfer network between hopping kinetics and quantum dynamics (26% in the HSR model and 32% in the quantum Debye model for the initial site at BChl 1). This observation indicates that the quantum coherence can significantly change the distribution of energy transfer pathways in the flux network with the efficiency nearly the same. The quantum-classical comparison of the average trapping time with the removal of the bottleneck site, BChl 4, demonstrates the robustness of the efficient energy transfer by the mechanism of multi-site quantum coherence. To reconcile with the latest eight-site FMO model which is also investigated in the third paper [J. Moix, J. L. Wu, P. F. Huo, D. F. Coker, and J. S. Cao, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 3045 (2011)], the quantum-classical comparison with the flux network analysis is summarized in Appendix C. The eight-site FMO model yields similar trapping time and network structure as the seven-site FMO model but leads to a more disperse distribution of energy transfer pathways.

  1. Response of the radiation belt electron flux to the solar wind velocity: Parameterization by radial distance and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, D.

    2008-11-01

    The solar wind velocity is the primary driver of the electron flux variability in Earth's radiation belts. The response of the logarithmic flux ("log-flux") to this driver has been determined at the geosynchronous orbit and at a fixed energy [Baker, D.N., McPherron, R.L., Cayton, T.E., Klebesadel, R.W., 1990. Linear prediction filter analysis of relativistic electron properties at 6.6 RE. Journal of Geophysical Research 95(A9), 15,133-15,140) and as a function of L shell and fixed energy [Vassiliadis, D., Klimas, A.J., Kanekal, S.G., Baker, D.N., Weigel, R.S., 2002. Long-term average, solar-cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, doi:10.1029/2001JA000506). In this paper we generalize the response model as a function of particle energy (0.8-6.4 MeV) using POLAR HIST measurements. All three response peaks identified earlier figure prominently in the high-altitude POLAR measurements. The positive response around the geosynchronous orbit is peak P1 ([tau]=2±1 d; L=5.8±0.5; E=0.8-6.4 MeV), associated with high-speed, low-density streams and the ULF wave activity they produce. Deeper in the magnetosphere, the response is dominated by a positive peak P0 (0±1 d; 2.9±0.5RE; 0.8-1.1 MeV), of a shorter duration and producing lower-energy electrons. The P0 response occurs during the passage of geoeffective structures containing high IMF and high-density parts, such as ICMEs and other mass ejecta. Finally, the negative peak V1 (0±0.5 d; 5.7±0.5RE; 0.8-6.4 MeV) is associated with the "Dst effect" or the quasiadiabatic transport produced by ring-current intensifications. As energies increase, the P1 and V1 peaks appear at lower L, while the Dst effect becomes more pronounced in the region L1.6 MeV because of low statistics, although it is evident in individual events. The continuity of the response across radial and energy scales supports the earlier hypothesis that each of the three

  2. Characterizing Surface Energy Budget Components in Urban Regions Using Combination of Flux Tower Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Vant-hull, B.; Ramamurthy, P.; Blake, R.; Prakash, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and built regions because of their lack of surface moisture and their surface impermeability significantly perform differently in surface energy budget than natural and non-urban regions. Characterizing the effect and the response of each surface type in the cities can help to increase our understanding of climate, anthropogenic heat, and urban heat islands. Both ground observations and remote sensing observations are important when the extent of the heat energy balance components in big cities is targeted. This is study aims to provide a novel approach to use ground observations and map the maxima and minima air temperature in New York City using satellite measurements. Complete energy balance stations are installed over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops. The footprint of these stations is restricted to the individual materials. The energy balance stations monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Moreover, satellite observations from Landsat 8 are utilized to classify the city surfaces to distinct defined surfaces where ground observations were performed. The mapped temperatures will be linked to MODIS surface temperatures to develop a model that can downscale MODIS skin temperatures to fine resolution air temperature over urban regions. The results are compared with ground observations, which they reveal a great potential of using synergetic use of flux tower observations and satellite measurement to study urban surface energy budget. The results of this study can enhance our understanding about urban heat islands as well as climate studies and their effects on the environment.

  3. The Impact of the Evolving Satellite Data Record on Reanalysis Water and Energy Fluxes During the Past 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, T. L.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective analyses (reanalyses) use a fixed assimilation model to take diverse observations and synthesize consistent, time-dependent fields of state variables and fluxes (e.g. temperature, moisture, momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes). Because they offer data sets of these quantities at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Of course, one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics. Another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that the discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record ( the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on reanalyses of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We examine these data sets from two perspectives. The first is the ability to capture modes of variability that have coherent spatial structure (e.g. ENSO events and near-decadal coupling to SST changes) and how these modes are contained within trends in near global averages of key quantities. Secondly, we consider diagnostics that measure the consistency in energetic scaling in the hydrologic cycle, particularly the fractional changes in column-integrated water vapor versus precipitation as they are coupled to radiative flux constraints. These results will be discussed in the context of implications for science

  4. Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Transient Eddy Fluxes from the MERRA and Their Co-variability with Ocean Frontal Variability near the Western Boundary Current Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.-O.; Joyce, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    Time series of winter (January-March) meridional transient eddy heat and moisture fluxes ( and ) for 1979-2009 in two separate frequency bands, i.e. the synoptic (2-8 days) and intra-seasonal (8-90 days), are calculated for the whole Northern Hemisphere based on daily atmospheric variables from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) at 1/2 degrees latitude by 2/3 degrees longitude resolution. The climatological mean transient eddy fluxes in two frequency bands exhibit markedly distinct spatial patterns. The synoptic transient eddy fluxes show storm-track variability, of which maxima are co-located with the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extensions, respectively in each basin. On the other hand, the intra-seasonal transient eddy fluxes exhibit maxima co-located with the major orography, e.g. the Rockies. In a vertically and zonally integrated poleward heat transport sense, the maximum heat transports in the two frequency bands are similar, while the sensible heat fluxes are twice greater than the latent heat fluxes. In addition, co-variability between the meridional transient eddy heat and moisture fluxes and their divergence in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere and the variability in the position of ocean fronts associated with the Kuroshio Extension, Oyashio Extension and Gulf Stream is examined with a focus on the interannual to decadal time scale. Statistically significant correlations are found between the as well as and the ocean fronts from the surface up to 250 hPa for all three ocean fronts. The co-variability explains approximately half of the interannual and longer variance in the synoptic band, while only ~20 % for the intra-seasonal band.

  5. Latent Heat Flux Estimate Through an Energy Water Balance Model and Land Surface Temperature from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Sobrino, Jose A.; Mancini, Marco; Hidalgo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in the terrestrial water cycle and is responsible for the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and infiltration. Moreover, surface soil moisture controls the redistribution of the incoming solar radiation on land surface into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Recent developments have been made to improve soil moisture dynamics predictions with hydrologic land surface models (LSMs) that compute water and energy balances between the land surface and the low atmosphere. However, most of the time soil moisture is confined to an internal numerical model variable mainly due to its intrinsic space and time variability and to the well known difficulties in assessing its value from remote sensing as from in situ measurements. In order to exploit the synergy between hydrological distributed models and thermal remote sensed data, FEST-EWB, a land surface model that solves the energy balance equation, was developed. In this hydrological model, the energy budget is solved looking for the representative thermodynamic equilibrium temperature (RET) defined as the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation. So using this approach, soil moisture is linked to the latent heat flux and then to LST. In this work the relationship between land surface temperature and soil moisture is analysed using LST from AHS (airborne hyperspectral scanner), with a spatial resolution of 2-4 m, LST from MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thermal infrared radiometric ground measurements that are compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature from the energy water balance model. Moreover soil moisture measurements were carried out during the airborne overpasses and then compared with SM from the hydrological model. An improvement of this well known inverse relationship between soil moisture and land surface temperature is obtained when the thermodynamic approach is used. The analysis of the scale effects of the different

  6. The role of coupling on the statistical properties of the energy fluxes between stochastic systems at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérut, A.; Imparato, A.; Petrosyan, A.; Ciliberto, S.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally study the statistical properties of the energy fluxes in two systems whose components are kept at different temperatures. The first system under consideration is an electric circuit which is composed by two resistances, kept at different temperatures and connected by a capacitance (conservative coupling) which couples the thermal noise of the two resistances. The other system is composed by two Brownian particles, trapped with optical tweezers, interacting through a dissipative hydrodynamic coupling. The particles are subjected to an effective temperature difference obtained by random forcing the position of one trap. In these two systems we measure the properties of the energy flowing between the two reservoirs. The role on these properties of the coupling and of the method used to produce the highest temperature is analyzed.

  7. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report, May 31, 1980-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L R

    1981-02-01

    There are three distinct areas of research reported, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across near-shore density fronts, and advances in the understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to required distinctive biological approaches. A simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web was developed. It represents realistically both details of the energy transfers within the plankton community and the termanal production of fishes. It was discovered that the fecal ribbons of pelagic tunicates break up into flocculent material visually and chemically identical with the flocculent organic aggregates present in sea water. Subsequent experimental work with tunicate fecal matter indicates that some of the naturally occurring aggregates are indeed fecal. This makes it possible to understand and quantify for the first time the production and fate of that population of seston. An examination was made of several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms.

  8. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alekseychik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  9. Energy-dispersed ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer and associated phenomena: Ion heating, electron acceleration, Alfvén waves, broadband waves, perpendicular electric field spikes, and auroral emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keiling

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent Cluster studies reported properties of multiple energy-dispersed ion structures in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL that showed substructure with several well separated ion beamlets, covering energies from 3 keV up to 100 keV (Keiling et al., 2004a, b. Here we report observations from two PSBL crossings, which show a number of identified one-to-one correlations between this beamlet substructure and several plasma-field characteristics: (a bimodal ion conics (<1 keV, (b field-aligned electron flow (<1 keV, (c perpendicular electric field spikes (~20 mV/m, (d broadband electrostatic ELF wave packets (<12.5 Hz, and (e enhanced broadband electromagnetic waves (<4 kHz. The one-to-one correlations strongly suggest that these phenomena were energetically driven by the ion beamlets, also noting that the energy flux of the ion beamlets was 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than, for example, the energy flux of the ion outflow. In addition, several more loosely associated correspondences were observed within the extended region containing the beamlets: (f electrostatic waves (BEN (up to 4 kHz, (g traveling and standing ULF Alfvén waves, (h field-aligned currents (FAC, and (i auroral emissions on conjugate magnetic field lines. Possible generation scenarios for these phenomena are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that the free energy of magnetotail ion beamlets drove a variety of phenomena and that the spatial fine structure of the beamlets dictated the locations of where some of these phenomena occurred. This emphasizes the notion that PSBL ion beams are important for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. However, it is also shown that the dissipation of electromagnetic energy flux (at altitudes below Cluster of the simultaneously occurring Alfvén waves and FAC was larger (FAC being the largest than the dissipation of beam kinetic energy flux, and thus these two energy carriers contributed more to the energy transport on PSBL field lines

  10. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pardyjak, Eric; Mahrt, Larry; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  11. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-12-03

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  12. Advancements in Modelling of Land Surface Energy Fluxes with Remote Sensing at Different Spatial Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, Radoslaw

    , and the resultant uxes were compared to field based measurements and to the output of a well calibrated, physically-based distributed hydrological model. The "Triangle" approach was applied in semi-arid Spanish landscape at spatial resolutions ranging from 30 m to 4 km. The study resulted in a number...... climate, weather and numerous biophysical processes, such as plant productivity. As energy is required for ET to occur, it also forms a link between the land-surface energy uxes and water uxes. Therefore, to be able to obtain reliable estimates of ET, reliable estimates of the other land-surface energy...... of this study was to look at, and improve, various approaches for modelling the land-surface energy uxes at different spatial scales. The work was done using physically-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) approach as well as semi-empirical \\Triangle" approach. The TSEB-based approach was the main focus...

  13. Wind-farms in shallow conventionally neutral boundary layers: effects of transition and gravity waves on energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Johan; Allaerts, Dries

    2016-11-01

    Conventionally neutral boundary layers (CNBL) often arise in offshore conditions. In these situations the neutral boundary layer is capped by a strong inversion layer and a stably stratified free atmosphere aloft. We use large-eddy simulations to investigate the interaction between a CNBL and a large wind farm. Following the approach of Allaerts & Meyers (2015), a set of equilibrium CNBLs are produced in a precursor simulation, with a height of approx. 300, 500, and 1000m, respectively. These are used at the inlet of a large wind-farm with a fetch of 15 km, and 20 rows of turbines. We find that above the farm, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops. For the two lower CNBL cases, the IBL growth is stopped by the overlying capping inversion. Moreover, the upward displacement of the CNBL excites gravity waves in the inversion layer and the free atmosphere above. For the lower CNBL cases, these waves induce significant pressure gradients in the farm. A detailed energy budget analysis of the CNBL is further presented. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  14. Constraining annual and seasonal radon-222 flux density from the Southern Ocean using radon-222 concentrations in the boundary layer at Cape Grim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zahorowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Radon concentrations measured between 2001 and 2008 in marine air at Cape Grim, a baseline site in north-western Tasmania, are used to constrain the radon flux density from the Southern Ocean. A method is described for selecting hourly radon concentrations that are least perturbed by land emissions and dilution by the free troposphere. The distribution of subsequent radon flux density estimates is representative of a large area of the Southern Ocean, an important fetch region for Southern Hemisphere climate and air pollution studies. The annual mean flux density (0.27 mBq m−2 s−1 compares well with the mean of the limited number of spot measurements previously conducted in the Southern Ocean (0.24 mBq m−2 s−1, and to some spot measurements made in other oceanic regions. However, a number of spot measurements in other oceanic regions, as well as most oceanic radon flux density values assumed for modelling studies and intercomparisons, are considerably lower than the mean reported here. The reported radon flux varies with seasons and, in summer, with latitude. It also shows a quadratic dependence on wind speed and significant wave height, as postulated and measured by others, which seems to support our assumption that the selected least perturbed radon concentrations were in equilibrium with the oceanic radon source. By comparing the least perturbed radon observations in 2002–2003 with corresponding ‘TransCom’ model intercomparison results, the best agreement is found when assuming a normally distributed radon flux density with σ=0.075 mBq m−2 s−1.

  15. Fast and scalable prediction of local energy at grain boundaries: machine-learning based modeling of first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomoyuki; Karasuyama, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Shiihara, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2017-10-01

    We propose a new scheme based on machine learning for the efficient screening in grain-boundary (GB) engineering. A set of results obtained from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) for a small number of GB systems is used as a training data set. In our scheme, by partitioning the total energy into atomic energies using a local-energy analysis scheme, we can increase the training data set significantly. We use atomic radial distribution functions and additional structural features as atom descriptors to predict atomic energies and GB energies simultaneously using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, which is a recent standard regression technique in statistical machine learning. In the test study with fcc-Al [110] symmetric tilt GBs, we could achieve enough predictive accuracy to understand energy changes at and near GBs at a glance, even if we collected training data from only 10 GB systems. The present scheme can emulate time-consuming DFT calculations for large GB systems with negligible computational costs, and thus enable the fast screening of possible alternative GB systems.

  16. Parameterized post-Newtonian approximation in a teleparallel model of dark energy with a boundary term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We study the parameterized post-Newtonian approximation in teleparallel model of gravity with a scalar field. The scalar field is non-minimally coupled to the scalar torsion as well as to the boundary term introduced in Bahamonde and Wright (Phys Rev D 92:084034 arXiv:1508.06580v4 [gr-qc], 2015). We show that, in contrast to the case where the scalar field is only coupled to the scalar torsion, the presence of the new coupling affects the parameterized post-Newtonian parameters. These parameters for different situations are obtained and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Energy and Water Fluxes in Heterogeneous Mediterranean Water-limited Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detto, M.; Katul, G.; Mancini, M.

    2005-12-01

    Research efforts in distributed eco-hydrologic models often fall in one of two categories: prognostic, in which predictions of root-zone soil moisture content and land surface fluxes is required for a projected radiative and precipitation forcing time series, or diagnostic in which the relationship between soil water status and atmospheric water vapor demand is to be derived for the various components of the landscape. The latter relationships are now receiving broad attention in climate change, hydrological, and ecological studies of arid and semi-arid ecosystems. This interest is now a central focus given the recognition that the component latent heat flux sensitivity to soil moisture decline can directly impact plant productivity, carbon and nutrient cycling, and ground water recharge. With projected shifts in precipitation statistics, mainly towards increased desertification, the "stability" of these ecosystems is highly dependent on their ability to uptake water at low soil moisture Here, we determine the relationship between soil water status and atmospheric water vapor demand for patchy landscapes within a semi-arid ecosystems using a combination remote sensing products and field experiments. In particular, we investigate how VIS/NIR measurements, in conjunction with standard micrometeorological data and ground based thermal infrared thermometers, provide "diagnostic" hydrologic relationship between soil water content and potential evapo-transpiration for the various components of the landscape. These experiments were conducted in the Orroli site, situated in the mid-west of Sardinia (Italy) within the Flumendosa river watershed, which is considered one of the most important water supply resources to the island. The landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives (/Olea sylvestris/) and cork oaks (/Quercus suber/), different shrubs (/Asparagus acutifolius, Rubus ulmifolius/) and herbaceous species (/Asphodelus

  18. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  19. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2015), "092008-1"-"092008-14" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic rays * Pierre Auger * ultrahigh energy * surface detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  20. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  1. Evaluation of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) applied to ASTER imagery with flux-measurements at the SPARC 2004 site (Barrac, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwast, van der J.; Timmermans, W.; Gieske, A.; Su, Z.; Olioso, A.; Jia, L.; Elbers, J.A.; Karssenberg, D.; Jong, de S.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the amount and spatial variation of evapotranspiration is important in a wide range of disciplines. Remote sensing based surface energy balance models have been developed to estimate turbulent surface energy fluxes at different scales. The objective of this study is to

  2. Evaluation of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) applied to ASTER imagery with flux-measurements at the SPARC 2004 site (Barrax, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwast, J.; Timmermans, W.; Gieske, A.; Su, Z.; Olioso, A.; Jia, L.; Elbers, J.; Karssenberg, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241557119; de Jong, S.; de Jong, Steven|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    2009-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the amount and spatial variation of evapotranspiration is important in a wide range of disciplines. Remote sensing based surface energy balance models have been developed to estimate turbulent surface energy fluxes at different scales. The objective of this study is to

  3. On the determination of energy fluxes at plasma-surface processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, H.; Rohde, D.; Steffen, H.; Deutsch, H.; Hippler, R. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Swinkels, G.H.P.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W. [Technische Univ. Eindhoven (Netherlands). Dept. of Physics

    2001-05-01

    A summary is given of different methods for the determination of the energy influx and its influence on the thermal balance and energetic conditions of substrate surfaces during plasma processing. The discussed mechanisms include heat radiation and kinetic and potential energy of charged particles and sputtered neutrals. For a few examples such as magnetron sputtering of a-C:H films, sputter deposition of aluminum on microparticles, and titanium deposition in a hollow-cathode arc evaporation device the energetic balance of substrates during plasma processing is presented. (orig.)

  4. Measurements of low-energy electron reflection at a plasma boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V. I., E-mail: vladimir.demidov@mail.wvu.edu [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    It is demonstrated that low-energy (<3 eV) electron reflection from a solid surface in contact with a low-temperature plasma can have significant variation with time. An uncontaminated, i.e., “clean,” metallic surface (just after heating up to glow) in a plasma environment may have practically no reflection of low-energy incident electrons. However, a contaminated, i.e., “dirty,” surface (in some time after cleaning by heating) that has a few monolayers of absorbent can reflect low-energy incident electrons and therefore significantly affect the net electron current collected by the surface. This effect may significantly change plasma properties and should be taken into account in plasma experiments and models. A diagnostic method is demonstrated for measurements of low-energy electron absorption coefficient in plasmas with a mono-energetic electron group.

  5. Numerical analysis of energy piles under different boundary conditions and thermal loading cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo- mechanical behavior of energy piles has been studied extensively in recent years. In the present study, a numerical model was adapted to study the effect of various parameters (e.g. heating/cooling temperature, head loading condition and soil stiffness on the thermo-mechanical behavior of an energy pile installed in unsaturated sandstone. The results from the simulations were compared with measurements from a thermal response test on a prototype energy pile installed beneath a 1-story building at the US Air Force Academy (USAFA in Colorado Springs, CO. A good agreement was achieved between the results obtained from the prototype and the numerical models. A parametric evaluation were also carried out which indicated the significance of the stiffness of the unsaturated sandstone and pile’s head loading condition on stress-strain response of the energy pile during heating/cooling cycles.

  6. FLUKA Monte Carlo assessment of the terrestrial muon flux at low energies and comparison against experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infantino, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.infantino@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blackmore, Ewart W. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Brugger, Markus; Alía, Rubén García [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Stukel, Matthew; Trinczek, Michael [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the assessment and modelling of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particularly regarding the evaluation of the radiation effects on airline crew and passengers, interplanetary missions and on-board microelectronics. In the latter field, today the problem is not just limited to Single Event Effects (SEE) as used in avionics, but is more and more observed at ground level. Galactic cosmic muons, coming from the interaction of primary cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere, represent the most numerous species at ground level. In this work, we used the Monte Carlo code FLUKA to assess the atmospheric and terrestrial neutron and muon differential fluxes at various altitudes and specific examples such as the geographic coordinates corresponding to New York City and Vancouver. In this context, particle energy spectra were compared with references available in literature, calculation results obtained by both the QARM and EXPACS codes, as well as recently performed measurements. In addition, the zenith angular distribution, at ground level, was assessed for both neutrons and muons and compared with available references. Differential particle fluxes assessed for Vancouver were used as a primary source to simulate a muon detector currently taking data at TRIUMF to evaluate the passing and stopping terrestrial muon rate under different conditions. Finally, simulations were compared with the experimental measurements made at TRIUMF. Results show an excellent agreement between the FLUKA simulations and both references and the experimental measurements made at TRIUMF.

  7. A metabolic and body-size scaling framework for parasite within-host abundance, biomass, and energy flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2013-08-01

    Energetics may provide a useful currency for studying the ecology of parasite assemblages within individual hosts. Parasite assemblages may also provide powerful models to study general principles of ecological energetics. Yet there has been little ecological research on parasite-host energetics, probably due to methodological difficulties. However, the scaling relationships of individual metabolic rate with body or cell size and temperature may permit us to tackle the energetics of parasite assemblages in hosts. This article offers the foundations and initial testing of a metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework for parasites in hosts. I first provide equations to estimate energetic flux through observed parasite assemblages. I then develop metabolic scaling theory for parasite abundance, energetics, and biomass in individual hosts. In contrast to previous efforts, the theory factors in both host and parasite metabolic scaling, how parasites use host space, and whether energy or space dictates carrying capacity. Empirical tests indicate that host energetic flux can set parasite carrying capacity, which decreases as predicted considering the scaling of host and parasite metabolic rates. The theory and results also highlight that the phenomenon of "energetic equivalence" is not an assumption of MTE but a possible outcome contingent on how species partition resources. Hence, applying MTE to parasites can lend mechanistic, quantitative, predictive insight into the nature of parasitism and can inform general ecological theory.

  8. Legal boundary conditions of the waste management and energy industry; Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen der Abfall- und Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahms, Florian [Maslaton Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The legal framework of waste and energy management was subject to significant transformations which find their legal link of the national state objective to protect the natural resources for future generations in Article 20a of the German constitution. The waste law as well as the energy law aim at the efficient use of resources to protect the environment and smooth the way for a CO{sub 2}-neutral society. After the accident at Fukushima on 11 March 2011 the legislator enacted a number of laws that have a lasting impact on the energy industry and that the operators of biomass plants have to adapt to. At the same time, renewable energies have achieved a remarkable market share under the German Renewable Energy Act, so that market and system integration has also moved into the foreground of the legislation. For electricity produced from the fermentation of biowaste, the German Renewable Energy Act 2012 already provides that the fixed feed-in compensation for installations with an electrical power over 750 kW commissioned after 31 December 2013 no longer exists. The waste legislation is characterized in particular by its relation to European laws, although the definition of the term ''waste'' still causes demarcation difficulties. The Biowaste Ordinance was comprehensively amended in April 2012 in consideration of a number of European regulations. (orig.)

  9. High-Energy Neutrino Flux Studied in the ANTARES Deep-Sea Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, Herbert; Steadman, SG; Stephans, GSF; Taylor, FE

    2012-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos from cosmic origin appear to be ideal probes for long-distance astronomy and may provide insight into cosmic particle acceleration mechanisms. The ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope, fully operational since May 2008, aims at the detection of upgoing muon tracks caused by high

  10. The flux-based PIN allocation mechanism can generate either canalyzed or diffuse distribution patterns depending on geometry and boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Luke Walker

    Full Text Available Growth and morphogenesis in plants require controlled transport of the plant hormone auxin. An important participant is the auxin effluxing protein PIN, whose polarized subcellular localization allows it to effectively transport auxin large distances through tissues. The flux-based model, in which auxin flux through a wall stimulates PIN allocation to that wall, is a dominant contender among models determining where and in what quantity PIN is allocated to cell walls. In this paper we characterise the behaviour of flux-based PIN allocation models in various tissues of the shoot apical meristem. Arguing from both mathematical analysis and computer simulations, we describe the natural behaviours of this class of models under various circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate the important dichotomy between sink- and source- driven systems, and show that both diffuse and canalized PIN distributions can be generated simultaneously in the same tissue, without model hybridization or variation of PIN-related parameters. This work is performed in the context of the shoot apical and floral meristems and is applicable to the construction of a unified PIN allocation model.

  11. A hierarchy of energy- and flux-budget (EFB) turbulence closure models for stably stratified geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zilitinkevich, S S; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Esau, I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we advance physical background of the EFB turbulence closure and present its comprehensive description. It is based on four budget equations for the second moments: turbulent kinetic and potential energies (TKE and TPE) and vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy; a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time-scale; and advanced concept of the inter-component exchange of TKE. The EFB closure is designed for stratified, rotating geophysical flows from neutral to very stable. In accordance to modern experimental evidence, it grants maintaining turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at Ri 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr_T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri that implies strong suppressing of the heat transfer compared to momentum transfer. For use in different applications, the EFB turbulence closure is formulated a...

  12. Direct measurement of anisotropy of interfacial free energy from grain boundary groove morphology in transparent organic metal analong systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustwick, Bryce A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the

  13. Partitioning of melt energy and meltwater fluxes in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van den Broeke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four years (August 2003–August 2007 of surface mass balance data from the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet along the 67° N latitude circle. Sonic height rangers and automatic weather stations continuously measured accumulation/ablation and near-surface climate at distances of 6, 38 and 88 km from the ice sheet margin at elevations of 490, 1020 and 1520 m a.s.l. Using a melt model and reasonable assumptions about snow density and percolation characteristics, these data are used to quantify the partitioning of energy and mass fluxes during melt episodes. The lowest site receives very little winter accumulation, and ice melting is nearly continuous in June, July and August. Due to the lack of snow accumulation, little refreezing occurs and virtually all melt energy is invested in runoff. Higher up the ice sheet, the ice sheet surface freezes up during the night, making summer melting intermittent. At the intermediate site, refreezing in snow consumes about 10% of the melt energy, increasing to 40% at the highest site. The sum of these effects is that total melt and runoff increase exponentially towards the ice sheet margin, each time doubling between the stations. At the two lower sites, we estimate that radiation penetration causes 20–30% of the ice melt to occur below the surface.

  14. A persistent high-energy flux from the heart of the Milky Way: Integral's view of the Galactic center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Renaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Highly sensitive imaging observations of the Galactic center ( GC) at high energies with an angular resolution of order 100 is a very recent development in the field of high-energy astrophysics. The IBIS/ISGRI imager on the INTEGRAL observatory detected for the first time a hard X-ray source, IGR......-rays to the overall spectrum from this region. There is also evidence for hard emission from a region located between the central black hole and the radio arc near l similar to 0.degrees 1 along the Galactic plane and known to contain giant molecular clouds....... sigma upper limit on the flux at the electron-positron annihilation energy of 511 keV from the direction of Sgr A* is set at 1.9 x 10(-4) photons cm(-2) s(-1). Very recently, the HESS collaboration presented the detection of a source of similar to TeV gamma-rays also located within an arcminute of Sgr A...

  15. Measurement Over Large Solid Angle of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Muon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, H. F., III; Schwitters, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in portable muon detectors have made cosmic ray imaging practical for many diverse applications. Working muon attenuation detectors have been built at the University of Texas and are already successfully being used to image tunnels, structures, and Mayan pyramids. Most previous studies have focused on energy measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum from of 1 GeV or higher. We have performed an accurate measurement of the ultra-low energy (muon spectrum down to the acceptance level of our detector, around one hundred MeV. Measurements include angular dependence, with acceptance approaching horizontal. Measurements were made underwater using a custom enclosure in Lake Travis, Austin, TX. This measurement will allow more accurate predictions and simulations of attenuation for small (muon tomography.

  16. Net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities on slopes computed by the energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo; Qian, Ping

    1990-01-01

    Energy balance components obtained over five grass-covered sloping surfaces near Manhattan, KS, using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique with the instruments mounted horizontally were compared with calculated values when the instruments were mounted parallel to the surfaces. Hourly values of the components changed when the instruments were parallel to the surfaces. The changes were larger at low solar angles (spring and fall) and on steeper slopes. An area average of daylight totals, assuming that all aspects were equally represented, changed only 0.1 percent on June 6 and 2.3 percent on October 11. The calculations, extended to steeper slopes, indicated small changes in the daylight totals for slopes of less than 10 deg.

  17. Staged Z-pinch for the production of high-flux neutrons and net energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; Rostoker, Norman; Ney, Paul

    2017-12-05

    A fusible target is embedded in a high Z liner, ohmically heated and then shock wave heated by implosion of an enveloping high Z liner. The target is adiabatically heated by compression, fusibly ignited and charged-particle heated as it is being ignited. A shock front forms as the liner implodes which shock front detaches from the more slowly moving liner, collides with the outer surface of the target, accelerates inward, rapidly heating the target, adiabatically compressing the target and liner and amplifying the current to converge the liner mass toward a central axis thereby compressing the target to a fusion condition when it begins to ignite and produce charged particles. The charged particles are trapped in a large magnetic field surrounding the target. The energy of the charged particles is deposited into the target to further heat the target to produce an energy gain.

  18. How unequal fluxes of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and antineutrinos can fake new physics

    OpenAIRE

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Panes, Boris; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich

    2016-01-01

    Flavor ratios of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos, which can be studied at the Earth by a neutrino telescope such as IceCube, can serve to diagnose their production mechanism at the astrophysical source. The flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos can be quite different as we do not know how they are produced in the astrophysical environment. Due to this uncertainty the neutrino and antineutrino flavor ratios at the Earth also could be quite different. Nonetheless, it is general...

  19. Seasonal and interannual variation of radiation and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Yu, Ye; Chen, Jinbei; Zhang, Tangtang; Li, Zhenchao

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the land-atmosphere interactions over the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau is important due to its special climate and unique underlying surface. In this study, two years' micrometeorological and energy flux observations from the Pingliang Land Surface Process & Severe Weather Research Station, CAS were used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variations of radiation budget and energy fluxes over a rain-fed cropland in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, with an emphasis on the influence of rain, soil moisture and agricultural production activities (such as crop type and harvest time) on the energy partitioning as well as the surface energy balance. The results revealed large annual variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation, which gave rise to significant seasonal and interannual variations in soil moisture. Soil moisture was the main factor affecting radiation budget and energy partitioning. There was a negatively linear relationship between the albedo and the soil moisture. The main consumer of available energy varied among months and years with an apparent water stress threshold value of ca. 0.12 m3 m- 3, and the evapotranspiration was suppressed especially during the growing season. On an annual scale, the largest consumer of midday net radiation was sensible heat flux in 2010-2011, while it was latent heat flux in 2011-2012, which accounted for about 35% and 40% of the net radiation, respectively. The agricultural activity altered the sensitivity and variability of albedo to soil moisture, as well as energy partitioning patterns. The surface energy budget closures during Dec. 2010-Nov. 2011 and Dec. 2011-Nov. 2012 were 77.6% and 73.3%, respectively, after considering the soil heat storage. The closure was comparable to other sites in ChinaFLUX (49% to 81% of 8 sites). The patterns of energy partitioning and the water stress threshold found in the semi-arid cropland could be used to evaluate and improve land surface models.

  20. Effects of Boundary Conditions and Viscous Energy Dissipation on Carbon Burning in Thermonuclear Supernova Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunina-Barkovskaya, N. V.; Imshennik, V. S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model, we investigate carbon burning in a thermonuclear type-Ia supernova in the approximation of unsteady convection. The relatively broad range of convective parameters, 1 x 10^{-3} detonation from the edge takes place was found to be preserved only for cases with a low boundary temperature at the presupernova stage, T_b(PS) = 6.4 x 10^6 K, and with a high envelope mass, m_ex = 2 x 10^{-3} M_solar. In cases with a more realistic temperature, T_b(PS) = 2 x 10^8 K, which corresponds to helium burning in the shell source, and with a lower mass m_ex, delayed detonation from the edge takes place only at alpha_c = 2 x 10^{-3}, while at alpha_c = 1 x 10^{-3}, numerous model pulsations occur during t > 500 s. Artificial viscosity is shown to give a determining contribution to the increase in entropy in outer model shells, which is caused by the generation of weak shock waves during pulsations. We also show that the entropies calculated by two independent methods are equal.

  1. Turbulent kinetic energy budget in the boundary layer developing over an urban-like rough wall using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Karin; Perret, Laurent; Calmet, Isabelle; Rivet, Cédric

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, a boundary layer developing over a rough-wall consisting of staggered cubes with a plan area packing density λp = 25% is studied within the wind tunnel using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to investigate the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) budget. To access the full TKE budget, an estimation of the dissipation (ɛ) using both the transport equation of the resolved-scale kinetic energy and Large-Eddy (LE) PIV models based on the use of a subgrid-scale model following the methodology used in large-eddy simulations is employed. A low-pass filter, larger than the Taylor microscale, is applied to the data prior to the computation of the velocity gradients ensuring a clear cutoff in the inertial range where the models are valid. The presence of the cube roughness elements has a significant influence on the TKE budget due to the region of strong shear that develops over the cubes. The shear layer is shown to produce and dissipate energy, as well as transport energy through advection, turbulent transport, and pressure transport. The recirculation region that forms through the interaction of the shear layer and the canopy layer, which is the region below the height of the cube roughness, creates rapid longitudinal evolution of the mean flow thereby inducing weak production. Finally, through stochastic estimation of the conditional average, it is shown that localized regions of backscatter (energy transfer from unresolved to resolved scales) and forward scatter (energy transfer from resolved to unresolved scales) occur as a result of coherent vortical structures.

  2. Surface Energy Exchange in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Environment: Flux Partitioning, and Seasonal and Land Cover-Related Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; González-Martínez, T.

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between seasonal climate, land cover and surface energy exchange in tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) environments are poorly understood. Yet, understanding these linkages is essential to evaluating the impacts of land use and climate change on the functioning of these unique ecosystems. In central Veracruz, Mexico, TMCF occurs between 1100 and 2500 m asl. The canopy of this forest consists of a mix of deciduous and broadleaved-evergreen tree species, the former of which shed their leaves for a short period during the dry season. The aim of this study was to quantify the surface energy balance, and seasonal variations therein, for TMCF, as well as for shaded coffee (CO) and sugarcane (SU), two important land uses that have replaced TMCF at lower elevations. Sensible (H) and latent heat (LE) fluxes were measured using eddy covariance and sap flow methods. Other measurements included: micrometeorological variables, soil heat flux, soil moisture and vegetation characteristics. Partitioning of available energy (A) into H and LE showed important seasonal changes as well as differences among land covers. During the wet-season month of July, average midday Bowen ratios for sunny days were lowest and least variable among land covers: 0.5 in TMCF and SU versus 0.7 in CO. However, because of higher A, along with lower Bowen ratio with respect to CO, LE over TMCF was ca. 20% higher compared to CO and SU. During the late dry-season months of March and April, average midday Bowen ratios for sunny days were generally much higher and more variable among land covers. The higher Bowen ratios indicated a reduction of LE under the drier conditions prevailing (low soil moisture and high VPD), something rarely observed in TMCFs. Moreover, because some trees were still partially leafless in March, LE over TMCF was about half that over CO and SU, suggesting an important effect of phenology on energy exchange of this TMCF. Observed differences between seasons and land

  3. How unequal fluxes of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and antineutrinos can fake new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 38071, 22452-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Panes, Boris; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-10-21

    Flavor ratios of very high energy astrophysical neutrinos, which can be studied at the Earth by a neutrino telescope such as IceCube, can serve to diagnose their production mechanism at the astrophysical source. The flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos can be quite different as we do not know how they are produced in the astrophysical environment. Due to this uncertainty the neutrino and antineutrino flavor ratios at the Earth also could be quite different. Nonetheless, it is generally assumed that flavor ratios for neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same at the Earth, in fitting the high energy astrophysical neutrino data. This is a reasonable assumption for the limited statistics for the data we currently have. However, in the future the fit must be performed allowing for a possible discrepancy in these two fractions in order to be able to disentangle different production mechanisms at the source from new physics in the neutrino sector. To reinforce this issue, in this work we show that a wrong assumption about the distribution of neutrino flavor ratios at the Earth may indeed lead to misleading interpretations of IceCube results.

  4. Scale-by-scale energy fluxes in anisotropic non-homogeneous turbulence behind a square cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Portela, Felipe; Papadakis, George; Vassilicos, John Christos

    2015-11-01

    The turbulent wake behind a square section cylinder is studied by means of high resolution direct numerical simulations using an in-house finite volume code. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder side is 3900. Single- and two-point statistics are collected in the lee of the cylinder for over 30 shedding periods, allowing for an extensive description of the development of the turbulence. The power spectrum in the frequency domain of velocity fluctuations displays a near -5/3 power law in the near wake, where the turbulence is neither isotropic nor homogeneous. In the same region of the flow, two-point statistics reveal a direct cascade of fluctuating kinetic energy down the scales as a result of the combined effect of linear and non-linear interactions. For scales aligned with the mean flow the non-linear interactions dominate the cascade. Conversely, for scales normal to the mean flow the cascade is dominated by the linear interactions while the non-linear term is mostly responsible for redistributing energy to different orientations. The authors acknowledge support form the EU through the FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (grant agreement No. 317269).

  5. Changes in soil thermal regime lead to substantial shifts in carbon and energy fluxes in drained Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeckede, M.; Kwon, M. J.; Kittler, F.; Heimann, M.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change impacts in the Arctic will not only depend on future temperature trajectories in this region. In particular, potential shifts in hydrologic regimes, e.g. linked to altered precipitation patterns or changes in topography following permafrost degradation, can dramatically modify ecosystem feedbacks to warming. Here, we analyze how severe drainage affects both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes within a formerly wet Arctic tundra, with a special focus on the interactions between hydrology and soil temperatures, and related effects on the fluxes of carbon and energy. Our findings are based on year-round observations from a decade-long drainage experiment conducted near Chersky, Northeast Siberia. Through our multi-disciplinary observations we can document that the drainage triggered a suite of secondary changes in ecosystem properties, including e.g. adaptation processes in the vegetation community structure, or shifts in snow cover regime. Most profoundly, a combination of low heat capacity and reduced heat conductivity in dry organic soils lead to warmer soil temperatures near the surface, while deeper soil layers remained colder. These changes in soil thermal regime reduced the contribution of deeper soil layers with older carbon pools to overall ecosystem respiration, as documented through radiocarbon signals. Regarding methane, the observed steeper temperature gradient along the vertical soil profile slowed down methane production in deep layers, while promoting CH4 oxidation near the surface. Taken together, both processes contributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions up to a factor of 20 following drainage. Concerning the energy budget, we observed an intensification of energy transfer to the lower atmosphere, particularly in form of sensible heat, but the reduced energy transfer into deeper soil layers also led to systematically shallower thaw depths. Summarizing, drainage may contribute to slow down decomposition of old carbon from deep

  6. Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis Glacier, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Nicholson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lewis Glacier on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical glaciers, but full understanding of the interaction of the glacier mass balance and its climatic drivers has been hampered by a lack of long-term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the glacier surface from October 2009 to February 2012. The location of measurements is in the upper portion of Lewis Glacier, but this location experiences negative annual mass balance, and the conditions are comparable to those experienced in the lower ablation zones of South American glaciers in the inner tropics. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial East Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris, where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle, and Kilimanjaro, where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical glaciers, and melt rate was high throughout the year, with the glacier surface reaching the melting point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear-sky conditions, and thus the frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the glacier surface. The analyses shown here form the basis for future glacier-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the glaciers of Mt Kenya.

  7. Influence of stability on the flux-profile relationships for wind speed, Φm, and temperature, Φh, for the stable atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yagüe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from SABLES98 experimental campaign have been used in order to study the influence of stability (from weak to strong stratification on the flux-profile relationships for momentum, Φm, and heat, Φh. Measurements from 14 thermocouples and 3 sonic anemometers at three levels (5.8, 13.5 and 32 m for the period from 10 to 28 September 1998 were analysed using the framework of the local-scaling approach (Nieuwstadt, 1984a; 1984b, which can be interpreted as an extension of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (Obukhov, 1946. The results show increasing values of Φm and Φh with increasing stability parameter ζ=z/Λ, up to a value of ζ≈1–2, above which the values remain constant. As a consequence of this levelling off in Φm and Φh for strong stability, the turbulent mixing is underestimated when linear similarity functions (Businger et al., 1971 are used to calculate surface fluxes of momentum and heat. On the other hand when Φm and Φh are related to the gradient Richardson number, Ri, a different behaviour is found, which could indicate that the transfer of momentum is greater than that of heat for high Ri. The range of validity of these linear functions is discussed in terms of the physical aspects of turbulent intermittent mixing.

  8. Source spectra of the gravity waves obtained from momentum flux and kinetic energy over Indian region: Comparison between observations and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitha, M.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Vijaya Bhaskar Rao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Using 8 years (May 2006 to March 2014) of high resolution and high accuracy GPS radiosonde observations available from a tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), India, we have investigated the climatology of gravity wave energy and zonal momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere. We also obtained best fit spectrum model for the gravity waves (GWs) for this tropical station. In general, strong annual variation in the energy and momentum flux with maximum during Indian summer monsoon is observed in the lower stratospheric region (18-25 km). By considering different source spectra, we have applied Gravitywave Regional or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT) model run on monthly basis using the source spectrum values at different altitudes on the ERA-Interim background fields to obtain the kinetic energy and zonal momentum fluxes for each of the spectra considered. These simulated fluxes are compared with the observed fluxes to arrive at the best fit spectrum model. It is found that the spectrum which represents the convection transient mountain mechanism that is purely anti-symmetric and anisotropic in nature is the best fit model for Gadanki location. This information would be useful in parameterization of the GWs in numerical models over Indian region.

  9. Energy Gap Induced by Friedel Oscillations Manifested as Transport Asymmetry at Monolayer-Bilayer Graphene Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal W. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that Friedel charge oscillation near an interface opens a gap at the Fermi energy for electrons with wave vectors perpendicular to the interface. If the Friedel gaps on two sides of the interface are different, a nonequilibrium effect—shifting of these gaps under bias—leads to asymmetric transport upon reversing the bias polarity. The predicted transport asymmetry is revealed by scanning tunneling potentiometry at monolayer-bilayer interfaces in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001. This intriguing interfacial transport behavior opens a new avenue toward novel quantum functions such as quantum switching.

  10. The Use of Two-Stream Approximations for the Parameterization of Solar Radiative Energy Fluxes through Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josepoh, Joachim H.; Laquinta, Jean; Pinty, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Two-stream approximations have been used widely and for a long time in the field of radiative transfer through vegetation in various contexts and in the last 10 years also to model the hemispheric reflectance of vegetated surfaces in numerical models of the earth-atmosphere system.For a plane-parallel and turbid vegetation medium, the existence of rotational invariance allows the application of a conventional two-stream approximation to the phase function, based on an expansion in Legendre Polynomials. Three conditions have to be fulfilled to nuke this reduction possible in the case of vegetation. The scattering function of single leaves must be bi-Lambertian, the azimuthal distribution of leaf normals must be uniform, and the azimuthally averaged Leaf Area Normal Distribution (LAND) must be either uniform or planophile. The first and second assumptions have been shown to he acceptable by other researchers and. in fact, are usually assumed explicitly or implicitly when dealing with radiative transfer through canopies. The third one, on the shape of the azimuthally averaged LAND, although investigated before, is subjected to a detailed sensitivity test in this study, using a set of synthetic LAND's as well as experimental data for 17 plant canopies.It is shown that the radiative energy flux equations are relatively insensitive to the exact form of the LAND. The experimental Ross functions and hemispheric reflectances lie between those for the synthetic cases of planophile and erectophile LANDS. However, only the uniform and planophile LANDs lead to canopy hemispheric reflectances, which are markedly different from one another.The analytical two-stream solutions for the either the planophile or the uniform LAND cases may be used to model the radiative fluxes through plant canopies in the solar spectral range. The choice between the two for any particular case must he made on the basis of experimental data.

  11. Improvements to TOVS retrievals over sea ice and applications to estimating Arctic energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennifer A.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling studies suggest that polar regions play a major role in modulating the Earth's climate and that they may be more sensitive than lower latitudes to climate change. Until recently, however, data from meteorological stations poleward of 70 degs have been sparse, and consequently, our understanding of air-sea-ice interaction processes is relatively poor. Satellite-borne sensors now offer a promising opportunity to observe polar regions and ultimately to improve parameterizations of energy transfer processes in climate models. This study focuses on the application of the TIROS-N operational vertical sounder (TOVS) to sea-ice-covered regions in the nonmelt season. TOVS radiances are processed with the improved initialization inversion ('3I') algorithm, providng estimates of layer-average temperature and moisture, cloud conditions, and surface characteristics at a horizontal resolution of approximately 100 km x 100 km. Although TOVS has flown continuously on polar-orbiting satellites since 1978, its potential has not been realized in high latitudes because the quality of retrievals is often significantly lower over sea ice and snow than over the surfaces. The recent availability of three Arctic data sets has provided an opportunity to validate TOVS retrievals: the first from the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX) in winter 1988/1989, the second from the LeadEx field program in spring 1992, and the third from Russian drifting ice stations. Comparisons with these data reveal deficiencies in TOVS retrievals over sea ice during the cold season; e.g., ice surface temperature is often 5 to 15 K too warm, microwave emissivity is approximately 15% too low at large view angles, clear/cloudy scenes are sometimes misidentified, and low-level inversions are often not captured. In this study, methods to reduce these errors are investigated. Improvements to the ice surface temperature retrieval have reduced rms errors from approximately 7 K to 3 K; correction of

  12. Observing Planets and Small Bodies in Sputtered High Energy Atom (SHEA) Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Baragiola, R.; Fama, M.; Johnson, R.; Mura, A.; Plainaki, Ch.; Sarantos, M.; Cassidy, T. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper speculates on the possibility of performing remote sensing of exposed bodies using SHEA The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper

  13. Energy balance above a boreal coniferous forest: a difference in turbulent fluxes between snow-covered and snow-free canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Tomoki; Terajima, Tomomi; Kitamura, Kenzo; Shirai, Tomoki

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the interactive effects of snow and forest on turbulent fluxes between the forest surface and the atmosphere, the surface energy balance above a forest was measured by the eddy correlation method during the winter of 1995-1996. The forest was a young coniferous plantation comprised of spruce and fir. The study site, in Sapporo, northern Japan, had heavy and frequent snowfalls and the canopy was frequently covered with snow during the study period. A comparison of the observed energy balance above the forest for periods with and without a snow-covered canopy and an analysis using a single-source model gave the following results: during daytime when the canopy was covered with snow, the upward latent heat flux was large, about 80% of the net radiation, and the sensible heat flux was positive but small. On the other hand, during daytime when the canopy was dry and free from snow, the sensible heat flux was dominant and the latent heat flux was minor, about 10% of the net radiation. To explain this difference of energy partition between snow-covered and snow-free conditions, not only differences in temperature but also differences in the bulk transfer coefficients for latent heat flux were necessary in the model. Therefore, the high evaporation rate from the snow-covered canopy can be attributed largely to the high moisture availability of the canopy surface. Evaporation from the forest during a 60-day period in midwinter was estimated on a daily basis as net radiation minus sensible heat flux. The overall average evaporation during the 60-day period was 0·6 mm day-1, which is larger than that from open snow fields.

  14. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  15. Boundary conditions in CO5BOLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Bernd

    The declaration of boundary conditions is a crucial step in the setup of a CO5BOLD simulation (and many others) due to the physical nature of the problem, that is reflected in the mathematical description by partial differential equations, discrete versions of which are integrated by the numerical solver(s). While parameters controlling the flux of energy through the computational box are most important for all simulations of convective flows, the detailed specifications describing the behavior of energy, gas and dust densities, velocities, and magnetic fields at or just beyond the boundaries influence the flow, dynamics, and stratification within the box. Recent refinements of the treatment of boundary conditions in CO5BOLD resulted in reliably working implementations of open and closed versions for top, bottom, and ``inner'' boundaries even under conditions with strong velocity fields (waves, shocks, or downdrafts). They are implemented and available in the current version of CO5BOLD - but have to be activated properly with parameters adapted to the type of the star under consideration (by defining for instance the depth of the damping layers for the closed-bottom boundary or by specifying the damping constants for the open-bottom boundary).

  16. Retarding field energy analyzer for the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified plasma boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M.; Rohraff, D.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2009-10-01

    The retarding field energy analyzer (RFA) is a simple and reliable diagnostic technique to measure the ion temperature in the scrape-off layer and edge of magnetic fusion devices. Design and operation features of a single-sided (facing the ion flow) RFA for ion temperature measurements in the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak are described. Its compact size (21×15×20 mm3) allows RFA measurements without perturbing plasma significantly. Both ion and electron temperature have been measured by RFA in the STOR-M tokamak. A method is proposed to correct the effects of ion flow on the ion temperature using the simultaneously measured Mach number. The measured electron temperature is consistent with the previously reported Langmuir probe data. Abnormal behavior of the RFA has been observed in both ion and electron modes when RFA is inserted deep into the plasma.

  17. Two Beam Energy Exchange in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells with Photorefractive Field Controlled Boundary Conditions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    photorefractive layers. The cell is illuminated by two intersecting coherent light beams E1 =A1 (z) e1 exp (ik1r − iω t) and E2 = A2 (z) e2 exp (ik2r − iω t). The...photorefractive substrates and LC possess non-linear properties that require A1(z), A2 (z) to change as a function of position. The bisector of the...anchoring energy w: w =1 - dotted , 10 - dashed, 102 - solid. The modulation parameters m(−L/2)=m(L/2)= 0.1, parameters α1 = 0.02, α2 =−0.02, cell

  18. Comic ray flux anisotropies caused by astrospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K.; Strauss, R. D.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Fichtner, H.

    2016-09-01

    Huge astrospheres or stellar wind bubbles influence the propagation of cosmic rays at energies up to the TeV range and can act as small-scale sinks decreasing the cosmic ray flux. We model such a sink (in 2D) by a sphere of radius 10 pc embedded within a sphere of a radius of 1 kpc. The cosmic ray flux is calculated by means of backward stochastic differential equations from an observer, which is located at r0, to the outer boundary. It turns out that such small-scale sinks can influence the cosmic ray flux at the observer's location by a few permille (i.e. a few 0.1%), which is in the range of the observations by IceCube, Milagro and other large area telescopes.

  19. Effect of fetch length on latent heat flux data accuracy calculated by Bowen ratio energy balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Orság, Matěj; Kučera, Jiří; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-04-01

    Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) is one of the most widely used indirect methods for deriving latent heat (LE) and sensible heat fluxes. The BREB technique relies on net radiation, ground heat flux, and air temperature and humidity gradients measurements. Whilst the first two mentioned can be practically considered as point measurements, the source area of temperature and humidity gradients is at least one order of magnitudes larger. Therefore, the horizontal, homogeneous and extensive area is necessary prerequisite for correct flux determination by BREB method. An ideal fetch for BREB has been reported to be within 10 to 200 times the height of upper measuring level above zero plane displacement. This broad range is a result of different atmospheric stratifications and surface roughness, but the fetch to height ratio 100:1 has become generally acknowledged as a rule of thumb. In this study, data from four different BREB systems above various covers (two poplar plantations, grassland and turf grass field) will be used to calculate and analyse LE for different fetches. Data were recorded in Domanínek near Bystřice nad Pernštejnem in Czech-Moravian highlands where two BREB systems have measured above poplar plantation and turf grass since summer 2008 until present and two more systems have been placed above grassland and another poplar plantation at the beginning of 2011 and have measured until present time. During the measurements changing wind direction limited the fetch of particular BREB systems on the sites. That is why LE calculated for particular fetch lengths will be split into three categories - fetch classes ("good", "medium", and "bad") according to prevailing wind direction and corresponding fetch. These categories will be delimited using the simple footprint model. Fetches with more than 75% of the measured entities coming from the area of interest will be considered as the "good" ones. The "medium" class will contain fetches with 50-75% of the flux

  20. Robust outer-selective thin-film composite polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes with low reverse salt flux for renewable salinity-gradient energy generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Zhen Lei

    2016-01-08

    This study reports outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes with extremely low reverse salt fluxes and robustness for harvesting salinity-gradient energy from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Almost defect-free polyamide layers with impressive low salt permeabilities were synthesized on top of robust polyethersulfone porous supports. The newly developed TFC-II membrane shows a maximum power density of 7.81 W m−2 using 1 M NaCl and DI water as feeds at 20 bar. Reproducible data obtained in the 2nd and 3rd runs confirm its stability under high hydraulic pressure differences. Comparing to other PRO membranes reported in the literature, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest slope between water flux decline and ΔPΔP increase but also the lowest ratio of reverse salt flux to water flux. Thus, the effective osmotic driving force could be well maintained even under high pressure operations. For the first time, the effect of feed pressure buildup induced by feed flowrate was evaluated towards PRO performance. A slight increment in feed pressure buildup was found to be beneficial to water flux and power density up to 10.06 W m−2 without comprising the reverse salt flux. We believe this study may open up new perspectives on outer-selective PRO hollow fiber membranes and provide useful insights to understand and design next-generation outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.

  1. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  2. Structure and properties of grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    1984-03-01

    Results were obtained in the following areas: determination of relative grain boundary energies by the rotating crystallite method; simple structural unit model for core dependent properties of tilt boundaries; twist boundary energies for metals with long ranged pairwise interatomic potentials; structural unit/grain boundary dislocation model for grain boundary structure; detection of expansion of boundaries using diffraction; effect of secondary relaxations on diffraction from high-(SIGMA) 001 twist boundaries; and mechanism of grain boundary migration.

  3. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanthesh, B., E-mail: bmanths@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, AIMS Institutes, Peenya, 560058 Bangalore (India); Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Gireesha, B.J., E-mail: bjgireesu@rediffmail.com [Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gorla, R.S. Reddy, E-mail: r.gorla@csuohio.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases. - Highlights: • Hydromagnetic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface is examined. • Cu, Al{sub 2}O3 and TiO{sub 2} types nanoparticles are taken into account. • Numerical solutions have been computed and addressed. • The values of skin-friction and Nusselt number are presented.

  4. Upshot of binary chemical reaction and activation energy on carbon nanotubes with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and buoyancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Ramzan, M.; Ahmad, Shafiq; Chung, Jae Dong; Farooq, Umer

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model is framed to discuss the flow of carbon nanotube-suspended nanofluids with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and binary chemical reaction. The flow analysis is performed in attendance of heat generation/absorption, energy activation, and buoyancy effects past a nonlinear stretched surface embedded in a non-Darcy permeable medium. A combination of varied nanotubes with base fluids is also taken into account. The Runge-Kutta fifth-order Fehlberg technique is engaged to find the numerical solution of a highly nonlinear problem. The impact of sundry parameters on involved distributions is illustrated graphically with requisite discussion keeping in view their physical aspects. Different tables that comprise numerically calculated values of numerous sundry parameters highlighting their physical significance are also erected. It is witnessed that velocity and temperature profiles are enhanced for mounting values of nanoparticle volume fraction parameters. Further, it is seen that for enhancing the value of the Prandtl number, the temperature profile decreases rapidly for single-walled carbon nanotubes than multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal fungi and past high CO2 atmospheres enhance mineral weathering through increased below-ground carbon-energy fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Joe; Andrews, Megan Y; Leake, Jonathan R; Banwart, Steve A; Beerling, David J

    2014-07-01

    Field studies indicate an intensification of mineral weathering with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later-evolving ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal partners of gymnosperm and angiosperm trees. We test the hypothesis that this intensification is driven by increasing photosynthate carbon allocation to mycorrhizal mycelial networks using 14CO2-tracer experiments with representative tree–fungus mycorrhizal partnerships. Trees were grown in either a simulated past CO2 atmosphere (1500 ppm)—under which EM fungi evolved—or near-current CO2 (450 ppm). We report a direct linkage between photosynthate-energy fluxes from trees to EM and AM mycorrhizal mycelium and rates of calcium silicate weathering. Calcium dissolution rates halved for both AM and EM trees as CO2 fell from 1500 to 450 ppm, but silicate weathering by AM trees at high CO2 approached rates for EM trees at near-current CO2. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into the involvement of EM-associating forest trees in strengthening biological feedbacks on the geochemical carbon cycle that regulate atmospheric CO2 over millions of years.

  6. Effect of high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation on Ta as a plasma-facing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakowski, T. J.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this work is to assess Ta as a potential plasma-facing material for future fusion reactors in terms of its response to high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation. Ta samples were irradiated with 100 eV He+ ions at various fluences up to 3.5 × 1025 ions m-2 while simultaneously heated at constant temperatures in the range 823-1223 K. SEM studies show that irradiated Ta surfaces undergo significant morphology changes that have a strong dependence on both ion fluence and sample temperature. Optical reflectivity complements SEM and demonstrates a vertical growth of surface structures with increasing fluence. Ex situ XPS and XRD both show significant oxidation of the irradiated Ta surfaces, giving further qualitative information on the extent of surface modification. Overall, these irradiation-induced structures on Ta are similar to early-stage “fuzz” structures observed in W. However, Ta exhibits a higher fluence threshold for structure formation. While Ta may have less desirable bulk properties (e.g., thermal conductivity) when compared to W, its higher resilience to He+ ion-induced surface modification suggests that surface thermal and mechanical properties may not degrade as quickly in extreme fusion environments; this quality may be a redeeming factor for Ta as a plasma-facing material.

  7. Superradiance in the BTZ black hole with Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Ferreira, Hugo R. C.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2018-03-01

    We show the existence of superradiant modes of massive scalar fields propagating in BTZ black holes when certain Robin boundary conditions, which never include the commonly considered Dirichlet boundary conditions, are imposed at spatial infinity. These superradiant modes are defined as those solutions whose energy flux across the horizon is towards the exterior region. Differently from rotating, asymptotically flat black holes, we obtain that not all modes which grow up exponentially in time are superradiant; for some of these, the growth is sourced by a bulk instability of AdS3, triggered by the scalar field with Robin boundary conditions, rather than by energy extraction from the BTZ black hole. Thus, this setup provides an example wherein Bosonic modes with low frequency are pumping energy into, rather than extracting energy from, a rotating black hole.

  8. Surface energy flux consequences of bark beetle outbreaks in the south-central Rockies using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, M. K.; Williams, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in canopy cover due to disturbance-related mortality have been shown to profoundly impact parameters within the surface energy balance and water budget. A shift in such fluxes can have consequences for surface temperature, cloudiness, run-off and stream flow, forest regeneration and net primary productivity. Current outbreaks of native bark beetles in western North America are some of the largest and most severe in recorded history. In recent outbreaks, bark beetles have reduced the basal area of host-dominated forests by up to 70%; with over-story mortality often exceeding 90% in mature, even-aged stands. The magnitude, frequency and intensity of recent outbreaks have been attributed to warmer summer and winter temperatures and drought conditions as a result of climate change. However, despite the likelihood that canopy mortality from bark beetle attacks will have profound effects on forest albedo and evapotranspiration, consequences for this disturbance type remain largely un-documented. This study addressed the question: how does a bark beetle outbreak event influence surface albedo and evapotranspiration? Seasonal patterns of surface temperature, albedo, evapotranspiration, and radiative forcing were modeled for lodgepole and ponderosa pine stands by outbreak age using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data within the south-central Rocky Mountains. Beetle damage data was derived from both field-based plots as well as aerial surveys. The prevalence of bark beetle outbreaks in high-elevation environments, which are exceedingly sensitive to climate change, necessitates the importance of understanding the energy and evapotranspiration consequences of such events.

  9. On the generation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in a stratified and magnetized fluid. II - Magnetohydrodynamic energy fluxes for late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave energy fluxes for late-type stars are calculated, using previously obtained formulae for the source functions for the generation of MHD waves in a stratified, but otherwise uniform, turbulent atmosphere; the magnetic fields in the wave generation region are assumed to be homogeneous. In contradiction to previous results, it is shown that in this uniform magnetic field case there is no significant increase in the efficiency of MHD wave generation, at least within the theory's limits of applicability. The major results are that the MHD energy fluxes calculated for late-type stars are less than those obtained for compressible modes in the magnetic field-free case, and that these MHD energy fluxes do not vary enough for a given spectral type to explain the observed range of UV and X-ray fluxes from such stars. It is therefore concluded that MHD waves in stellar atmospheres with homogeneous magnetic fields in the wave generation region cannot explain the observed stellar coronal emissions; if such MHD waves are responsible for a significant component of stellar coronal heating, then nonuniform fields within the generation region must be appealed to.

  10. Mapping energy balance fluxes and root zone soil moisture in the White Volta Basin using optical imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.; Friesen, J.; Compaore, H.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Rodgers, C.; Vlek, P.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as soil moisture is critical for evaluation of background characteristics. Since these fluxes are subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine their spatial and temporal

  11. Towards Direct Numerical Simulation of mass and energy fluxes at the soil-atmospheric interface with advanced Lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Krafczyk, Manfred; Geier, Martin; Schönherr, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The quantification of soil evaporation and of soil water content dynamics near the soil surface are critical in the physics of land-surface processes on many scales and are dominated by multi-component and multi-phase mass and energy fluxes between the ground and the atmosphere. Although it is widely recognized that both liquid and gaseous water movement are fundamental factors in the quantification of soil heat flux and surface evaporation, their computation has only started to be taken into account using simplified macroscopic models. As the flow field over the soil can be safely considered as turbulent, it would be natural to study the detailed transient flow dynamics by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES [1]) where the three-dimensional flow field is resolved down to the laminar sub-layer. Yet this requires very fine resolved meshes allowing a grid resolution of at least one order of magnitude below the typical grain diameter of the soil under consideration. In order to gain reliable turbulence statistics, up to several hundred eddy turnover times have to be simulated which adds up to several seconds of real time. Yet, the time scale of the receding saturated water front dynamics in the soil is on the order of hours. Thus we are faced with the task of solving a transient turbulent flow problem including the advection-diffusion of water vapour over the soil-atmospheric interface represented by a realistic tomographic reconstruction of a real porous medium taken from laboratory probes. Our flow solver is based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) [2] which has been extended by a Cumulant approach similar to the one described in [3,4] to minimize the spurious coupling between the degrees of freedom in previous LBM approaches and can be used as an implicit LES turbulence model due to its low numerical dissipation and increased stability at high Reynolds numbers. The kernel has been integrated into the research code Virtualfluids [5] and delivers up to 30% of the

  12. Shielded resistive electromagnets of arbitrary surface geometry using the boundary element method and a minimum energy constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chad T; Haw, Dustin W; Handler, William B; Chronik, Blaine A

    2013-09-01

    Eddy currents are generated in MR by the use of rapidly switched electromagnets, resulting in time varying and spatially varying magnetic fields that must be either minimized or corrected. This problem is further complicated when non-cylindrical insert magnets are used for specialized applications. Interruption of the coupling between an insert coil and the MR system is typically accomplished using active magnetic shielding. A new method of actively shielding insert gradient and shim coils of any surface geometry by use of the boundary element method for coil design with a minimum energy constraint is presented. This method was applied to shield x- and z-gradient coils for two separate cases: a traditional cylindrical primary gradient with cylindrical shield and, to demonstrate its versatility in surface geometry, the same cylindrical primary gradients with a rectangular box-shaped shield. For the cylindrical case this method produced shields that agreed with analytic solutions. For the second case, the rectangular box-shaped shields demonstrated very good shielding characteristics despite having a different geometry than the primary coils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evapotranspiration and Surface Energy Fluxes Estimation Using the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Image over a Semiarid Agrosystem in the North-West of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal Laounia

    Full Text Available Abstract Monitoring evapotranspiration and surface energy fluxes over a range of spatial and temporal scales is crucial for many agroenvironmental applications. Different remote sensing based energy balance models have been developed, to estimate evapotranspiration at both field and regional scales. In this contribution, METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration, has been applied for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration in the Ghriss plain in Mascara (western Algeria, a semiarid region with heterogeneous surface conditions. Four images acquired during 2001 and 2002 by the Landsat-7 satellite were used. The METRIC model followed an energy balance approach, where evapotranspiration is estimated as the residual term when net radiation, sensible and soil heat fluxes are known. Different moisture indicators derived from the evapotranspiration were then calculated: reference evapotranspiration fraction, Priestley-Taylor parameter and surface resistance to evaporation. The evaluation of evapotranspiration and surface energy fluxes are accurate enough for the spatial variations of evapotranspiration rather satisfactory than sophisticated models without having to introduce an important number of parameters in input with difficult accessibility in routine. In conclusion, the results suggest that METRIC can be considered as an operational approach to predict actual evapotranspiration from agricultural areas having limited amount of ground information.

  14. Low-energy solar neutrino spectroscopy with Borexino. Towards the detection of the solar pep and CNO neutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneschg, Werner

    2011-05-11

    Borexino is a large-volume organic liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented high radiopurity which has been designed for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy in real time. Besides the main objective of the experiment, the measurement of the solar {sup 7}Be neutrino flux, Borexino also aims at detecting solar neutrinos from the pep fusion process and from the CNO cycle. The detectability of these neutrinos is strictly connected to a successful rejection of all relevant background components. The identification and reduction of these background signals is the central subject of this dissertation. In the first part, contaminants induced by cosmic-ray muons and muon showers were analyzed. The dominant background is the cosmogenic radioisotope {sup 11}C. Its rate is {proportional_to}10 times higher than the expected combined pep and CNO neutrino rate in the preferred energy window of observation at [0.8,1.3] MeV. Since {sup 11}C is mostly produced under the release of a free neutron, {sup 11}C can be tagged with a threefold coincidence (TFC) consisting of the muon signal, the neutron capture and the subsequent {sup 11}C decay. By optimizing the TFC method and other rejection techniques, a {sup 11}C rejection efficiency of 80% was achieved. This led to a neutrino-to-background ratio of 1:1.7, whereby 61% of statistics is lost. The second part of the work concerns the study of the external background. Especially long-range 2.6 MeV gamma rays from {sup 208}Tl decays in the outer detector parts can reach the scintillator in the innermost region of the detector. For the determination of the resultant spectral shape, a custom-made {proportional_to}5 MBq {sup 228}Th source was produced and an external calibration was carried out for the first time. The obtained calibration data and the achieved {sup 11}C rejection efficiency will allow for the direct detection of solar pep and possibly also CNO neutrinos with Borexino. (orig.)

  15. Recurrence Analysis of Eddy Covariance Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holger; Flach, Milan; Foken, Thomas; Hauhs, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is one key method to quantify fluxes in biogeochemical cycles in general, and carbon and energy transport across the vegetation-atmosphere boundary layer in particular. EC data from the worldwide net of flux towers (Fluxnet) have also been used to validate biogeochemical models. The high resolution data are usually obtained at 20 Hz sampling rate but are affected by missing values and other restrictions. In this contribution, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of EC fluxes using Recurrence Analysis (RA). High resolution data from the site DE-Bay (Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen) and fluxes calculated at half-hourly resolution from eight locations (part of the La Thuile dataset) provide a set of very long time series to analyze. After careful quality assessment and Fluxnet standard gapfilling pretreatment, we calculate properties and indicators of the recurrent structure based both on Recurrence Plots as well as Recurrence Networks. Time series of RA measures obtained from windows moving along the time axis are presented. Their interpretation is guided by three different questions: (1) Is RA able to discern periods where the (atmospheric) conditions are particularly suitable to obtain reliable EC fluxes? (2) Is RA capable to detect dynamical transitions (different behavior) beyond those obvious from visual inspection? (3) Does RA contribute to an understanding of the nonlinear synchronization between EC fluxes and atmospheric parameters, which is crucial for both improving carbon flux models as well for reliable interpolation of gaps? (4) Is RA able to recommend an optimal time resolution for measuring EC data and for analyzing EC fluxes? (5) Is it possible to detect non-trivial periodicities with a global RA? We will demonstrate that the answers to all five questions is affirmative, and that RA provides insights into EC dynamics not easily obtained otherwise.

  16. Application of the principles of systems biology and Wiener's cybernetics for analysis of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

    2010-03-08

    The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener's cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener's cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures - intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations of

  17. Mid-Twenty-First-Century Changes in Global Wave Energy Flux: Single-Model, Single-Forcing and Single-Scenario Ensemble Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Lemos, Gil; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna; Miranda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of ocean surface wave energy fluxes (or wave power) is of outmost relevance since wave power has a direct impact in coastal erosion, but also in sediment transport and beach nourishment, and ship, as well as in coastal and offshore infrastructures design. Changes in the global wave energy flux pattern can alter significantly the impact of waves in continental shelf and coastal areas. Up until recently the impact of climate change in future global wave climate had received very little attention. Some single model single scenario global wave climate projections, based on CMIP3 scenarios, were pursuit under the auspices of the COWCLIP (coordinated ocean wave climate projections) project, and received some attention in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) AR5 (fifth assessment report). In the present study the impact of a warmer climate in the near future global wave energy flux climate is investigated through a 4-member "coherent" ensemble of wave climate projections: single-model, single-forcing, and single-scenario. In this methodology model variability is reduced, leaving only room for the climate change signal. The four ensemble members were produced with the wave model WAM, forced with wind speed and ice coverage from EC-Earth projections, following the representative concentration pathway with a high emissions scenario 8.5 (RCP8.5). The ensemble present climate reference period (the control run) has been set for 1976 to 2005. The projected changes in the global wave energy flux climate are analyzed for the 2031-2060 period.

  18. Interaction Between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Wind Energy: From Continental-Scale to Turbine-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara Mae

    Wind turbines and groups of wind turbines, or "wind plants", interact with the complex and heterogeneous boundary layer of the atmosphere. We define the boundary layer as the portion of the atmosphere directly influenced by the surface, and this layer exhibits variability on a range of temporal and spatial scales. While early developments in wind energy could ignore some of this variability, recent work demonstrates that improved understanding of atmosphere-turbine interactions leads to the discovery of new ways to approach turbine technology development as well as processes such as performance validation and turbine operations. This interaction with the atmosphere occurs at several spatial and temporal scales from continental-scale to turbine-scale. Understanding atmospheric variability over continental-scales and across plants can facilitate reliance on wind energy as a baseload energy source on the electrical grid. On turbine scales, understanding the atmosphere's contribution to the variability in power production can improve the accuracy of power production estimates as we continue to implement more wind energy onto the grid. Wind speed and directional variability within a plant will affect wind turbine wakes within the plants and among neighboring plants, and a deeper knowledge of these variations can help mitigate effects of wakes and possibly even allow the manipulation of these wakes for increased production. Herein, I present the extent of my PhD work, in which I studied outstanding questions at these scales at the intersections of wind energy and atmospheric science. My work consists of four distinct projects. At the coarsest scales, I analyze the separation between wind plant sites needed for statistical independence in order to reduce variability for grid-integration of wind. At lower wind speeds, periods of unstable and more turbulent conditions produce more power than periods of stable and less turbulent conditions, while at wind speeds closer to

  19. Utility of a Two-source Energy Balance Approach for Daily Mapping of Landsat-scale Fluxes Over Irrigated Agriculture in a Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is an area characterized by limited fresh water resources, an often inefficient use of these, and relatively poor in-situ monitoring as a result of sparse meteorological observations. Enhanced satellite-based monitoring systems are needed for aiding local water resource and agricultural management activities in these data poor arid environments. A multi-sensor and multi-scale land-surface flux monitoring capacity is being implemented over parts of MENA in order to provide meaningful decision support at relevant spatiotemporal scales. The integrated modeling system uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI), and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (Landsat and MODIS; MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate daily estimates of land surface fluxes down to sub-field scale (i.e. 30 m). Within this modeling system, thermal infrared satellite data provide information about the sub-surface moisture status and plant stress, obviating the need for precipitation input and error-prone soil surface characterizations. In this study, the integrated ALEXI-DisALEXI-STARFM framework is applied over an irrigated agricultural region in Saudi Arabia, and the daily estimates of Landsat scale water, energy and carbon fluxes are evaluated against available flux tower observations and other independent in-situ and satellite-based records. The study addresses the challenges associated with time-continuous sub-field scale mapping of land-surface fluxes in a harsh desert environment, and looks into the optimization of model descriptions and parameterizations and meteorological forcing and vegetation inputs for application over these regions.

  20. A property of electric and magnetic flux in non-abelian gauge theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1979-01-01

    Pure non-Abelian gauge models with gauge group SU(N) are considered in a box with periodic boundary conditions at various temperatures −1. Electric and magnetic flux are defined in a gauge-invariant way. The free energy of the system satisfies an exact duality equation, following from Euclidean

  1. Simultaneous imaging of aurora on small scale in OI (777.4 nm and N21P to estimate energy and flux of precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ivchenko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous images of the aurora in three emissions, N21P (673.0 nm, OII (732.0 nm and OI (777.4 nm, have been analysed; the ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen has been used to provide estimates of the changes in energy and flux of precipitation within scale sizes of 100 m, and with temporal resolution of 32 frames per second. The choice of filters for the imagers is discussed, with particular emphasis on the choice of the atomic oxygen line at 777.4 nm as one of the three emissions measured. The optical measurements have been combined with radar measurements and compared with the results of an auroral model, hence showing that the ratio of emission rates OI/N2 can be used to estimate the energy within the smallest auroral structures. In the event chosen, measurements were made from mainland Norway, near Tromso, (69.6 N, 19.2 E. The peak energies of precipitation were between 1–15 keV. In a narrow curling arc, it was found that the arc filaments resulted from energies in excess of 10 keV and fluxes of approximately 7 mW/m2. These filaments of the order of 100 m in width were embedded in a region of lower energies (about 5–10 keV and fluxes of about 3 mW/m2. The modelling results show that the method promises to be most powerful for detecting low energy precipitation, more prevalent at the higher latitudes of Svalbard where the multispectral imager, known as ASK, is now installed.

  2. Simultaneous imaging of aurora on small scale in OI (777.4 nm and N21P to estimate energy and flux of precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous images of the aurora in three emissions, N21P (673.0 nm, OII (732.0 nm and OI (777.4 nm, have been analysed; the ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen has been used to provide estimates of the changes in energy and flux of precipitation within scale sizes of 100 m, and with temporal resolution of 32 frames per second. The choice of filters for the imagers is discussed, with particular emphasis on the choice of the atomic oxygen line at 777.4 nm as one of the three emissions measured. The optical measurements have been combined with radar measurements and compared with the results of an auroral model, hence showing that the ratio of emission rates OI/N2 can be used to estimate the energy within the smallest auroral structures. In the event chosen, measurements were made from mainland Norway, near Troms\\o, (69.6 N, 19.2 E. The peak energies of precipitation were between 1–15 keV. In a narrow curling arc, it was found that the arc filaments resulted from energies in excess of 10 keV and fluxes of approximately 7 mW/m2. These filaments of the order of 100 m in width were embedded in a region of lower energies (about 5–10 keV and fluxes of about 3 mW/m2. The modelling results show that the method promises to be most powerful for detecting low energy precipitation, more prevalent at the higher latitudes of Svalbard where the multispectral imager, known as ASK, is now installed.

  3. Effects of the sintering temperature on the flux-pinning mechanism and the activation energy of malic-acid doped MgB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peleckis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   The flux-pinning mechanism and activation energy of 10 wt % malic acid-doped MgB2 were investigated by measuring of the critical current density and resistivity as a function of magnetic field and temperature. A crossover field, Bsb, was observed from the single vortex to the small vortex bundle pinning regime. For the sintered sample, the temperature dependence of Bsb(T at low temperature is in good agreement with the δℓ pinning mechanism, i.e., pinning associated with charge-carrier mean free path fluctuation. The activation energy was decreased by increasing the magnetic field and increased by increasing sintering temperature.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Thermogravitational Convection in a Closed System with a Radiant Energy Source in Conditions of Convective-Radiative Heat Exchange at the External Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.

  5. Validation of the doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) method for measuring water flux and energy metabolism in tenebrionid beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Doubly-labeled water (H/sup 3/H/sup 18/O) has been used to determine water flux and energy metabolism in a variety of vertebrates. This study examines the applicability of this technique to arthropods. The theory of the technique depends upon the assumption that doubly-labeled water introduced into the animal's body water equilibrates with water and carbon dioxide by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Tritium (/sup 3/H) is lost from the animal only with water while oxygen-18 is lost with both water and carbon dioxide. The difference bwtween the rates of loss of the two isotopes is proportional to CO/sub 2/ loss rate. Validation of the use of tritiated water for measuring water flux was accomplished by comparing gravimetric measurements of water gain with flux rates determined by loss of tritiated water. At room humidity, an overestimate for influx calculated from labeled water calculations was found, averaging 12 mg H/sub 2/O (g.d)/sup -1/. Comparison of CO/sub 2/ loss rate determined isotopically with rates of CO/sub 2/ loss determined by standard metabolic rates also yielded overestimates for the isotopic technique, overestimates ranging between 20 and 30%. The relevance of this for studies using labeled water for studying water fluxes and free metabolism of free-ranging arthropods is discussed.

  6. Quantitative Metabolomics and Instationary 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis Reveals Impact of Recombinant Protein Production on Trehalose and Energy Metabolism in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jordà

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris has been recognized as an effective host for recombinant protein production. In this work, we combine metabolomics and instationary 13C metabolic flux analysis (INST 13C-MFA using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS to evaluate the potential impact of the production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol on P. pastoris central carbon metabolism. Higher oxygen uptake and CO2 production rates and slightly reduced biomass yield suggest an increased energy demand for the producing strain. This observation is further confirmed by 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. In particular, the flux through the methanol oxidation pathway and the TCA cycle was increased in the Rol-producing strain compared to the reference strain. Next to changes in the flux distribution, significant variations in intracellular metabolite concentrations were observed. Most notably, the pools of trehalose, which is related to cellular stress response, and xylose, which is linked to methanol assimilation, were significantly increased in the recombinant strain.

  7. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  8. Enrichment of boron at grain boundaries of platinum-based alloys determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preussner, Johannes [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM), Freiburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institue of Technology, Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. for Reliability of Components and Systems (izbs); Fleischmann, Ernst; Voelkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Metals and Alloys

    2010-05-15

    Polycrystalline platinum-based alloys show very good creep properties at high temperatures. Small amounts of boron (less than 1 at.%) considerably increase the creep strength. Transmission electron microscopy measurements were conducted to localize the element boron in the samples. With image electron energy loss spectroscopy spectra were extracted revealing an enrichment of B at grain boundaries. The boron distribution was plotted with the three window method. (orig.)

  9. Non-isothermal compositional liquid gas Darcy flow: formulation, soil-atmosphere boundary condition and application to high energy geothermal simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Beaude, Laurence; Brenner, Konstantin; Lopez, Simon; Masson, Roland; Smai, Farid

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with the modelling and formulation of compositional gas liquid Darcy flow. Our model includes an advanced boundary condition at the interface between the porous medium and the atmosphere accounting for convective mass and energy transfer, liquid evaporation and liquid outflow. The formulation is based on a fixed set of unknowns whatever the set of present phases. The thermody-namic equilibrium is expressed as complementary constraints. The model and its formulation are appl...

  10. Laboratory and numerical experiments on water and energy fluxes during freezing and thawing in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Montasir Islam, Md.; Šimunek, Jirka

    2017-04-01

    Frozen soil has a major effect in many hydrologic processes, and its effects are difficult to predict. A prime example is flood forecasting during spring snowmelt within the Canadian Prairies. One key driver for the extent of flooding is the antecedent soil moisture and the possibility for water to infiltrate into frozen soils. Therefore, these situations are crucial for accurate flood prediction during every spring. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the water flow and heat transport within HYDRUS-1D version 4.16 and with Hansson's model, which is a detailed freezing/thawing module (Hansson et al., 2004), to predict the impact of frozen and partly frozen soil on infiltration. We developed a standardized data set of water flow and heat transport into (partial) frozen soil by laboratory experiments using fine sand. Temperature, soil moisture, and percolated water were observed at different freezing conditions as well as at thawing conditions. Significant variation in soil moisture was found between the top and the bottom of the soil column at the starting of the thawing period. However, with increasing temperature, the lower depth of the soil column showed higher moisture as the soil became enriched with moisture due to the release of heat by soil particles during the thawing cycle. We applied vadose zone modeling using the results from the laboratory experiments. The simulated water content by HYDRUS-1D 4.16 showed large errors compared to the observed data showing by negative Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Hansson's model was not able to predict soil water fluxes due to its unstable behavior (Šimunek et al., 2016). The soil temperature profile simulated using HYDRUS-1D 4.16 was not able to predict the release of latent heat during the phase change of water that was visible in Hansson's model. Hansson's model includes the energy gain/loss due to the phase change in the amount of latent energy stored in the modified heat transport equation. However, in

  11. On the fine structure of medium energy electron fluxes in the auroral zone and related effects in the ionospheric D-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of trapped and precipitated electrons of energy >30 keV and >100 keV observed by polar orbiting environmental satellites during overpasses of the imaging riometer at Kilpisjärvi, Finland. The satellites are in sun-synchronous orbits of about 850 km altitude, recording the electron fluxes at 2-s time resolution. The riometer measures the radiowave absorption at 38.2 MHz, showing the spatial pattern within a 240 km field of view. The analysis has focussed on two areas. Having found a close correlation between the radiowave absorption and the medium-energy electron fluxes during satellite overpasses, empirical relationships are derived, enabling one quantity to be predicted from the other for three sectors of local time. It is shown that small-scale variations observed during a pass are essentially spatial rather than temporal. Other properties, such as the spectra and the relation between precipitated and trapped components, are also considered in the light of the theory of pitch angle scattering by VLF waves. It is found that the properties and behaviour depend strongly on the time of day. In the noon sector, the precipitated and trapped fluxes are highly correlated through a square law relationship.

  12. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to establish an upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Earth-skimming nu(tau) may interact in the Earth's crust and produce a tau lepton by means of charged-current interactions. The tau lepton may emerge from

  13. Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, O.S.; Gioli, B.; Elbers, J.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Kabat, P.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES’07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The

  14. Electron Energy Spectra, Fluxes, and Day-Night Asymmetries of $^{8}$B Solar Neutrinos from the 391-Day Salt Phase SNO Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Aharmim, B; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Miknaitis, K K S; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    Results are reported from the complete salt phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment in which NaCl was dissolved in the D$_2$O target. The addition of salt enhanced the signal from neutron capture, as compared to the pure D$_2$O detector. By making a statistical separation of charged-current events from other types based on event-isotropy criteria, the effective electron recoil energy spectrum has been extracted. In units of $ 10^6$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, the total flux of active-flavor neutrinos from $^8$B decay in the Sun is found to be $4.94^{+0.21}_{-0.21}{(stat)}^{+0.38}_{-0.34}{(syst)}$ and the integral flux of electron neutrinos for an undistorted $^8$B spectrum is $1.68^{+0.06}_{-0.06}{(stat)}^{+0.08}_{-0.09}{(syst)}$; the signal from ($\

  15. X-ray response of CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique: Energy, temperature and high flux effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Turturici, A. A.; Raso, G.; Benassi, G.; Bettelli, M.; Zambelli, N.; Zappettini, A.; Principato, F.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, CdZnTe (CZT) is one of the key materials for the development of room temperature X-ray and gamma ray detectors and great efforts have been made on both the device and the crystal growth technologies. In this work, we present the results of spectroscopic investigations on new boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman (B-VB) grown CZT detectors, recently developed at IMEM-CNR Parma, Italy. Several detectors, with the same electrode layout (gold electroless contacts) and different thicknesses (1 and 2.5 mm), were realized: the cathode is a planar electrode covering the detector surface (4.1×4.1 mm2), while the anode is a central electrode (2×2 mm2) surrounded by a guard-ring electrode. The detectors are characterized by electron mobility-lifetime product (μeτe) values ranging between 0.6 and 1·10-3 cm2/V and by low leakage currents at room temperature and at high bias voltages (38 nA/cm2 at 10000 V/cm). The spectroscopic response of the detectors to monochromatic X-ray and gamma ray sources (109Cd, 241Am and 57Co), at different temperatures and fluxes (up to 1 Mcps), was measured taking into account the mitigation of the effects of incomplete charge collection, pile-up and high flux radiation induced polarization phenomena. A custom-designed digital readout electronics, developed at DiFC of University of Palermo (Italy), able to perform a fine pulse shape and height analysis even at high fluxes, was used. At low rates (200 cps) and at room temperature (T=25 °C), the detectors exhibit an energy resolution FWHM around 4% at 59.5 keV, for comparison an energy resolution of 3% was measured with Al/CdTe/Pt detectors by using the same electronics (A250F/NF charge sensitive preamplifier, Amptek, USA; nominal ENC of 100 electrons RMS). At high rates (750 kcps), energy resolution values of 7% and 9% were measured, with throughputs of 2% and 60% respectively. No radiation polarization phenomena were observed at room temperature up to 1 Mcps (241Am source, 60 ke

  16. Origin of the High-speed Jets Fom Magnetic Flux Emergence in the Solar Transition Region as well as Their Mass and Energy Contribuctions to the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liping, Y.; He, J.; Peter, H.; Tu, C. Y.; Feng, X. S.

    2015-12-01

    In the solar atmosphere, the jets are ubiquitous and found to be at various spatia-temporal scales. They are significant to understand energy and mass transport in the solar atmosphere. Recently, the high-speed transition region jets are reported from the observation. Here we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate the mechanism in their formation, as well as their mass and energy contributions to the solar wind. Driven by the supergranular convection motion, the magnetic reconnection between the magnetic loop and the background open flux occurring in the transition region is simulated with a two-dimensional MHD model. The simulation results show that not only a fast hot jet, much resemble the found transition region jets, but also a adjacent slow cool jet, mostly like classical spicules, is launched. The force analysis shows that the fast hot jet is continually driven by the Lorentz force around the reconnection region, while the slow cool jet is induced by an initial kick through the Lorentz force associated with the emerging magnetic flux. Also, the features of the driven jets change with the amount of the emerging magnetic flux, giving the varieties of both jets.With the developed one-dimensional hydrodynamic solar wind model, the time-dependent pulses are imposed at the bottom to simulate the jet behaviors. The simulation results show that without other energy source, the injected plasmas are accelerated effectively to be a transonic wind with a substantial mass flux. The rapid acceleration occurs close to the Sun, and the resulting asymptotic speeds, number density at 0.3 AU, as well as mass flux normalized to 1 AU are compatible with in site observations. As a result of the high speed, the imposed pulses lead to a train of shocks traveling upward. By tracing the motions of the injected plasma, it is found that these shocks heat and accelerate the injected plasma to make part of them propagate upward and eventually escape. The parametric study shows

  17. Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X; Umansky, M; Dudson, B; Snyder, P

    2008-05-15

    The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T{sub e}; T{sub i}) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics.

  18. Computational Flux Balance Analysis Predicts that Stimulation of Energy Metabolism in Astrocytes and their Metabolic Interactions with Neurons Depend on Uptake of K(+) Rather than Glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Giove, Federico; Maraviglia, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Brain activity involves essential functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. The importance of astrocytic functions to neuronal signaling is supported by many experiments reporting high rates of energy consumption and oxidative metabolism in these glial cells....... In the brain, almost all energy is consumed by the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, which hydrolyzes 1 ATP to move 3 Na(+) outside and 2 K(+) inside the cells. Astrocytes are commonly thought to be primarily involved in transmitter glutamate cycling, a mechanism that however only accounts for few % of brain energy...... obtained by (13)C-NMR spectroscopy in rodent brain. When simulated data matched experiments as well as biophysical calculations, the stoichiometry for voltage/ligand-gated Na(+) and K(+) fluxes generated by neuronal activity was close to a 1:1 relationship, and specifically 63/58 Na(+)/K(+) ions per...

  19. Analysis of activation energy in Couette-Poiseuille flow of nanofluid in the presence of chemical reaction and convective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, A.; Shehzad, N.; Ellahi, R.

    2018-03-01

    The motivation of the current article is to explore the energy activation in MHD radiative Couette-Poiseuille flow nanofluid in horizontal channel with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical model of Buongiorno [1] effectively describes the current flow analysis. Additionally, the impact of chemical reaction is also taken in account. The governing flow equations are simplified with the help of boundary layer approximations. Non-linear coupled equations for momentum, energy and mass transfer are tackled with analytical (HAM) technique. The influence of dimensionless convergence parameter like Brownian motion parameter, radiation parameter, buoyancy ratio parameter, dimensionless activation energy, thermophoresis parameter, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless reaction rate, Schmidt number, Brinkman number, Biot number and convection diffusion parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed graphically and in tabular form. From the results, it is elaborate that the nanoparticle concentration is directly proportional to the chemical reaction with activation energy and the performance of Brownian motion on nanoparticle concentration gives reverse pattern to that of thermophoresis parameter.

  20. Latitude-energy structure of multiple ion beamlets in Polar/TIMAS data in plasma sheet boundary layer and boundary plasma sheet below 6 RE radial distance: basic properties and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Velocity dispersed ion signatures (VDIS occurring at the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL are a well reported feature. Theory has, however, predicted the existence of multiple ion beamlets, similar to VDIS, in the boundary plasma sheet (BPS, i.e. at latitudes below the PSBL. In this study we show evidence for the multiple ion beamlets in Polar/TIMAS ion data and basic properties of the ion beamlets will be presented. Statistics of the occurrence frequency of ion multiple beamlets show that they are most common in the midnight MLT sector and for altitudes above 4 RE, while at low altitude (≤3 RE, single beamlets at PSBL (VDIS are more common. Distribution functions of ion beamlets in velocity space have recently been shown to correspond to 3-dimensional hollow spheres, containing a large amount of free energy. We also study correlation with ~100 Hz waves and electron anisotropies and consider the possibility that ion beamlets correspond to stable auroral arcs.

  1. Ground boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  2. Comparative Analysis of NOAA REFM and SNB3GEO Tools for the Forecast of the Fluxes of High-Energy Electrons at GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Boynton, R. J.; Walker, S. N.; Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, D. G.; Billings, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable forecasts of relativistic electrons at geostationary orbit (GEO) are important for the mitigation of their hazardous effects on spacecraft at GEO. For a number of years the Space Weather Prediction Center at NOAA has provided advanced online forecasts of the fluence of electrons with energy >2 MeV at GEO using the Relativistic Electron Forecast Model (REFM). The REFM forecasts are based on real-time solar wind speed observations at L1. The high reliability of this forecasting tool serves as a benchmark for the assessment of other forecasting tools. Since 2012 the Sheffield SNB3GEO model has been operating online, providing a 24 h ahead forecast of the same fluxes. In addition to solar wind speed, the SNB3GEO forecasts use solar wind density and interplanetary magnetic field B(sub z) observations at L1. The period of joint operation of both of these forecasts has been used to compare their accuracy. Daily averaged measurements of electron fluxes by GOES 13 have been used to estimate the prediction efficiency of both forecasting tools. To assess the reliability of both models to forecast infrequent events of very high fluxes, the Heidke skill score was employed. The results obtained indicate that SNB3GEO provides a more accurate 1 day ahead forecast when compared to REFM. It is shown that the correction methodology utilized by REFM potentially can improve the SNB3GEO forecast.

  3. Land-use changes alter radiative energy and water vapor fluxes of a tall-grass Andropogon field and a savanna-woodland continuum in the Orinoco lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, José; Montes, Rubén; Grace, John; Nikonova, Nina; Osío, Anaís

    2008-03-01

    Changes in land use in the Orinoco lowlands affect the daily trends of energy and water vapor fluxes. We analyzed these fluxes along a disturbance gradient beginning from a cultivated tall-grass Andropogon field (S1) and extending over three savanna sites with increasing woody cover over herbaceous vegetation. The savanna sites encompass a herbaceous savanna (S2), a tree savanna (S3) and a woodland savanna (S4). In the wet season, there were differences in the radiation budget: seasonally averaged albedo for S1 (0.17) exceeded that of S2-S4 (0.13-0.14). Eddy covariance fluxes indicate that the partitioning of the daily net radiation (Rn) into sensible and latent heat (lambda E) fluxes depends on land use. During the wet season, evapotranspiration (i.e., lambda E) over the S1-S4 sites accounted for a variable fraction of Rn (i.e., 0.75, 0.52, 0.67 and 0.68, respectively). Therefore, the Bowen ratio was typically below 1. As the dry season progressed, the lambda E/Rn ratio decreased markedly with increasing air and canopy temperatures and air humidity mole fraction deficit. The maximum evaporation rate over the S1-S4 sites was 3.2, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.1 mm day(-1), respectively, and the annual values were 721, 538, 771 and 732 mm year(-1), respectively, equivalent to 49, 65, 52 and 88% of the rainfall. Soil water content fell from a maximum above 0.28 in the wet season to 0.030, 0.026, 0.030 and 0.028 m(3) m(-3) at sites S1-S4, respectively, in the dry season. Leaf area index was greatly reduced as herbaceous vegetation dried out.

  4. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    A 2008 Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions Science 320 889-92 Handoh I C and Lenton T M 2003 Periodic mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events linked by oscillations of the phosphorus and oxygen biogeochemical cycles global Biogeochemical Cycles 17 1092 MacDonald G K, Bennett E M, Potter P A and Ramankutty N 2011 Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world_s croplands Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 3086-91 Malthus T 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population (available at http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/m\\#a1411 Smil V 2000 Phosphorus in the environment: Natural flows and human interferences Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25 53-88 Rockström J et al 2009 A safe operating space for humanity Nature 461 472-5 Sanchez P A and Swaminathan M S 2005 Cutting world hunger in half Science 307 357-9 Schlesinger W H 2009 Planetary boundaries: Thresholds risk prolonged degradation Nature Reports Climate Change doi:10.1038/climate.2009.93 Smith V H and Schindler D W 2009 Eutrophication science: where do we go from here? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24 201-7 Van Kauenbergh S J 2010 World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources (Muscle Shoals, AL: International Fertilizer Development Center) Vitousek P M, Naylor R, Crews T, David M B, Drinkwater L E, Holland E, Johnes P J, Katzenberger J, Martinelli L A, Matson P A, Nziguheba G, Ojima D, Palm C A, Robertson G P, Sanchez P A, Townsend A R, Zhang F S 2009 Nutrient Imbalances in Agricultural Development Science 324 1519-20

  5. Identifying regions of strong scattering at the core-mantle boundary from analysis of PKKP precursor energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, S.; Earle, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    We detect seismic scattering from the core-mantle boundary related to the phase PKKP (PK. KP) in data from small aperture seismic arrays in India and Canada. The detection of these scattered waves in data from small aperture arrays is new and allows a better characterization of the fine-scale structure of the deep Earth especially in the southern hemisphere. Their slowness vector is determined from array processing allowing location of the heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary using back-projection techniques through 1D Earth models. We identify strong scattering at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) beneath the Caribbean, Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula as well as beneath southern Africa. An analysis of the scattering regions relative to sources and receivers indicates that these regions represent areas of increased scattering likely due to increased heterogeneities close to the CMB. The 1. Hz array data used in this study is most sensitive to heterogeneity with scale lengths of about 10. km. Given the small size of the scatterers, a chemical origin of the heterogeneities is likely. By comparing the location of the fine-scale heterogeneity to geodynamical models and tomographic images, we identify different scattering mechanisms in regions related to subduction (Caribbean and Patagonia) and dense thermo chemical piles (Southern Africa). ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. ) Mold Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Myung-Duk; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2014-10-01

    The effects of basicity (CaO/SiO2), B2O3, and Li2O addition on the crystallization behaviors of lime-silica-based mold fluxes have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and single hot thermocouple technique. It was found that the crystallization temperature of cuspidine increased with increasing the basicity of mold fluxes. The crystallization of wollastonite was suppressed with increasing the mold flux basicity due to the enhancement of cuspidine crystallization. The addition of B2O3 suppresses the crystallization of mold flux. The crystallization temperature of mold flux decreases with Li2O addition. The size of cuspidine inc