WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy efficiency standard

  1. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  2. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  3. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle cost-effective...

  4. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... in receiving information that relates to the relationship between energy efficiency and indoor air... higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards. This notice identifies...

  5. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  6. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  7. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...

  8. Standards to develop energy control and energy efficiency in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazy, J.L.; Moutet, C.

    2007-01-01

    Since the late nineties, an energy control standardisation steering body was set up at the AFNOR, prompted by the French administration and ADEME which is chairing it. That body, which became a forum in 2006 brings together stakeholders in various areas concerned by that issue (industries, construction, transport, environment, services,...) as well as the representatives of main companies, professional organisations and standardisation operators acting in the area / of energy in France. Its purpose is to help exchange information and express needs in terms of standardisation in the area of energy and energy efficiency. On its initiative, the European standardisation committees CEN and CENELEC set up in 2002 an equivalent body responsible for the strategic coordination of their energy management programmes and entrusted the steering to our country (ADEME chairing, AFNOR secretariat). In order to better serve the interests of its members, the French forum is now working towards the leadership, in partnership with China, of the strategic standardisation group being set up at the ISO (International Standardisation Organisation) on energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (authors)

  9. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  10. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011] RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  11. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  12. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... EERE-2013-BT-STD-0030] RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  13. Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards for residential appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; McMahon, J.E.; McNeil, M.; Liu, X.

    2003-01-01

    This study estimated energy, environmental, and consumer impacts of US federal residential energy efficiency standards taking effect in the 1988-2007 period. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated key data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 8-9% in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. The standards will save a cumulative total of 26-32 EJ (25-30 quads) by the year 2015, and 63 EJ (60 quads) by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly US$80 billion by 2015, and grows to US$130 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts in the 1987-2050 period is 2.75:1. The cumulative cost of the DOE's program to establish and implement the standards is in the range of US$200-US$250 million. (author)

  14. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  15. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions

  16. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  17. Variability of consumer impacts from energy efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin

    2000-06-15

    A typical prospective analysis of the expected impact of energy efficiency standards on consumers is based on average economic conditions (e.g., energy price) and operating characteristics. In fact, different consumers face different economic conditions and exhibit different behaviors when using an appliance. A method has been developed to characterize the variability among individual households and to calculate the life-cycle cost of appliances taking into account those differences. Using survey data, this method is applied to a distribution of consumers representing the U.S. Examples of clothes washer standards are shown for which 70-90% of the population benefit, compared to 10-30% who are expected to bear increased costs due to new standards. In some cases, sufficient data exist to distinguish among demographic subgroups (for example, low income or elderly households) who are impacted differently from the general population. Rank order correlations between the sampled input distributions and the sampled output distributions are calculated to determine which variability inputs are main factors. This ''importance analysis'' identifies the key drivers contributing to the range of results. Conversely, the importance analysis identifies variables that, while uncertain, make so little difference as to be irrelevant in deciding a particular policy. Examples will be given from analysis of water heaters to illustrate the dominance of the policy implications by a few key variables.

  18. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  19. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and....S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management... June 11, 2010. Cathy Zoi, Assistant Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. [FR Doc. 2010...

  20. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  1. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  2. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Efficiency...

  3. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... climatic differences should be addressed through a singular energy standard addressing manufactured homes... (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and/or the analysis that DOE should conduct in assessing such programs. (10... has concluded its review. DOE intends to develop a regulatory impact analysis (RIA), also identified...

  4. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  5. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  6. Data Center Energy Efficiency Standards in India: Preliminary Findings from Global Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, Sanyukta; Maan, Hermant; Ganguly, Suprotim; Singh, Tanvin; Jayaram, Nisha; Ghatikar, Girish; Greenberg, Steve; Kumar, Satish; Sartor, Dale

    2015-06-01

    Global data center energy consumption is growing rapidly. In India, information technology industry growth, fossil-fuel generation, and rising energy prices add significant operational costs and carbon emissions from energy-intensive data centers. Adoption of energy-efficient practices can improve the global competitiveness and sustainability of data centers in India. Previous studies have concluded that advancement of energy efficiency standards through policy and regulatory mechanisms is the fastest path to accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient practices in the Indian data centers. In this study, we reviewed data center energy efficiency practices in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Using evaluation metrics, we identified an initial set of energy efficiency standards applicable to the Indian context using the existing policy mechanisms. These preliminary findings support next steps to recommend energy efficiency standards and inform policy makers on strategies to adopt energy-efficient technologies and practices in Indian data centers.

  7. Energy efficiency as a resource in state portfolio standards: Lessons for more expansive policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, state electricity portfolio standards in the U.S. are analyzed to examine how energy efficiency is being created as a particular kind of resource through this type of climate change governance. Such policies can incentivize energy efficiency by requiring or encouraging electricity providers to meet a certain percentage of their demand through energy efficiency measures. North Carolina’s portfolio standard is used as an in-depth case study to identify factors that are then compared across all 36 states that include energy efficiency as part of a portfolio requirement or goal. The main finding of this study is that state portfolio standards tend to emphasize demand-side energy efficiency, or energy efficiency on the customer’s side of the electricity meter, and only rarely incentivize a full range of both demand-side and supply-side efficiency changes. As a result, the amount of energy efficiency and climate change mitigation benefits that are likely to result from this type of portfolio standard policy tool are limited. From this analysis, lessons are drawn out for crafting stronger portfolio standards that incentivize a wider range of efficiency changes across electricity networks. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency in 36 U.S. state portfolio standard policies was analyzed. • Such standards were found to incentivize mainly demand-side energy efficiency. • Supply-side energy efficiency was rarely incentivized by portfolio standards. • Such framings likely limit the carbon mitigation potential of these policies. • Recommendations are made for more expansive portfolio standard policies.

  8. Energy efficiency in future wireless networks: cognitive radio standardization requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of mobile and wireless networks and devices is significant, indirectly increasing greenhouse gas emissions and energy costs for operators. Cognitive radio (CR) solutions can save energy for such networks and devices; moreover...

  9. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian; Hö pfner, Hagen; Roychoudhury, Suman; Mansour, Essam

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  10. Governments should implement energy-efficiency standards and labels--cautiously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Energy-efficiency standards and labels can be the most effective long-term energy-efficiency policy any government can implement. This paper describes: (1) the benefits that can be obtained through this policy, (2) which countries are implementing standards and labels and for which products, (3) the processes they are using at each step along the way including the reasons why each step must be done carefully and thoroughly, and (4) the relationship of standard-setting and labeling to other energy-efficiency policies

  11. Methodology for predicting market transformation due to implementation of energy efficiency standards and labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2004-01-01

    There are many papers that have been published on energy efficiency standards and labels. However, a very limited number of articles on the subject have discussed the transformation of appliance energy efficiency in the market after the programs are implemented. This paper is an attempt to investigate the market transformation due to implementation of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labels. Even though the paper only investigates room air conditioners as a case study, the method is also applicable for predicting market transformation for other household electrical appliances

  12. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  13. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  14. Viewpoint Mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances including room air conditioners. The number of users of air conditioners is predicted to grow dramatically in Malaysian households in the future. To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, the Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in early 2004. This paper attempts to predict the potential mitigation of emissions through energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners in Malaysia. The calculations were based on the growth of room air conditioners ownership data in Malaysian households. The study found that the energy efficiency standards for room air conditioners would mitigate a significant amount of emissions in this country

  15. Energy Efficiency: The Implementation of Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS Application on Home Appliances for Residential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS has been widespread across the country especially developed country. However, most consumers do not even know about the MEPS. Without sufficient knowledge, much energy have been wasted before this. The aim of this study is to review the implementation of MEPS of Asia country and to compare electricity consumption of home appliances with star rating and without star rating. In order to fulfil the objectives of the study, the equipment must be chosen correctly and must be learned properly. The home appliances that will be used also need to be chosen so that the comparison between the appliances will be matched correctly. To understand the results, the analysis was done using graphs and table. The purpose of using graph and table is to understand the comparison between appliances more clearly. The results show that home appliances with MEPS is more efficient on energy saving rather than without MEPS. This is the evidence as a method to educate a consumer on energy saving.

  16. Status and Analysis on Effects of Energy Efficiency Standards for Industrial Boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Liu, Meng; Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin

    2017-11-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection is the basic policy of China, and is an important part of ecological civilization construction. The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers.

  17. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...... is that the rise of the green economy can only take place accompanied by considerable institution formation in the form of standards. In this sense, the presence of standards may be seen as an important indicator on the maturity of the greening of the economy. The paper presents early empirical work...

  18. Analysis on effects of energy efficiency regulations & standards for industrial boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng

    2017-11-01

    The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers. Support by Project 2015424050 of Special Fund for quality control Research in the Public Interest

  19. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  20. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use products is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternating current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  1. Study on residential appliances energy efficiency standards Refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, color TVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G.; Cho, S.K.; Choi, S.H.; Jung, B.M.; Han, S.B.; Kim, K.D. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The energy efficiency standards and rating act, as amended by the rational energy utilization act, provides energy efficiency standards and ratings for 6 types of consumer products(refrigerators, air-conditioners, fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, ballasts and cars) authorizes the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) to prescribe amended or new energy efficiency standards and rating standards. This study was initiated by the KIER in 1992. KIER`s assessment of the standards is designed to evaluate their statistical and engineering analysis according to Korean(Industrial) Standards(KS). And to make distinction between the poor efficiency and good efficiency models, 5 grades are classified depending on their tested energy efficiency. This year, based on our analysis, MOTIE mandated updated standards for refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, and fluorescent lamps. Also the objective of this study is to set the energy efficiency standards and to grade for color TV sets. (author). 37 refs., 89 figs., 85 tabs.

  2. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-01-01

    standards. Frequency scaling is one of the best energy efficient techniques for FPGA based VLSI design and is used in this paper. At the end we can conclude that we can conclude that there is 23-40% saving of total power dissipation by using SSTL IO standard at 25 degree Celsius. The main reason for power...... consumption is leakage power at different IO Standards and at different frequencies. In this research work only FPGA work has been performed not ultra scale FPGA....

  3. A review on energy efficiency standards and labels: present status and implementation possibilities in malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.I. Mahlia,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review on energy efficiency standards  and labels for household electrical appliances around the world. Through the review of other country experiences on energy efficiency standards and labels, we attempt to identify savings possibilities in Malaysian households. The implementation possibilities of standards and labels for various household electrical appliances in Malaysia are also examined. It is found that various household appliances in Malaysia offer some potential in reducing electricity consumption. Finally, it is concluded that there are many advantages for Malaysia to implement the standards and labels for household electrical appliances as soon as possible in order to reduce electricity  bills  and energy  consumption  in Malaysian  households.

  4. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Nina Zheng; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  5. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Choudhury, I.A.; NoorLeha, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  6. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  7. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  8. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  9. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  10. Distributional impacts of energy-efficiency certificates vs. taxes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Energy efficiency certificates, dubbed 'white certificates', have been recently implemented in the United Kingdom and will soon start in Italy and France. Energy suppliers have to fund a given quantity of energy efficiency measures, or to buy 'white certificates' from other suppliers who exceed their target. We develop a partial equilibrium model to compare white certificates to other policy instruments for energy efficiency, i.e., taxes and standards. Our conclusions are: First, if white certificates are chosen, each supplier's target should be set as a percentage of the energy they sell rather than in absolute terms. Indeed the latter solution decreases sharply energy suppliers' profit since they cannot pass the cost of certificate generation on to consumers. Such a system thus risks generating a fierce opposition from these industries. Furthermore, setting individual targets independently of the evolution of market shares seems unfair. At last, this system risks creating a large rebound effect, i.e., a large increase in energy services consumption. Second, compared to taxes and standards, white certificates (with targets in percentage of energy sold) seem particularly interesting to reach a certain level of energy savings while limiting distributional effects, thus to limit oppositions to its implementation. Furthermore, they generate less rebound effect than standards and seem more able than taxes to mobilise a part of the no regret potential. However if targets are too weak there is a real risk that white certificates systems fund mostly business-as-usual energy efficiency activities, thus having little impact while delaying the implementation of other policy instruments

  11. Renewable portfolio standards and cost-effective energy-efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahone, A.; Woo, C.K.; Williams, J.; Horowitz, I.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency (EE) are increasingly popular policy tools to combat climate change and dependence on fossil fuels. These supply-side and demand-side policies, however, are often uncoordinated. Using California as a case in point, this paper demonstrates that states could improve resource allocation if these two policies were coordinated by incorporating renewable-energy procurement cost into the cost-effectiveness determination for EE investment. In particular, if renewable energy is relatively expensive when compared to conventional energy, increasing the RPS target raises the cost-effective level of EE investment

  12. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities

  13. Impact of higher energy efficiency standards on housing affordability in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of changes to provincial and national building and energy costs, the impact of increasing energy efficiency standards on housing affordability has been questioned. Determining housing affordability is a complicated process. This report presented the results of a costing analysis completed for upgrades of EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency in homes in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta. The elements of residential construction were identified. In order to better understand the cost impact of energy efficiency upgrades on a home, pricing data was obtained. Costing elements that were examined included housing price indexes; construction material price indexes; unionized trade wages; and land value. Specifically, the report presented the new housing price index analysis using material and labour costs. An analysis of energy efficiency improvement was then presented in terms of lifecycle costs (capital costs and life cycle costing results). It was concluded that although the price of labour and materials is increasing, the value of land is the primary driver for rising house prices. The price of housing is strongly correlated to the price of land and not the price of labour or materials. In addition, moving to EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency for housing in Alberta made homes more affordable for homebuyers by lowering their total monthly housing costs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  14. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  15. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannone, Greg [Novation Analytics; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Reale, Michael [Novation Analytics; Betz, Brian [Novation Analytics

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  16. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  17. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  18. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  19. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  20. Energy efficiency of residential buildings. Energy consumption and investment costs of different building energy standards; Energieeffizienz von Wohngebaeuden. Energieverbraeuche und Investitionskosten energetischer Gebaeudestandards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecken, Christoph; Schulze, Stephan [Bow Ingenieure GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In view of the impending energy transition in Germany, turning away from fossil fuels and atomic power and leading to renewable energy sources, the construction of very energy efficient new buildings gains more and more in importance. Because the saving of energy with efficient buildings offers the highest potential to achieve the energy transition without loss of comfort and also complying with the climate protection target of limitation of the carbon dioxide emission. For new buildings in the initial project planning phase, the client needs qualified consulting concerning a reasonable energy standard for his building. The consulting should comprise the multitude of energy efficiency standards and the related financial incentives and not only cover the minimum standard of the German Building Energy Conservation Regulation EnEV (Energieeinsparverordnung). But the architect can hardly quantify the potentials to reduce energy consumption of buildings considering the multitude of existing standards with multifarious effects on energy consumption, technical requirements and building costs. With the help of an example multi-storey residential building in Hannover, current energy standards for residential buildings are compared. Besides the building construction also the building services like heating, hot water generation and ventilation are considered and the most important results concerning energy consumption and investment costs are compared.

  1. SSTL I/O Standard Based Environment Friendly Energy Efficient ROM Design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Neha; Bansal, Meenakshi; Saini, Rishita

    2014-01-01

    are operating ROM with the highest operating frequency of 4th generation i7 processor to test the compatibility of this design with the latest hardware in use. When there is no demand of peak performance, then we can save 74.5% clock power, 75% signal power, and 30.83% I/O power by operating our device with 1......Stub Series Terminated Logic (SSTL) is an Input/output standard. It is used to match the impedance of line, port and device of our design under consideration. Therefore, selection of energy efficient SSTL I/O standard among available different class of SSTL logic family in FPGA, plays a vital role...

  2. The energy efficiency standards in Mexico; Las normas de eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ybo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion (Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization) that is in force since July 16, 1992, establishes that it corresponds to the agencies of the federal public administration, in its scope of competition, to constitute the National Consultative Committees of Standardization (CCNN) to issue Mexican Official Standards (NOM) on products, systems, processes, methods, facilities, services or activities, as well as to certify, verify and inspect its fulfillment. The NOM are of compulsory application because they have as finality the establishing of the characteristics and/or specifications, criteria and procedures that allow to protect and to promote the improvement of the environment and of the ecosystems, as well as the preservation of the natural resources. The Secretariat of Energy issues the NOM on energy efficiency, which are formulated by the National Consultative Committee of Standardization for the Preservation and Rational Use of Energy Resources (CCNNPURRE), which is presided over by the General Director of CONAE. The standardization of Energy Efficiency in Mexico has allowed savings, in the consumption of electrical and thermal energy, estimated for 2001 of 7,700 GWh and an avoided electrical power of 1 270 MW, which locates it as an important measure in the achievement of the objectives of the CONAE-CCNNPURRE, to conceive and to promote strategies and guidelines of action relative to the saving and efficient and rational use of the energy and as a consequence the preservation of the nonrenewable natural resources. [Spanish] La Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion que esta en vigor desde el 16 de julio de 1992, establece que corresponde a las dependencias de la administracion publica federal, en su ambito de competencia, constituir los Comites Consultivos Nacionales de Normalizacion (CCNN) para expedir Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NOM) sobre productos, sistemas, procesos, metodos, instalaciones, servicios o

  3. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvillet, Ch.; Tochon, P.; Mercier, P.

    2004-01-01

    World energy demand is constantly rising. This is a legitimate trend, insofar as access to energy enables enhanced quality of life and sanitation levels for populations. On the other hand, such increased consumption generates effects that may be catastrophic for the future of the planet (climate change, environmental imbalance), should this growth conform to the patterns followed, up to recent times, by most industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, development of new energy sources and energy efficiency are seen as the major challenges to be taken up for the world of tomorrow. In France, the National Energy Debate indeed emphasized, in 2003, the requirement to control both demand for, and offer of, energy, through a strategic orientation law for energy. The French position corresponds to a slightly singular situation - and a privileged one, compared to other countries - owing to massive use of nuclear power for electricity generation. This option allows France to be responsible for a mere 2% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Real advances can nonetheless still be achieved as regards improved energy efficiency, particularly in the transportation and residential-tertiary sectors, following the lead, in this respect, shown by industry. These two sectors indeed account for over half of the country CO 2 emissions (26% and 25% respectively). With respect to transportation, the work carried out by CEA on the hydrogen pathway, energy converters, and electricity storage has been covered by the preceding chapters. As regards housing, a topic addressed by one of the papers in this chapter, investigations at CEA concern integration of the various devices enabling value-added use of renewable energies. At the same time, the organization is carrying through its activity in the extensive area of heat exchangers, allowing industry to benefit from improved understanding in the modeling of flows. An activity evidenced by advances in energy efficiency for

  4. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  5. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  6. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  7. Information on the Department of Energy's analyses to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-23

    A historical overview of three separate Department of Energy analyses performed to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards is presented. An identification of the assumptions used in each of the analyses and the conclusions reached in each analysis are covered. Standards for furnaces, water heaters, central air conditioners, refrigerators, ranges/ovens, clothes dryers, freezers, and room air conditioners are considered. (MCW)

  8. Financial impact of energy efficiency under a federal combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard: Case study of a Kansas 'super-utility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Historically, local, state and federal policies have separately promoted the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. Federal policymakers are currently considering and several states have enacted a combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard which proponents argue provides a comprehensive approach with greater flexibility and at lower cost. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. Our results suggest that an investor-owned utility is likely to pursue the most lucrative compliance strategy for its shareholders-one that under-invests in energy efficiency resources. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our analysis indicates that an investor-owned utility would be more willing to pursue energy efficiency as a lower-cost CERES compliance strategy. Absent implementing such a regulatory mechanism, separate energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards would improve the likelihood of reducing reliance on fossil fuels at least-cost through the increased pursuit of energy efficiency.

  9. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Potential CO{sub 2} reduction by implementing energy efficiency standard for room air conditioner in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Choudhury, I.A.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2001-09-01

    This study attempts to predict the environmental impact of implementing an energy efficiency standard for room air conditioners in Malaysia. The ownership of room air conditioners has increased tremendously in this country. At present, there are about 528,792 room air conditioners in Malaysian households. In the year 2020, it will be about 1,511,276. The potential carbon dioxide reduction is based on the predicted electricity savings from implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for room air conditioners. The electricity savings are calculated based on the predicted electricity consumption by a single air conditioner in the Malaysian household. The replacement of less efficient units of this appliance is reflected in reduced electricity consumption and emissions from power plants. The energy efficiency provisions of this regulation and agreement provide targets to save money, energy and, most importantly, to protect the environment. (Author)

  11. Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rapid economic development, living standards in China are improving fast. Chinese families are having more household electrical appliances, among which refrigerators are indispensable. Energy consumption of refrigerators is huge in China and causes environmental concerns. China has issued the national energy efficiency standards of household refrigerators, GB12021.2-2003 and GB12021.2-2008 to promote high-efficiency refrigerator production and use. This study evaluated the impacts of the standards on the environment, manufacturers and consumers over a long-term period of 2003-2023. It first evaluated the potential electricity conservation and GHG emission reduction resulting from energy efficiency improvements driven by the standards. Next, manufacturers' technological and economic concerns about complying with the standards were discussed. Some efficiency improving design options were considered and the resulting increases in manufacturing cost and retail price were estimated. The return of consumers from invest in efficiency was analyzed based on lifecycle cost saving of the improved models. The economical viability of the standards was then evaluated by national consumer costs and benefits. Results showed that the considered efficiency standards will potentially save a cumulative total of 588-1180 TWh electricity, and reduce emission of 629-1260 million tons of CO 2 , 4.00-8.04 million tons of SO x and 2.37-4.76 million tons of NO x by 2023, depending on sale share of models by efficiency. In a more environmentally optimal case (75% sale share of high-efficiency models), the national consumer benefits are 121 billion RMB (discounted), with the benefit/cost ratio of consumer's expenditure being 1.45:1. However, the preference to high-efficiency models is substantial influenced by consumer's expectation on return from the additional cost on efficiency.

  12. Intelligent future wireless networks for energy efficiency: overall analysis and standardization activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kliks, A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available solutions supporting sophisticated energy management within each layer of the OSI stack model in the context of wireless networking, as well as the overview of cross-layer energy-efficient applications. All parts of the chapter have adequate references...

  13. Role of energy efficiency standards in reducing CO2 emissions in Germany: An assessment with TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesl, Markus; Das, Anjana; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is widely viewed as an important element of energy and environmental policy. Applying the TIMES model, this paper examines the impacts of additional efficiency improvement measures (as prescribed by the ACROPOLIS project) over the baseline, at the level of individual sectors level as well as in a combined implementation, on the German energy system in terms of energy savings, technological development, emissions and costs. Implementing efficiency measures in all sectors together, CO 2 reduction is possible through substitution of conventional gas or oil boilers by condensing gas boilers especially in single family houses, shifting from petrol to diesel vehicles in private transport, increased use of electric vehicles, gas combined cycle power plants and CHP (combined heat and power production) etc. At a sectoral level, the residential sector offers double benefits of CO 2 reduction and cost savings. In the transport sector, on the other hand, CO 2 reduction is the most expensive, using bio-fuels and methanol to achieve the efficiency targets. An additional case is examined which assumes the CO 2 emissions in the combined efficiency measures case as the target. This case concludes that, with different options, the same amount of CO 2 reduction is possible together with cost reductions over the baseline, confirming that the specific sectoral efficiency targets prescribed by ACROPOLIS may not be the optimal one to mitigate CO 2 . It applies the same efficiency improvement targets in the residential and industrial sectors but scales down the target in the service sector and avoids any further efficiency improvement in the transport sector. It replaces electricity with heating fuel in final energy consumption, while further increasing the use of gas for power generation in 2030. In 2050, part of the electricity demand is met through the import of electricity from renewable sources

  14. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  15. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  17. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... subcommittee chair is assisted by a neutral mediator who facilitates the negotiation process. The role of the... stakeholders and government officials who are familiar with energy efficiency of distribution transformers. In... role generally includes: Impartially assisting the members of the subcommittee in conducting...

  18. 76 FR 50148 - Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... subcommittee chair is assisted by a neutral mediator who facilitates the negotiation process. The role of the... stakeholders and government officials who are familiar with energy efficiency of distribution transformers. In.... Rather, the facilitator's role generally includes: Impartially assisting the members of the subcommittee...

  19. 78 FR 40945 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule... CONTACT: Mr. Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW...

  20. Web technology to support work processes in energy policy research - A case study with energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, Peter; McMahon, James E.; Brown, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on a process to design and build a web-based system to assist staff in day-to-day management and contemporaneous documentation of their work. Other groups that want to use web technology to support their work could apply the approach presented here, but the design itself pertains to a particular set of issues in a unique context. Each user must apply the approach to identify their objectives and design a site to meet them. The main question that the Energy Efficiency Standards Group addressed was: ''How can we facilitate documentation of interim results and final products while conducting a complex, interdependent set of analyses by multiple authors under time pressures for delivering a final product?'' The approach to address this question includes categorization of the components of the work, discussions with staff, development of infrastructure support for documentation, implementation of the documentation process and integration with the workflow, and follow- up with staff. The search for a solution raised a number of issues such as the need for a thorough understanding of the work, consensus building by inclusion of key staff, and deliverable scheduling to allow for contemporaneous documentation. Documentation results vary among the product analyses, from extensive internal and external use to much slower adoption. Complaints include the length of the input forms and pressure from clients to deliver results. But with repeated demand for interim output, the need for thorough contemporaneous documentation still remains. Accordingly, as problems arise there is continued commitment among the staff to address them

  1. Impact of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  2. Impacts of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  3. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...

  4. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  5. Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government of South Africa, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank Group. A large share of the research for this report was conducted on a v...

  6. Standardization of low energy beta and beta-gamma complex emitters by the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute standardization of radioactive solutions of low energy beta emitters and beta-gamma emitters with a high probability of disintegration to the ground state is described; the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods were used. Both types of radionuclides were mathematically and physically treated in an unified manner. The theoretical relations between different beta spectra were calculated according to Williams' model and experimentally verified for: 35 S + 60 Co, 35 S + 95 Nb, 147 Pm + 60 Co, 14 C + 95 Nb and two beta branches of 99 Mo. The optimum range of beta efficiency variation was indicated. The basic supposition that all beta efficieny tend to unity in the same time was experimentally verified, using two 192 Ir beta branches. Four computer programs, written in the FORTRAN IV language, were elaborated, for the adequate processing of the experimental data. Good precision coefficients according to international standards were obtained in the absolute standardization of 35 S, 147 Pm, 99 Mo solutions. (author)

  7. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.

    1995-01-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  8. Energy, economic and environmental benefits of using high-efficiency motors to replace standard motors for the Malaysian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Electric motors use major share (i.e. about 30-80% of total industrial energy consumption) of total industrial energy use around the world. Experiences from other countries show that government intervention in the form of regulations such as mandatory and voluntary approaches can save sizeable amount of energy along with the reduction in emissions associated with energy savings. This paper presents potential energy savings by introducing high-efficiency motors as a case study in Malaysian industrial sector. Emission reductions associated with the energy savings has been estimated and presented as well. It was also estimated that a cumulative amount of 1940 and 892 GWh of energy can be saved for 20 and 120 kW motors, respectively, in Malaysia relative to BAU over the next 10 years. Similarly, a cumulative amount of USD 100 million and USD 60 million can be saved as utility bills for the same motor categories. It has been found that the payback period of different capacities of motors are less than a year. Based on results, it was found that 1789 million kg of CO 2 emission can be avoided by replacing standard motors with high-efficiency motors.

  9. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R D; Kantner, C L S; Gerke, B F; Chu, S

    2014-01-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs. (letter)

  10. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K

    2015-01-01

    solar charge inverter. We also observed maximum total power reduction in LVCMOS18 (Artix-7 FPGA) as compared to other I/O standards at 10 GHz. Also there is maximum total power reduction in POD12 (Ultra Scale Kintex) as compared to other I/O standards at 2 GHz. There is also a significant change...

  11. Setting effective mandatory energy efficiency standards and labelling regulations: A review of best practices in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • S and L regulations are needed to materialize the various benefits of energy efficiency. • S and L regulations can appear in various formats as in the Asia–Pacific region. • Effective regime has to be clear, authoritative, open, and enforceable. • Clear policy, customisation, inclusiveness, transparency and flexibility are desirable. - Abstract: This paper attempts to inform policy makers and legislators on how to set energy efficiency standards and labelling (S and L) regulations. It draws lessons from the literature on S and L regulations in the Asia–Pacific region and from practical experience in drafting the S and L regulations for Brunei Darussalam. The paper proposes necessary components for effective S and L regulations, as follows: clear liabilities, authoritative administration, open principles for technical systems, and enforceable mechanisms. It also recommends some key issues in good practice toward effective S and L regulations, such as policy making in advance, customised legislation, inclusive and transparent legislative procedure, and flexibility in the legislation

  12. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  13. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  14. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  15. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  16. Reconsidering energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental policies are reconsidering energy efficiency. In a perfect market, rational and well informed consumers reach economic efficiency which, at the given prices of energy and capital, corresponds to physical efficiency. In the real world, market failures and cognitive frictions distort the consumers from perfectly rational and informed choices. Green incentive schemes aim at balancing market failures and directing consumers toward more efficient goods and services. The problem is to fine tune the incentive schemes [it

  17. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  18. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  19. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  20. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER

  1. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  2. Energy efficiency: 2004 world overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) has been collaborating with ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) on a joint project 'Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'. APERC (Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre) and OLADE (Latin American Energy Organisation) have also participated in the study, which has been monitoring and evaluating energy efficiency policies and their impacts around the world. WEC Member Committees have been providing data and information and ENERDATA (France) has provided technical assistance. This report, published in August 2004, presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in 63 countries, with a specific focus on five policy measures, for which in-depth case studies were prepared by selected experts: - Minimum energy efficiency standards for household electrical appliances; - Innovative energy efficiency funds; - Voluntary/negotiated agreements on energy efficiency/ CO 2 ; - Local energy information centres; - Packages of measures. In particular, the report identifies the policy measures, which have proven to be the most effective, and can be recommended to countries which have recently embarked on the development and implementation of energy demand management policies. During the past ten years, the Kyoto Protocol and, more recently, emerging concerns about security of supply have raised, both the public and the political profile of energy efficiency. Almost all OECD countries and an increasing number of other countries are implementing energy efficiency policies adapted to their national circumstances. In addition to the market instruments (voluntary agreements, labels, information, etc.), regulatory measures are widely introduced where the market fails to give the right signals (buildings, appliances). In developing countries, energy efficiency is equally important, even if the drivers are different compared to industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and local pollution often have a

  3. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  4. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  5. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  6. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  7. Energy efficient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Solar Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building Design and Town Planning (RER/87/006) is a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project of the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, France, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. The project began in 1988 and comes to a conclusion at the end of 1991. It is to enhance the professional skills of practicing architects, engineers and town planners in European countries to design energy efficient buildings which reduce energy consumption and make greater use of passive solar heating and natural cooling techniques. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is the Executing Agency of the project which is implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Energy, General Energy Programme of Work for 1990-1994, sub-programme 5 Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE/ENERGY/15). The project has five main outputs or results: an international network of institutions for low energy building design; a state-of-the-art survey of energy use in the built environment of European IPF countries; a simple computer program for energy efficient building design; a design guide and computer program operators' manual; and a series of international training courses in participating European IPF countries. Energy Efficient Design is the fourth output of the project. It comprises the design guide for practicing architects and engineers, for use mainly in mid-career training courses, and the operators' manual for the project's computer program

  8. I/O Standard Based Thermal/Energy Efficient Green Communication For Wi-Fi Protected Access on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Tanesh; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed how does life and reliability of an integrated circuit is affected when it is operated in different regions under different temperatures. We have taken Fibonacci generator as our target circuit and LVCMOS as I/O standards. WPA and WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access) key can...... be generated with Fibonacci generator. Here, thermal efficient green Fibonacci Generator is used to generate key for Wi-Fi Protected Access in order to make green communication possible under different room temperature. By analysis it is observed that at standard normal temperature (21degrees C), LVCMOS12 have...

  9. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  10. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  11. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  12. Energy Efficiency Center - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Energy Efficiency Center (EEC) activities have been concentrated on Energy Efficiency Network (SEGE), education and training of energy auditors. EEC has started studies related to renewable fuels (bio fuel, wastes) and other topics related to environment protection. EEC has continued close collaboration with Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. It has been organized and conducted Seminar and Workshop on ''How to Reduce Energy and Water Cost in Higher Education Buildings'' for general and technical managers of the higher education institutions. This Seminar was proceeded by the working meeting on energy efficiency strategy in higher education at the Ministry of National Education. EEC has worked out proposal for activities of Cracow Regional Agency for Energy Efficiency and Environment and has made offer to provide services for this Agency in the field of training, education and consulting. The vast knowledge and experiences in the field of energy audits have been used by the members of EEC in lecturing at energy auditors courses authorized by the National Energy Efficiency Agency (KAPE). Altogether 20 lectures have been delivered. (author)

  13. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  14. Prospective Evaluation of the Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of China’s 2010 – 2013 Efficiency Standards for Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group

    2016-07-01

    Since China introduced its first mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for eight major household products in 1989, its MEPS program has expanded significantly to cover nearly 60 residential, industrial and commercial products. In June of 2012, the pace of standards development for new and revised standards was further accelerated with the launch of the national “100 Energy Efficiency Standards.” Initiatives. An unprecedented 21 MEPS were adopted by China from 2012 to 2013, compared to only 7 MEPS adopted from 2010 to 2011. The Chinese MEPS program now covers 15 products in the residential sector, 15 types of commercial and office equipment, 14 types of industrial equipment and 13 lighting products, making it one of the most comprehensive MEPS program in the world. This study provides an updated prospective evaluation of the potential energy and CO2 impact of 23 of the 28 MEPS adopted by China from 2010 to 2013. This study updates a previous analysis (Zhou et al. 2011) by quantifying the additional potential energy and CO2 reductions from the newest standards that have been adopted since 2010. The most recent actual and projected sales, usage, and efficiency data were collected for 14 product categories covered under 23 MEPS adopted between 2010 and 2013. Three scenarios are then used to quantify the energy and CO2 reduction potential of the one-time implementation of these 23 MEPS, including a baseline counterfactual scenario, the actual MEPS scenario and a best available technologies efficiency scenario. The setting of the baseline efficiency is crucial to determining the savings potential of the new and revised MEPS and international best available technology efficiency levels, as it reflects the market average in the absence of MEPS. For this study, the average baseline is based on either the reported 2010 market-average efficiency if sales-weighted efficiency data is available for new product MEPS and

  15. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  16. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  17. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  18. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  19. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  20. Energy efficiency and energy management: an abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coullet-Demaiziere, Corinne; Barthet, Marie-Claire; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Mirguet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    As France has just published a decree on the energy audit for large companies, and has thus been among the first countries to comply with an article of the European directive on energy efficiency, a set of articles discusses various aspects of these issues of energy efficiency and energy management. A first one presents this mandatory energy audit as a tool for a better energy efficiency, and illustrates the relationship between this commitment and the ISO 50001 standard for French large companies. A second article outlines the tools and standards of application of this energy audit in different legal texts. A third one comments the introduction of four new European arrangements on the labelling of products (indication of energy performance by retailers, objective of reduction of energy consumption, information displayed on site and on-line for various household appliances, current legislation). The next article comments the new German legislation on renewable energies which implements environmental requirements higher than European objectives, and tries to boost the carbon market. The presence of the ISO 50001 certification in the German law is also briefly addressed. Then, an article proposes an overview of a bill project, opinions of experts, and way to go for the new arrangement for energy saving certificates (CEE, certificat d'economie d'energie) launched by the French ministry of Ecology, and which aims at a 700 TWh saving. The content of each article of the bill project is presented and explained, and the relationship between certificate application and some standards is highlighted. The last article comments the decision of the European Court of Justice on the compatibility of Flemish Green Certificates with the European law

  1. Canadian energy standards : residential energy code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K. [SAR Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A survey of residential energy code requirements was discussed. New housing is approximately 13 per cent more efficient than housing built 15 years ago, and more stringent energy efficiency requirements in building codes have contributed to decreased energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a survey of residential energy codes across Canada has determined that explicit demands for energy efficiency are currently only present in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. The survey evaluated more than 4300 single-detached homes built between 2000 and 2005 using data from the EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) database. House area, volume, airtightness and construction characteristics were reviewed to create archetypes for 8 geographic areas. The survey indicated that in Quebec and the Maritimes, 90 per cent of houses comply with ventilation system requirements of the National Building Code, while compliance in the rest of Canada is much lower. Heat recovery ventilation use is predominant in the Atlantic provinces. Direct-vent or condensing furnaces constitute the majority of installed systems in provinces where natural gas is the primary space heating fuel. Details of Insulation levels for walls, double-glazed windows, and building code insulation standards were also reviewed. It was concluded that if R-2000 levels of energy efficiency were applied, total average energy consumption would be reduced by 36 per cent in Canada. 2 tabs.

  2. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  3. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  4. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  5. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  6. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...

  7. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  8. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  9. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  10. 77 FR 19008 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    .... The development of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Office of Energy...

  11. Present conditions and perspectives of the standardization of the energy efficiency in Mexico; Actualidad y perspectivas del programa de normalizacion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Pulido, Henry Anli; Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    The first energy efficiency standards of compulsory type were implemented in some states of the U.S. and in 1990 this country`s Federal government adopted them, since then, they have spread all over the world. This paper describes that under the frame of the National Program for Energy Modernization (1900-1994) and the National Development Program (1995-2000) of Mexico were considered as a priority the rational use of the energy, the conservation of the energy resources and the environmental protection. It is particularly mentioned, the standardization program of energy efficiency that has been developed that includes the limiting specification of the energy consumption or equipment efficiency, an essay method to determine the energy performance and the description of the label that will inform the users of the equipment energy performance [Espanol] Las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica de tipo obligatorio se implantaron en algunos estados de Estados Unidos y en 1990 las adopto el gobierno federal de ese pais, a partir de entonces se han difundido por todo el mundo. En el presente trabajo se describe que en el marco del Programa Nacional de Modernizacion Energetica (1900-1994) y del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (1995-2000) de Mexico, se consideran como prioridad el uso racional de energia, la conservacion de recursos energeticos y la proteccion al medio ambiente. Se menciona particularmente, el programa de normalizacion de eficiencia energetica que se ha desarrollado incluye la especificacion del limite de consumo energetico o eficiencia del equipo, un metodo de ensayo para determinar el rendimiento energetico y la descripcion de la etiqueta que informara a los usuarios sobre el comportamiento energetico del equipo

  12. Present conditions and perspectives of the standardization of the energy efficiency in Mexico; Actualidad y perspectivas del programa de normalizacion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Pulido, Henry Anli; Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The first energy efficiency standards of compulsory type were implemented in some states of the U.S. and in 1990 this country`s Federal government adopted them, since then, they have spread all over the world. This paper describes that under the frame of the National Program for Energy Modernization (1900-1994) and the National Development Program (1995-2000) of Mexico were considered as a priority the rational use of the energy, the conservation of the energy resources and the environmental protection. It is particularly mentioned, the standardization program of energy efficiency that has been developed that includes the limiting specification of the energy consumption or equipment efficiency, an essay method to determine the energy performance and the description of the label that will inform the users of the equipment energy performance [Espanol] Las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica de tipo obligatorio se implantaron en algunos estados de Estados Unidos y en 1990 las adopto el gobierno federal de ese pais, a partir de entonces se han difundido por todo el mundo. En el presente trabajo se describe que en el marco del Programa Nacional de Modernizacion Energetica (1900-1994) y del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (1995-2000) de Mexico, se consideran como prioridad el uso racional de energia, la conservacion de recursos energeticos y la proteccion al medio ambiente. Se menciona particularmente, el programa de normalizacion de eficiencia energetica que se ha desarrollado incluye la especificacion del limite de consumo energetico o eficiencia del equipo, un metodo de ensayo para determinar el rendimiento energetico y la descripcion de la etiqueta que informara a los usuarios sobre el comportamiento energetico del equipo

  13. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  14. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  15. Passive House at the crossroads: The past and the present of a voluntary standard that managed to bridge the energy efficiency gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Liana; Berker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in dwellings is generally seen as the low-hanging fruit of climate change mitigation. In particular decreased heat loss through better insulation is suggested as one of the most cost-effective means to achieve the ambitious national and international goals of climate gas reduction. However, the literature shows that a profitable technological solution is not sufficient to reach the energy goals. Aspects such as a lack of information, unobserved costs, and heterogeneity among users can compromise the success of technical innovation. Still, there are successful concepts that drive the technological development in the construction sector. The Passive House is an example for such innovations that manage to bridge the energy efficiency gap. This paper addresses the Passive House concept and standard as a success story of technological innovation. With Bruno Latour's Science in Action (1987) as a starting point, we describe the conditions under which the standard was created, the role of the network built around the Passive House Institute, and the consequences of exporting the standard. We identify success factors that have supported the diffusion of the Passive House standard and concept and discuss its possible development in the current situation which is characterized by its wide-spread adoption. - Highlights: • We present the Passive House (PH) as example of technological innovation. • The developers of PH managed to overcome the barriers to energy efficiency. • Successful innovation is more than good technology. • The heterogeneity of adopters of PH is growing. • The future of PH: the tension between rigid control and flexible adaptability

  16. Using energy efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipkow, J.; Brunner, C. U.

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive article discusses the perspectives for reducing electricity consumption in Switzerland. The increase in consumption is discussed that has occurred in spite of the efforts of the Swiss national energy programmes 'Energy 2000' and 'SwissEnergy'. The fact that energy consumption is still on the increase although efficient and economically-viable technology is available is commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the market alone cannot provide a complete solution and that national and international efforts are needed to remedy things. In particular, the external costs that are often not included when estimating costs are stressed. Several technical options available, such as the use of fluorescent lighting, LCD monitors and efficient electric motors, are looked at as are other technologies quoted as being a means of reducing power consumption. Ways of reducing stand-by losses and system optimisation are looked at as are various scenarios for further development and measures that can be implemented in order to reduce power consumption

  17. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  18. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  19. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  20. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  1. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  2. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  4. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  5. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  6. Energy Efficiency in Swimming Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kampel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    High and increasing energy use is a worldwide issue that has been reported and documented in the literature. Various studies have been performed on renewable energy and energy efficiency to counteract this trend. Although using renewable energy sources reduces pollution, improvements in energy efficiency reduce total energy use and protect the environment from further damage. In Europe, 40 % of the total energy use is linked to buildings, making them a main objective concerning...

  7. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  8. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  9. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  10. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  11. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  12. Energy efficiency: Lever for the Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The Eco-electric industry group (FFIE, FGME, Gimelec, IGNES, SERCE) has conducted a study to evaluate the energy saving potential of active energy efficiency solutions in the residential and commercial building sectors. Based on field implementations and demonstrators, it has been demonstrated that active energy efficiency can sustainably achieve substantial savings for households, companies and public authorities. Energy Efficiency - Lever for the energy transition presents the results and conclusions of that study, alongside with recommendations for public authority in terms of building retrofit policy for putting France on the best possible 'trajectory' from a budgetary and environmental point of view. (author)

  13. Energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    1992-01-01

    The main sources of Pakistan's energy supply are oil, natural gas, coal, hydro power, nuclear power and liquefied petroleum gas. At present 75 % of total energy delivered is met through oil and gas. The limited resources and financial constraints have proved to be stumbling block in the way of prosperity and economics stability. Lighting is a conspicuous consumer of energy and thus an easy prey for saving drives which is indeed a very promising target for energy saving. (A.B.)

  14. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus...

  15. Application of best practice for setting minimum energy efficiency standards in technically disadvantaged countries: Case study of Air Conditioners in Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Setting MEPS requires significant data, financial resources and technical capacity. • Application of best practice in technical disadvantaged countries (TDCs) was demonstrated. • Best practice was successfully applied to Brunei for its AC MEPS. • For Brunei, COP at 2.9 is recommended and 15% efficiency improvement is achievable. • The methodology is applicable to other appliances in any TDCs. - Abstract: Application of the best practice of setting minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in technically disadvantaged countries (TDCs) faces many barriers. The best practice of determining MEPS has a comprehensive analytical framework including engineering-economic analysis, life-cycle cost-benefit analysis, as well stakeholders’ and market impact assessments. However, TDCs usually are lack of reference product classes, market data, and other necessary inputs data. This study demonstrated how to overcome those barriers to apply the best practice to TDCs using the actual experience in setting initial MEPS for Air Conditioners (ACs) in Brunei from scratch with limited secondary data as an example. The series of application works include definition of the product classes and the baseline group; collection of market data; formulation of cost-efficiency relationship from the market data; examination of the economic, environmental, and financial impacts of various MEPS options; revealing of the consumers’ willingness to pay; and analysis of the impacts and responses from the industry and consumers. The coordination with the compliance of the Montreal Protocol was also considered. The methodology should also be applicable to setting MEPF for other appliances in any TDCs.

  16. Energy efficiency: utopia or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In its 2006 allocution the world council on the energy WEC, analyzes the role of the energy efficiency in the energy life cycle. In spite of different objectives followed by the developing and developed countries, implement a world energy efficiency economy is a challenge possible by the cooperation.The WEC is an ideal forum for the information and experience exchange. (A.L.B.)

  17. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...... energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  18. USSR energy efficiency and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1991-06-01

    The U.S.S.R. is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. Its share of global energy use reached above 17% in 1988. The soviet energy system is characterized by low efficiency and high per capita energy consumption, although there are some reasons justifying the greater U.S.S.R. energy use per unit of product output than in other industrialized countries. The present energy-savings potential is approximately equal to one-half of the domestic energy consumption. Improvements in energy efficiency at all levels of the national economy are now considered to be the primary goal of national energy policy for the next couple of decades. Being endowed with abundant natural gas resources, the U.S.S.R. will count on this energy source in the future to improve its energy efficiency, reduce expenses and cope with air pollution. After 2005-2010, stabilized primary energy consumption may be reached or there may even be a decline of total energy use. The U.S.S.R. could reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% by 2030 but with substantial negative impacts on GNP growth. Required improvements in the Soviet energy system depend on changes in energy management, including reduction of the role of centralized planning, decentralization and privatization of energy-producing facilities, energy-price reforms, reshaping of investment patterns, reduction in military expenditures, etc. (author)

  19. Is energy efficiency environmentally friendly?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, H. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2000-07-01

    The paper challenges the view that improving the efficiency of energy use will lead to a reduction in national energy consumption, and hence is an effective policy for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. It argues that improving energy efficiency lowers the implicit price of energy and hence makes its use more affordable, thus leading to greater use. The paper presents the views of economists, as well as green critics of 'efficiency' and the 'dematerialization' thesis. It argues that a more effective CO{sub 2} policy is to concentrate on shifting to non-fossil fuel, like renewables, subsidized through a carbon tax. Ultimately what is needed, to limit energy consumption is energy conservation not energy efficiency. 44 refs.

  20. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Attention: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and...

  1. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  2. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  3. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren't always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation

  4. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  6. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  7. Effective education for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2008-01-01

    A lot of today's world vices can be eliminated if certain targeted modules and adapted curricula are introduced in the schooling system. One of these vices is energy squandering with all its negative consequences for the planet (e.g. depletion of finite energy sources and the subsequent climate change). This paper describes the results of an energy-thrift information and education project taking place in different levels of education in Crete-Greece, which records 321 students' and their parents' routine energy-related behavior and proves that this behavior changes to a more energy efficient one, after the dissemination of relevant information and the participation into the energy education projects. Namely, response percentages indicating the energy-efficient behavior increased after project participation while the ones indicating an energy-squandering behavior decreased. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was statistically significant in all energy behavior questions related to students and to most questions related to parents

  8. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  9. Energy efficiency initiatives: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Dipankar [ICFAI Business School, Kolkata, (IBS-K) (India)

    2007-07-01

    India, with a population of over 1.10 billion is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. As domestic sources of different conventional commercial energy are drying up, dependence on foreign energy sources is increasing. There exists a huge potential for saving energy in India. After the first 'oil shock' (1973), the government of India realized the need for conservation of energy and a 'Petroleum Conservation Action Group' was formed in 1976. Since then many initiatives aiming at energy conservation and improving energy efficiency, have been undertaken (the establishment of Petroleum Conservation Research Association in 1978; the notification of Eco labelling scheme in 1991; the formation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency in 2002). But no such initiative was successful. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changing importance of energy conservation/efficiency measures which have been initiated in India between 1970 and 2005.The present study tries to analyze the limitations and the reasons of failure of those initiatives. The probable reasons are: fuel pricing mechanism (including subsidies), political factors, corruption and unethical practices, influence of oil and related industry lobbies - both internal and external, the economic situation and the prolonged protection of domestic industries. Further, as India is opening its economy, the study explores the opportunities that the globally competitive market would offer to improve the overall energy efficiency of the economy. The study suggests that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) - the newly formed nodal agency for improving energy efficiency of the economy may be made an autonomous institution where intervention from the politicians would be very low. For proper implementation of different initiatives to improve energy efficiency, BEE should involve more the civil societies (NGO) from the inception to the implementation stage of the programs. The paper also

  10. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  11. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  12. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  13. Energy efficiency and renewables policies: Promoting efficiency or facilitating monopsony?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The cliche in the electricity sector, the 'cheapest power plant is the one we don't build,' neglects the benefits of the energy that plant would generate. That economy-wide perspective need not apply in considering benefits to only consumers if not building that plant was the exercise of monopsony power. A regulator maximizing consumer welfare may need to avoid rationing demand at monopsony prices. Subsidizing energy efficiency to reduce electricity demand at the margin can solve that problem, if energy efficiency and electricity use are substitutes. Renewable energy subsidies, percentage use standards, or feed in tariffs may also serve monopsony as well with sufficient inelasticity in fossil fuel electricity supply. We may not observe these effects if the regulator can set price as well as quantity, lacks buyer-side market power, or is legally precluded from denying generators a reasonable return on capital. Nevertheless, the possibility of monopsony remains significant in light of the debate as to whether antitrust enforcement should maximize consumer welfare or total welfare. - Research Highlights: → Subsidizing energy efficiency can promote monopsony, if efficiency and use are substitutes. → Renewable energy subsidies, portfolio standards, or feed-in tariffs may also promote monopsony. → Effects require buyer-side market power and ability to deny generators a reasonable return. → Monopsony is significant in light of whether antitrust should maximize consumer or total welfare.

  14. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  15. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0024] Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for Exemption From Federal Preemption of Massachusetts' Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Non...

  16. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  17. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various

  18. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  19. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  20. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  1. Energy Efficiency: Finding Leadership Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rosehart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1995 and 2011, the population of Alberta increased by roughly 40 per cent, but energy use in the province grew much faster, with a 62 per cent increase over the same period. In the industrial sector, the province’s largest energy consumer, demands grew 110 per cent. In mining and oil-and-gas extraction specifically, energy use over that period soared, growing by 355 per cent. That remarkable growth in energy consumption creates a particular challenge for Alberta Premier Alison Redford, who in 2011 ordered her ministers to develop a plan that “would make Alberta the national leader in energy efficiency and sustainability.” The province is still waiting. The incentives to become more energy efficient are not particularly strong in Alberta. The province’s terrain and size favour larger and less-efficient vehicles. Energy in the province is abundant, so there is little cause for concern over energy security. And energy is relatively affordable, particularly for a population that is more affluent than the Canadian average. There is little pressure on Albertans to radically alter their energy consumption behaviour. Yet, improved energy efficiency could position businesses in Alberta to become even more globally competitive, in addition to leading to improved air quality and public health. And for a province racing to keep up with growing energy demand, effective measures that promote conservation will prove much cheaper than adding yet more expensive infrastructure to the energy network. Many other jurisdictions have already provided examples of methods Alberta could employ to effectively promote energy conservation. First, Alberta must set hard targets for its goals to save energy, and then monitor that progress through transparent accounting, measuring and reporting. The provincial government can also nurture a culture of energy conservation, by formally and publicly recognizing leadership in efficiency improvements in industry and

  2. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  3. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Qureshi, M.U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  4. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  5. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  6. Energy efficiency in the foreground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-01-01

    In this interview with Eberhard Jochem, professor at the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics at the Federal Institute of Science and Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, several energy-relevant topics are discussed. These include high oil prices, possible power shortages and binding commitments in the climate-protection area. The question is asked, how, in consideration of such general conditions, energy use and energy supply should develop in Switzerland. Options for increasing efficiency or the tapping of new energy sources is discussed, as is Switzerland's increasing energy consumption. The '2000 Watt' concept being worked on at the ETH and the activities needed for its realisation are discussed. The effects of this concept on economical and business development are discussed. The potential of renewable forms of energy and the possibility of building combined gas and steam power stations are looked at. Ways of promoting renewable energy and questions concerning the extent of the state intervention in the energy business are considered

  7. 77 FR 23238 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ...: Comments on the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Office of Energy...

  8. Energy production and reactor efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Doubts have been raised in relation to the economic and energetic efficiency of nuclear reactors. Some economists are questioning whether, when all the capital and material inputs to fission technology are considered, nuclear reactors yield sufficiently large amounts of energy to show a nett gain of energy. (author)

  9. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Standards Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The policy with respect to the development and use of standards in the Department of Energy (DOE) programs concerned with maintaining and developing the nuclear option for the civilian sector (both in the form of the currently used light water reactors and for advanced concepts including the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor), is embodied in a Nuclear Standards Policy, issued in 1978, whose perspectives and philosophy are discussed

  10. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  11. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  12. Energy Efficiency Policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beravs, F.

    1998-01-01

    When Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, its energy sector was characterised by largely centralised state planning and artificially low prices maintained by widespread subsidies. Supply side considerations tended to dominate the energy policy and sectoral planning. As a result the final energy intensity in Slovenia was (still albeit declining) considerably higher than the EU average. In order to support economic growth and transition to a modern market economy, integrated and competitive in the European and world market structures, the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted a resolution on the Strategy of Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia in early 1996. In the field of energy use, the long-term strategic orientation is to increase energy efficiency in all sectors of energy consumption. The main objective can be summarised as to secure the provision of reliable and environmentally friendly energy services at least costs. In quantitative terms the Strategy attaches a high priority to energy efficiency and environmental protection and sets the target of improving the overall energy efficiency by 2% p.a. over the next 10 to 15 years. To achieve the target mentioned above the sectoral approach and a number of policy instruments have been foreseen. Besides market based energy prices which will, according to the European Energy Charter, gradually incorporate the cost of environment and social impacts, the following policy instruments will be intensified and budget-supported: education and awareness building, energy consultation, regulations and agreements, financial incentives, innovation and technology development. The ambitious energy conservation objectives represent a great challenge to the whole society. (author)

  13. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Norma; Corcuera, Roberto; Palacios, Tulio A.; Hey, Alfredo M.; Berte, G.; Trama, L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author) [es

  14. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  15. CEE Energy Efficiency Report - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecl, V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of future trends of energy consumption shows that, in the absence of an active energy policy which promotes energy efficiency, energy consumption will increase as a whole by approximately 6.8% by 2012 continuing to raise after this period.. This result hides large differences between the different sources of energy (mainly heat, fuels and electricity) and between the different sectors - transport, industry, buildings etc. It is therefore clear that a strong energy policy is needed to counterbalance the expected increase in energy consumption in all sectors, with emphasis on measures in the building sector (both residential and tertiary) and in the transport sector. Furthermore improvements in the district heating sector are also essential to prevent further disconnection from district heating and a shift to other means of heating. A review of the main barriers to energy efficiency leads to the conclusion that while significant changes are needed in the regulatory framework, the lack of access to finance and the general lack of awareness about existing technologies and best practice represent the greatest barriers. In order to evaluate the success of energy. In a few studies available from past 2-3 years the calculation of low and high targets for energy policy was elaborated. The low targets would represent about 11% - 12% reduction in overall energy consumption. The high targets would represent a 13% - 15% reduction in overall energy consumption. Policy instruments have been identified which can turn energy efficiency into one of the driving forces of the overall economic and development strategy of the country. Some of these instruments deal with general issues such as general policy issues, regulatory and legal aspects, the institutional framework and fiscal, taxation and pricing policy. They are designed to improve the present conditions and would use only a limited part of the available public budget. The state budget dedicated to energy issues will

  16. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  18. Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus NREL ensures the resiliency of our future energy and water systems through energy efficiency strategies and technologies , renewable energy, and water efficiency on the NREL campus. FY17 Energy Intensity. The South Table Mountain

  19. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  20. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  1. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  2. The Challenge of Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of renewable energies sets some binding targets for the contribution of renewable energies in 2020 to total consumption, setting the share at 20% of final energy demand, with a particularisation of 10% for the transport sector, and also a 20% reduction of greenhouse gases Together with these targets, it also sets another target relative to energy efficiency, aiming for a 20% improvement, under the terms set down by the Commission in its announcement dated 19 October 2006. This energy saving target is going to have a decisive influence on the achievement of the other two. In order to quantify the degree of difficulty of achieving the saving target and determine the policies and measures to be taken, we are going to analyze the evolution of energy efficiency (energy consumption energy units per unit of GDP - economic unit) in Spain from 1980 to date and the value of energy intensity that we should have in 2020 to achieve the targets. This will give us an idea of the magnitude of the challenge and, therefore, of the efforts we will have to make to achieve the target. (Author)

  3. State Energy Efficiency Benefits and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the benefits of energy efficiency and how to assess its potential for your state. Also, find details on energy efficiency policies, programs, and resources available for furthering energy efficiency goals.

  4. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  5. EYES -- Energy Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Karl, Holger; Petrioli, Chiara; Zorzi, Michele; Kip, Harry; Lentsch, Thomas; Conti, M.; Giordano, S.; Gregori, E.; Olariu, S.

    The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It will address the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to

  6. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Hoyt Battey, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S...

  7. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  8. Different I/O Standard and Technology Based Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Vedic Multiplier Design for Green Wireless Communication on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kumar, Tanesh

    2017-01-01

    and that eventually decrease power dissipation of wireless communications systems. In order to study the effect of different process technology (40, 65, 90 nm) on our design, a novel design is implemented on 40, 65 and 90 nm based FPGA. In this work, we are integrating thermal aware design approach for energy......This paper deals with low power multiplier design that plays a significant role in green wireless communications systems. Over the period of time, researchers have proposed various multiplier designs in order to get high speed. Vedic multiplier is considered as one of the low power multiplier along...... with high speed as compared with traditional array and booth multipliers. Vedic Multiplier contains a total of sixteen algorithms/sutras for predominantly logical operations. This research focuses on thermal aspects and energy efficiency of wireless communications systems with the thermal aware low power...

  9. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  10. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  11. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  12. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... industry-specific teams--renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy storage and transmission, and biofuels...

  13. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... submitted to the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Office of Energy and...

  14. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  15. Energy-efficient neuromorphic classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. Neuromorphic engineering promises extremely low energy consumptions, comparable to those of the nervous system. However, until now the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, rendering el...

  16. Energy efficiency information systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that different cultures and countries are receptive in different ways to information transfer. Modern information technology, including computers, videos, and telecommunications, can provide a very useful tool for the dissemination of information. At the same time, however, the use of new media involves many new and varied challenges. It is important therefore that the new dissemination methods are developed and utilised in the most effective way depending on the subjects distinctive character, needs and traditions. This workshop was designed to gather experts from all the CADDET member countries, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas about the use of new methods of information exchange and training in the field of energy efficiency. The workshop was divided into four plenary sessions: dissemination of information on energy efficient technologies; training technologies and effective learning; computer-based training tools on energy efficiency; databases and network resources. Two discussion groups followed the plenary sessions, to concentrate on: different aspects of information exchange; and different aspects of state-of-the-art training tools. The workshop was attended by 44 participants from 17 countries, and included 14 speakers

  17. New energy technologies 4. Energy management and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Caire, R.; Raison, B.; Quenard, D.; Verneau, G.; Zissis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This forth tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to energy management and to the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy management by decentralized generation insertion and network-driven load control, analyzes the insertion and management means of small power generation in distribution networks and the means for load management by the network with the aim of saving energy and limiting peak loads. The second part, devoted to energy efficiency presents in a detailed way the technologies allowing an optimal management of energy in buildings and leading to the implementation of positive energy buildings. A special chapter treats of energy saving using new lighting technologies in the private and public sectors. Content: 1 - decentralized power generation - impacts and solutions: threat or opportunity; deregulation; emerging generation means; impact of decentralized generation on power networks; elements of solution; 2 - mastery of energy demand - loads control by the network: stakes of loads control; choice of loads to be controlled; communication needs; measurements and controls for loads control; model and algorithm needs for loads control. A better energy efficiency: 3 - towards positive energy buildings: key data for Europe; how to convert fossil energy consuming buildings into low-energy consuming and even energy generating buildings; the Minergie brand; the PassivHaus or 'passive house' label; the zero-energy house/zero-energy home (ZEH); the zero-energy building (ZEB); the positive energy house; comparison between the three Minergie/PassivHaus/ZEH types of houses; beyond the positive energy building; 4 - light sources and lighting systems - from technology to energy saving: lighting yesterday and today; light sources and energy conversion; energy saving in the domain of lighting: study of some type-cases; what future for light sources. (J.S.)

  18. Restructuring and energy efficiency improvement of the Bulgarian energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumdjian, G.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the national energy economy of Bulgaria implies characteristic features that specify low efficiency as regards power production, ecology and economics. Even the qualitative assessments show that these indices stand far away from the standards established in developed countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, etc. The best starting position for harmful energy efficiency improvement as well as emission reduction must be based on the restructuring of energy economy. The strategy of restructuring and development of energy economy covers the whole integrated national energy flow system 'resources - end user'. The preliminary study shows that energy efficiency can be increased by 25-30% within a period of 6-10 years using the least-cost investment strategy (including the research and development activities expenses). The study covers the existing structure of energy sector. Scenarios are being elaborated for its development and restructuring in respect to: heat production and transfer; electricity generation and transmission; energy consumption and conservation in residential buildings, public buildings and commercial sector; energy consumption in transport sector and agriculture. The approach for identification of the real potential opportunities in relation to the above stated areas is based on mathematical statistics and stochastic differential equations, multicriterial assessments, approach of self organisation systems and demand-side management. (author)

  19. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable [[Page 6784

  20. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  2. Energy efficient home in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present new methods or new products that could save money while improving the environment in Lebanon. Cost of energy is on the increase and is predicted to increase even more in the future. Environmental issues and awareness are gaining momentum in Lebanon. With electricity production directly linked to power plants that represent about 30% of the air pollution which is also linked to health related issues. There is an intermediate need to introduce more energy efficient products in the construction industry which require less energy to operate or could be linked indirectly to energy. In this context, cost-benefit analysis of heating, light, painting, energy consumption and energy lamp burning hours in addition to fuel burner, gas and electric heater in buildings are presented in tables. Finally, there is a lack of awareness on the positive impact on the environment reflected in the saving of natural resources, reducing pollution and creation of a better living environment

  3. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  4. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification

  5. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  6. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  7. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  8. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services, such as access...

  9. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... programs support the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review...

  10. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The December 3, 2013 meeting of the RE&EEAC...

  11. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency exports. The meeting is open to the public and the...

  12. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries, including specific challenges...

  13. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... new capital for investment in the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors, increasing the...

  14. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and...

  15. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. [FR Doc. 2012-25636 Filed 10-17-12; 8:45 am...

  16. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The RE&EEAC held its first meeting on December 7, 2010...

  17. Energy efficient solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Poul Michael

    2012-11-15

    Even though vast improvements have been made on efficiency and light quality, SSL is still in its infancy. One of the barriers for a market introduction is the price, which still is around 5 times higher than traditional lighting technologies. In order to fulfil the potential of SSL, further research and development needs to increase the light extraction from semiconductor materials, provide better and cheaper production and packaging, and advanced optical systems for optimized light distribution and new thermal solutions for SSL lamps and luminaires. Nanotechnology and applied research at DTU Fotonik in close collaboration with industry are essential parts in the development of new enhanced LED optical systems and LEDs with higher light extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can help to efficiently extract light from LEDs and to form a desired emission profile. Future directions are devoted to the next generation of LEDs, in which the spontaneous emission is photon enhanced. One realization of this idea is using LEDs with a layer of nanocrystals, which are coupled to the quantum well of the LED. Such R and D work is ongoing all over the world and DOE roadmaps foresee luminous efficiencies by 2020 that are close to 250 lm/W for both cold and warm white light from LEDs, and prices in the order of one dollar per kilolumen. Such figures will drastically reduce the energy consumption worldwide for lighting, and hence a marked reduction in carbon emissions. (Author)

  18. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siew Eang; Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  19. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  20. Global status report on energy efficiency 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Breevoort, P.; Roes, A.L.; Coenraads, R.; Müller, N.

    2008-01-01

    There is wide agreement that energy efficiency improvement is one of the key strategies to achieve greater sustainability of the energy system. In the past, the contribution of energy efficiency has already been considerable.Without the energy efficiency improvements achieved since the 1970s,

  1. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, A.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roos, I.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO 2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO 2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO 2 , SO 2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

  2. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  3. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  4. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings. (paper)

  5. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  6. Energy efficiency networks; Energieeffizienz-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Anna [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE GmbH), Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency networks are an attractive method to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the costs and CO{sub 2} emissions of the companies operating in this network. A special feature of the energy efficiency networks is the exchange of experiences and training of the energy managers. Energy efficiency networks consist of about ten to fifteen locally domiciled companies. During the project period of three to four years, there are two main phases. In the first phase, the initial consultation phase, the actual state of a company is captured, and measures to increase the efficiency and energy conservation are identified. Parallel to this, in the second phase every three months a meeting with the participating companies takes place. Experience exchange and implementation of energy efficiency measures are the focus of these meetings. Initial studies show that the increase of the energy efficiency during participating in the energy efficiency network almost can be doubled in comparison to the average of the industry.

  7. The R-134a energy efficiency problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, N.; Dekleva, T.W.; Hartley, J.G.; Murphy, F.T.; Powell, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over the relative energy efficiencies of R-134a and R-12, from a theoretical thermodynamic perspective. In this regard, the authors have used an in-house process flowsheeting program which allows to simulate the complete thermodynamic cycle, and investigate the effects of superheat and subcooling. Special attention is given to the suitable basis for comparing the energy efficiencies of different refrigerants calculated from thermodynamic data. Modelling experiments demonstrate the relative extent to which R-12 and R-134a respond differently to superheat and subcooling. With appropriate superheat and subcooling taken into consideration, such as applied in standard practice in the home appliance industry, R-134a can provide COP values essentially equivalent to that of R-12

  8. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  9. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  10. How the world should invest in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, D.; Remes, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    A program that targets cost-effective opportunities in energy productivity could halve the growth in energy demand, cut emissions of greenhouse gases, and generate attractive returns. Boosting energy efficiency will help stretch energy resources and slow down the increase in carbon emissions. It will also create opportunities for businesses and consumers to invest 170 billion USD a year from now until 2020, at a 17 percent average internal rate of return. However, a wide range of information gaps, market failures, and policy imperfections could slow the pace of investment. Public- and private-sector leaders can encourage higher energy productivity by setting efficiency standards for appliances and equipment, financing energy efficiency upgrades, raising corporate standards for energy efficiency, and collaborating with energy intermediaries

  11. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  12. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards

  13. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  14. Energy efficiency in the British housing stock: Energy demand and the Homes Energy Efficiency Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian G.; Steadman, Philip J.; Bruhns, Harry; Summerfield, Alex J.; Lowe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government has unveiled an ambitious retrofit programme that seeks significant improvement to the energy efficiency of the housing stock. High quality data on the energy efficiency of buildings and their related energy demand is critical to supporting and targeting investment in energy efficiency. Using existing home improvement programmes over the past 15 years, the UK Government has brought together data on energy efficiency retrofits in approximately 13 million homes into the Homes Energy Efficiency Database (HEED), along with annual metered gas and electricity use for the period of 2004–2007. This paper describes the HEED sample and assesses its representativeness in terms of dwelling characteristics, the energy demand of different energy performance levels using linked gas and electricity meter data, along with an analysis of the impact retrofit measures has on energy demand. Energy savings are shown to be associated with the installation of loft and cavity insulation, and glazing and boiler replacement. The analysis illustrates this source of ‘in-action’ data can be used to provide empirical estimates of impacts of energy efficiency retrofit on energy demand and provides a source of empirical data from which to support the development of national housing energy efficiency retrofit policies. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency level for 50% of the British housing stock is described. • Energy demand is influenced by size and age and energy performance. • Housing retrofits (e.g. cavity insulation, glazing and boiler replacements) save energy. • Historic differences in energy performance show persistent long-term energy savings

  15. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  16. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN... Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] ...

  17. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschk, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [de

  18. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DeLonghi); energy and environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-STD-0020] RIN 1904-AC98 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners...

  19. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  20. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  1. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  2. Energy efficiency: from principles to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Paul; Ballot-Miguel, Benedicte; Binet, Guillaume; Bordigoni, Mathieu; Decellas, Fabrice; Hauser, Chantal; Hita, Laurent; Laurent, Marie-Helene; Osso, Dominique; Peureux, Jean-Louis; Pham Van Cang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This collective publication proposes a comprehensive overview of issues related to energy efficiency: associated stakes, methods of assessment of energy savings and of their costs, methods of action for energy efficiency policies, application in the housing, office building and industry sectors based on energy consumption modes in these different sectors, and main technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency. The first chapter proposes an historical perspective on energy, outlines the crucial role of energy efficiency in today's and tomorrow's contexts, and discusses which are the different levers of action to increase this efficiency. The next chapters address methods of assessment of energy efficiency, identify and discuss the use of different potential sources of energy saving, propose an overview of the various objectives and instruments of policies for energy efficiency, and address the issue of energy efficiency in the housing sector, in the office building sector, and in the industry sector by indicating the current levels of energy consumption, by identifying the various potential sources of energy saving, and by indicating available technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency

  3. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  4. Industrial energy efficiency: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    Policies that promote energy efficiency can work; but potential energy savings are unlikely to be realized without effective policy leadership. This article discusses the opportunities in several countries for increasing energy efficiency. Both ''open'' and centrally planned economies could be much more energy efficient. In the United States, for example, the government needs to stimulate energy efficiency. This could be done by sponsoring research to develop new processes, creating favourable financial conditions for investment in efficiency, and making the advantages of energy efficiency technologies better known. International collaboration in sponsoring research and transfer technologies could be of the greatest importance in improving energy efficiency in countries with centrally planned economies, including the Soviet Union, as well as in developing countries. Favourable conditions for achieving both economic development and environmental protection can be created through cooperation on the international level. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Overview of rural building energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bao-jie; Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; Mou, Ben; Zhou, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, people's living standard in China has been greatly improved, accompanied by the rapid increasing building energy consumption. Rural building energy consumption has become one of the most important parts of the total energy consumption in China, which deserves to be paid much attention. It is of vital importance to promote building energy efficiency for the New Socialist Countryside and energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper provides an overview of building energy consumption in the countryside, which figures out the situation and challenges in energy-saving work. The government has worked for years on rural building code system aimed at narrowing the energy gap between urban areas, but it is in the beginning phase. This paper has analyzed the only special issues about rural building energy efficiency and the mandatory standards for urban buildings, which can facilitate the development of rural building energy efficiency. Based on the above analysis, some recommendations regarding the improvement of rural building energy efficiency are given. - Highlights: • Situation of rural energy consumption in China. • Challenges in rural building energy-saving work. • Design standard, special plan and some pilot projects are analyzed. • Effects of existing energy policies for urban buildings. • Some recommendations are given

  6. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    For this study, we identified about 175 emerging energy-efficient technologies in industry, of which we characterized 54 in detail. While many profiles of individual emerging technologies are available, few reports have attempted to impose a standardized approach to the evaluation of the technologies. This study provides a way to review technologies in an independent manner, based on information on energy savings, economic, non-energy benefits, major market barriers, likelihood of success, and suggested next steps to accelerate deployment of each of the analyzed technologies. There are many interesting lessons to be learned from further investigation of technologies identified in our preliminary screening analysis. The detailed assessments of the 54 technologies are useful to evaluate claims made by developers, as well as to evaluate market potentials for the United States or specific regions. In this report we show that many new technologies are ready to enter the market place, or are currently under development, demonstrating that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity. Several technologies have reduced capital costs compared to the current technology used by those industries. Non-energy benefits such as these are frequently a motivating factor in bringing technologies such as these to market. Further evaluation of the profiled technologies is still needed. In particular, further quantifying the non-energy benefits based on the experience from technology users in the field is important. Interactive effects and inter-technology competition have not been accounted for and ideally should be included in any type of integrated technology scenario, for it may help to better evaluate market

  7. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  8. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  9. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Promoting energy efficiency in Egyptian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The energy situation in Egypt is characterized by a rather high energy demand, a high annual increase in energy consumption, inefficient utilization of energy, and heavily subsidized energy prices. Energy efficiency is therefore considered to be a matter of top priority, as it would lead to substantial savings. A national policy for efficient use of energy in industry has been outlined, including the establishment of an Industrial Energy Conservation Centre (IECC), the training and upgrading of energy management specialists, and the introduction of energy efficiency technologies in industrial plants. In this article the assistance that international organizations and donors can give to energy efficiency programmes is demonstrated. The results obtained so far are discussed and the lessons, findings and experience gained are outlined. (author). 1 tab

  11. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  12. The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.

  13. 75 FR 69655 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory [[Page 69656

  14. Environment: renewable energy, environmental protection and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The second in the series of IPPSO policy papers for discussion deals with the place of renewable energy sources and environmental protection in relation to the soon-to-be deregulated electricity industry in Ontario. The paper provides a broad statement of principles, defines the issues, identifies the problems, and discusses the various options under consideration. Some of the more important design questions regarding a renewable portfolio standard were discussed, among them the technologies to be included, the treatment of existing generators and expansions, establishment of minimum amounts and targets, responsibility for and means of compliance, compensation for the intermittent nature of some of the renewable resources, mandatory disclosure and labelling, development by the IMO of environmental dispatch protocols, research and development funding for renewable energy technologies, emission caps with tradeable targets, and concerns about the operation of a system benefits fund for energy efficiency. 5 refs

  15. Energy Efficiency Resources to Support State Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-06-01

    An early step for most energy efficiency planning is to identify and quantify energy savings opportunities, and then to understand how to access this potential. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offers resources that can help with both of these steps. This fact sheet presents those resources. The resources are also available on the DOE State and Local Solution Center on the "Energy Efficiency: Savings Opportunities and Benefits" page: https://energy.gov/eere/slsc/energy-efficiency-savings-opportunities-and-benefits.

  16. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  17. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  18. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  19. Benefits for whom? Energy efficiency within the efficient market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chello, Dario

    2015-01-01

    How should the lack of an efficient energy market affect the design of energy efficiency policies and their implementation? What the consequences of an inefficient energy market on end users’ behaviour? This article tries to give an answer to such questions, by considering the decision making of domestic users following a few fundamental concepts of behavioural economics. The mechanism of price formation in the market, with particular reference to the internal energy market in Europe, will be examined and we will show that price remains the inflexible attribute in making an energy choice. Then, some conclusions will be addressed to policy makers on how to overcome the barriers illustrated.

  20. Promotion of energy efficiency in enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrani, G.; Schelske, O.; Peter, D.; Oettli, B.

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made within the framework of the research programme on energy-economics fundamentals on how the energy efficiency of enterprises can be improved. The report first examines the present state of affairs in Swiss enterprises and looks into the interaction of energy efficiency and environmental management systems. ISO 14001 certification is discussed and examples are given of the responses of various enterprises to a survey concerning the role of energy efficiency in environmental management. Both hindrances and success factors for the embedding of energy-efficiency measures in environmental management activities are discussed and examples are given. Instruments available in Switzerland and from abroad that can be used to promote energy efficiency in enterprises are discussed. Four particular instruments are presented; guidelines and computer-based tools that help in the making of energy-relevant investment decisions, incentives to take part in an energy-benchmark system for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), low-interest loans for investments in energy-efficiency for SMEs and the closer definition of 'continuous improvement' of energy efficiency within the framework of ISO 14001. The results of a survey amongst those involved are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations for the implementation of the guidelines and for improvements in the integration of energy efficiency in environmental management systems

  1. 77 FR 32307 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial... Efficiency Levels 5. Proprietary Designs 6. Reverse Engineering D. Markups Analysis E. Energy and Water Use... per-cycle hot water energy consumption; (2) the total weighted per-cycle machine electrical energy...

  2. Efficient Use of Energy: as a Life Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omneya Sabry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Early Eighties of the last Century, the Egyptian Government considered Energy Conservation as one of the main pillars of Energy Planning in Egypt, based on the fact that investing in Energy Efficiency is more cost effective than in constructing new Power Plants.Energy Efficiency (EE Programs financed by International Financing Institutions focused at that time, on Energy Audits in Industrial Buildings, Power Plants, Electricity Transmission and in some other Governmental Buildings. Recommendations for Efficient Use of Energy and reducing energy consumption at those entities were implemented by the Use of Efficient Lamps, Improving Power Factor, Waste Heat Recovery, Thermal Insulation, Efficient Firing in Boilers…. Consequently, High Quality Energy Efficient Products were competing in the market with others not having the same advantage.Although the above mentioned EE Programs included Awareness Campaigns for all sectors but the consumption in Residential Sector remained high and increased more and more ,exceeding even the consumption in Industrial Sector specially that the prices of electricity were highly subsidized.For that reason, more awareness campaigns (Lectures, Brochures, Audio and visual advertisement and more incentives were offered by Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MoERE to consumers in the Residential Sector. Meanwhile, a Program to reduce gradually subsidies on electricity prices started aiming to push consumers to follow energy efficiency instructions and buy efficient appliances especially while they were suffering from electricity cut for about two years.To prepare for Market Transformation to efficient appliances the Government, issued the Standard Specifications and Labeling for Energy Efficient Appliances (lamps, refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, air conditioners, dish washers and others. Meanwhile, these Standards are supported with Accredited Testing Labs in National Entities (NREA

  3. Energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Stenholm, Pekka; Tapio, Petri; McKinnon, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies. - Highlights: ► Hauliers still monitor their fuel consumption with unsophisticated methods. ► Larger hauliers are more active in energy efficiency related issues than smaller ones. ► Hauliers are aware of energy efficiency actions, but lack knowledge of implementation. ► Finnish energy efficiency agreement provides a good framework for public policies. ► Companies that monitor and improve energy efficiency may gain competitive advantage.

  4. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  5. Speech for the defense of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, Ph.; Laforce, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reprints an interview of C. Mandil, executive director of IEA who comments some of the recent energy policy events: the recent mergers between European energy companies and the competition on energy markets, the role and share of nuclear energy and renewable energies in the energy mix, the Russian gas affair and the energy efficiency in Russia, the oil prices and the Iranian threat of exports disruption, the peak oil and the decay of petroleum production, the energy efficiency in China, the global warming and the Kyoto protocol. (J.S.)

  6. Energy efficiency trends and policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependency of Slovenia is high (52.1%), but it is a little lower than the average energy dependency in the EU 27 (53.8%). Slovenia imports all its petroleum products and natural gas and partly coal and electricity. The energy intensity of Slovenia is higher by about 50% than the average in the EU 27. The target of the EU Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services adopted in 2006 is to achieve a 9% improvement of EE (energy efficiency) within the period 2008-2016. The new target of the EU climate and energy package '20-20-20 plan' is a 20% increase in EE by 2020. Since 1991 the Slovenian government has been supporting energy efficiency activities. The improvement of EE was one of the targets of strategic energy documents ReSROE (Resolution on the Strategy of Use and Supply of Energy in Slovenia from 1996 and ReNEP (Resolution on the National Energy Programme) from 2004 adopted by the Slovenian National Assembly (Parliament) in previous years. The Energy Act adopted in 1999 defines the objective of energy policy as giving priority to EE and utilization of renewable energy sources. The goals of the 'National Energy Action Plan 2008-2016 (NEEAP)' adopted by the Slovenian government in 2008 include a set of energy efficiency improvement instruments in the residential, industrial, transport and tertiary sectors. The target of the NEEAP is to save final energy in the 2008-2016 period, amounting to at least 4261 GWh or 9% of baseline consumption. The indicators of energy efficiency trends show considerable improvement in the period from 1998 to 2007. The improvement of EE was reached in all sectors: manufacturing, transport and households. The paper analyses the structure, trends of energy consumption and energy efficiency indicators by sectors of economic activity. A review of energy efficiency policy and measures is described in the paper.

  7. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  8. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  9. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  10. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Texas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Oregon single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Pennsylvania single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Tennessee single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Nevada single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Nebraska single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Energy used by Alabama single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Maryland single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Minnesota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Florida single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Maine single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Energy used by Georgia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Missouri single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Utah single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Idaho single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arizona single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kentucky single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Louisiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Iowa single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wyoming single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Illinois single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Delaware single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arkansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Montana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Mississippi single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Colorado single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Connecticut single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Indiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by California single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Vermont single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Energy used by Massachusetts single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Ohio single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Oklahoma single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  10. Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States); Meyers, Jim [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    SWEEP worked with Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to foster greater energy efficiency throughout the Southwest. SWEEP accomplished this through a combination of analysis and support; preparation and distribution of materials on best practice technologies, policies and programs; and technical assistance and information dissemination to states and municipalities in the southwest supporting BTO, AMO, OWIP for advancement of efficiency in products and practices. These efforts were accomplished during the period 2012 through 2017.

  11. Nuclear performance standards: Promoting efficient generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear plant performance standards are designed to share the risks of operation associated with nuclear generation. Such standards often shift risks from ratepayers to utility shareholders, even without a finding of imprudence or mismanagement. The rationale underlying nuclear performance standards is that ratepayers should not be responsible for excessive replacement power costs incurred as a result of unreasonable decisions by utility management, especially because the high fixed costs of nuclear plants are already included in base rates. In addition, performance standards can be designed to provide incentives to reward utilities that achieve superior nuclear performance, for the benefit of both ratepayers and shareholders

  12. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  13. Indicators for industrial energy efficiency in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, Dolf; Taylor, Peter

    2009-01-01

    India accounts for 4.5% of industrial energy use worldwide. This share is projected to increase as the economy expands rapidly. The level of industrial energy efficiency in India varies widely. Certain sectors, such as cement, are relatively efficient, while others, such as pulp and paper, are relatively inefficient. Future energy efficiency efforts should focus on direct reduced iron, pulp and paper and small-scale cement kilns because the potentials for improvement are important in both percentage and absolute terms. Under business as usual, industrial energy use is projected to rise faster than total final energy use. A strong focus on energy efficiency can reduce this growth, but CO 2 emissions will still rise substantially. If more substantial CO 2 emissions reductions are to be achieved then energy efficiency will need to be combined with measures that reduce the carbon intensity of the industrial fuel mix.

  14. Investing in Energy Efficiency. Removing the Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Investing in improving energy efficiency has the clear advantages of reducing energy costs, improving security of supply and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. And still, many viable opportunities for higher energy efficiency are not tapped because of the existence of numerous barriers to such investments. These lost opportunities imply costs to the individual energy consumers and to the society as a whole and they are particularly important in economies in transition. This report identifies various types of barriers for making energy efficiency investments (be they of legal, administrative, institutional or financial nature), mainly in buildings, district heating and efficient lighting. The role of various bodies and organisations for the facilitation of energy efficiency investments is analysed, from public authorities and regulators to banks and international financing institutions

  15. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  16. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  17. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  18. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  19. 10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their...

  20. Transition towards energy efficient machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein, Andre [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Provides unique data about industrial trends affecting the energy demand of machine tools. Presents a comprehensive methodology to assess the energy efficiency of machining processes. Contains an integrated management concept to implement energy performance measures into existing industrial systems. Includes an industrial case study with two exemplary applications. Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners challenged to enhance energy efficiency in manufacturing. The book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  1. Comparative analysis of energy efficiency in water users associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadia, R.; Rocamora, M. C.; Corcoles, J. I.; Ruiz-Canales, A.; Martinez-Romero, A.; Moreno, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    The government of Spain has developed an energy strategy that includes a campaign of energy audits in water users associations (WUAs) in order to improve energy efficiency in irrigation. A guideline for energy audits has been developed, standardizing the audit process in WUAs. This guideline has been implemented in 22 WUAs in the Castilla-La Mancha, Valencia, and Murcia Regions. In this paper, an analysis of the indicators proposed in the guideline is performed, and the indicators that most represent energy efficiency of WUAs are identified. Also, the suitability of the proposed indicators and classifications under different conditions are discussed. In addition, a cluster analysis is performed on WUAs to classify them according to their energetic aspects. Results show that indicators global energy efficiency (GEE) and active energy consumed per hectare (EacSr) are not adequate for analysing the evolution of energy consumption in a WUA. The most representative energy indicators are those expressing ratios between energy consumption and water volume supplied to the users as the indicators active energy consumed per volume unit (EacVs) and energy cost per volume unit (CENVs). It is conclude that using the current methodology for calculate the supply energy efficiency indicator (SEE), GEE is not an adequate indicator for energy classification of WUAs, and also that the results of the energy analysis must be used to propose measures for energy conservation and energy cost reduction. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  3. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... standards, the current standards for room air conditioners and clothes dryers, and the history of the... Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... equipment, including residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. EPCA also requires the U.S...

  4. National energy efficiency study. The Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, M.; Jakubes, J.; Spitz, J.; Van Wees, M.T.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Martens, J.W.; Van Oostvoorn, F.; Henelova, V.; Vazac, V.; Zalesak, M.; Marousek, J.; Szomolanyiova, J.; Havlickova, M.; Zeman, J.; Ten Donkelaar, M.; Travnicek, S.; Stejskal, F.; Pribyl, E.; Blokker, L.; Bizek, V.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply; and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech Government aims to promote these two sustainable options. The National Energy Efficiency Study has developed specific policies for the promotion of end use energy efficiency and renewables. These are described in two Action Plans, and in this report which serves as a background document. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy, including a listing of actions for implementation. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the investment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is presented to support project identification. In addition, two separate Action Plans have been published: (1) The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on promotion of energy efficiency in end-use (separate document, ECN-C-99-065); and (2) The Renewable Energy Action Plan (separate document, ECN-C-99-064) deals with policy on promotion of renewable energy production. These two policy documents should provide policy makers in the Czech Government with essential information on potentials, targets, the required budget, and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation

  5. Home financing for new and existing energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The video describes how the home federal savings and loan association in Rockford, IL, has developed lending standards for new conventional and solar homes. The nine standards are illustrated. The video follows the customer through the loan process, including an appraisal of energy efficient items, loan closing, and continuing education. The primary audience is savings and loan management personnel

  6. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  7. Efficient Energy-Storage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. W. J.; Rupp, C.

    1982-01-01

    Space-platform energy-storage and attitude-stabilization system utilizes variable moment of inertia of two masses attached to ends of retractable cable. System would be brought to its initial operating speed by gravity-gradient pumping. When fully developed, concept could be part of an orbiting solar-energy collection system. Energy would be temporarily stored in system then transmitted to Earth by microwaves or other method.

  8. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions

  9. Efficiency and Innovation in U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-06-01

    The NAM has partnered with the Alliance to Save Energy to develop this booklet for manufacturers who want to achieve more strategic control over rising energy costs. Being better energy managers is important not only for each company, but is also an essential component in achieving a low-inflation, high-growth economy. We hope that the opportunities outlined in this booklet will encourage manufacturers to make energy efficiency a part of standard operating procedure.

  10. An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny; Thollander, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines engineering and social science approaches to enhance our understanding of industrial energy efficiency and broaden our perspective on policy making in Europe. Sustainable development demands new strategies, solutions, and policy-making approaches. Numerous studies of energy efficiency potential state that cost-effective energy efficiency technologies in industry are not always implemented for various reasons, such as lack of information, procedural impediments, and routines not favoring energy efficiency. Another reason for the efficiency gap is the existence of particular values, unsupportive of energy efficiency, in the dominant networks of a branch of trade. Analysis indicates that different sectors of rather closed communities have established their own tacit knowledge, perceived truths, and routines concerning energy efficiency measures. Actors in different industrial sectors highlight different barriers to energy efficiency and why cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not being implemented. The identified barriers can be problematized in relation to the social context to understand their existence and how to resolve them.

  11. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  12. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  13. Performance Standards for Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Achieving energy efficiency through product policy: the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on energy efficiency of domestic equipment. It is contended that, in the UK and--by extension--elsewhere. Government has to take the lead in defining low-energy standards for products. In the absence of policy, manufacturers do not recognize the need for carbon reductions in the equipment they design and consumers are unaware of the variation in energy performance in the product range. At present, neither market pull nor technology push can be relied upon to deliver energy savings. The imposition of a weak minimum standard on domestic fridges and freezers in 1999 will, over the lifetime of the appliances already sold by December 2002, save 1 Mt C of carbon dioxide at nil cost to government or to the manufacturers, and a net benefit to consumers of pound 855 m: a highly cost-effective policy. The difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation is that it takes time for the cumulative benefits of an energy efficiency improvement to result in the maximum effect on energy demand reduction: the benefits of the 1999 energy efficiency standard will accumulate until at least 2020. This period is equivalent to the cycle of stock replacement for that particular object. The final level of energy conservation depends upon the offsetting effects of growth in ownership levels and the size of new equipment purchases

  15. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  16. Building Standards and Codes for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, James G.; Pierlert, James H.

    1977-01-01

    Current activity intended to lead to energy conservation measures in building codes and standards is reviewed by members of the Office of Building Standards and Codes Services of the National Bureau of Standards. For journal availability see HE 508 931. (LBH)

  17. The energy performance contract - key towards energy efficiency in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa Corina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Energy Performance Contract (EPC as a business model for energy efficiency. More precisely, it examines, using two case studies, enablers and disablers – from an economic, legal and institutional/managerial perspective – for advancing this arrangement across the EU. The EU has set a 20% energy savings target by 2020 (roughly equivalent to turning off 400 power stations, with an even more ambitious target of 27% by 2030. To reach these ambitious targets, the investments needed are approximately EUR 100 bn/year across the EU (according to the European Commission. Energy efficiency is not, as fervent proponents often claim, the low hanging fruit in terms of investment efforts. Like any other sub-sector, such as transmission and distribution, it demands innovative financing instruments to ensure adequate scale-up. In the paper, I use two comparative case studies to identify and classify the disablers and enablers of Energy Performance Contracting/Energy Services Companies (ESCOs development: the European frontrunner, namely Germany, and a laggard, namely Romania. As research methodology, I use literature review, comparisons between similar government policy planning and evaluation documents, and stakeholder interviews. While academic literature on the topic (Seefeldt, 2003; Wilhelm, 2015 is developed for Germany, for Romania a critical reflection on EPC promotion policy is to be found only in industry documents (e.g.: ARPEE, 2013; Tractebel, 2015. The German success demonstrates that, contrary to the belief of Romanian stakeholders, it is not the lack of a standardized contract model that prevents EPC development, but lack of genuine commitment, drive and leadership of public officials in promoting this financing instrument. A solid communication between public authorities and private beneficiaries, and public administration capacity for impact assessment and evidence-based policy planning are two other significant

  18. ECOWAS renewable energy and energy efficiency status report - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auth, Katie; Musolino, Evan; Thomas, Tristram; Adebiyi, Adeola; Reiss, Karin; Semedo, Eder; Williamson, Laura E.; Chawla, Kanika; Diarra, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), comprising 15 Member States, it has emerged as one of the most active and dynamic regional economic communities on the African continent. Expanding access to modern, reliable, and affordable energy services is a key priority, prompting inter-state cooperation in crucial areas including capacity building, policy development and implementation, and investment. Recognising the critical role that sustainable energy plays in catalysing social, economic, and industrial development across the region, ECOWAS Member States formally inaugurated the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) in 2010 to 'contribute to the sustainable economic, social and environmental development of West Africa by improving access to modern, reliable and affordable energy services, energy security and reduction of energy related externalities'. Drawing on data from the ECOWAS Observatory for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECOWREX) and a network of contributors and researchers across the region, the ECOWAS Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report supports ECREEE's efforts to increase the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency in West Africa by providing a comprehensive regional review of renewable energy and energy efficiency developments, evolving policy landscapes, market trends and related activities, investments in renewable energy and off-grid energy solutions, and the crucial nexus between energy access and gender

  19. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  20. Regional and global exergy and energy efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Kurz, R [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (Ecuador) Project; Gilli, P V [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    We present estimates of global energy efficiency by applying second-law (exergy) analysis to regional and global energy balances. We use a uniform analysis of national and regional energy balances and aggregate these balances first for three main economic regions and subsequently into world totals. The procedure involves assessment of energy and exergy efficiencies at each step of energy conversion, from primary exergy to final and useful exergy. Ideally, the analysis should be extended to include actual delivered energy services; unfortunately, data are scarce and only rough estimates can be given for this last stage of energy conversion. The overall result is that the current global primary to useful exergy efficiency is about one-tenth of the theoretical maximum and the service efficiency is even lower. (Author)

  1. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  2. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between

  3. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between

  4. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  5. The benefits of energy efficiency - why wait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; Breevoort, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency globally leads to many benefits. First and foremost, improved energy efficiency of equipment, buildings, vehicles and industrial processes will lead to a reduction of the use of electricity, heat and fuels. This will save large amounts of money. Moreover,

  6. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  7. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  8. Energy efficiency: From regional to global cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1994-01-01

    In developing, reforming and emerging countries in particular, institutional hurdles have hindered the introduction of energy efficient technology. The author develops the theme from two U.N. projects: A new institutional accessibility to supra-regional cooperation could provide an important stimulus for future worldwide cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. (orig.) [de

  9. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  10. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  11. Towards energy efficient mobile communications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth and development of wireless communication services and applications corresponds to an increase in associated energy consumption. For broadband wireless network deployment in rural areas affected by unreliability and unavailability...

  12. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency of Auxiliaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl T. Vuk

    2001-01-01

    The summaries of this report are: Economics Ultimately Dictates Direction; Electric Auxiliaries Provide Solid Benefits. The Impact on Vehicle Architecture Will be Important; Integrated Generators With Combined With Turbo Generators Can Meet the Electrical Demands of Electric Auxiliaries; Implementation Will Follow Automotive 42V Transition; Availability of Low Cost Hardware Will Slow Implementation; Industry Leadership and Cooperation Needed; Standards and Safety Protocols Will be Important. Government Can Play an Important Role in Expediting: Funding Technical Development; Incentives for Improving Fuel Economy; Developing Standards, Allowing Economy of Scale; and Providing Safety Guidelines

  14. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  15. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    on the most significant environmental impact has often resulted in a focus on energy efficiency in the use phase. Therefore, the Ecodesign Directive should continue to target resource efficiency aspects but also consider environ- mental aspects with a large improvement potential in addition to the most...... significant environmental impact. For the introduction of resource efficiency requirements into the Ecodesign Directive, these requirements have to be included in the preparatory study. It is therefore recommended to broaden the scope of the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-related products and the Eco......The article examines the integration of resource efficiency into the European Ecodesign Directive. The purpose is to analyse the processes and stakeholder interactions, which formed the basis for integrating resource efficiency requirements into the implementing measure for vacuum cleaners...

  16. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  17. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  18. Energy efficient hydrocyclones; Energieffektive hydrocykloner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsbaek, P.; Damgaard, L.; Nielsen, John Bo; Christensen, Kent; Overgaard, J.

    2009-05-15

    The project's primary purpose is to investigate the energy savings opportunities by using hydro cyclones for separation instead of more traditional separation technologies like rotary sieves and centrifuges. The hydro cyclone plant has been tested through two campaigns. In the 2007/2008 campaign the plant was tested at the Karup potato flour factory and here the cyclone plant achieved energy savings of approx. 32% compared to the current sieve plant. This result includes consumption for a macerator shredder, pre-filtering of the gratings and additional dewatering of the pulp. In the 2008/2009 campaign the plant was tested at the Brande potato flour factory, and here the plant achieved energy savings of 54% compared with the traditional sieve system. This result includes consumption for a shear pump for the homogenization of the gratings and additional consumption for dewatering of pulp. Pre-filtering of the gratings is not thought to be necessary. (ln)

  19. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Witkowski, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...-0121, (202) 586-7463, e-mail: stephen[email protected] . Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of... paragraphs (b) and (h) to read as follows: Sec. 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

  20. Toward an energy efficient community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current oil policy of the OPEC countries means that a substantial oil shortage may be expected in the future. Conservative estimates indicate an oil shortage of 65 billion tons in the year 2000. The results of numerous new studies show that (from the technological point of view) the savings potential is high enough to achieve an absolute decrease in total energy consumption by the year 2000, provided better use is made of secondary energy sources in the form of electric power, gas, and solar heat.

  1. Energy efficiency and cleaner production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinoff, M.; Grozeva, Iv.

    1999-01-01

    Energy is the fundamental driver of the economic growth in the todays society. It is an absolute prerequisite for the industrial development in the developed countries as well as for improving the quality of life and reducing the poverty in the developing world. It is expected that the energy demand in the developing countries will increase rapidly in the next decades, and will even exceed the level of consumption in the rich countries due to rising population and incomes. The burning of fossil fuel, however, inevitably leads to negative environmental impact, which no longer can be neglected

  2. Residential air-conditioner usage in China and efficiency standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianghong; Liu, Chaopeng; Li, Hongqi; Ouyang, Dong; Cheng, Jianhong; Wang, Yuanxia; You, Shaofang

    2017-01-01

    Determining the real energy consumption and usage pattern of a room air-conditioner (RAC) are important issues from the point of view of both RAC design and evaluation of its energy efficiency. An air-conditioner's running time is fundamental data for the calculation of SEER and APF values. Therefore, in 2010, a nationwide investigation of RAC usage was conducted and 400 selected air-conditioning-units were monitored for a full year to obtain data on their cooling and heating usage. Two running time curves (cooling and heating) were obtained for the air-conditioners as a function of outdoor air temperatures using statistical analysis. The results show that the 27–30 °C temperature range accounts for more than 52% of the cooling time. Conversely, the 0–8 °C temperature range is associated with more than 75% of the heating time. The research presented in this paper has significantly contributed to China's new variable-speed RAC efficiency standard (GB21455-2013). It also has far-reaching implications for both the air-conditioner industry and energy policy in China due to its different method of calculating energy efficiency. - Highlights: • A nationwide survey to realize China's residential air-conditions usage behaviors. • Air-conditioner running time-environment temperature curves are obtained. • The peak heating demand and peak cooling demand happen at 28 °C and 4 °C, respectively. • The temperature of 27 °C–30 °C accounts for over 52% refrigeration time. • The temperature of 0 °C–8 °C occupies more than 75% heating time.

  3. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  5. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  6. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  7. Governance and communication for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has multiple benefits. It usually is a win-win option for all aspects of sustainability – environment, social objectives, and economy. We need to evaluate and communicate these multiple benefits – to citizens, companies, and policy-makers. Due to strong market barriers, effective governance and policy packages for energy efficiency are needed. Evaluation shows effective policy can achieve around 2% per year of additional energy savings.

  8. Energy efficiency of milkmaid systems in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLanos, E.; Astigarraga, L.; Jacques, R.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing energy efficiency of agricultural systems may result in environmental and economic benefits. The aim of this study was to analyze dairy production systems from an energy perspective, to identify the main variables affecting energy efficiency and fossil energy consumption, through a model of inputs and outputs. The model included as inputs energy costs of food, labor, electricity, agrochemicals, fuels and machinery, and as outputs dairy and meat production. We analyzed a database of 30 dairy farms from southern Uruguay, from the Cooperative Nacional de Product ores de Leche (Conaprole), organized in three strata based on their dairy productivity per hectare. The fossil energy use was 2.40, 3.63 y 3.80 MJ.l-1 for productivity strata low, medium and high respectively (P<0.01). Energy efficiency averages were 1.40, 0.90 y 0.86 for the same strata (P<0.01). Fossil energy of agrochemicals and fuel accounted for more than 80% of the energy consumed in the three strata. The greater the percentage of concentrate in the diet, the lower energy efficiency (P<0.01). These results suggest the existence of a negative relationship between the intensification of dairy production and energy efficiency

  9. Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, David

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher

  10. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  11. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explore how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  12. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T; Vesterager Christensen, D; Andersen, Hans [Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark); Dam Wied, M; Dam, M [NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark); Thorndahl, M [Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Maagoee, P; Kristensen, Kenneth T [Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kirketerp Friis, A [Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  13. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    . This dissertation demonstrates NEM relay based charge pump and NEM-CMOS heterogeneous discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) buck regulator and the results are compared against a standard commercial 0.35μm CMOS implementation. It is shown that NEM-CMOS heterogeneous DC-DC converter has an area savings of 60% over CMOS and achieves an overall higher efficiency over CMOS, with a peak efficiency of 94.3% at 100mA. NEM relays offers unprecedented 10X-30X energy efficiency improvement in logic design for low frequency operation and has the potential to break the CMOS efficiency barrier in power electronic circuits as well. The practical aspects of NEM Relay integration are evaluated and algorithms for synthesis and development of large NEM relay based logic circuits are explored.

  14. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  15. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is

  16. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarallo, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data [it

  17. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  18. Modeling international trends in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, David I.

    2012-01-01

    I use a stochastic production frontier to model energy efficiency trends in 85 countries over a 37-year period. Differences in energy efficiency across countries are modeled as a stochastic function of explanatory variables and I estimate the model using the cross-section of time-averaged data, so that no structure is imposed on technological change over time. Energy efficiency is measured using a new energy distance function approach. The country using the least energy per unit output, given its mix of outputs and inputs, defines the global production frontier. A country's relative energy efficiency is given by its distance from the frontier—the ratio of its actual energy use to the minimum required energy use, ceteris paribus. Energy efficiency is higher in countries with, inter alia, higher total factor productivity, undervalued currencies, and smaller fossil fuel reserves and it converges over time across countries. Globally, technological change was the most important factor counteracting the energy-use and carbon-emissions increasing effects of economic growth.

  19. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    long life with little maintenance due to their relatively low rotational speeds (low RPM). The turbines large swept area (10.2ms2/110sq.ft), high-efficiency blades, purpose built alternator, and optimized power electronics ensure maximum energy capture from a wide range of wind speeds. Two wind turbines were installed side-by-side at the Melnick Hall site to compare their performance. Evaluate and Optimize Aerodynamically Enhanced Turbine Blades Due to delays in the installation of the wind turbines, no actual data was obtained within the contract period. At this time, the turbines are installed and operational at YSU with standard blades. We are in contact with Orbital Research and in discussion as to how best the required data can be obtained.

  20. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  1. Energy efficiency. Lever for the German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie; Roesner, Sven

    2014-05-01

    This document provides some key data on energy consumption in housing and public buildings, indicates the national German objectives in terms of reduction of energy consumption, of reduction of electricity consumption, of energy efficiency, and of evolution of energy consumption in housing and public buildings and in the transport sector. It gives some data related to energy saving and achievements: energy efficiency of the German economy, improvements in housing energy efficiency and insulation, financial support for low income households, reduction of energy consumption within small-medium enterprises, the public sector, the data processing sector and public lighting, and energy saving potential by renewal of public buildings. It indicates the main measures and arrangements: information, support programs for enterprises, local communities and individuals. A graph illustrates a comparison of shares of household power consumption in France and in Germany

  2. Power shifts: the dynamics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Induced technical change is crucial for tackling the problem of timing in environmental policy. However, it is by no means obvious that the state has the ability to impose its will concerning technical change on the other relevant actors. Therefore, we conceptualize power in a non-linear model with social conflict and induced technical change. The model shows how economic growth, business cycles and innovation waves interact in the dynamics of energy efficiency. We assess three different ways of government control: energy taxes, energy and labor subsidies, and energy caps. Energy taxes help to select more energy efficient technologies. However, a successful selection of such technologies presupposes that they are available in the pool of technologies. As for energy subsidies, their existence helps to explain why in contemporary economies labor productivity grows faster than energy efficiency. With an energy cap, the social network of the relevant agents may be stabilized via social norms. It seems plausible that innovation waves comprise several business cycles and that such a wave is currently in the making. Proposals to postpone policies for improving energy efficiency increase the risk of energy inefficient lock-in effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  4. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  5. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  6. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  7. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  8. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  9. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  10. Faster and Energy-Efficient Signed Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate faster and energy-efficient column compression multiplication with very small area overheads by using a combination of two techniques: partition of the partial products into two parts for independent parallel column compression and acceleration of the final addition using new hybrid adder structures proposed here. Based on the proposed techniques, 8-b, 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b Wallace (W, Dadda (D, and HPM (H reduction tree based Baugh-Wooley multipliers are developed and compared with the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers. The performances of the proposed multipliers are analyzed by evaluating the delay, area, and power, with 65 nm process technologies on interconnect and layout using industry standard design and layout tools. The result analysis shows that the 64-bit proposed multipliers are as much as 29%, 27%, and 21% faster than the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers, respectively, with a maximum of only 2.4% power overhead. Also, the power-delay products (energy consumption of the proposed 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b multipliers are significantly lower than those of the regular Baugh-Wooley multiplier. Applicability of the proposed techniques to the Booth-Encoded multipliers is also discussed.

  11. Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    This study asks what is the ‘best’ way to measure urban energy efficiency. There has been recent interest in identifying efficient cities so that best practices can be shared, a process known as benchmarking. Previous studies have used relatively simple metrics that provide limited insight on the complexity of urban energy efficiency and arguably fail to provide a ‘fair’ measure of urban performance. Using a data set of 198 urban UK local administrative units, three methods are compared: ratio measures, regression residuals, and data envelopment analysis. The results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding the ease of interpretation, ability to identify outliers and provide consistent rankings. Efficient areas are diverse but are notably found in low income areas of large conurbations such as London, whereas industrial areas are consistently ranked as inefficient. The results highlight the shortcomings of the underlying production-based energy accounts. Ideally urban energy efficiency benchmarks would be built on consumption-based accounts, but interim recommendations are made regarding the use of efficiency measures that improve upon current practice and facilitate wider conversations about what it means for a specific city to be energy-efficient within an interconnected economy. - Highlights: • Benchmarking is a potentially valuable method for improving urban energy performance. • Three different measures of urban energy efficiency are presented for UK cities. • Most efficient areas are diverse but include low-income areas of large conurbations. • Least efficient areas perform industrial activities of national importance. • Improve current practice with grouped per capita metrics or regression residuals

  12. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  13. Energy-efficient wireless mesh infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazmi, Y.; de Meer, Hermann; Hummel, Karin Anna; Meyer, Harald; Meo, Michela; Remondo Bueno, David

    2011-01-01

    The Internet comprises access segments with wired and wireless technologies. In the future, we can expect wireless mesh infrastructures (WMIs) to proliferate in this context. Due to the relatively low energy efficiency of wireless transmission, as compared to wired transmission, energy consumption of WMIs can represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the Internet as a whole. We explore different approaches to reduce energy consumption in WMIs, taking into accoun...

  14. Energy efficiency and the law: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is an energy-intensive country. The inefficient use of, mostly, coal-generated energy is the cause of South Africa's per capita contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, pollution and environmental degradation and negative health impacts. The inefficient use of the country's energy also amounts to the injudicious use of natural resources. Improvements in energy efficiency are an important strategy to stabilise the country's energy crisis. Government responded to this challenge by introducing measures such as policies and legislation to change energy consumption patterns by, amongst others, incentivising the transition to improved energy efficiencies. A central tenet underpinning this review is that the law and energy nexus requires a multidisciplinary approach as well as a multi-pronged adoption of diverse policy instruments to effectively transform the country's energy use patterns. Numerous, innovative instruments are introduced by relevant legislation to encourage the transformation of energy generation and consumption patterns of South Africans. One such innovative instrument is the ISO 50001 energy management standard. It is a voluntary instrument, to plan for, measure and verify energy-efficiency improvements. These improvements may also trigger tax concessions. In this paper, the nature and extent of the various policy instruments and legislation that relate to energy efficiency are explored, while the interactions between the law and the voluntary ISO 50001 standard and between the law and the other academic disciplines are highlighted. The introduction of energy-efficiency measures into law requires a multidisciplinary approach, as lawyers may be challenged to address the scientific and technical elements that characterise these legal measures and instruments. Inputs by several other disciplines such as engineering, mathematics or statistics, accounting, environmental management and auditing may be needed. Law is often

  15. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  16. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  17. Energy efficiency benchmarking of energy-intensive industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, David Yih-Liang; Huang, Chi-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical tool was applied to estimate the energy efficiency indicator of energy intensive industries in Taiwan. • The carbon dioxide emission intensity in selected energy-intensive industries is also evaluated in this study. • The obtained energy efficiency indicator can serve as a base case for comparison to the other regions in the world. • This analysis results can serve as a benchmark for selected energy-intensive industries. - Abstract: Taiwan imports approximately 97.9% of its primary energy as rapid economic development has significantly increased energy and electricity demands. Increased energy efficiency is necessary for industry to comply with energy-efficiency indicators and benchmarking. Benchmarking is applied in this work as an analytical tool to estimate the energy-efficiency indicators of major energy-intensive industries in Taiwan and then compare them to other regions of the world. In addition, the carbon dioxide emission intensity in the iron and steel, chemical, cement, textile and pulp and paper industries are evaluated in this study. In the iron and steel industry, the energy improvement potential of blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) based on BPT (best practice technology) is about 28%. Between 2007 and 2011, the average specific energy consumption (SEC) of styrene monomer (SM), purified terephthalic acid (PTA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was 9.6 GJ/ton, 5.3 GJ/ton and 9.1 GJ/ton, respectively. The energy efficiency of pulping would be improved by 33% if BAT (best available technology) were applied. The analysis results can serve as a benchmark for these industries and as a base case for stimulating changes aimed at more efficient energy utilization

  18. Research for energy efficiency; Forschung fuer Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The Federal Ministry of Economy enhanced its funding for research in the field of non-nuclear energy in the programme ''Forschung fuer Energieeffizienz'' (Research for Energy Efficiency). The programme focuses on established areas like modern power plant technologies (''Moderne Kraftwerkstechnologien''), fuel cells and hydrogen (''Brennstoffzelle, Wasserstoff''), and energy-optimized building construction (''Energieoptimiertes Bauen''). New subjects are energy-efficient towns and cities (''Energieeffiziente Stadt''), power grids for future power supply (''Netze fuer die Stromversorgung der Zukunft''), power storage (''Stromspeicher''), and electromobility (''Elektromobilitaet''). The brochure presents research and demonstration projects that illustrate the situation in 2010 when the programme was initiated. (orig.)

  19. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  20. Tariff regulation with energy efficiency goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrardi, Laura; Cambini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal tariff structure that could induce a regulated utility to promote energy efficiency by its customers given that it is privately informed about the effectiveness of its effort on demand reduction. The regulator should optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If the firm's energy efficiency activities have a high impact on demand reduction, the consumer should pay a high fixed fee but a low per unit price, approximating the tariff structure to a decoupling policy, which strengthens the firm's incentives to pursue energy conservation. Instead, if the firm's effort to adopt energy efficiency actions is scarcely effective, the tariff is characterized by a low fixed fee but a high price per unit of energy consumed, thus shifting the incentives for energy conservation on consumers. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the cost of the consumer's effort (in case the consumer can also adopt energy efficiency measures) and on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts. - Highlights: • We study the optimal tariff structure that induces an utility to adopt energy efficiency activities. • The regulator optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. • If energy efficiency activities have a high effectiveness, decoupling emerges as a solution. • If the energy efficiency actions are less effective, the tariff has a higher per unit price and lower fixed fee. • The optimal tariff structure also depends on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts

  1. The promotion of energy efficiency in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.; Bongiolatti, L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 Italy introduced an obligation for electricity and gas distribution companies to reach specific objectives regarding the improvement of energy efficiency in final energy consumption. The scope of the provision is to promote investments in energy efficiency in order to meet the greenhouse gases reduction target set by the Kyoto protocol. The adoption of binding targets of energy efficiency will also lead to the development of an energy services market, modifying the traditional relation between energy dealers and final consumers, thus leading to a more efficient use of the available resources. Similar mechanisms have already been applied in other European countries (as France and United Kingdom) and will be likely introduced in other countries with the implementation of European Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. This paper describes and analyzes both the measures adopted in Italy and the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. The paper is divided in six different sections. In the first part we highlight the main problems related to the development of system based on tradable white certificates. In the second part we provide a brief description of the Italian regulatory context. In the third part there is an economic analysis of investments in energy efficiency. The fourth part considers the different options that distribution companies face in order to reach the energy efficiency targets. The fifth part shows the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. Finally, we propose some possible modifications to the scheme adopted in Italy considering the results obtained and the alternative solutions already applied in France and United Kingdom [it

  2. Fourth Annual Report on Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Nino; Bertini, Ilaria; Federici, Alessandro; Moneta Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the main elements of the annual report on energy efficiency 2015. The results indicate that, thanks to national policies for energy efficiency, Italy saved over 7.5 million tons of oil equivalent per year in the period 2005-2013. Compared to the National Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014, the report shows that the 2020 objectives have already been achieved for more than 20%, with residential (35.7% of the target) and industry (26.6%) among the sectors that contributed most to this result. Substantial savings could result from the agribusiness sector through the dissemination of efficient technologies in the logistics and large retail chains. A key role lies with the banks: 86% of banks has developed products dedicated to efficiency, necessitating guidelines for replicability of projects, and audit and rating to assess their quality [it

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  4. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available greener economy and environment. In this research, we investigate the concept of green radio communications in wireless networks and discuss approaches for energy efficient solutions in wireless broadband network deployments. These solutions include...

  5. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides resources for policy-makers, consumers, utilities, and others produced through NAPEE - a private-public initiative to create a sustainable, aggressive national commitment to energy efficiency through a collaborative effort of stakeholders.

  6. Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y. Sungtaek [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dunn, Bruce [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, C. -J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-12-14

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the project "Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Cooling Module" sponsored by ARAPA-E as part of its Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT) program.

  7. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  8. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  9. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed

  10. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  11. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  12. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  13. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  14. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... advantages; distributive impacts; and equity); (4) to the extent feasible, specify performance objectives... Defense Council (NRDC), the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), and the Northwest Power and... Strategic Plan commits the Department to reviewing minimum appliance efficiency standards at least every 5...

  15. Impact of energy policy instruments on the estimated level of underlying energy efficiency in the EU residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.; Zorić, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of energy efficiency is seen as one of the top priorities of EU energy policy (EC, 2010). In order to design and implement effective energy policy instruments, it is necessary to have information on energy demand price and income elasticities in addition to sound indicators of energy efficiency. This research combines the approaches taken in energy demand modelling and frontier analysis in order to econometrically estimate the level of energy efficiency for the residential sector in the EU-27 member states for the period 1996 to 2009. The estimates for the energy efficiency confirm that the EU residential sector indeed holds a relatively high potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency. Therefore, despite the common objective to decrease ‘wasteful’ energy consumption, considerable variation in energy efficiency between the EU member states is established. Furthermore, an attempt is made to evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency measures undertaken in the EU residential sector by introducing an additional set of variables into the model and the results suggest that financial incentives and energy performance standards play an important role in promoting energy efficiency improvements, whereas informative measures do not have a significant impact. - Highlights: • The level of energy efficiency of the EU residential sector is estimated. • Considerable potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency is established. • The impact of introduced energy-efficiency policy measures is also evaluated. • Financial incentives are found to promote energy efficiency improvements. • Energy performance standards also play an important role

  16. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  17. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  18. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  19. Evaluating energy efficiency policies with energy-economy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundaca, L.; Neij, L.; Worrell, E.; McNeil, M.

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems, and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically

  20. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  1. 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations. 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA recommends that G8 leaders adopt and urgently implement this package of measures to significantly enhance energy efficiency. This package was developed under the Gleneagles G8 Plan of Action, which mandates the pursuit of a clean, clever and competitive energy future.

  2. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  3. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  4. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast......Efficient operation of energy systems with substantial amount of renewable energy production is becoming increasingly important. Renewables are dependent on the weather conditions and are therefore by nature volatile and uncontrollable, opposed to traditional energy production based on combustion....... The "smart grid" is a broad term for the technology for addressing the challenge of operating the grid with a large share of renewables. The "smart" part is formed by technologies, which models the properties of the systems and efficiently adapt the load to the volatile energy production, by using...

  5. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  6. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  7. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  8. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  9. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  10. How energy efficient is your car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Pere; Oliu, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    A detailed energy balance indicating how fuel energy is transferred from the engine to the wheels of a commercial car is obtained using non-specialized experiments that can be readily understood using elementary mechanics. These experiments allow us to determine the engine's thermal efficiency, its mechanical losses, and the rolling (friction) and aerodynamic (drag) coefficients. We find that approximately 28% of the fuel energy is transferred to the wheels.

  11. France's action plan for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents the French strategy for energy efficiency which is notably based on several commitments and an energy conservation policy. The second part describes the various policies and measures which have been implemented in France for different sectors: energy demand, housing and office building, transports, industry, exemplary State and local communities, agriculture, wastes, public information and sensitization. Several large appendices complete this report. They address assessment methods, policies and measures, and a European directive

  12. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  13. Reduction of Climate Gases by Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, N.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide cannot be depolluted in practice. However, there are two areas where measures can be taken to avoid CO 2 emissions: 1. Energy-efficiency. 2. Use of sustainable energy sources in energy production. It is characteristic that many measures which are good for the environment are also good from the point of view of cost efficiency, preparedness and employment. This is tru, for instance, of the greater use of biofuels instead of fossil fuels, collective heating systems as opposed to individual ones and economy measures - especially more efficient use of electricity. It is a question of thinking of the system as a whole. Methane is another factor which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Methane emissions can also be avoided, or reduced, by system-thinking. System-thinking is, for instance, not ro deposit combustible waste but to use it as an energy source. And why not produce electricity by using methane from existing landfill sites. Electrical energy is the most useful form of energy. Therefore, electricity should not, as a principal rule, be used for heating, or as process energy. The fact that energy-efficiency and emission of greenhouse gases are interrelated is shown in the following two examples. 1. Only about 25% of the energy content in extracted coal will reach the consumers as electricity when the production takes place in an ordinary, coal-fires condensing power station. 2. When district heating (room-heating and hot water) is produced in a modern heat-production plant by flue-gas condensation, about 90% of the energy is utilised for heating purposes. To obtain an overall picture of the amount of energy used for a purpose, e.g. heating or electricity, you must view the entire process from extraction to final use. Such a picture can show the energy efficiency and what losses arise. Efficiency measures can reduce the energy bill. They can also reduce pollution, greenhouse gases among other things. Examples will be given in this paper of energy

  14. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  15. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  16. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  17. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  18. Investment In Energy Efficiency: Do The Characteristics Of Firms Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Decanio; William E. Watkins

    1998-01-01

    The literature on energy efficiency provides numerous examples of apparently profitable technologies that are not universally adopted. Yet according to the standard neoclassical theory of investment, profit-maximizing firms should undertake all investments with a positive net present value. The standard theory also holds that the discount rate for computing the present value of a project should be the return available on other projects in the same risk class, and therefore should not depend o...

  19. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  20. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  1. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  2. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda, Making Energy Efficiency Count. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Pudleiner, David; Jones, David; Khan, Aleisha

    2017-06-15

    Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda has focused its energy sector investments largely on increasing energy access by increasing energy supply. The links between energy efficiency and energy access, the importance of energy efficiency in new energy supply, and the multiple benefits of energy efficiency for the level and quality of energy available, have been largely overlooked. Implementing energy efficiency in parallel with expanding both the electricity grid and new clean energy generation reduces electricity demand and helps optimize the power supply so that it can serve more customers reliably at minimum cost. Ensuring efficient appliances are incorporated into energy access efforts provides improved energy services to customers. Energy efficiency is an important contributor to access to modern energy. This Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda (Roadmap) is a response to the important role that electrical energy efficiency can play in meeting Uganda’s energy goals. Power Africa and the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiatives collaborated with more than 24 stakeholders in Uganda to develop this document. The document estimates that if the most efficient technologies on the market were adopted, 2,224 gigawatt hours could be saved in 2030 across all sectors, representing 31% of the projected load. This translates into 341 megawatts of peak demand reductions, energy access to an additional 6 million rural customers and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 10.6 million tonnes in 2030. The Roadmap also finds that 91% of this technical potential is cost-effective, and 47% is achievable under conservative assumptions. The Roadmap prioritizes recommendations for implementing energy efficiency and maximizing benefits to meet the goals and priorities established in Uganda’s 2015 SEforALL Action Agenda. One important step is to create and increase demand for efficiency through long-term enabling policies and financial incentives

  3. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  4. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  5. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency incentive programs: Rebates and white certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Transue, Morghan; Felder, Frank A. [Center for Energy, Economic, and Environmental Policy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    With increased interest in energy efficiency in recent years, energy efficiency portfolio standards (EEPS) have gained popularity in state policymaking. This analysis employed New Jersey specific data to compare two incentive based approaches to EEPS implementation: rebates and white certificates. Quantitative modeling suggests that white certificate approaches that depend on market-clearing prices generate much larger upfront incentive outlays than rebate programs. They do not however increase societal burden. Both programs overcome high upfront efficiency measure costs and both recoup the expenses over the long run. Administration costs and participation rates can affect this dynamic however and require additional research to determine which approaches are most cost effective for various energy efficiency measures. (author)

  7. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines...... were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency...... of the storage significantly. The efficiency of CAES as an electricity storage may be defined in several ways, we discuss these and find that the exergetic efficiency of compression, storage and production together determine the efficiency of CAES. In the paper we find that the efficiency of the practical CAES...

  8. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  9. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...... of energy conservation to realize such savings; even those who are more concerned with their culinary achievements than with energy efficiency are likely to benefit. Besides being energy efficient the EffiCooker is user friendly. Many cooking tasks, once initiated, are performed automatically without any...

  10. The impact of transport processes standardization on supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Stajniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During continuous market competition, focusing on the customer service level, lead times and supply flexibility is very important to analyze the efficiency of logistics processes. Analysis of supply chain efficiency is one of the fundamental elements of controlling analysis. Transport processes are a key process that provides physical material flow through the supply chain. Therefore, in this article Authors focus attention on the transport processes efficiency. Methods: The research carried out in the second half of 2014 year, in 210 enterprises of the Wielkopolska Region. Observations and business practice studies conducted by the authors, demonstrate a significant impact of standardization processes on supply chain efficiency. Based on the research results, have been developed standard processes that have been assessed as being necessary to standardize in business practice. Results: Based on these research results and observations, authors have developed standards for transport processes by BPMN notation. BPMN allows authors to conduct multivariate simulation of these processes in further stages of research. Conclusions: Developed standards are the initial stage of research conducted by Authors in the assessment of transport processes efficiency. Further research direction is to analyze the use efficiency of transport processes standards in business practice and their impact on the effectiveness of the entire supply chain.

  11. Standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of high efficiency motors and inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Hyun, Chang Soon [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Most of the power systems energy is consumed by electrical motors. This report proposes a method for the standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of the high efficiency motors and related inverters. The results of this report can be referred to the rebate program for promoting the use of high efficiency motors and inverters (author). 26 refs., 102 figs.

  12. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments can provide benefits to low-income communities by investing in energy efficiency. Use the Program Finder table to identify those programs that reach the sectors and audiences of interest in your organization.

  13. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  14. Development of standards, criteria, specifications. Vol. 2 - Longlife.. Sustainable, energy efficient and resource saving, residential buildings in consideration of unified procedures and new and adapted technologies. Project in the Baltic Sea region programme 2007-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, Klaus (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Energy and Cost Efficiency as the key characteristics of the sustainability have been the main consideration of different parts of research represented in the Longlife 2 Report. Longlife 2 Report is in fact the final result of work package 4 ''Developments of Standards and Criteria for Sustainable Building and Construction''. Work package 4 was created based on the work package 3 ''Analysis and comparison of state of technology, administration and legal procedures, financial situation, demographic needs, similarities and differences in the participant countries: Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia''. Three competence teams from each participant country studied, analyzed and examined these concepts from different point of view and introduced a framework to define the fundamental concepts of sustainability. This crucial phase of project based on the objectives and activities of each team could be described as follow: Team 1'' Engineering and Building Technology standards'' and related expertise emphasized on the most architectural solutions and characteristics of sustainability in very wide spectrum. That is realized through adaptable methods of design, typology, standards, assessment systems, proper and available materials with the best physical features, the most efficient and advanced structures and technologies in order to have the most possible energy and resource saving beside the less life cycle cost of the residential building. Team 2 '' Method of planning permit and tendering Procedure'' and its expertise from another point of view worked on the legal and administrative aspects of sustainability and examining possibility and capacity of each involved country to realize sustainable construction. Team 3 ''Economical and Financial basis, Industry and quality'' and its related expertise explained and examined the adequate and necessary tools for

  15. A framework to characterize energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; De Donatis, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel framework to characterize energy efficiency measures is proposed. • It allows a greater knowledge sharing, facilitating the adoption of the best measures. • It supports policy-makers in developing drivers for industrial energy efficiency. - Abstract: The need to increase the diffusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is of crucial importance to achieve a consistent reduction of energy consumption and green house gases (GHG) emissions. A clear comprehension of the characteristics of such EEMs could assist in gathering and capitalizing all the information needed by industrial firms in selecting and adopting technologies, as well as by policy-makers in designing appropriate policies for their diffusion. Therefore, in this study, starting from a literature review of the studies analyzing the attributes of EEMs, we aim at providing an innovative and comprehensive framework to characterize such measures, based on 17 attributes grouped according to six categories, such as: economic, energy, environmental, production-related, implementation-related and the possible interaction with other systems. We applied this scheme to an extensive range of EEMs in cross-cutting technologies, i.e. motors, compressed air, lighting and HVAC systems. The analysis provides a relevant contribution firstly to the structuring and the sharing of knowledge on EEMs and hence to the comprehension of the barriers currently hindering their adoption; secondly, it provides a structured basis for the analysis of the drivers that policy-makers should develop in order to promote industrial energy efficiency

  16. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  17. Hydro-Quebec and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There is growing awareness that energy efficiency is both profitable and environmentally beneficial. In this year's Development Plan, Hydro-Quebec is proposing an Energy Efficiency Project made up of marketing programs designed for all markets throughout the final decade of the 20th century. This Project will have two aspects: energy efficiency and consumption management. Hydro-Quebec aims to reach an energy-efficiency level of 12.9 terawatt hours per year by 1999, fully 55% of its 23-terawatt hour potential. Over the next 10 years the utility intends to spend $1.8 billion for this purpose. Cumulative anticipated energy savings should be in the vicinity of 70 terawatt hours for the coming decade, and more than 130 terawatt hours for the first decade of the next century. Of the overall goal of 12.9 terawatt hours for Horizon 1999, energy savings of 9.0 terawatt hours should be the direct result of this year's proposed marketing programs, and will account for the bulk of anticipated investments. The remaining 3.9 terawatt hours will be gained as customers acquire better electrical appliance and accessory (household appliances, home insulation) buying habits

  18. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  19. Energy plus standard in buildings constructed by housing associations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutterecker, Werner; Blümel, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve national, European and international energy goals, energy efficiency strategies in the building sector have to be implemented. The passive house standard and low energy standards are already successfully established in single dwelling houses. These high performance standards are starting to penetrate into the sector of housing associations. A case study about an apartment building constructed by a housing association is presented here. It describes the monitoring concept and the results of the 1st year of monitoring. Depending on the definition of the zero energy building standard (extent of loads included in the balancing), the building could be classified as an energy plus building or as a building, which uses more energy, than is supplied by on-site generation. If the building's total energy use (including user specific loads) is defined as load, only 34.5% of these loads were provided by the net energy output of the PV system. If only the heating energy demand is defined as load, the PV system even yielded a surplus of 45.6% of the energy load. -- Highlights: ► Energy monitoring of an apartment building constructed by a housing association. ► Planned as a Passive House with a semi-central ventilation system with decentralized heat pump technology. ► Total end energy demand of the building was 43 kWh/(m² a). ► Total net energy generation by the PV system was 15 kWh/(m² a). ► Apartment no. 1: 52% of the energy demand were used for heating and ventilation.

  20. Energy efficiency policy in a non-cooperative world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, Philippe; Proost, Stef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore energy efficiency policies in the presence of a global environmental problem and international cost interdependency associated with R and D activities. We develop a simple model with two regions where the cost of an appliance in one region depends upon the level of energy efficiency in that region and the level of R and D activities by the appliance industry. In our model, the cooperative outcome can be decentralized by imposing a tax on energy. However, we show that when regions do not cooperate, they have an incentive to adopt additional instruments to increase energy efficiency. The reason is that the lack of cooperation leads to under-taxation of the environmental externality which in turn creates an incentive to try to reduce emissions produced abroad. We illustrate this phenomenon with the Californian vehicle greenhouse gas standards.

  1. A 190 mV start-up and 59.2% efficiency CMOS gate boosting voltage doubler charge pump in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Minori; Miyaji, Kousuke

    2018-04-01

    A start-up charge pump circuit for an extremely low input voltage (V IN) is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed circuit uses an inverter level shifter to generate a 2V IN voltage swing to the gate of both main NMOS and PMOS power transistors in a charge pump to reduce the channel resistance. The proposed circuit is fully implemented in a standard 0.18 µm CMOS process, and the measurement result shows that a minimum input voltage of 190 mV is achieved and output power increases by 181% compared with the conventional forward-body-bias scheme at a 300 mV input voltage. The proposed scheme achieves a maximum efficiency of 59.2% when the input voltage is 390 mV and the output current is 320 nA. The proposed circuit is suitable as a start-up circuit in ultralow power energy harvesting power management applications to boost-up from below threshold voltage.

  2. Management of projects for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Miodrag M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to lower operating costs and improve competitiveness, many organizations today are preparing projects in the field of energy saving. On the other hand, companies that provide energy services and implement these projects, need to build competences in this area to well manage the projects which are subject to energy savings and by this to justify the confidence of investors. This paper presents research that shows the most important factors for the development of local capacity in project management in the field of energy efficiency.

  3. Improved energy efficiency in the process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilavachi, P A [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-12-31

    The European Commission, through the JOULE Programme, is promoting energy efficient technologies in the process industries; the topics of the various R and D activities are: heat exchangers (enhanced evaporation, shell and tube heat exchangers including distribution of fluids, and fouling), low energy separation processes (adsorption, melt-crystallization and supercritical extraction), chemical reactors (methanol synthesis and reactors with integral heat exchangers), other unit operations (evaporators, glass-melting furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens, dryers and packed columns and replacements for R12 in refrigeration), energy and system process models (batch processes, simulation and control of transients and energy synthesis), development of advanced sensors.

  4. Energy efficiency in the world and Turkey and investigation of energy efficiency in Turkish Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavak, K.

    2005-09-01

    The reserves of fossil fuels which currently respond to the major part of world energy requirements are being running out very fast. Because it is forecasted that reserves of some fossil fuels like oil and natural gas will come to an end in the second half of this century, exploiting all energy resources in an efficient manner has great importance. Throughout the world where the energy demand grows continuously but the resources decrease gradually, many types of programs are implemented to provide efficient energy use. In Turkey, although there have been some efforts in last two decades, the importance of the issue could not be undersood yet. Turkey'sgeneral energy policy still focuses on supply security and finding ways to meet the growing demand, rather than decreasing the demand by energy efficiency. In this study, the possible opportunities and benefits that Turkey would gain by energy efficiency is pointed out. The studies about energy efficiency which have been conducted in the world and Turkey are examined. The measurement that can be taken in the sectors such as industry, power plants, buildings, transportation and the utilities of these measures for energy economy are indicated. The successful practices of energy efficiency studies in various countries, the state of some countries which pioneer efficiency implementations. Turkey's situation in energy in the light of basic indicators such as energy consumption per capita and enrgy intensity, the energy efficiency studies that have been done and should be done in various sectors of Turkey are also discussed in this thesis. Turkish industry's energy comsumption is analyzed as a seperate chapter by taking into consideration energy efficiency, energy intensity and energy resources. The general energy consumption and energy intensity tendencies of main manufacturing industries between 1995 and 2002 are explored and resource utilization ratios are investigated. This chapter provides to find out what kind of

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  6. Reliability and energy efficiency of zero energy homes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being installed increasingly on residential homes to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix. The ultimate goal is to attain sustainability without subsidy. The prices of PV modules and systems have declined substantially during the recent years. They will be reduced further to reach grid parity. Additionally the total consumed energy must be reduced by making the homes more energy efficient. FSEC/UCF Researchers have carried out research on development of PV cells and systems and on reducing the energy consumption in homes and by small businesses. Additionally, they have provided guidance on PV module and system installation and to make the homes energy efficient. The produced energy is fed into the utility grid and the consumed energy is obtained from the utility grid, thus the grid is assisting in the storage. Currently the State of Florida permits net metering leading to equal charge for the produced and consumed electricity. This paper describes the installation of 5.29 KW crystalline silicon PV system on a south-facing tilt at approximately latitude tilt on a single-story, three-bedroom house. It also describes the computer program on Building Energy Efficiency and the processes that were employed for reducing the energy consumption of the house by improving the insulation, air circulation and windows, etc. Finally it describes actual consumption and production of electricity and the installation of additional crystalline silicon PV modules and balance of system to make it a zero energy home.

  7. How to subsidize energy efficiency under duopoly efficiently?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Pu-yan; Yang, Yong-cong; Chen, You-hua; Wang, Zhao-hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This article captures the effects of output subsidy. • Firms without subsidy are not willing to improve energy efficiency. • Subsidy stimulates the subsidized firms’ outputs and deters the others’ outputs. • The subsidy intensity depends on firms’ position. • Overdue subsidy cannot reach the environmental object. - Abstract: Establishing a game theory model, this paper captures the effects of output subsidy on energy efficiency under Cournot competition and Stackelberg competition. Three types of subsidies are considered in the model, namely without subsidy, unilateral subsidy and bilateral subsidy. The findings indicate that firms without subsidy are not willing to improve energy efficiency. Also, subsidy stimulates the subsidized firms’ outputs while deters the outputs of other firms. Meanwhile, the equilibrium subsidy intensity depends on firms’ position. Furthermore, the minimal subsidy budgets under different situations are presented. Especially, given the fixed subsidy budget, the output of the subsidized firm is the highest if this firm plays the leading position. In addition, certain subsidy can reduce the total emission, while overdue subsidy cannot reach the environmental object.

  8. 'Normal' markets, market imperfections and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Howarth, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The conventional distinction between 'economic' and 'engineering' approaches to energy analysis obscures key methodological issues concerning the measurement of the costs and benefits of policies to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The engineering approach is in fact based upon firm economic foundations: the principle of lifecycle cost minimization that arises directly from the theory of rational investment. Thus, evidence that so-called 'market barriers' impede the adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies implies the existence of market failures as defined in the context of microeconomic theory. A widely held view that the engineering view lacks economic justification, is based on the fallacy that markets are 'normally' efficient. (author)

  9. Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-01-01

    To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of$40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over$25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings

  10. Evaporative Air Coolers Optimization for Energy Consumption Reduction and Energy Efficiency Ratio Increment

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Torkaman; Nasser Ghassembaglou

    2015-01-01

    Significant quota of Municipal Electrical Energy consumption is related to Decentralized Air Conditioning which is mostly provided by evaporative coolers. So the aim is to optimize design of air conditioners to increase their efficiencies. To achieve this goal, results of practical standardized tests for 40 evaporative coolers in different types collected and simultaneously results for same coolers based on one of EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) modeling styles are figured ...

  11. Adopting Energy Efficiency in Connected Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kemper, Emily [CLEAResult

    2017-10-02

    This presentation on connected homes was presented at the 11th Rocky Mountain Utility Efficiency Exchange on September 28, 2017. The discussion covered the integration of energy efficiency measures and practices with Internet of Things (IoT) awareness and adoption of smart technologies and services via WiFi/ Bluetooth enabled home and office equipment. The presentation also describes the benefits to the home and business and benefits/challenges for the utility/implementer.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENT TRACKING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    Thankaselvi Kumaresan; Sheryl Mathias; Digja Khanvilkar; Prof. Smita Dange

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is surveillance system, which is used to track moving targets. WSN is composed of a large number of low cost sensors which operate on the power derived from batteries. Energy efficiency is an important issue in WSN, which determines the network lifetime. Due to the need for continuous monitoring with 100% efficiency, keeping all the sensor nodes active permanently leads to fast draining of batteries. Hen...

  13. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  14. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    European standard for measuring the energy consumption and calculation of energy demand of lifts and escalators is needed. Implementing a standard forms the basis for informed comparisons between more and less energy-efficient technology. Second, lifts and escalators should become part of legislation and regulation concerned with the energy efficiency of buildings, namely they should become part of the EPBD. Third, campaigns and dissemination material raising further awareness are needed. This third conclusion should be combined with the fourth, providing easily accessible and understandable information for buyers of lifts and escalators to support decision-making processes. (orig.)

  15. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  16. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Malik [Detroit Economic Growth Corp, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  18. Energy efficiency potential study for New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The economic and environmental impacts associated with economically attractive energy savings identified in each of four sectors in New Brunswick are analyzed. The results are derived through a comparison of two potential future scenarios. The frozen efficiency scenario projects what future energy expenditures would be if no new energy efficiency initiatives are introduced. The economic potential scenario projects what those expenditures would be if all economically attractive energy efficiency improvements were gradually implemented over the next 20 years. Energy related emissions are estimated under scenarios with and without fuel switching. The results show, for example, that New Brunswick's energy related CO 2 emissions would be reduced by ca 5 million tonnes in the year 2000 under the economic potential scenario. If fuel switching is adopted, an additional 1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions could be saved in the year 2000 and 1.6 million tonnes in 2010. The economic impact analysis is restricted to efficiency options only and does not consider fuel switching. Results show the effect of the economic potential scenario on employment, government revenues, and intra-industry distribution of employment gains and losses. The employment impact is estimated as the equivalent of the creation of 2,424 jobs annually over 1991-2010. Government revenues would increase by ca $24 million annually. The industries benefitting most from energy efficiency improvements would be those related to construction, retail trade, finance, real estate, and food/beverages. Industries adversely affected would be the electric power, oil, and coal sectors. 2 figs., 37 tabs

  19. Evaluating municipal energy efficiency in biorefinery integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haikonen, Turo; Tuomaala, Mari; Holmberg, Henrik; Ahtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass-based energy production was introduced to an urban city area of Helsinki, Finland. The study compared two cases in integration with a municipality: (1) biomass fuelled small-scale CHP (combined heat and power)-plant and (2) a biorefinery. The comparison was made according to primary energy consumption, primary energy factors, CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions and the price of produced biowax. It was also studied how results are influenced by different assumptions. The results showed that the primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions were higher in the biorefinery case in absolute amounts as more products i.e. biowax was produced. The results indicated the primary energy factors were almost the same for both cases. Additionally, the primary energy use was very low for district heat and electricity produced in the biorefinery, when the primary energy use of the biorefinery was allocated only to the biowax. The sensitivity analysis of biowax pricing showed that a biorefinery is a competitive alternative for a CHP-plant if the prices of biomass and market electricity are low and the price of CO 2 allowance is high. In terms of overall energy efficiency comparison, the comparison cannot be properly completed, because of the different end-products of the plants. - Highlights: • Primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in a municipality are studied. • Energy production in a biorefinery is compared to a conventional CHP-plant. • In the biorefinery CO 2 emission per produced energy unit (CO 2 /MWh) is the lowest. • The CHP-case benefits from low primary energy consumption and electricity demand. • More than one energy efficiency figure needs to be considered in analyses

  20. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs