WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy economic performance

  1. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  2. Energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Develi, Abdulkadir; Kaynak, Selahattin (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Energy resources, the basic input in every area of the economy, have a fundamental function for society's welfare. Traditional energy resources are, however, rapidly decreasing. Energy supply has been falling behind in meeting global demand, and is causing increased focus on efficiency and economy concepts in recent energy policies. Since the existing energy resources are not spread evenly among the countries, but instead are concentrated in certain regions and countries, a monopolistic situation arises. Equally, supply assurance is an issue, since the energy supply is held by certain regions and countries who have monopolistic pricing power. Both the EU and many other countries are studying how to marketize energy. This book focuses on the importance of energy and the problems posed by it. It will be useful for the academic community, related sectors and decision makers.

  3. Sustainability and Economic Performance of the Companies in the Renewable Energy Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the sustainability and economic performance of the renewable energy sector of Romania. In our analysis, we have used Total Quality Management (TQM model, which is an economic modern tool used for improving the quality of management for all companies. The aim of this study is to bring into discussion the conceptualized TQM model of Edward Deming underlying different stages of its evolution as it is described in the economic literature. Conceptual model is applied in a case study of the renewable energy sector of Romania. The quantitative research evaluates the impact of the total quality management to achieve the sustainable development, performance objectives and the competitive advantage of the companies in the renewable energy sector. Data was collected through a survey and the questionnaire was addressed to the management and employees in the renewable energy sector. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used and the hypotheses were tested by partial least square (PLS equations. Data was analyzed through the Smart PLS 3 software. The main contribution of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relationship among sustainable development, economic performance of the companies and TQM model indicators. The conclusions of our research are in line with the existing literature and confirm the theoretical assumptions, underlining the fact that the undertaking’s performance and sustainable development is a direct consequence of the combination among a series of factors like decisional power quality, motivated workforce as well as integrity of operational process.

  4. Performance of renewable energy technologies in the energy-environmental-economic continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.; Birkenheier, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Projected cost-performance data are used to calculate the Canadian commercial potential of selected renewable energy technologies to the year 2010. Based on projected market penetration, the extent to which renewable energy can contribute to environmental initiatives is also examined. The potential for renewable energy to contribute to the Canadian electricity supply is limited neither by the state of the technology nor the extent of the resource available. Barriers to acceptance of renewables include high initial capital costs, intermittent nature of much of the energy supply, land requirements, onerous requirements for environmental assessments and licensing, and lack of government policies which consider the externalities involved in new energy supply. Environmental benefits which will drive the adoption of renewables in Canada include the sustainable nature of renewable resources, low environmental impacts, and suitability for integrated resource planning. In addition, the cost performance of renewable technologies is improving rapidly. Under base-case scenarios, at current buyback rates, only small hydro and biomass of the five renewable technologies examined has significant commercial potential in Canada. At buyback rates that reflect currently projected avoided costs plus an additional 2 cents per kWh as an environmental premium, all five renewable technologies except for photovoltaics have appreciable commercial potential achievable by 2010. The quantity of electrical energy displaced under this latter scenario is estimated at 49 TWh/y, or 7% of the projected total generation in Canada. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Assessment of energy and economic performance of office building models: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. Y.; Ye, C. T.; Li, H. S.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. B.

    2016-08-01

    Energy consumption of building accounts for more than 37.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of energy-saving buildings is just 5% in China. In this paper, in order to save potential energy, an office building in Southern China was selected as a test example for energy consumption characteristics. The base building model was developed by TRNSYS software and validated against the recorded data from the field work in six days out of August-September in 2013. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for energy performance of building envelope retrofitting; five envelope parameters were analyzed for assessing the thermal responses. Results indicated that the key sensitivity factors were obtained for the heat-transfer coefficient of exterior walls (U-wall), infiltration rate and shading coefficient (SC), of which the sum sensitivity factor was about 89.32%. In addition, the results were evaluated in terms of energy and economic analysis. The analysis of sensitivity validated against some important results of previous studies. On the other hand, the cost-effective method improved the efficiency of investment management in building energy.

  6. Dividing wall column: Improving thermal efficiency, energy savings and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, Md; Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model is developed for a dividing wall column. • Heat transfer model for metal wall is proposed. • Performance improvement is quantified for a ternary system. • Thermal efficiency, energy savings and cost are three used indices. - Abstract: This work aims at investigating the performance improvement of a dividing wall column (DWC) for the separation of a ternary system. It is true that for fractionating a ternary mixture, at least a sequence of two conventional distillation columns is required. To improve energetic and economic potential, and reduce space requirement, two columns are proposed to merge into one shell with a dividing wall. For developing the mathematical model of a distillation column, we consider the effect of heat transfer through the metal wall placed at an intermediated position inside the cylindrical column. The simulated DWC model is verified using the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator with a wide variety of phase equilibrium models. The superiority of this proposed heat integrated configuration is shown for a ternary hydrocarbon system over a conventional distillation sequence (CDS) in terms of mainly three performance indexes, namely thermal efficiency, energy savings and total annual cost (TAC). It is investigated that the dividing wall distillation scheme can secure a 37.5% energy efficiency, and a 22.6% savings in energy consumption and 23.23% in TAC. The promising performance can also be quantified in terms of a reasonably low payback period of 2.11 years.

  7. Performance testing and economic analysis of a photovoltaic flywheel energy storage and conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R. D.; Millner, A. R.; Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    A subscale prototype of a flywheel energy storage and conversion system for use with photovoltaic power systems of residential and intermediate load-center size has been designed, built and tested by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. System design, including details of such key components as magnetic bearings, motor generator, and power conditioning electronics, is described. Performance results of prototype testing are given and indicate that this system is the equal of or superior to battery-inverter systems for the same application. Results of cost and user-worth analysis show that residential systems are economically feasible in stand-alone and in some utility-interactive applications.

  8. Comparative economic assessment of the energy performance of air-conditioning within the Mexican residential sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Oropeza-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensitivity analysis of the economic impact of different energy performances of air-conditioning within the Mexican housing sector. For this purpose, a cooling-load calculator program in function of the indoor temperature is developed. The program also calculates the electricity consumption along with the expenditure with the different residential rates of the Mexican Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE, initials in Spanish set according to the season of the year and zone of the country. After the results onto the national-scale scenario are validated with the literature, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing three parameters that are considered as influential on the consumption and which can be considered as energy saving strategies. With these strategies, it is found that the indoor temperature decrease due to the use of a passive cooling system is the most important characteristic to take into account followed by the coefficient of performance (COP of the air-conditioning and the increase of the comfort temperature set-point, respectively. Thereby, an economic analysis is carried out, finding an annual saving up to 770 USD within a single air-conditioned dwelling having a payback period of 3 years for using a combination of passive cooling techniques and increasing the comfort temperature set-point; or a 2 years payback period if the air-conditioning is changed by a high-efficient equipment.

  9. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  10. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  11. Grey relation performance correlations among economics, energy use and carbon dioxide emission in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the inter-relationships among economy, energy and CO 2 emissions of 37 industrial sectors in Taiwan in order to provide insight regarding sustainable development policy making. Grey relation analysis was used to analyse the productivity, aggregate energy consumption, and the use of fuel mix (electricity, coal, oil and gas) in relation to CO 2 emission changes. An innovative evaluative index system was devised to explore grey relation grades among economics, energy and environmental quality. Results indicate that a rapid increase in electricity generation during the past 10 years is the main reason for CO 2 emission increase in Taiwan. The largest CO 2 emitting sectors include iron and steel, transportation, petrochemical materials, commerce and other services. Therefore, it is important to reduce the energy intensity of these sectors by energy conservation, efficiency improvement and adjustment of industrial structure towards high value-added products and services. Economic growth for all industries has a more significant influence, than does total energy consumption, on CO 2 emission increase in Taiwan. It is also important to decouple the energy consumption and production to reduce the impacts of CO 2 on economic growth. Furthermore, most of the sectors examined had increased CO 2 emissions, except for machinery and road transportation. For high energy intensive and CO 2 intensive industries, governmental policies for CO 2 mitigation should be directed towards low carbon fuels as well as towards enhancement of the demand side management mechanism, without loss of the nation's competitiveness

  12. Causal Dynamic Relationships between Political–Economic Factors and Export Performance in the Renewable Energy Technologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsuk Sung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how political–economic forces could affect export performance in the renewable energy technologies market. We conduct panel framework analyses to verify the characteristics of panel data for 19 countries before establishing the panel estimator meant to test the effects of political–economic forces on export specialization. We consider the results of the panel framework analyses and develop an empirical model to test casual dynamic relationships between political–economic forces and export performance. The results from the least squares dummy variable-corrected estimation indicate that the major factors promoting the export specialization of renewable energy technologies are, in order of decreasing importance, public pressure, market size, and government demand-pull policy. However, the traditional energy industry has no significant effect on export performance. Finally, this study finds that dynamic effects exist in all estimations.

  13. Performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraputra, Chuttchaval; Tiptipakorn, Supun

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators. The proposed regenerative brake recycles the energy loss of a dynamic brake and feeds into the grid while an elevator inverter is operating in the braking mode. According to field measurement of energy consumption, it reveals that the efficiency can be improved as much as 18%. The prototype of a regenerative brake 12 kW, 400V, 3ϕ is developed and tested on an elevator simulator. It is shown that it can transfer energy out of a DC capacitor before the dynamic brake kicks in. Further, an economic analysis is provided to carry out the payback period and the present worth equivalent to confirm economic feasibility.

  14. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  15. Essays in Energy Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Erica Catherine

    This dissertation combines research on three topics in applied energy economics. The first two papers investigate whether consumers are informed about and pay attention to energy costs in residential housing. The first paper explores this issue in the rental housing market, while the second paper focuses on housing purchases. The third paper, based on joint work with AJ Bostian and Harrison Fell, uses a laboratory experiment to test the effects of positive versus negative cost shocks on mulit-unit procurement auction performance. The first paper explores whether there are energy cost information asymmetries between landlords and tenants. If tenants are uninformed about energy costs, landlords cannot capitalize energy efficiency investments into higher rents, leading to under-investment. I exploit variation in energy costs in the form of relative heating fuel price changes in the northeastern United States where some apartment units heat with oil and some units heat with natural gas. I develop a search model to describe the matching of landlords and tenants, and derive predictions about the incidence of relative fuel price changes, tenant turnover, and efficiency investments under both symmetric and asymmetric information. My model predicts that, under symmetric full information, these outcomes will not differ depending on whether landlords or tenants pay for energy. In contrast, under asymmetric information, the demand of uninformed tenants for units that heat with oil rather than gas will not shift when oil prices rise relative to gas prices. In a search model, this leads to different market outcomes when landlords, rather than tenants, pay for energy. I find that the capitalization of energy prices into rents, turnover rates, and energy efficiency investments differ between the two payment regimes in ways that are consistent with asymmetric information. The second paper explores whether home buyers are myopic about future energy costs. I exploit variation in

  16. Economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.; Kumar, H.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional economic analysis of wind energy often ignores the fact that it is not an energy source available on tap, but is intermittent. The analysis at times is discriminatory in the sense that the costs of transmission and distribution are added to the central grid alternative but the costs of the locational constraints of wind energy siting are not quantified. This paper evaluates wind energy after correcting for these two factors. The results are not encouraging

  17. Marketization and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2010-01-01

    . A reform enforcing compulsory competitive tendering in homecare for elderly people in Denmark is analysed and its relation to measures of economic performance is explored. Two competing models of marketization are contrasted in the analysis: a problem solving model inspired by public choice ideology...... little impact on economic performance is found, which lends support to an institutional interpretation of the findings....

  18. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  19. Forecasting oilfield economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.E.; Wood, A.R.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a general method for forecasting oilfield economic performance that integrates cost data with operational, reservoir, and financial information. Practices are developed for determining economic limits for an oil field and its components. The economic limits of marginal wells and the role of underground competition receive special attention. Also examined is the influence of oil prices on operating costs. Examples illustrate application of these concepts. Categorization of costs for historical tracking and projections is recommended

  20. Economic performance indicators of wind energy based on wind speed stochastic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new and different wind energy production indicator. • We compute financial profitability of potential wind power sites. • The wind speed process is modeled as an indexed semi-Markov chain. • We check if the wind energy is a good investment with and without incentives. - Abstract: We propose the computation of different wind energy production indicators and financial profitability of potential wind power sites. The computation is performed by modeling the wind speed process as an indexed semi-Markov chain to predict and simulate the wind speed dynamics. We demonstrate that the indexed semi-Markov chain approach enables reproducing the indicators calculated on real data. Two different time horizons of 15 and 30 years are analyzed. In the first case we consider the government incentives on the energy price now present in Italy, while in the second case the incentives have not been taken into account

  1. Labour productivity, energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises: A study of brick enterprises cluster in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Subrahmanya, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper probes the role of labour efficiency in promoting energy efficiency and economic performance with reference to small scale brick enterprises' cluster in Malur, Karnataka State, India. In the bricks industry, the technology in use being similar, labour efficiency has a negative influence on energy cost. Therefore, those enterprises that exhibited higher labour productivities had lower average energy intensity and higher returns to scale as compared to those that had lower labour productivities. Considering this, improvement of labour efficiency can be an alternative approach for energy efficiency improvement in energy intensive small scale industries in developing countries like India, which face the obstacle of financial constraints in up-grading technology as a means of energy efficiency improvement

  2. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation.

  3. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation

  4. Stochastic interest rates in the analysis of energy investments: Implications on economic performance and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolis, Athanasios; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias; Doukelis, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    A systematic impact assessment of stochastic interest and inflation rates on the analysis of energy investments is presented. A real-options algorithm has been created for this task. Constant interest rates incorporating high risk premium have been extensively used for economic calculations, within the framework of traditional direct cash flow methods, thus favouring immediate, irreversible investments in the expense of, sometimes, insubstantially low anticipated yields. In this article, not only incomes and expenses but also interest and inflation rates are considered stochastically evolving according to specific probabilistic models. The numerical experiments indicated that the stochastic interest rate forecasts fluctuate in such low levels that may signal delayed investment entry in favour of higher expected yields. The implementation of stochastically evolving interest rates in energy investment analysis may have a controversial effect on sustainability. Displacements of inefficient plants may be significantly delayed, thus prolonging high CO 2 emission rates. Under the current CO 2 allowance prices or their medium-term forecasts, this situation may not be improved and flexible policy interventions may be necessitated. (author)

  5. Energy and Economic Crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the economy and the energy is much more complex of what looks. However, they are continued making, in some cases, absolute statements that used to listen in the past as dogmas, among those that are highly correlated in energy consumption and the Gross National Product GNP and that the countries follow the same development pattern more or less, mainly in connection with the energy consumption. Such statements are not completely misses, neither completely correct and they have behind many simplifications. Of a part, of the historical evolution analysis of several countries or groups of countries on long periods, it confirms the fact that the economic growth, induces an increment in general in the total consumption of energy and vice versa: Energy available with more speed and to smaller price it favors the economic development. Other important factors that impact in the growth of the energy consumption, besides the economic development, are, among, the population's increment, the state of technological development and the cultural customs of use

  6. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  7. Assessment of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System with Different Collector Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Angrisani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant-based air handling units can achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and energy savings with respect to conventional air conditioning systems. Benefits are maximized when they interact with renewable energy technologies, such as solar collectors. In this work, experimental tests and data derived from scientific and technical literature are used to implement a model of a solar desiccant cooling system, considering three different collector technologies (air, flat-plate and evacuated collectors. Simulations were then performed to compare the energy, environmental and economic performance of the system with those of a desiccant-based unit where regeneration thermal energy is supplied by a natural gas boiler, and with those of a conventional air-handling unit. The only solution that allows achieving the economic feasibility of the solar desiccant cooling unit consists of 16 m2 of evacuated solar collectors. This is able to obtain, with respect to the reference system, a reduction of primary energy consumption and of the equivalent CO2 emissions of 50.2% and 49.8%, respectively, but with a payback time of 20 years.

  8. On the “cost-optimal levels” of energy performance requirements and its economic evaluation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Tronchin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The European energy policies about climate and energy package, known as the “20-20-20” targets define ambitious, but achievable, national energy objectives. As regards the Directives closely related to the 2020 targets, the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD Recast- DIR 2010/31/EU is the main European legislative instrument for improving the energy performance of buildings, taking into account outdoor climatic and local conditions, as well as indoor climate requirements and cost-effectiveness. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels”. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology framework, leaving the Member States to determine which of these calculations is to become the national benchmark against which national minimum energy performance requirements will be assessed. The European standards (ENs- Umbrella Document V7 (prCEN/TR 15615 are intended to support the EPBD by providing the calculation methods and associated material to obtain the overall energy performance of a building. For Italy the Energy Performance of Building Simulations EPBS must be calculated with standard UNITS 11300. The energy building behaviour is referred to standard and not to real use, nor climate or dynamic energy evaluation. Since retrofitting of existing buildings offers significant opportunities for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, a case study of retrofitting is described and the CostOptimal Level EU procedure in an Italian context is analysed. Following this procedure, it is shown not only that the energy cost depends on several conditions and most of them are not indexed at national level but also that the cost of improvement depends on local variables and contract tender. The case study highlights the difficulties to apply EU rules, and

  9. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORAŢIU ŞOIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of wealth and economic performance are old but despite their importance we have not a final answer on them. Besides the standard production factors usually stresed when we analyze economic performance and growth, land, labor and capital, we approach institutions in general and entrepreneurial culture in particular. In this paper we analyze the relationship between entreprenurship, defined by many dimensions derived from the study „Entrepreneurship in the EU and beyond.” requested by European Comission to the Gallup Internaitional, and economic performance measured by GDP/capita. The results show that countries where there is a strong entrepreneurial culture that promote initiative, opportunity seeking, risk taking aare doing better in terms of development level and wealth. At the same time the countries where the entrepreneurs have a good image in society, and thus promote entrepreneurship, are doing beter than the other countries.

  10. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  11. Design and performance of a clean and economic power supply targeting energy independence and operative security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaha, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Stand alone wind-diesel power systems address the major issues for the supply of remotely located consumers or the provision of enhanced energy independence. The specific configuration considered here comprises a prior wind turbine driven induction generator and a supplementary synchronous generator driven by a combustion engine, the latter caring for frequency control and reactive power balance. An accumulator-bank and a hydrogen storage path consisting of an electrolyzer and a hydrogen storage tank are added as short-term and long-term storage devices - respectively - in order to adjust volatile wind generation and varying load demand. The hydrogen re-conversion to electricity is achieved by design of the drive of the synchronous generator as a dual-fuel engine, fed with stored hydrogen primarily, and with diesel oil in case of the rare event of hydrogen storage emptiness. An elementary waste heat recovery from engine cooling water and from exhaust gases makes the system even more energy efficient and environment friendly. For proper sizing of the particular system components under minimization of the life cycle cost - which are composed of the initial installation cost, the replacement cost, the operation and maintenance cost as well as the remaining fuel cost - the meta-heuristic computational method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was applied. The crucial task of intelligently managing the energy storage strategy depending on their actual states of charge and the current excess power under a given load profile was solved by a fuzzy system and a subsequent time scheduler, the latter providing definite set-point steps for definite periods of time to the electrolyzer in order to achieve smooth and conservative operation. The concrete design and performance of the proposed system structure is shown with the two relevant application examples of independent electricity supply of the main hospital in Gaza-Strip, Palestine, and a remotely located dairy farm. For

  12. Energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B

    1979-09-01

    In this interview, Dr. Barry Commoner discusses his analysis of energy problems as a function of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, i.e., that energy is necessary in order to perform work. As outlined in his book The Poverty of Power, a good thermodynamic approach matches the amount of energy expended with the task to be done. Electric transport is more energy efficient than private automobiles and illustrates how capital is wasted and social harm done to increase private profit. Inefficient energy use is the result of basing conservation efforts on the First rather than the Second Law. Commoner advocates social changes that give society more control over the means of production and the way resources are used. He feels the relative merits of solar energy and breeder reactors should be debated and a choice made, preferably for solar, to make a gradual transition to renewable resources. (DCK)

  13. Assessment of the energy performance, economics and environmental footprint of silicon heterojunction photovoltaic technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To make the transition towards a more sustainable energy supply, it is necessary that we drastically increase the share of renewable electricity generation. Solar photovoltaic energy is regarded as one of the prime options to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of our electricity supply, and many

  14. Environmental and economic performance of heating systems for energy-efficient dwellings: Case of passive and low-energy single-family houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, L.; Massart, C.; Van Moeseke, G.; De Herde, A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption of the building stock, a major trend is to drastically reduce the space-heating (SH) needs by improving the thermal performance of the envelope. In general, this measure is combined with efficient heating systems to minimize the delivered energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, these better systems are often more expensive so that the extra-investment could be hardly recovered for small-scale energy consumption. The main objective of the article is to show how equilibria between cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of heating systems are changed when small SH needs are considered (i.e. for passive and low-energy houses). The scope is limited to new single-family dwellings. Furthermore, the passive house standard provides means of simplifying the SH by using the ventilation air: the idea is that savings should counterbalance the extra-investment in super-insulation. In theory, a new global economic optimum is generated at the passive house level. The second objective of the work is to study which conditions could lead to this new optimum. Only a detached-house typology is investigated to address this last issue. Regarding methodology, all the investigations are done considering the Belgian context. Energy and environmental performance is evaluated using a method that complies with the EN-15603 and EN-15316 standards. - Highlights: ► Cost-benefit analysis is performed without incentives and is based on the Belgian market. ► Equilibria between cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of heating systems are changed for very low-energy houses. ► The space-heating simplification at the passive house level can hardly produce a new global economic optimum.

  15. High Performance and Economic Supercapacitors for Energy Storage Based on Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Farshid, Behzad; Frenkel, Alexander; Sensor CAT at Stony Brook Team

    2015-03-01

    We designed and manufactured very inexpensive prototypes of supercapacitors for energy storage based on carbon nanomaterials comprised of: reduced graphene oxide (RGOs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrodes filled with polymer gel electrolytes. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitors made using these materials were compared and analyzed. A significant tradeoff between the energy density and the power density was determined; RGO electrodes demonstrated the highest energy density, while composite RGO/CNT electrodes showed the highest power density. The thickness of the RGO electrode was varied to determine its effect on the power density of the supercapacitor and results showed that with decreasing electrode thickness power density would increase. The specific capacitances of over 600 F/g were observed.

  16. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  17. Energy-related environmental and economic performance analysis of two different types of electrically heated student residence halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Khuram Pervez; Aslam, Muhammad Waqar

    2018-03-01

    Student residence halls occupy 26% of the total area of a typical university campus in the UK and are directly responsible for 24% of university's annual CO2 emissions. Based on five years measured data, this paper aims to investigate the energy-related environmental and economic performance of electrically heated residence halls in which space heating is provided by two different types of electric heaters, that is, panel heater (PHT) and storage heater (SHT). Secondly, using statistical and machine learning methods, the paper attempts to investigate the relationship between daily electricity consumption and five factors (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and type of day). Data analysis revealed that electricity consumption of both halls is mainly driven by ambient temperature only, whereas SHT residence has 39% higher annual electricity bill and emits 70% higher CO2 emissions on a per square metre basis compared to the PHT residence hall.

  18. Essays in energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund

    2016-10-25

    This thesis presents four essays in energy economics. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm. The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions. The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts. The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.

  19. Essays in energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents four essays in energy economics. The first essay investigates one of the workhorse models of resource economics, the Hotelling model of an inter-temporally optimizing resource extracting firm. The Hotelling model provides a convincing theory of fundamental concepts like resource scarcity, but very few empirical validations of the model have been conducted. This essay attempts to empirically validate the Hotelling model by first expanding it to include exploration activity and market power and then using a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry to test whether a major resource extracting mining firm in the industry is following the theory's predictions. The results show that the theory is rejected in all considered settings. The second and third essays investigate the difference in market outcomes under spot-market based trade as compared to long-term contract based trade in oligopolistic markets with investments. The second essay investigates analytically the difference in market outcomes in an electricity market setting, showing that investments and consumer welfare may be higher under spot-market based trade than under long-term contracts. The third essay proposes techniques to solve large-scale models of this kind, empirically, by exploring the practicability of this approach in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. The final essay investigates the influence of policy uncertainty on investment decisions. With France debating the role of nuclear technology, this essay analyses how policy uncertainty regarding nuclear power in France may feature in the French and European power sector. Applying a stochastic model for the European power system, the analysis shows that the costs of uncertainty in this particular application are rather low compared to the overall costs of a nuclear phase-out.

  20. Energy economics and financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsman, Andre [Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Finance; Simpson, John L. [Curtin Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Economics and Finance; Westerman, Wim (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Economics and Business Economics, Econometrics and Finance

    2013-10-01

    Deals with the upcoming theme of energy issues. Links energy issues with economics and financial markets. Combines global focus with specific regional and local examples. Unites theoretical insights with timely data and practical insights. Specialized author team from all over the world. Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. Specific examples of topical energy issues come from around the globe and often concern economics and finance. The importance of energy production, consumption and trade raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. This volume presents research on energy economics and financial markets related to the themes of supply and demand, environmental impact and renewables, energy derivatives trading, and finance and energy. The contributions by experts in their fields take a global perspective, as well as presenting cases from various countries and continents.

  1. The economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, P.

    2004-01-01

    In common with many of the issues surrounding nuclear energy, there is some truth in the popular claim that nuclear energy is 'not economic', but this is far from being a universal truth. This paper puts forward the view that, overall, nuclear energy can be a competitive source of electricity and a realistic economic option for the future. (author)

  2. Nuclear Power, Energy Economics and Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Economic development requires reliable, affordable electricity that is provided in sufficient quantities to satisfy the minimum energy requirements at a local, regional or national level. As simple as this recipe for economic development appears, technological, infrastructural, financial and developmental considerations must be analysed and balanced to produce a national energy strategy. Complicating that task is the historic fact that energy at the desired price and in the desired quantities can be neither taken for granted nor guaranteed. Energy economics and energy security determine the options available to nations working to establish a sustainable energy strategy for the future.

  3. Essays in Energy Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    In this dissertation I explore two aspects of the economics of energy. The first focuses on consumer behavior, while the second focuses on market structure and firm behavior. In the first chapter, I demonstrate evidence of loss aversion in the behavior of households on two critical peak pricing experimental tariffs while participating in the California Statewide Pricing Pilot. I develop a model of loss aversion over electricity expenditure from which I derive two sets of testable predictions. First, I show that when there is a higher probability that a household is in the loss domain of their value function for the bill period, the more strongly they cut back peak consumption. Second, when prices are such that households are close to the kink in their value function - and would otherwise have expenditure skewed into the loss domain---I show evidence of disproportionate clustering at the kink. In essence this means that the occurrence of critical peak days did not only result in a reduction of peak consumption on that day, but also spilled over to further reduction of peak consumption on regular peak days for several weeks thereafter. This was similarly true when temperatures were high during high priced periods. This form of demand adjustment resulted in households experiencing bill-period expenditures equal to what they would have paid on the standard non-dynamic pricing tariff at a disproportionate rate. This higher number of bill periods with equal expenditure displaced bill periods in which they otherwise would have paid more than if they were on standard pricing. In the second chapter, I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and Energy Star standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price

  4. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Performance of a Solar Powered Organic Rankine Cycle with Electric Energy Storage in Different Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis to determine the economic, energetic, and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-power organic Rankine cycle (ORC with electric energy storage (EES to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufficient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time. Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES is also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large office, the small office and the restaurant, respectively.

  5. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Nam, J. H.; Noh, B. C.; Kim, H. R.

    2008-12-01

    The concerns on the global warming issues in the international community are bringing about a paradigm shift in the national economy including energy technology development. In this connection, the green growth mainly utilizing green technology, which emits low carbon, is being initiated by many advanced countries including Korea. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution to the national economy from nuclear energy attributable to the characteristics of green technology, to which nuclear energy belongs. The study covers the role of nuclear in addressing climate change issues, the proper share of nuclear in the electricity sector, the cost analyses of decommissioning and radioactive waste management, and the analysis on the economic performance of nuclear R and D including cost benefit analysis

  6. Energy Parodoxes in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the energy situation in the world and in the Post-Soviet area was carried out. The main focus was on the energy problems in Ukraine. The current paper presents existing energy sector paradoxes. Issues of the comfort level and of the natural environment dependence on the energy resources consumption are being discussed. The relationship between the human life quality level and the level of energy consumption is shown. The analysis of the energy resources distribution in the world is provided. The likely review of the energy re-sources market is forecasted. State energy policies and strategies are being compared. The high profitability of the centralized energy supply management in municipalities is being underlined. Issues regarding the scientific poten-tial and the energy management development are considered. The compliance of energy resource prices with the level of thermal protection of buildings and with energy projects investment principles is being analyzed. The importance of the market-based choice of energy resources considering energy company mergers and decision power concentration is presented. The compliance between the energy policy of Ukraine and the obligations resulting from gas contract with Russia is being discussed. The role of energy in the agricultural processing chain is analyzed.

  7. A method for economic optimization of energy performance and indoor environment in the design of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Vanhoutteghem, Lies

    2012-01-01

    that takes into account the indoor thermal environment. By use of the criterion of cost of conserved energy implemented in a Microsoft Excel sheet, a cost optimal design according to a targeted energy frame can be found. The resulting indoor thermal environment is then evaluated based on parametric analysis...... that an economic design solution with good indoor environment can be identified. The example also shows that in order to ensure that buildings have low energy consumption, at minimum extra cost, more appropriate products and solutions will have to become available on the market at a competitive price....

  8. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  9. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  10. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  11. Energy abundance and economic progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the benefits of energy abundance and on the links between energy supply, economic growth and human welfare in the United States. It is argued that the restoration of energy abundance with dependable sources of supply should be a major national objective. (U.K.)

  12. Economic measures of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration systems can reduce the total cost of utility service, and, in some instances where power is sold to an electric utility, can even produce a positive net revenue stream. This is, the total cogeneration revenue is greater than the cogeneration system's operating cost plus the cost of supplemental fuel and power. Whether it is sited at an existing facility or new construction, cogeneration systems do require an incremental investment over and above that which would be required if the end user were to utilize more conventional utility services. While the decision as to whether or not one should invest in cogeneration may consider such intangibles as predictability of future utility costs, reliability of electrical supply and the quality of that supply, the decision ultimately becomes one of basic economics. This chapter briefly reviews several economic measures with regard to ease of use, accuracy and financial objective

  13. Transportation economics and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Sobh, Ali

    The overall objective of this research is to study the impacts of technology improvement including fuel efficiency increment, extending the use of natural gas vehicle and electric vehicles on key parameters of transportation. In the first chapter, a simple economic analysis is used in order to demonstrate the adoption rate of natural gas vehicles as an alternative fuel vehicle. The effect of different factors on adoption rate of commuters is calculated in sensitivity analysis. In second chapter the VMT is modeled and forecasted under influence of CNG vehicles in different scenarios. The VMT modeling is based on the time series data for Washington State. In order to investigate the effect of population growth on VMT, the per capita model is also developed. In third chapter the effect of fuel efficiency improvement on fuel tax revenue and greenhouse emission is examined. The model is developed based on time series data of Washington State. The rebound effect resulted from fuel efficiency improvement is estimated and is considered in fuel consumption forecasting. The reduction in fuel tax revenue and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as two outcomes of lower fuel consumption are computed. In addition, the proper fuel tax rate to restitute the revenue is suggested. In the fourth chapter effective factors on electric vehicles (EV) adoption is discussed. The constructed model is aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different states over time. Various factors are incorporated in the utility function as explanatory variables in order to quantify their effect on EV adoption choices. The explanatory variables include income, VMT, electricity price, gasoline price, urban area and number of EV stations.

  14. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Lee, H. M.; Oh, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    This study consists of various issues as follows; electricity price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, establishment of carbon emission limit in national electricity sector, the role of nuclear power as an future energy supply option, the future prospect of CO2 capture and sequestration and current research status of that area in Korea, and Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer). In the price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, the characteristic of liberalized electricity market in terms of regulation was discussed. The current status and future projection of GHG emission in Korean electricity sector was also investigated. After that, how to set the GHG emission limit in the national electricity sector was discussed. The characteristic of nuclear technology and the research in progress were summarized with the suggestion of the possible new application of nuclear power. The current status and future prospect of the CO2 capture and sequestration research was introduced and current research status of that area in Korea was investigated. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer), using liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed

  15. The new economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salian, Ramesh; Prasanna Kumar, N.

    2012-01-01

    With 15% of the world's population and an economic growth rate that increases the aspiration of its people to better quality of life, India has a voracious appetite for energy. Nuclear power is one of the options of providing safe, environmentally benign, reliable and economically competitive energy services. Nuclear power world over provides about 16% of electricity through 440 nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 361.582 GW (as of January 2004, IAEA PRIS data). Nuclear energy has traditionally played a small role in meeting India's energy requirements. Nuclear power makes up only 4,120 MW, constituting 2.6%, of the total electricity generation capacity. India is a power hungry nation and needs to switch over from its tremendous dependence on fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy like solar energy, bio energy and nuclear energy. Indian nuclear power plants have progressively attained excellent operation performances. However, the changing economic and geopolitical situation in the energy sector has made it imperative to emphasize the significance of nuclear energy in the future energy landscape of the country. The present paper discuss the importance, demand and supply pattern of nuclear energy and its economics. (author)

  16. Interference of regional support policies on the economic and environmental performance of a hybrid cogeneration-solar panel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Dries; Van Passel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses unintentional interference between different public policies promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy. The paper develops a methodology to study the interference by analysing the economic and technical behaviour of a hybrid energy system. The hybrid energy system in this case consists of an existing cogeneration unit extended with a new installation of thermal solar panels. This puts two complementary heating technologies in juxtaposition. The two technologies are supported with distinct regional support instruments in each region. The design and operation of the energy system is optimised from the point of view of the investor according to the different support instruments. The optimal configuration is analysed as well as its effect on reduced CO 2 -emissions during the lifetime of the project. The methodology is applied to a case-study for two neighbouring regions, the Netherlands and Flanders. The policies in the Netherlands show a beneficial synergy. In Flanders, the hybrid energy system is not interesting, indicating unbalanced high support for cogeneration in this case. From the point of view of the authorities, a more balanced regional policy as in the Netherlands provides a larger CO 2 -emission reduction for a smaller cost. - Highlights: ► Study of interference between various public policies by analysing a hybrid energy system. ► A methodology based on maximum value for the investor based on different public policies. ► Case study in the Netherlands show policies with a beneficial synergy. ► Situation in Flanders indicates unbalanced policies and larger cost for CO 2 -emission reduction.

  17. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  18. Conception for economical energy utilization and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H; Canzler, B

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed to study the factors which determine energy consumption within buildings and how to optimize such energy use. The parameters of the principal energy consumers, i.e., HVAC and lighting systems, were analyzed. Possibilities for obtaining economical energy supplies and for reducing energy consumption were studied with emphasis on adapting the building mechanical equipment and the building design and construction to each other. It was concluded that planning for energy conservation in buildings will decrease the cost of constructing and operating buildings if the architect, building contractor and building operator work together from the initial planning stages.

  19. Energetic and Economic Assessment of Pipe Network Effects on Unused Energy Source System Performance in Large-Scale Horticulture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Ho Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, the introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. This study investigated the effects of the distance between the greenhouse and the actual heat source by taking into account the heat transfer taking place inside the pipe network. This study considered CO2 emissions and economic aspects to determine the optimal heat source. Payback period analysis against initial investment cost shows that a heat pump based on a power plant’s waste heat has the shortest payback period of 7.69 years at a distance of 0 km. On the other hand, the payback period of a heat pump based on geothermal heat showed the shortest payback period of 10.17 year at the distance of 5 km, indicating that heat pumps utilizing geothermal heat were the most effective model if the heat transfer inside the pipe network between the greenhouse and the actual heat source is taken into account.

  20. Performance and Economics of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Energy System: Naval Air Landing Field, San Clemente Island, California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Ed; Olsen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the wind resource, economics and operation of the recently installed wind turbines in conjunction with diesel power for the Naval Air Landing Field (NALF), San Clemente Island (SCI), California Project. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system is to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is also intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen-oxide emissions and other pollutants. The first two NM 225/30 225kW wind turbines were installed and started shake-down operations on February 5, 1998. This report describes the initial operational data gathered from February 1998 through January 1999, as well as the SCI wind resource and initial cost of energy provided by the wind turbines on SCI. In support of this objective, several years of data on the wind resources of San Clemente Island were collected and compared to historical data. The wind resource data were used as input to economic and feasibility studies for a wind-diesel hybrid installation for SCI

  1. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ENERGY POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the issues raised by the implementation of energy policies and the fiscal measures in the energy sector and it aims to identify the impact of energy policies at regional level. It is emphasized, along with the environmental impact of the use of renewable resources and economic and social effects on sustainable regional development which can generate state intervention through direct and indirect, financial and non-financial instruments. Given the complex energy profile of Romania, the paper reveals also, the problems that have had to face in the last two decades and the impact of energy policies of Romanian governments. The research is based on an analysis of statistics, publications in energy sector, as well as primary and specific legislation.

  2. Energy taxation and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, Adam; Mabro, Robert.

    1994-01-01

    These two linked articles look at the relationship between policies aimed at taxing various energy sources and economic growth in the country, raising such taxes in order to decide how such fiscal policy can best serve the needs of developing nations. It is argued that, while many developing nations seek to protect internal energy markets by taxing imported petroleum products, a policy of domestic energy prices being set at the same level as their international equivalent costs is more consistent with the efficient management of long-term structural adjustment programmes. (UK)

  3. Parameter analysis and optimization of the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling system under different climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation conditions significantly affect energy & economic performance of SLDCS. • Control parameters in three areas were optimized by Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm. • Solar collector area showed the greatest effect on system performance for humid areas. • Desiccant concentration showed greatest effect on system performance for dry areas. • Requirement of collector area, heating water and desiccant flow rates for humid areas is highest. - Abstract: Operation conditions significantly affect the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling systems. This study optimized the system control parameters for buildings in different climates, i.e., Singapore (hot and humid), Beijing (moderate) and Boulder (hot and dry), with a multi-parameter optimization based on the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm to obtain optimal system performance in terms of relatively maximum electricity saving rate with a minimum cost payback period. The results indicated that the selection of operation parameters is significantly influenced by climatic conditions. The solar collector installation area exhibited the greatest effect on both energy and economic performance in humid areas, and the heating water flow rate was also important. For dry areas, a change in desiccant concentration had the largest effect on system performance. Although the effect of the desiccant flow rate was significant in humid cities, it appeared to have little influence over buildings in dry areas. Furthermore, the requirements of the solar collector installation area in humid areas were much higher. The optimized area was up to 70 m"2 in Singapore compared with 27.5 m"2 in Boulder. Similar results were found for the flow rates of heating water and the desiccant solution. Applying the optimization, humid cities could achieve an electricity saving of more than 40% with a six-year payback period. The optimal performance for hot and dry areas of a 38% electricity

  4. The economic costs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    At a recent symposium, the economic costs of nuclear power were examined in four lectures which considered; (1) The performance of different types, size and ages of nuclear power plants. (2) The comparison between coal and nuclear power costs based on the principle of net effective cash. (3) The capital requirements of a nuclear programme. (4) The comparative costs, now and in the future, of coal-fired and nuclear plants. It is concluded that uncertainties seem to get greater rather than smaller with time probably due to the high and fluctuating world inflation rates and the great uncertainty about world economic performance introduced by the politicising of world oil supplies. (UK)

  5. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  6. Energy and Economic Performance of Plant-Shaded Building Façade in Hot Arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Haggag

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetated walls and intensive plantation around buildings has increased in popularity in hot and arid climates, such as those in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. This is due to its contribution towards reducing the heat gain and increasing the occupants’ comfort levels in spaces. This paper examines the introduction of plant-shaded walls as passive technique to reduce heat gain in indoor spaces as a strategy to lower cooling demand in hot arid climate of Al-Ain city. Experimental work was carried out to analyze the impact of using plantation for solar control of residential building façades in extreme summer. External and internal wall surface and ambient temperatures were measured for plant-shaded and bare walls. The study concluded that shading effect of the intensive plantation can reduce peak time indoor air temperature by 12 °C and reduce the internal heat gain by 2 kWh daily in the tested space. The economic analysis reveals a payback period of 10 years considering local energy tariff excluding environmental savings.

  7. Energy, economic and environmental performance simulation of a hybrid renewable microgeneration system with neural network predictive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgueniy Entchev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in various applications has grown significantly over the years. This paper compares an ANN based approach with a conventional on-off control applied to the operation of a ground source heat pump/photovoltaic thermal system serving a single house located in Ottawa (Canada for heating and cooling purposes. The hybrid renewable microgeneration system was investigated using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. A controller for predicting the future room temperature was developed in the MATLAB environment and six ANN control logics were analyzed.The comparison was performed in terms of ability to maintain the desired indoor comfort levels, primary energy consumption, operating costs and carbon dioxide equivalent emissions during a week of the heating period and a week of the cooling period. The results showed that the ANN approach is potentially able to alleviate the intensity of thermal discomfort associated with overheating/overcooling phenomena, but it could cause an increase in unmet comfort hours. The analysis also highlighted that the ANNs based strategies could reduce the primary energy consumption (up to around 36%, the operating costs (up to around 81% as well as the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (up to around 36%. Keywords: Hybrid microgeneration system, Ground source heat pump, Photovoltaic thermal, Artificial neural network, Predictive control, Energy saving

  8. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  9. The Economics of Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, S.; Morthorst, P.E.; Awerbuch, S.

    2009-03-01

    This report is the result of an effort by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) to assemble a team of professional economists to assess the costs, benefits and risks associated with wind power generation. In particular, the authors were asked to evaluate the costs and benefits to society of wind energy compared to other forms of electricity production. In the present context of increasing energy import dependency in industrialised countries as well as the volatility of fuel prices and their impact on GDP, the aspects of energy security and energy diversification have to be given particular weight in such an analysis. Chapter 1 examines the basic (riskless) cost components of wind energy, as it leaves the wind farm, including some international comparisons and a distinction between onshore and offshore technologies. Chapter 2 illustrates other costs, mainly risks that are also part of the investment and thus have to be incorporated in the final price at which electricity coming from wind can be sold in the markets. The chapter discusses why the electricity market for renewable energy sources (RES) is regulated and how different support systems and institutional settings affect the final cost (and hence, price) of wind power. Chapter 3 discusses how the integration of wind energy is modifying the characteristics and management of the electrical system including grids, and how such modifications can affect the global price of electricity. Chapter 4 analyses how the external benefits of wind energy, such as its lower environmental impact and the lower social risk it entails can be incorporated into its valuation. Chapter 5 develops a methodology for the correct economic comparison of electricity costs coming from wind and from fuel-intensive coal and gas power generation. Chapter 5 uses as a starting point the methodology currently applied by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and improves it by incorporating some of the elements described in the previous

  10. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  11. Economic policy and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaiss, H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the economical conclusions of the 6th Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies which take place at Mojacar (Almeria). Parabolic throughs, Central Receiver Systems, dish stirling and Solar chimneys will commercial utilization by the year 2000. Levalized Energy Cost (Solar) is still higher than conventional (coal). Only the utilization of environmental parameters like ''CO2 avoided'' may contribute to market penetration. Concerning siting, it becomes clear that only those countries below 40 degree latitude, (Madrid, Nepal, Ankara) are acceptable. A desregulation of the electrical market is necessary for solar penetration, mainly in developing countries

  12. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  13. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases

  14. The economics of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.; Walls, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of research on energy security that has been conducted over the past 20 years are brought together and expanded. Chapter 2 lays out basic conceptual arguments regarding the economic externalities and the military premium, as well as the general problem of identifying a market failure. Chapter 3 provides a brief history of the oil price shocks of the 1970s and reviews the empirical evidence on the energy security externalities laid out in Chapter 2. Chapter 4 builds on the material in Chapter 3 to critique published estimates of the overall premium associated with oil imports or oil consumption. Chapter 5 examines how the oil market has changed in the twenty years since the first oil shock of the 1970s and assesses the effect of these changes on price behavior and market efficiency. Chapters 6 and 7 focus on two sectors in which the energy security debate is being carried out through concrete policy measures: the choice of electricity generation technology and the market for transportation fuels. In Chapter 8, we summarize our assessments of potential energy security externalities and examine their implications for a variety of policy measures at the national and subnational levels. 7 figs., 11 tabs., 200 refs

  15. Economic performance of grid-connected photovoltaics in California and Texas (United States): The influence of renewable energy and climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, Deepak; Moore, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Various public policies in the United States are providing financial incentives for installation and generation of electricity from renewable resources. This article examines the influence of investment subsidies, greenhouse gas (GHG) prices, and renewable energy credit (REC) prices on the economic performance of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Our model integrates PV output, capacity-factor-based dispatch, and cost-benefit financial components to evaluate new PV installations in California and Texas. Relative to the base case, the benefit–cost ratio increases between 5–53% in California and 5–38% in Texas for the policy-derived cases of GHG and REC prices. The economic performance of PV is higher in California due to higher grid electricity prices and the profile of displaced marginal fuels. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the electricity and GHG prices required to achieve profitability. A key element of the economic analysis demonstrates the importance of assessing the marginal fuels displaced by the PV system, not the average mix of displaced fuels, in terms of accurately monetizing the GHG abatement embodied in the displaced fuels. In California, for example, the discounted benefits derived from pollution abatement under the marginal displacement approach were 1.6–3.0 times higher than under the three average fuel mix cases. - Highlight: ► The effect of public policies on the economic performance of PV systems is analyzed. ► A PV output model, a dispatch model, and a cost-benefit model are integrated. ► The PV installations generally do not achieve positive profitability. ► A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the prices required to achieve profitability. ► The marginal fuels displaced by the PV system, not the average fuels, are relevant.

  16. Energy, economics, environment and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure on the Earth's environment and resources is the ultimate result of population growth and the only humane means available for stabilizing world population is to increase per capita living standards in the developing countries. However, this will require a very large increase in global energy consumption. If, as at present, the energy demand is met largely by fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 will rise rapidly. Until the end of the century, and perhaps beyond it, any actions to control CO 2 emissions will be taken for precautionary reasons alone, because no reliable basis will exist for predicting their global (or regional) impact on the climate. The sustainability of the natural environment is also under threat from human activities such as the clearing of forests for crop-growing and grazing. The resulting elimination of habitats for, and genetic variability in, the victor is as serious a concern as global warming. The economic and social consequences of rigidly curtailing the growth of energy use in developed countries would be severe, and in developing countries extreme; even then greenhouse gas build up could only be slowed not prevented. On the other hand, a wealthier world would be more able to bear the financial burden of protecting biodiversity. It is concluded that since the developed countries on whom the main cost would have to fall, adequate effort into both biodiversity and greenhouse gas reduction, biodiversity must take procedence. (1 figure, 2 tables). (UK)

  17. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  18. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model.

  19. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model

  20. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical...... power.This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years.Based on the aforementioned model and real......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...

  1. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  2. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  3. Is Fuel-Switching a No-Regrets Environmental Policy? VAR Evidence on Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Performance in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo M. Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent reduction in aggregate energy consumption reduces output by €6,340 over the long term, an aggregate impact which hi...

  4. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Introduction : Energy economics and financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, John L.; Westerman, Wim; Dorsman, André

    2015-01-01

    Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. It is argued that the importance of energy production, consumption and trade and raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. Specific examples of daily energy issues stem from various

  6. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  8. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Scardigno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article “A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources” (Scardigno et al., 2015 [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  9. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  10. The IAEA energy and economic data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Russell, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1976, the IAEA established a computerized energy and economic data bank not only on nuclear energy but on other forms of energy as well. The purpose of the data bank is to provide in a unified and systematic way energy and related economic data needed for long-term energy planning. A computer program permits the production of a variety of up-to-date tables and graphs

  11. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  12. Economic, energy and GHG emissions performance evaluation of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit in a domestic dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, G.; Duffy, A.; Ayompe, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a Stirling engine MK IV micro-CHP unit was evaluated in a domestic dwelling in Ireland. • The performance of the micro-CHP was compare to that of a condensing gas boiler. • The micro-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 compared to the condensing gas boiler. • Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO 2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. • The micro-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler during one year of operation. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the energy, economic and greenhouse gas emissions performances of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit for use in a conventional house in the Republic of Ireland. The energy performance data used in this study was obtained from a field trial carried out in Belfast, Northern Ireland during the period June 2004–July 2005 by Northern Ireland Electricity and Phoenix Gas working in collaboration with Whispertech UK. A comparative performance analysis between the μ-CHP unit and a condensing gas boiler revealed that the μ-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 with an incremental simple payback period of 13.8 years when compared to a condensing gas boiler. Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO 2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. The μ-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler

  13. National economic aspects of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, P.

    1981-01-01

    The author discusses the economic place value of energy supply for production, the influence of energy on national economy structure and specialisation, cost/gain effects of alternative energy strategies, the effects of energy policy on the labour market, and the need for clearer aims in energy policy. (H.V.H.)

  14. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  15. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    "Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development and are c......"Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development...... and are central to improving social and economic well- being, and human welfare and raising living standards. Even if energy is essential for development, it is only a means to an end. The end is good health, high living standards, a sustainable economy and a clean environment. The European Climate change...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO...

  16. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  17. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  18. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  19. Skill-based immigration, economic integration, and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Studies for major immigrant-receiving countries provide evidence on the comparative economic performance of immigrant classes (skill-, kinship-, and humanitarian-based). Developed countries are increasingly competing for high-skilled immigrants, who perform better in the labor market. However, there are serious challenges to their economic integration, which highlights a need for complementary immigration and integration policies.

  20. Economics of international energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    Because there is no inexpensive substitute for crude oil and petroleum products at the present time, an oil supply disruption inevitably leads to higher oil prices and economic losses. Wealth transfer to oil producing nations, reduced output increased unemployment and inflation. For these reasons, major oil-consuming countries currently have in place various oil emergency response measures to protect themselves from adverse economic consequences of oil supply disruptions: stockpiling emergency oil reserves to augment supplies, if necessary, in an emergency; and lowering oil demand through non-price mechanisms. The main purpose of this paper is to show that while, supply enhancement and demand reduction could have the same effect on oil prices in the event of an oil supply shortfall, they may have significantly different effects on the economies. Section I discusses the principal oil emergency response measures of the members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) -- emergency oil stockpiles and demand restraint -- and their policies for implementing the measures. Section II describes the analytical method used to perform comparative economic analysis of releasing emergency stocks and restraining demand in an oil emergency. Section III presents quantitative results of the analysis, and Section IV, conclusions of the analytical results and their energy security policy implications

  1. The Economics of America's Energy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Henry

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) pamphlet which reviews economic and technical considerations for the future development of energy sources. Included are sections on petroleum, synthetic fuels, oil shale, nuclear power, geothermal power, and solar energy. Also presented are data pertaining to U.S. energy production…

  2. Empirical essays on energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-06-13

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war

  3. Empirical essays on energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war in 2011 as

  4. Three essays on energy and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Nathanael David

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between energy and economic growth. Chapter Two, Three, and Four examine the interaction of energy-related measures and economic outcomes by applying different methodologies across various spatial dimensions. Chapter Two shows that increases in energy consumption are necessary for increases in state level economic growth to occur. Chapter Three estimates a simultaneous supply and demand energy market at the state level. This system allows for estimates of structural elasticities to be obtained. Findings indicate that energy supply is considerably more elastic than energy demand. Energy demand is found to be determined by responses to short run shocks rather than long run processes. Chapter Four estimates the impact of changes in various elements of governance and institutional quality impact genuine investment within an economy. Increases in democracy are predicted to decrease genuine investment in energy-rich nations. The dissertation concludes with Chapter Five.

  5. Zero energy homes – Are they economically viable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Stephen; Davidson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Whilst net zero energy homes are espoused in many policy circles, and many bespoke examples have been constructed to demonstrate their technical feasibility, there is a scarcity of evidence demonstrating such a standard would be economically rational, particularly for large scale housing development where orientation and aspect may not always be optimal. Drawing on energy monitoring evidence and construction economics associated with a nearly zero energy housing estate in Adelaide, Australia, this paper explores the economic feasibility of the net zero energy home policy in warm temperate climates. The results demonstrate that using economic tools and assumptions typically applied for building energy regulatory policy changes, net societal economic benefits significantly outweigh costs. The clear economic outcomes, combined with expected health and productivity benefits from improved levels of thermal comfort, should provide security to policy makers to progress home energy standards towards net zero energy performance. -- Highlights: •The concept of net zero energy homes is examined for economic viability. •Evidence is collected from a near net zero energy housing estate. •Conservative results show that societal benefits outweigh costs. •Significant additional benefits gained from net zero energy homes

  6. Energy reconstruction of Russia economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnyakova, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    How to make the energetics economically efficient and ecologically safe - is the main question that worries many people today. The credit-monetary policy is considered. Development of the system for the control and management of the power engineering enterprises is proposed [ru

  7. The role of energy in economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David I

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the mainstream, resource economics, and ecological economics models of growth. A possible synthesis of energy-based and mainstream models is presented. This shows that when energy is scarce it imposes a strong constraint on the growth of the economy; however, when energy is abundant, its effect on economic growth is much reduced. The industrial revolution released the constraints on economic growth by the development of new methods of using coal and the discovery of new fossil fuel resources. Time-series analysis shows that energy and GDP cointegrate, and energy use Granger causes GDP when capital and other production inputs are included in the vector autoregression model. However, various mechanisms can weaken the links between energy and growth. Energy used per unit of economic output has declined in developed and some developing countries, owing to both technological change and a shift from poorer quality fuels, such as coal, to the use of higher quality fuels, especially electricity. Substitution of other inputs for energy and sectoral shifts in economic activity play smaller roles. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  9. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  10. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    This study deals with current energy issues, environmental aspects of energy, project feasibility evaluation, and activities of international organizations. Current energy issues including activities related with UNFCCC, sustainable development, and global concern on energy issues were surveyed with focusing on nuclear related activities. Environmental aspects of energy includes various topics such as, inter- industrial analysis of nuclear sector, the role of nuclear power in mitigating GHG emission, carbon capture and sequestration technology, hydrogen production by using nuclear energy, Life Cycle Analysis as a method of evaluating environmental impacts of a technology, and spent fuel management in the case of introducing fast reactor and/or accelerator driven system. Project feasibility evaluation includes nuclear desalination using SMART reactor, and introduction of COMFAR computer model, developed by UNIDO to carry out feasibility analysis in terms of business attitude. Activities of international organizations includes energy planning activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA, introduction of the activities of FNCA, one of the cooperation mechanism among Asian countries. In addition, MESSAGE computer model was also introduced. The model is being developed by IAEA to effectively handle liberalization of electricity market combined with environmental constraints

  11. Technical progress of nuclear energy: economic and environmental prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    This document deals with three different aspects of the nuclear energy: first the operating and economic performances of nuclear power plants in the world, the French nuclear competitiveness. Then, the technical and economic perspectives about reactors and fuels cycle and the advantages towards atmospheric pollution are discussed to favour a new worldwide nuclear development. (TEC). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Energy pricing. Economics and principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conkling, Roger L. [Portland Univ., OR (United States). School of Business Administration

    2011-07-01

    This book describes the processes through which rates for energy consumption are derived, ranging from initial analyses of the supply and demand parameters to the final forms and levels of end-use consumer prices. The author argues against aggressive accounting procedures, and suggests criteria for choosing firm's position on pending public policy issues. A handbook on energy formulae for non-professionals is included in the book. The author is adjunct professor at the University of Portland. (orig.)

  13. Energy and economic tables 1950-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This publication, prepared by the Planning and Economic Studies Section of the Division of Nuclear Power, presents summaries of data contained in the IAEA Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB). The data for each country are presented in a standardized format and in consistent system units. Aggregated data for the whole world, and for eight world subdivisions, are also presented in the same format

  14. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  15. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  16. Employment, energy, and economic growth in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J

    1979-09-01

    The author examines the complex relationships between energy use, employment opportunities, and economic growth as they apply to the Australian economy and concludes that state and federal governments should collaborate to analyze the employment impacts of the various energy strategies. He sees the need for changes in the political and economic environment as well as in the way energy is used before Australia can return to full employment. While low or zero energy growth policies would not, by themselves, solve the unemployment problem, most new jobs have been created in the labor-intensive service industries. 25 references. (DCK)

  17. Biomass energy utilisation - ecological and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamen Gramatikov

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is the world's fourth largest energy source today and it represents about 35% of the primary energy supply in developing countries. Biomass is a versatile source of energy in that it can produce electricity, heat, transport fuel and it can be stored. The problems (technical, economic, etc.) which have to be solved by treatment of biomass are discussed in this work. The average quantities of biomass resources of some European countries are presented and the structure, percentage of products and their calorific values are estimated. Keywords: Biomass Energy Potential, Ecological & Economic Aspects

  18. Economical scale of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is supported by two wheels of radiation and energy applications. When comparing both, they have some different sides, such as numbers of employees and researchers, numbers and scales of works, effect on society, affecting effects and regions of industrial actions, problems on safety, viewpoint on nuclear proliferation protection and safety guarantee, energy security, relationship to environmental problem, efforts on wastes disposal, and so on. Here described on economical scale of radiation application in fields of industry, agriculture, and medicine and medical treatment, and on economical scale of energy application in nuclear power generation and its instruments and apparatus. (G.K.)

  19. The economic impact of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

  20. The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsdottir, B.; Fisher, M.

    2011-01-01

    Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.

  1. The economic value of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Clarke, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology is significant and could dwarf the world's total expenditure on fusion energy research and development. However, the realization of these benefits will depend on the economic competitiveness of electricity generation from fusion energy technologies relative to that from other existing fossil fueled and renewable technologies, as well as the time in which fusion energy technologies are available for commercial operation. Utilizing the Second Generation Model, a long-term energy/economics model, the potential economic benefit of fusion energy technology for the United States was assessed. Model scenarios with hypothetical fusion power technologies based on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design with varying cost and time of availability showed that significant economic benefit exists from a competitive fusion technology with cost of electricity (COE) of 0.06 $/kWhr and available in the year 2025. The fusion technology with these characteristics resulted in a total discounted GDP benefit of $105 billion from the year 1995 to 2100. On the other hand, uncompetitive fusion technologies with higher COE of 0.12 and 0.09 $/kWhr had little economic benefits. Moreover, delaying the introduction of all fusion technologies from 2025 to 2050 reduced the economic benefits of fusion technologies by more than 60 percent. Aside from the economic benefit of fusion technologies operating in the United States, the potential economic value of international trade in fusion technologies is likely to be even greater. If the United States could capture just a portion of the global electricity market, the export value of the fusion technology could amount to hundreds of billions of dollars, whereas the cost of importing the technology to the United States will erase any benefits derived from GDP increases

  2. Introduction: economic performance and small business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces the special issue of Small business Economics on Performance. The concept of economic performance refers to the degree to which society's resources are being used as efficiently as possible. Where the field of industrial organization has emphasized the influence of

  3. THE RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION IN ANALYZING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.

  4. Energy Distribution and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the physical constraints on the growth process. In order to run, maintain and build capital energy is required to be distributed to geographically dispersed sites where investments are deemed profitable. We capture this aspect of physical reality by a network theory....../2 and 3/4, depending on the efficiency of the network. Together with an energy conservation equation, capturing instantaneous aggregate demand for electricity, we are able to provide a metabolic-energetic founded law of motion for capital per capita that is mathematically isomorphic to the one emanating...... of electricity distribution. The model leads to a supply relation according to which feasible electricity consumption per capita rises with the size of the economy, as measured by capital per capita. Specifically, the relation is a simple power law with an exponent assigned to capital that is bounded between 1...

  5. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  6. The economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a recent study carried out among wind energy manufacturers and developers regarding the current generation costs of wind energy projects in Europe, the factors that most influence them, as well as the reasons behind their recent increase and their expected future evolution. The research finds that the generation costs of an onshore wind farm are between 4.5 and 8.7 EURcent/kWh; 6-11.1 EURcent/kWh when located offshore, with the number of full hours and the level of capital cost being the most influencing elements. Generation costs have increased by more than 20% over the last 3 years mainly due to a rise of the price of certain strategic raw materials at a time when the global demand has boomed. However, the competitive position of wind energy investments vis-a-vis other technologies has not been altered. In the long-term, one would expect production costs go down; whether this will be enough to offset the higher price of inputs will largely depend on the application of correct policies, like R and D in new materials, O and M with remote-control devices, offshore wind turbines and substructures; introduction of advanced siting and forecasting techniques; access to adequate funding; and long-term legal stability. (author)

  7. The economics of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This article presents the outcomes of a recent study carried out among wind energy manufacturers and developers regarding the current generation costs of wind energy projects in Europe, the factors that most influence them, as well as the reasons behind their recent increase and their expected future evolution. The research finds that the generation costs of an onshore wind farm are between 4.5 and 8.7 EURcent/kWh; 6-11.1 EURcent/kWh when located offshore, with the number of full hours and the level of capital cost being the most influencing elements. Generation costs have increased by more than 20% over the last 3 years mainly due to a rise of the price of certain strategic raw materials at a time when the global demand has boomed. However, the competitive position of wind energy investments vis-a-vis other technologies has not been altered. In the long-term, one would expect production costs go down; whether this will be enough to offset the higher price of inputs will largely depend on the application of correct policies, like R and D in new materials, O and M with remote-control devices, offshore wind turbines and substructures; introduction of advanced siting and forecasting techniques; access to adequate funding; and long-term legal stability. (author)

  8. The Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As evidenced from the study, causality runs from energy consumption to economic growth. Energy consumption in Nigeria is mainly based on the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable. Therefore, in order to actualize its vision of becoming one of the 20th largest economies in the World by the year 2020, government ...

  9. Energy and economic growth in industrializing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouilidis, J E; Mitropoulos, C S

    1984-07-01

    This paper investigates some aspects of the interrelated paths of economic growth and energy demand, in the case of an industrializing economy, through the use of numerous econometric models. Translog functions have helped establish that income and price elasticities of energy, two critical parameters in the energy-economy interaction, exhibit falling trends with time. The value share of the industrial sector is strongly associated with both energy demand and energy intensity. Any increase in the former will lead to amplified increases in the latter, rendering the continuation of past trends in industrial expansion questionable under conditions of high energy costs. Substitution among capital, labor and energy does take place, though to a limited extent, as indicated by the aggregate measure of energy/non-energy substitution elasticity. All findings appear to suggest that energy policymaking, in an industrializing country like Greece, will be of low effectiveness until certain structural changes in the economy are realized.

  10. Energy economics basics - Emphasis programme 2004 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzwiller, L.

    2005-01-01

    This report from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the work done within the framework of the interdisciplinary energy economics programme on scenarios and instruments for energy policy-making and economics, as well as on social and environmental aspects. The report reviews the emphasis and goals of the next phase of the programme for the period 2004 - 2007. A research road map is discussed that is to identify promising technologies that will provide a substantial contribution to meeting the goal of creating the so-called '2000-Watt Society'. The road map is to also help identify technologies that provide socio-economic advantages and identify bottlenecks and restraints on the propagation of energy-efficient technologies in the building and transport areas

  11. Science and society test VI: Energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1982-01-01

    Simple numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of energy economics issues. The Verhulst equation, which considers the effect of finite resources on petroleum production, is modified to take into account supply and demand economics. Numerical and analytical solutions to these differential equations are presented in terms of supply and demand elasticity functions, various finite resources, and the rate of increase in fuel costs. The indirect cost per barrel of imported oil from OPEC is shown to be about the same as the direct cost. These effects, as well as those of discounted benefits and deregulation, are used in a calculation of payback periods for various energy conserving devices. A phenomenological model for market penetration is developed along with the factors for future energy growth rates. A brief analysis of the economic returns of the ''house doctor'' program to reprofit houses for energy conservation is presented.

  12. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  13. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments

  14. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  15. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  16. Economics, modeling, planning and management of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; Khan, A.M.; Furlan, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Workshop attended by 89 participants from 40 countries aimed to provide participants with an overview of global and regional issues and to familiarize them with analytical tools and modeling techniques appropriate for the analysis and planning of national energy systems. Emphasis was placed on energy-economy-interaction, modelling for balancing energy demand and supply, technical-economic evaluation of energy supply alternatives and energy demand management. This volume presents some of the lectures delivered at the Workshop. The material has been organized in five parts under the headings General Review of Current Energy Trends, Energy and Technology Menu, Basic Analytical Approaches, Energy Modeling and Planning, and Energy Management and Policy. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the lectures presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Three essays in energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Wook

    Deregulation in electricity and natural gas market in an attempt to alleviate market power of privately owned utilities is widespread throughout the United States. Beginning with Gollop and Roberts (1979), a number of empirical studies have allowed the data to identify industry competition and marginal cost levels by estimating the firms' first order condition within a conjectural variations framework. The first chapter of my dissertation uses direct measures of marginal cost for the California electricity market to measure the extent to which estimated mark-ups and marginal costs are biased. My results suggest that the New Empirical Industrial Organization technique poorly estimates the level of mark-ups and the sensitivity of marginal cost to cost shifters. The second chapter takes advantage of the market structure of electricity and natural gas varies in the United States. The goal of the chapter is to analyze whether combined-billed residential households of electricity and natural gas firms face information costs associated with determining the portion of their monthly energy bill attributed to natural gas consumption and the portion attributed to electricity consumption. However, if households are unable to determine whether an increase in their energy bill is the result of an increase in the price of electricity or an increase in the price of natural gas, they act as if electricity and natural gas were complements. I find that own-price elasticities are smaller in absolute terms in combined-billed markets, while cross-price elasticities are more positive, compared to separate-billed markets; both of these results are consistent with the presence of information costs. In chapter 3, I provide an empirical evidence of the impact of variations in ownership, regulation and market structure on the electric and natural gas markets in the United States. My results suggest that the private firms in electricity markets are associated with higher prices than public

  18. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  19. Economic aspects of advanced energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Rodriguez, A.P.; Venkata, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced energy technologies span a wide variety of resources, techniques, and end-user requirements. Economic considerations are major factors that shape their harnessing and utilization. A discussion of the basic factors in the economic arena is presented, with particular emphasis on renewable energy technologies--photovoltaics, solar-thermal, wind-electric conversion, biomass utilization, hydro, and tidal and wave energy systems. The following are essential to determine appropriate energy system topologies: proper resource-need matching with an eye on the quality of energy requirements, integrated use of several resources and technologies, and a comprehensive consideration which includes prospecting, collection, conversion, transportation, distribution, storage and reconversion, end use, and subsequent waste management aspects. A few case studies are included to apprise the reader of the status of some of the key technologies and systems

  20. Comparative analysis of performance and techno-economics for a H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2} absorption refrigerator driven by different energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Hieng, Tang Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    The objectives of the present work are of two-folds. First, it evaluates the transient temperature performance of the H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2} absorption cooling machine system's components under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric) and fuel energy from liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Results obtained have shown that performance of various components under different type of energy sources is almost coherent. For the evaporator, the system with electric supply has shorter starting time, around 6 min earlier than the system run with LPG. Meanwhile, the system powered by LPG produced a lower cooling temperature around -9 C, compared to the system run with electric which produced temperature at around -7 C. Economical study had been carried out subsequently, for three different energy sources, i.e. electric, LPG and solar energy (photovoltaic). From the techno-economical analyzes, it was found that the conventional electric from grid is still the best form of energy source for short-term application, as far as the present location and conditions are concerned. LPG is the next attractive energy source, especially at locations with constant LPG supply; the photovoltaic energy from solar is attractive for long term consideration since it has zero fuel cost and environmentally-friendly, but with the highest initial cost. (author)

  1. Energy economics; Economie de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2005-07-01

    The energy demand is strongly conditioned by the consuming equipments. Depending on the uses, some energy sources can be substituted, while for some others the choice is limited or impossible. The energy offer comes mainly from non-renewable resources, and taking into consideration the geographical localization of these resources, economics are geopolitics are indissociable despite the development of markets. Necessary for the economic development, energy cannot be consumed without impact on the environment, which raises some worrying questions, like the one of global warming. (J.S.)

  2. Techno-economic optimisation of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla Pellen, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    The traditional approach currently used to assess the economic interest of energy systems is based on a defined flow-sheet. Some studies have shown that the flow-sheets corresponding to the best thermodynamic efficiencies do not necessarily lead to the best production costs. A method called techno-economic optimisation was proposed. This method aims at minimising the production cost of a given energy system, including both investment and operating costs. It was implemented using genetic algorithms. This approach was compared to the heat integration method on two different examples, thus validating its interest. Techno-economic optimisation was then applied to different energy systems dealing with hydrogen as well as electricity production. (author)

  3. Economics of fusion driven symbiotic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renier, J.P.; Hoffman, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The economic analysis of symbiotic energy systems in which U233 (to fuel advanced converters burning U233 fuel) is generated in blankets surrounding fusioning D-T plasma's depends on factors such as the plasma performance parameters, ore costs, and the relative costs of Fusion Breeders (CTR) to Advanced Fission Converters. The analysis also depends on detailed information such as initial, final makeup fuel requirements, fuel isotopics, reprocessing and fabrication costs, reprocessing losses (1%) and delays (2 years), the cost of money, and the effect of the underutilization of the factory thermal installation at the beginning of cycle. In this paper we present the results of calculations of overall fuel cycle and power costs, ore requirements, proliferation resistance and possibilities for grid expansion, based on detailed mass and energy flow diagrams and standard US INFCE cost data and introduction constraints, for realistic symbiotic scenarios involving CTR's (used as drivers) and denatured CANDU's (used as U233 burners). We compare the results with those obtained for other strategies involving heterogeneous LMFBR's which burn Pu to produce U233 for U233-burners such as the advanced CANDU converters

  4. Approaches towards airport economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana STRYČEKOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess how economic benchmarking is being used by airports as a means of performance measurement and comparison of major international airports in the world. The study focuses on current benchmarking practices and methods by taking into account different factors according to which it is efficient to benchmark airports performance. As methods are considered mainly data envelopment analysis and stochastic frontier analysis. Apart from them other approaches are discussed by airports to provide economic benchmarking. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the airports and answer some undetermined questions involving economic benchmarking of the airports.

  5. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Beudean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  7. REVERSIBLE IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS AND THE IMPACT ON ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an essential objective of economic entities activating in the energy sector. The profit and loss account provides relevant information for performance analyzes, but evaluating the factors which determined the modification of the financial result demands detailed analyzes based on specific techniques. This paper develops and implements an econometric model that analyses the relation between gross profit and the reversible impairment of assets. The results of the analysis have shown that, in the energy sector, there is a significant connection between those two variables.

  8. Reducing Transaction Costs for Energy Efficiency Investments and Analysis of Economic Risk Associated With Building Performance Uncertainties: Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, R.; Hendron, B.; Bonnema, E.

    2014-08-01

    The small buildings and small portfolios (SBSP) sector face a number of barriers that inhibit SBSP owners from adopting energy efficiency solutions. This pilot project focused on overcoming two of the largest barriers to financing energy efficiency in small buildings: disproportionately high transaction costs and unknown or unacceptable risk. Solutions to these barriers can often be at odds, because inexpensive turnkey solutions are often not sufficiently tailored to the unique circumstances of each building, reducing confidence that the expected energy savings will be achieved. To address these barriers, NREL worked with two innovative, forward-thinking lead partners, Michigan Saves and Energi, to develop technical solutions that provide a quick and easy process to encourage energy efficiency investments while managing risk. The pilot project was broken into two stages: the first stage focused on reducing transaction costs, and the second stage focused on reducing performance risk. In the first stage, NREL worked with the non-profit organization, Michigan Saves, to analyze the effects of 8 energy efficiency measures (EEMs) on 81 different baseline small office building models in Holland, Michigan (climate zone 5A). The results of this analysis (totaling over 30,000 cases) are summarized in a simple spreadsheet tool that enables users to easily sort through the results and find appropriate small office EEM packages that meet a particular energy savings threshold and are likely to be cost-effective.

  9. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  10. Heterogeneity in Firm Performance During Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens to firms during periods of deep economic crisis? Did different types of firms perform differently under the economic crisis? With the aid of a rich database and focusing on the literature regarding the growth of firms, this paper investigates the relative profitability performance of Italian firms during the current economic crisis, exploring those factors, which help certain firms to do relatively better even in the slowdown period. Some preliminary results show that the Italian firms that are relatively young in age, with relatively better current liquidity and more focused on domestic market have performed better than other firms. Furthermore, firms operating in high-tech and in highly concentrated sectors have enjoyed a better performance in this period.

  11. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  12. Nuclear energy: technical, economical and ecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-04-01

    This information document aims to present all the different aspects of nuclear energy and the economic, industrial and ecological data from which the French nuclear energy programme was worked out, the techniques and the sites were chosen. Prepared with the collaboration of experts from the public services interested, this document attempts to cover all the questions raised and to provide answers (dependence with respect to oil versus the advantages of nuclear energy, environment and siting problems, consequences for public health and radiation protection, organization of nuclear industry [fr

  13. Economic analysis of wood energy valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Juliana.

    1988-01-01

    Companies linked to the lumber activities began to concern about the valorization of their industrial residues: either by creating new products or by utilizing them for energy generation. At the same time, companies from other sectors began investing in reforestations dedicated to energy generation (mainly eucalyptus), induced by the possibility of obtaining tax incentives and by the need of assuring their own provisions of wood, thus minimizing this raw-material, as well as its sensibility to the variation of its price in the market. However almost nothing have been researched, either about the economical feasibility of energetic valorization of the lumber in the form of industrial residues or as wood supplied by reforestation dedicated to energy generation. This dissertation propose to examine those cases analysing the concerned costs and their economical feasibility. (author). 20 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs

  14. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  15. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  16. Towards low carbon business park energy systems: Classification of techno-economic energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, Jonas; Vandevelde, Lieven; Van Eetvelde, Greet

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate destabilisation, human-induced greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be curbed. A major share of these emissions originates from the industry and energy sectors. Hence, a low carbon shift in industrial and business park energy systems is called for. Low carbon business parks minimise energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by maximal exploitation of local renewable energy production, enhanced energy efficiency, and inter-firm heat exchange, combined in a collective energy system. The holistic approach of techno-economic energy models facilitates the design of such systems, while yielding an optimal trade-off between energetic, economic and environmental performances. However, no models custom-tailored for industrial park energy systems are detected in literature. In this paper, existing energy model classifications are scanned for adequate model characteristics and accordingly, a confined number of models are selected and described. Subsequently, a practical typology is proposed, existing of energy system evolution, optimisation, simulation, accounting and integration models, and key model features are compared. Finally, important features for a business park energy model are identified. - Highlights: • A holistic perspective on (low carbon) business park energy systems is introduced. • A new categorisation of techno-economic energy models is proposed. • Model characteristics are described per model category. • Essential model features for business park energy system modelling are identified. • A strategy towards a techno-economic energy model for business parks is proposed

  17. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the United States. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce resources during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. (author)

  19. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  20. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  1. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  2. Capital-energy complementarity in aggregate energy-economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1979-10-01

    The interplay between capital and energy will affect the outcome of energy-policy initiatives. A static model clarifies the interpretation of the conflicting empirical evidence on the nature of this interplay. This resolves an apparent conflict between engineering and economc interpretations and points to an additional ambiguity that can be resolved by distinguishing between policy issues at aggregated and disaggregated levels. Restrictions on aggregate energy use should induce reductions in the demand for capital and exacerbate the economic impacts of the energy policy. 32 references.

  3. Historical and economic aspects of energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    2000-01-01

    The classical macro-economic aggregate production function considered that output as measured by Gross Domestic product (GDP) was the result of the factor inputs: land, labour and capital. The production function was given by: GDP=f(Land, Capital, Labour). We propose: GDP=function (LAND, CAPITAL, LABOUR, ENERGY, TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION), GDP=function(Z, K, R, E, T, I). Measuring effects of these variables on growth of GDP over longer periods of time is difficult statistical and mathematical task. Mathematical relations are not derived but instead historical exposition with a selection of statistical data was given to prove validity of the production function relation. through long historical periods, energy was reduced to energy of animal and human muscles sometimes with a help of mechanical levers and mechanisms. With coal use in 18th century animal and human muscles are no more main energy sources but in substitute to them thermal machines (from steam reciprocating machines to Otto, diesel machines in combination with electric machines) startedto be main movers of industrial age with high energy intensity. Energy as general thermodynamic concept for availability or ability of substance to produce work was introduced. Between primary forms of energy crude oil like fuel with greatest energy or ability to produce mechanical work, specially in transport takes the dominant place in 20th and 21st century. Use of crude oil in gas turbines, internal combustion engines, reaches upper levels of efficiency, but in the same time there is no technology that could substitute it in the transport. Influence of crude oil on prices and all other forms of energy and as political and economic factor is considered. (author)

  4. Project management for economical nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majerle, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The price of electricity is significantly influenced by the cost of the initial generation asset. The cost of the initial nuclear generation asset is significantly influenced by the design and construction duration. Negative variations in the cost and duration of actual design and construction have historically impacted the early relative economics of nuclear power generation. Successful management of plant design information will mitigate the risks of the design and construction of future nuclear plants. Information management tools that can model the integrated delivery of large complex projects enable the project owners to accurately evaluate project progress, as well as the economic impact of regulatory, political, or market activities not anticipated in the project execution plan. Significant differences exist in the electrical energy markets, project delivery models, and fuel availability between continents and countries. However, each market and project delivery model is challenged by the need to produce economical electrical energy. The information management system presented in this paper provides a means to capture in a single integrated computerized database the design information developed during plant design, procurement, and construction and to allow this information to be updated and retrieved in real time by all project participants. Utilization of the information management system described herein will enable diverse project teams to rapidly and reliably input, share, and retrieve power plant information, thereby supporting project management's goal to make good on its commitment to the economic promise of tomorrow's nuclear electrical power generation by achieving cost-effective construction. (authors)

  5. Energy and economic development (environmental implications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment

  6. Energy Economics: A Place for Energy Poverty in the Agenda?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The global energy system faces three major strategic challenges in the coming decades: the growing risk of disruptions to energy supply; the threat of environmental damage caused by energy production and use; and persistent energy poverty. The first two challenges have attracted a lot of attention from the energy-economics community, much less so the need to address the problem of energy under-development. On current trends, the number of people in poor countries relying primarily on traditional biomass for their energy needs will continue to rise, while the number lacking access to electricity will barely fall. To change this course, decisive policy action is needed urgently as part of the broader process of human development. Meeting basic human needs, such as food and shelter, must be at the heart of any strategy to alleviate poverty.

  7. Effect of inter-cooling on the performance and economics of a solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system with six stages one-rotor desiccant wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzahzby, Ali M.; Kabeel, A.E.; Bassuoni, M.M.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system. • The model uses a one-rotor six-stage rotary silica gel desiccant wheel. • Theoretical model results are in good agreement with experimental data. • The influences of main operating parameters on optimal rotational speed are discussed. • A life cycle cost analysis of the proposed system has been investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system (SEAHACS) was considered. The desiccant wheels used honeycombed silica gel–haloids composite material. This one-rotor desiccant wheel is divided into six stages, in which two-stage dehumidification process, two-stage pre-cooling process and two-stage regeneration process are realized. Three air streams are involved in the present system. The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. As the key operating and design parameter, the range of process air inlet temperature from 27.5 to 45 °C, range of humidity ratio of the inlet process air from 9 to 21 g/kg, process air inlet velocity from 1.5 to 5.5 m/s have been examined for a range of rotation speed from 6 to 20 rev/h. the optimization of this parameters is conducted based on the moisture removal capacity D, relative moisture removal capacity, dehumidification coefficient of performance, thermal coefficient of performance, and supply air temperature and humidity ratio. At last, the influences of these main parameters on optimal rotational speed are discussed. Eventually, the life cycle cost analysis of the solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system has been investigated

  8. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  10. Student Performance in Undergraduate Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Kevin J.; Ohland, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Using undergraduate student records from six large public universities from 1990 to 2003, the authors analyze the characteristics and performance of students by major in two economics courses: Principles of Microeconomics and Intermediate Microeconomics. This article documents important differences across students by major in the principles course…

  11. Why Energy is AN Economic Planetary Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difiglio, Carmine

    2014-07-01

    This paper analyzes why high and volatile oil prices cause reduced world-wide economic growth. Disruptions in the petroleum market, due to unexpected economic growth or reduced petroleum supplies, have been shown to cause sharp increases in petroleum prices as a result of the inflexibilities of petroleum supply and demand. An examination of over 40 years of data reveals that oil price shocks are invariably followed by 2-3 years of weak economic growth and weak economic growth is almost always preceded by an oil price shock. While the statistical literature provides evidence that economies have become less vulnerable to a given oil price increase than they were during the 1970s, it also shows that the elasticity of demand for oil has significantly decreased. The increased resiliency of economies to higher oil prices has been partially or fully offset by the increased sensitivity of oil prices to any oil market perturbation. This paper also reviews the current state of oil-supply security noting that previous episodes of supply instability appear to have become chronic conditions. While new unconventional oil production technologies have revitalized North American oil production, it is concluded that these technologies will have only a modest effect on world-wide oil production. The marginal cost of oil production, whether from tight-oil plays, or other unconventional sources, is expected to increase contributing to rising longterm oil prices in an international oil market that will remain vulnerable to disruptions and sharp price increases. Recurring episodes of poor world-wide economic growth are shown to affect hundreds of millions of people though unemployment in the modern economy and, in developing countries, though slower emigration out of agricultural-sector poverty. It is also noted that world-wide greenhouse gas emissions require strong national policies. Clean-energy policies are more likely to be pursued by countries enjoying strong economic growth than

  12. Geopolitical and Economic Aspects of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power in its present form was created during the Cold War and is its heritage. The main objective of nuclear energy at that time, along with energy, was the creation and accumulation of nuclear materials. To this aim a existing nuclear power plants based on uranium-plutonium cycle. Everything else - the processing of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, storage, recycling themselves nuclear power plant after its end of life, the risks of proliferation of nuclear materials and other environmental issues - minor. It was also believed that the nuclear power plant - the most reliable and safe plant. During the last twenty years all over the world the number of new orders for nuclear aggregates has decreased. That happens for a number of reasons, including public resistance, that the construction of new NPP and the excess of energy utilities in many markets, which is mainly connected with high market competition in energy markets and low economic indicators of the current nuclear utilities. The technology that consists of low capital costs, a possibility for quick construction and guarantied exploitation quality is on the winners side, but currently this technology is absent. However, despite abovementioned downsides, as the experience of state corporation "Rosatom"has shown, many developing countries of the South-east Asia, The middle East, African regions express high interest in the development of nuclear energy in their countries. The decision whether to develop nuclear energy or to continue to develop is, in the end, up to the choice of the tasks that a country faces. The article describes these "minor" issues, as well as geopolitical and economic problems of the further development of nuclear energy.

  13. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM system 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an operational test site of a solar energy system is described. The viability of the system was tested over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. Significant results are reported.

  14. Remarks on economic growth and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1979-01-01

    An energy policy according to the principles of decoupling is impossible without an increase in reasonable and profitable power application. It is also impossible without increased nuclear energy. Energy policy according to the principles of decoupling connects the natural growth tendency of a liberally arranged industry with the natural limits of the production factor 'nature'. Energy policy is the very sphere where tomorrow's necessities must be planned today. If in long range, a constant level of energy production struturised different from today's can be assumed, then this is future-bound. For it takes into consideration today tomorrow's necessities. This is the only guarantee we have for our industry to be able to grow tomorrow. On the basis of historical experience, an economic system will believe in the goal of a constant energy supply just as it was believing in abounding in energy up to day. The structure of the growth might change in long term. But accepting the thoughts of decoupling, progress will come. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Performance analysis of a continuous serpentine flow reactor for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater: Energy consumption, mass transfer coefficient and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-05-15

    A continuous flow electrochemical reactor was developed, and its application was tested for the treatment of textile wastewater. A parallel plate configuration with serpentine flow was chosen for the continuous flow reactor. Uniparameter optimization was carried out for electrochemical oxidation of synthetic and real textile wastewater (collected from the inlet of the effluent treatment plant). Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 90% was achieved for synthetic textile wastewater (initial COD - 780 mg L -1 ) at a flow rate of 500 mL h -1 (retention time of 6 h) and a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 and the energy consumption for the degradation was 9.2 kWh (kg COD) -1 . The complete degradation of real textile wastewater (initial COD of 368 mg L -1 ) was obtained at a current density of 1.15 mA cm -2 , NaCl concentration of 1 g L -1 and retention time of 6 h. Energy consumption and mass transfer coefficient of the reactions were calculated. The continuous flow reactor performed better than batch reactor with reference to energy consumption and economy. The overall treatment cost for complete COD removal of real textile wastewater was 5.83 USD m -3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplicity: the key to improved safety, performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCandless, R.J.; Redding, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In General Electric's Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) design every feature, every system, every piece of equipment must justify its existence - or it must go. Each must perform a needed function in the simplest way because simplification is the key to high performance and competitive economics. The SBWR has the potential to become a safe, economical and environmentally sound energy source for the 1990s, GE believes. The distinctive features of the reactor are described. It is illustrated on a wall chart which also gives its main specifications

  17. The peculiar economics of federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    US federal agency energy managers face different constraints than do comparable private sector managers. They are faced with energy consumption goals mandated via legislation or directed via Presidential Executive Order that encourage if not compel them to invest more in energy efficiency or renewables than would be cost effective from a private sector perspective. To make such investments, they also are provided access to private capital that is additional to their agency budgets. The encouragement to invest beyond what is cost effective may be a source of waste in some instances, and the financing mechanisms appear more expensive than necessary. A rough estimate of the magnitude of the waste is offered, as well as a mechanism to reduce the costs of agency access to capital. - Highlights: •Legislative and regulatory initiatives that constrain federal agency energy investments. •Economic calculus facing a federal agency energy manager. •Magnitude of federal energy investments and of possible waste. •Financing mechanisms and how their costs might be reduced.

  18. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  19. Three empirical essays in energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Jacquelyn Ryan

    This dissertation explores society's relationship with energy systems. Focusing on two areas of energy economics---electricity reliability and clean energy technology adoption---my objective is to provide insights on energy markets that can contribute towards informing energy policy and improving quality of life. In the first chapter, I examine how firm-level corruption on the demand side of the electricity sector impacts electricity reliability in developing countries. Showing that bribes for electricity connections are closely related to power outages experienced by firms, this chapter demonstrates how consumer-level corrupt behavior negatively impacts electricity service provision. In the second chapter, I study homeowners' stated information searching about solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption in California's residential market. Exploring differences between the types of information sought by consumers adopting solar through third-party ownership (TPO) relative to consumers who purchase solar systems outright (host-ownership (HO)), this chapter sheds light on differences between business model consumer preferences in the residential solar PV market. Lastly, in the third chapter I estimate solar subsidy pass-through to the prices faced by consumers in California's residential solar PV market and ask whether incidence differs for TPO consumers where subsidies are directed to the third party owner of the system (or the "seller") and HO consumers where subsidies go directly to the consumer (or the "buyer"). I find that TPO consumers capture more than 100 percent of every dollar of solar subsidy while HO consumers capture less than 100 percent of every dollar. This is surprising because standard economic theory predicts that the relative benefit of a subsidy does not depend on to whom it is directed.

  20. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  1. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  2. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  3. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  4. On enhancing energy harvesting performance of the photovoltaic modules using an automatic cooling system and assessing its economic benefits of mitigating greenhouse effects on the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liao, Min-Sheng; Lee, Yeun-Chung; Liu, Cheng-Yue; Kuo, Kun-Chang; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Huang, Chen-Kang; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2018-02-01

    The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules under outdoor operation is greatly affected by their location and environmental conditions. The temperature of a PV module gradually increases as it is exposed to solar irradiation, resulting in degradation of its electrical characteristics and power generation efficiency. This study adopts wireless sensor network (WSN) technology to develop an automatic water-cooling system for PV modules in order to improve their PV power generation efficiency. A temperature estimation method is developed to quickly and accurately estimate the PV module temperatures based on weather data provided from the WSN monitoring system. Further, an estimation method is also proposed for evaluation of the electrical characteristics and output power of the PV modules, which is performed remotely via a control platform. The automatic WSN-based water-cooling mechanism is designed to avoid the PV module temperature from reaching saturation. Equipping each PV module with the WSN-based cooling system, the ambient conditions are monitored automatically so that the temperature of the PV module is controlled by sprinkling water on the panel surface. The field-test experiment results show an increase in the energy harvested by the PV modules of approximately 17.75% when using the proposed WSN-based cooling system.

  5. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  6. Economic and environmental performance of future fusion plants in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Saez, R.M.; Lako, P.

    2001-01-01

    If the good performance of fusion as technology with no CO 2 emission during normal operation and rather low external costs, reflecting the advantageous environmental and safety characteristics, are considered in future energy regulations, fusion can win considerable market shares in future electricity markets. The economic performance was elaborated for Western Europe for the time period till 2100. The software tool MARKAL widely used in energy research was used to simulate and optimise the development of the Western European energy system. Two different scenarios were considered, the main difference was the interest rate for investments. Stringent CO 2 -emission strategies lead to considerable market shares for fusion. As a comprehensive indicator of the environmental and safety performance of fusion plants the external costs following the ExternE method was used. External costs of fusion are rather low, much below the cost of electricity, and are in the same range as photovoltaics and wind energy. (author)

  7. The Energy Economics of Financial Structuring for Renewable Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vishwajeet

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on the various financial structuring options for the renewable energy sector. The projects in this sector are capital-intensive to build but have relatively low operating costs in the long run when compared to traditional energy resources. The large initial capital requirements tend to discourage investors. To encourage renewable investments the government needs to provide financial incentives. Since these projects ultimately generate returns, the government's monetary incentives go to the sponsors and tax equity investors who build and operate such projects and invest capital in them. These incentives are usually in the form of ITCs, PTCs and accelerated depreciation benefits. Also, in some parts of the world, carbon credits are another form of incentive for the sponsors and equity investors to invest in such turnkey projects. The relative importance of these various considerations, however, differs from sponsor to sponsor, investor to investor and from project to project. This study focuses mainly on the US market, the federal tax benefits and incentives provided by the government. This study focuses on the energy economics that are used for project decision-making and parties involved in the transaction as: Project Developer/Sponsor, Tax equity investor, Debt investor, Energy buyer and Tax regulator. The study fulfils the knowledge gap in the decision making process that takes advantage of tax monetization in traditional after-tax analysis for renewable energy projects if the sponsors do not have the tax capacity to realize the total benefits of the project. A case-study for a wind farm, using newly emerging financial structures, validates the hypothesis that these renewable energy sources can meet energy industry economic criteria. The case study also helps to validate the following hypotheses: a) The greater a sponsor's tax appetite, the tower the sponsor's equity dilution. b) The use of leverage increases the cost of equity financing

  8. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  9. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  10. On the energy economics of air lubrication drag reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo A. Mäkiharju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air lubrication techniques for frictional drag reduction on ships have been proposed by numerous researchers since the 19th century. However, these techniques have not been widely adopted as questions persist about their drag reduction performance beyond the laboratory, as well as energy and economic cost-benefit. This paper draws on data from the literature to consider the suitability of air lubrication for large ocean going and U.S. Great Lakes ships, by establishing the basic energy economic calculations and presenting results for a hypothetical air lubricated ship. All the assumptions made in the course of the analysis are clearly stated so that they can be refined when considering application of air lubrication to a specific ship. The analysis suggests that, if successfully implemented, both air layer and partial cavity drag reduction could lead to net energy savings of 10 to 20%, with corresponding reductions in emissions.

  11. Economic performance of the SCE Stirling dish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.W.; Lopez, C.W.; McAlister, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    In 1982 McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Space System (MDA-SS) and United Stirling AB of Sweden formed a joint venture to develop and market a solar Stirling dish unit. Eight modules were built and extensively tested from 1984 to 1988. Power production and daily energy-conversion efficiency as determined by field testing have been characterized and modeled in a computer program. Included in this simulation are models of mirror soiling rate, wind spillage loss, mirror washing and other maintenance outage time, operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and other cost models. An economic model of a hybrid (combustion) receiver has been included in the simulation for illustrating the value of using solar energy when available and other fuels such as methane, natural gas, hydrogen, etc. when solar energy is not available or adequate. This paper describes the simulation and presents comparisons of the simulation to test data. The simulation also estimates both the O and M expenses and levelized energy costs for different production volumes

  12. Economic performance of the SCE Stirling dish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.W.; Lopez, C.W.; McAlister, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and United Stirling AB (USAB) of Sweden formed a joint venture to develop and market a solar Stirling dish system. Eight modules were built and extensively tested from 1984 to 1988. Power production and daily energy-conversion efficiency as determined by field testing were characterized and modeled into a computer program. Included in this simulation are models of mirror soiling rate, wind spillage loss, mirror washing, and other maintenance outage time, operation and maintenance (O and M) costs, and equipment purchase cost. An economic model of a hybrid (combustion) receiver has been included in the simulation for illustrating the value of using solar energy when available and other fuels such as methane, natural gas, hydrogen, etc. when solar energy is not available or adequate. This paper describes the simulation and presents comparisons of the simulation to test data. The simulation also estimates both the O and M expenses and levelized energy costs for different production volumes

  13. Handbook of natural resource and energy economics. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneese, A.V.; Sweeney, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The last of a three-volume series of handbooks focuses on the economics of energy, minerals and exhaustible resources, and the forecasting issues. The relationship between energy, the environment and economic growth is also examined. Chapter headings are: economic theory of depletable resources; the optimal use of exhaustible resources; intertemporal consistency issues in depletable resources; buying energy and non-fuel minerals; mineral resource stocks and information; strategies for modelling exhaustible resource supply; natural resources in an age of substitutability; natural resource cartels; the economics of energy security; natural resource use and the environment; and energy, the environment and economic growth

  14. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    According to the Danish energy protocol, Energy 21, one of the goals with highest priority is to reduce the CO2-emission. Energy consumption for domestic heating is a major contributor to the CO2-emission; hence one of the primary efforts to reach the goal is by saving energy in the households...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  15. On The Economics of Energy Labels in the Housing Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    The residential housing market can play an important role in the reduction of global carbon emissions. This paper reports the first evidence on the market adoption and economic implications of energy performance certificates implemented by the European Union. The results show that adoption rates are low and declining over time, coinciding with negative sentiment regarding the label in the popular media. Labels are clustered among smaller, post-war homes in neighborhoods with more difficult selling conditions. We also document that the adoption rates of energy labels have a positive relation to the number of 'green' voters during the 2006 national elections. Within the sample of labeled homes, the energy label creates transparency in the energy performance of dwellings. Our analysis shows that consumers capitalize this information into the price of their prospective homes.

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  17. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Cathy L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Stafford, Edwin R. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    When Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development (RERED) began in 2005, Utah had no commercial wind power projects in operation. Today, the state hosts two commercial wind power plants, the Spanish Fork Wind Project and the Milford Wind Corridor Project, totaling 324 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity. Another project in San Juan County is expected to break ground very soon, and two others, also in San Juan County, are in the approval process. RERED has played a direct role in advancing wind power (and other renewable energy and clean technology innovations) in Utah through its education outreach and research/publication initiatives. RERED has also witnessed and studied some of the persistent barriers facing wind power development in communities across Utah and the West, and its research expanded to examine the diffusion of other energy efficiency and clean technology innovations. RERED leaves a legacy of publications, government reports, and documentary films and educational videos (archived at www.cleantech.usu.edu) to provide important insights for entrepreneurs, policymakers, students, and citizens about the road ahead for transitioning society onto a cleaner, more sustainable future.

  19. Simplified energy design economics: Principles of economics applied to energy conservation and solar energy investments in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.

    1980-01-01

    Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.

  20. Economics of compressed air energy storage employing thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, S.C.; Reilly, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    The approach taken in this study is to adopt system design and capital cost estimates from three independent CAES studies (eight total designs) and, by supplying a common set of fuel/energy costs and economic assumptions in conjunction with a common methodology, to arrive at a series of levelized energy costs over the system's lifetime. In addition, some analyses are provided to gauge the sensitivity of these levelized energy costs to fuel and compression energy costs and to system capacity factors. The systems chosen for comparison are of four generic types: conventional CAES, hybrid CAES, adiabatic CAES, and an advanced-design gas turbine (GT). In conventional CAES systems the heat of compression generated during the storage operation is rejected to the environment, and later, during the energy-generation phase, turbine fuel must be burned to reheat the compressed air. In the hybrid systems some of the heat of compression is stored and reapplied later during the generation phase, thereby reducing turbine fuel requirements. The adiabatic systems store adequate thermal energy to eliminate the need for turbine fuel entirely. The gas turbine is included within the report for comparison purposes; it is an advanced-design turbine, one that is expected to be available by 1985.

  1. Three essays in energy and environmental economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Michael

    This thesis exploits the boom in U.S. oil and gas production to explore several empirical questions in environmental and energy economics. In the first essay, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate learning-by-doing in the Bakken Shale Play. Furthermore, the essay demonstrates organizational forgetting and knowledge spillovers among firms. The results show rates of learning in an important sector the U.S. economy and may have broader lessons for productivity gains and losses. The second essay investigates interfirm learning economies in oil well drilling in terms of productivity improvements and increases in environmental safety. The empirical results improve our understanding of how interfirm relationships influence productivity as well as the drivers of environmental incidents. Lastly, the third essay analyzes the impacts of stricter environmental regulations on oil production and well drilling in North Dakota. The results have particular relevance for policymakers seeking to understand the trade-offs between resource development and environmental quality. These three essays ultimately expand our knowledge of how learning economies occur and the effects of environmental regulations on economic activity.

  2. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Bobolovich, V.N.; Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Kochenov, A.S.; Koryakin, Yu.I.; Stolyarevskij, A.Ya.; Chernyaev, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system [ru

  3. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  4. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  5. Introduction course on the economical evaluation of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.

    1992-06-01

    A theoretical course on the financial and economical evaluation of energy projects is presented. The course was organized by the Banque Mondiale in Bujumbura, Burundi, from 11 to 16 November 1991. Subsequently attention is paid to the basics of economic analysis, the financial and the economical analysis of an investment project, and finally the prices of energy products. 4 figs., 13 refs

  6. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  7. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Söderman, M. Ljunggren

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives

  8. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul, N., E-mail: njua@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Münster, M., E-mail: maem@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ravn, H., E-mail: hans.ravn@aeblevangen.dk [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Söderman, M. Ljunggren, E-mail: maria.ljunggren@chalmers.se [Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  9. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  10. Economics of recovering energy from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I. J.

    1977-10-15

    It is estimated that New Zealand produces about 3200 t/day of refuse from the eight main centres. If it is assumed that the composition of this is intermediate between that of the US and the UK, then a calorific value of approximately 11.6 GJ/t is obtained, which indicates a potential of 37 TJ/day of energy is theoretically available from wastes. Some of the possible processes that could be used, and the yield of either energy or fuel that could be obtained from the assumed raw material are illustrated. It must be emphasized that before much further progress can be achieved in this area, a better knowledge of the amounts and composition of our refuse is necessary. This data is considered as an indication of the potential. The remainder of this paper consists of a preliminary economic assessment of processes that are in a reasonable state of development, i.e. to the stage where a demonstration plant would be built, or better. The currency used is the $US, 1975. Capital is considered to be amortized at 6% over 20 years. Labor has been estimated at an average of $7000. Land and site development is not included as this will vary immensely. However, it must be added that the fermentation processes are most likely to require considerably more land. All processes are costed for a 500 t/day plant, and cost estimations are from published or manufacturer's data, following the six tenths rule.

  11. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    New investments in waste treatment facilities are needed due to a number of factors including continuously increasing waste amounts, political demands for efficient utilization of the waste resources in terms of recycling or energy production, and decommissioning of existing waste treatment...... facilities due to age and stricter environmental regulation. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies will be economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing...... in multi criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented and the main challenges and the crucial parameters to take into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both...

  12. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  13. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  14. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  15. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  16. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A [Physical, Chemical and Nano Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0601 (United States); Saunders, H D, E-mail: jytsao@sandia.go, E-mail: jrcreig@sandia.go, E-mail: mecoltr@sandia.go, E-mail: jsimmon@sandia.go, E-mail: hsaunders@decisionprocessesinc.co [Decision Processes Incorporated, 2308 Saddleback Drive, Danville, CA 94506 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  17. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A; Saunders, H D

    2010-01-01

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  18. Global economic crisis and Africa's economic performance | Ekpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally acknowledged that African economies were able to withstand the 2007/2008 global economic crisis because of better macroeconomic management. Macroeconomic fundamentals, such as growth, rate of inflation and deficit/GDP ratio, among others, appear to move in the right direction during and after the ...

  19. Energy performance evaluation of AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Hulya

    The U.S. building industry constitutes the largest consumer of energy (i.e., electricity, natural gas, petroleum) in the world. The building sector uses almost 41 percent of the primary energy and approximately 72 percent of the available electricity in the United States. As global energy-generating resources are being depleted at exponential rates, the amount of energy consumed and wasted cannot be ignored. Professionals concerned about the environment have placed a high priority on finding solutions that reduce energy consumption while maintaining occupant comfort. Sustainable design and the judicious combination of building materials comprise one solution to this problem. A future including sustainable energy may result from using energy simulation software to accurately estimate energy consumption and from applying building materials that achieve the potential results derived through simulation analysis. Energy-modeling tools assist professionals with making informed decisions about energy performance during the early planning phases of a design project, such as determining the most advantageous combination of building materials, choosing mechanical systems, and determining building orientation on the site. By implementing energy simulation software to estimate the effect of these factors on the energy consumption of a building, designers can make adjustments to their designs during the design phase when the effect on cost is minimal. The primary objective of this research consisted of identifying a method with which to properly select energy-efficient building materials and involved evaluating the potential of these materials to earn LEED credits when properly applied to a structure. In addition, this objective included establishing a framework that provides suggestions for improvements to currently available simulation software that enhance the viability of the estimates concerning energy efficiency and the achievements of LEED credits. The primary objective

  20. Energy and economic growth: Grounding our understanding in physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the complex, wide ranging and unresolved debate within the economics literature on the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use. It explores the difference between neo-classical and ecological economic worldviews and highlights how the ecological economic approach attempts to ground its analysis within the physical limits implied by the laws of thermodynamics. Once these laws are accounted for, the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use seems more limited than neo-classical economics implies. Analysis of empirical evidence also demonstrates that observed improvements in GDP/energy use ratios in the USA are better explained by shifts towards higher quality fuels than by improvements in the energy efficiency of technologies. This implies a need to focus on decarbonising energy supply. Furthermore, where energy-efficiency improvements are attempted, they must be considered within the context of a possible rebound effect, which implies that net economy-wide energy savings from energy-efficiency improvements may not be as large as the energy saved directly from the efficiency improvement itself. Both decarbonising energy supply and improving energy efficiency require the rapid development and deployment of new and existing low-carbon technologies. This review therefore concludes by briefly outlining areas of economic thought that have emerged as a result of engagement between economists and experts from other disciplines. They include ecological, evolutionary and institutional economics, all of which can make policy-relevant contributions to achieving a transition to a low-carbon economy

  1. Energy consumption and economic growth. Assessing the evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondroyiannis, George; Lolos, Sarantis; Papapetrou, Evangelia

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light into the empirical relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, for Greece (1960-1996) employing the vector error-correction model estimation. The vector specification includes energy consumption, real GDP and price developments, the latter taken to represent a measure of economic efficiency. The empirical evidence suggests that there is a long-run relationship between the three variables, supporting the endogeneity of energy consumption and real output. These findings have important policy implications, since the adoption of suitable structural policies aiming at improving economic efficiency can induce energy conservation without impeding economic growth

  2. 26 CFR 1.461-4 - Economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) In general. The principles of this paragraph (d) determine when economic performance occurs with... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic performance. 1.461-4 Section 1.461-4...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.461-4 Economic performance. (a) Introduction—(1...

  3. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  5. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants [it

  6. Comprehensive energy and economic analyses on a zero energy house versus a conventional house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L. [School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Hurt, R.; Correa, D.; Boehm, R. [Center for Energy Research, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A zero energy house (ZEH) was built side by side with a baseline house in suburban Las Vegas. Actual energy performance measurements were carried out on the incorporated energy saving features and solar applications. The data show that a radiant barrier and a water-cooled air conditioner are major contributors to the energy savings, while an insulated floor slab and thermal mass walls are not effective for energy-conservation during cooling periods. Photovoltaic roof tiles produce enough green power to cover the use in the ZEH, and the solar water heater can reach a peak efficiency of 80%. The energy saving contribution of each incorporated component was obtained using Energy10 and eQUEST3.6 models, and then these codes were used for economic application evaluation. The two analysis codes yield similar results that compare well with the actual building performance data. Four items are clearly economically valuable for these applications: high performance windows, compact fluorescent lights, highly-insulated roofs and air conditioners with water-cooled condensers. PV tiles show a good financial return when rebates are considered. The Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) unit has a high efficiency but with a little higher thermal price. Thermal mass walls are too costly to have wide market appeal. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhshad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

  8. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihriaelae, H.

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference '95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  9. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  10. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  11. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  12. Nuclear energy as an instrument of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter is a review of how nuclear power can help achieve energy policy objectives, illustrated with examples based on experience in France. It is preceded by a preliminary consideration of the global economic background for the development of nuclear power today. Headings are: introduction; world-wide economic environment; nuclear energy and inflation; nuclear energy and external constraints; nuclear energy, foreign currency and employment in the French context. (U.K.)

  13. Energy efficiency and economic fallacies: a reply; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    The claim that a programme of energy efficiency improvements has nothing to offer to the solution of any problem of global warming is discussed. Some very important points not previously conceded by supporters of energy efficiency solutions to economic and environmental problems are considered, namely: first that when energy supply/price is the constraint on the level of economic activity, using energy more efficiently does not help to reduce total energy demand; and, second, that it has in practice been true that when energy supply/price is not the macroeconomic constraint, once again demand for energy is not reduced by more efficient use. (author)

  14. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  15. Energy. Economics - politics - technology. Energie. Wirtschaft - Politik - Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruppa, A; Mielenhausen, E; Kallweit, J H; Schlueter, H; Schenkel, J; Vohwinkel, F; Streckel, S; Brockmann, H W

    1978-01-01

    The themes of the various aspects of the energy sector collected in this volume and discussed by different authors are: Energy policy, energy demand-research and forecasts, energy supplies, new technologies for future energy supply, generation of electrical energy by nuclear power stations, effect on the environment of energy plants, legal problems of site planning, and the authorisation of energy plants.

  16. Privatization and Economic Performance: Evidence from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... This paper seeks to evaluate theoretically and empirically the impact of privatization on economic growth in Nigeria. Using error correlation model (ECM), it was discovered that privatization has not impacted positively on economic growth in Nigeria, and this was blamed on a lot of factors like ...

  17. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    -criteria analysis have been developed.A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy...... example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi...

  18. Economic Aspects of Innovations in Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Strielkowski, Wadim; Lisin, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is emerging as a potential method for addressing global energy system challenges across many different application areas. However, there are technical and non-technical barriers to the widespread deployment of energy storage devices. With regard to the above, it seems crucial to identify innovation processes, mechanisms and systems (in a broad sense) that can allow energy storage to help meet energy system challenges, and also deliver industrial growth from technology developme...

  19. real exchange rate misalignment and economic performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effects of real exchange rate misalignment on economic performance in Nigeria. .... main factors that impacts on real exchange rate in India .... financial assets and ignores non-economic factor such as .... and fiscal policies to control inflation.

  20. The economics of energy service contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, S. [University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). Sussex Energy Group, SPRU -Science and Technology Policy Research

    2007-01-15

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transaction cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the competitiveness of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test. (author)

  1. The economics of energy service contracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Steve [Univ. of Sussex (United Kingdom). SPRU

    2005-07-01

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transactions cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the 'contestability' of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test.

  2. The economics of energy service contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Energy service contracting can provide a cost-effective route to overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. Energy service contracts allow the client to reduce operating costs, transfer risk and concentrate attention on core activities. However, the energy services model may only be appropriate for a subset of energy services and energy using organisations. A challenge for both business strategy and public policy is to identify those situations in which energy service contracting is most likely to be appropriate and the conditions under which it is most likely to succeed. Energy service contracting is a form of outsourcing. It will only be chosen where the expected reduction in the production cost of supplying energy services can more than offset the transaction cost of negotiating and managing the relationship with the energy service provider. Production costs will be determined by a combination of the physical characteristics of the energy system and the technical efficiency of the relevant organisational arrangements, including economies of scale and specialisation. Transaction costs, in turn, will be determined by the complexity of the energy service, the 'specificity' of the investments made by the contractor, the competitiveness of the energy services market and the relevant legal, financial and regulatory rules. This paper develops these ideas into a general framework that may be used to assess the feasibility of energy service contracting in different circumstances. The framework leads to a number of hypotheses that are suitable for empirical test

  3. Impacts of FDI Renewable Energy Technology Spillover on China’s Energy Industry Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental friendly renewable energy plays an indispensable role in energy industry development. Foreign direct investment (FDI in advanced renewable energy technology spillover is promising to improve technological capability and promote China’s energy industry performance growth. In this paper, the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance are analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, three hypotheses are proposed to illustrate the relationships between FDI renewable energy technology spillover and three energy industry performances including economic, environmental, and innovative performances. To verify the hypotheses, techniques including factor analysis and data envelopment analysis (DEA are employed to quantify the FDI renewable energy technology spillover and the energy industry performance of China, respectively. Furthermore, a panel data regression model is proposed to measure the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance. Finally, energy industries of 30 different provinces in China based on the yearbook data from 2005 to 2011 are comparatively analyzed for evaluating the impacts through the empirical research. The results demonstrate that FDI renewable energy technology spillover has positive impacts on China’s energy industry performance. It can also be found that the technology spillover effects are more obvious in economic and technological developed regions. Finally, four suggestions are provided to enhance energy industry performance and promote renewable energy technology spillover in China.

  4. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  5. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  6. Performance, Economics of Production and Carcass Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, T50% and ... in terms of reduced cost of feeding per weight gain, commensurate revenue generation, gross margin ... Hence for better economic efficiency of broiler production and adoption of feed restriction ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth in China: A multivariate causality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan; Wang Yichen; Zhou Jing; Zhu Xiaodong; Lu Genfa

    2011-01-01

    This study takes a fresh look at the direction of causality between energy consumption and economic growth in China during the period from 1972 to 2006, using a multivariate cointegration approach. Given the weakness associated with the bivariate causality framework, the current study performs a multivariate causality framework by incorporating capital and labor variables into the model between energy consumption and economic growth based on neo-classical aggregate production theory. Using the recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach, a long-run equilibrium cointegration relationship has been found to exist between economic growth and the explanatory variables: energy consumption, capital and employment. Empirical results reveal that the long-run parameter of energy consumption on economic growth in China is approximately 0.15, through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and that for the short-run is approximately 0.12 by the error correction model. The study also indicates the existence of short-run and long-run causality running from energy consumption, capital and employment to economic growth. The estimation results imply that energy serves as an important source of economic growth, thus more vigorous energy use and economic development strategies should be adopted for China. - Highlights: → Cointegration is only present when real GDP is the dependent variable. →The long-run causality running from energy consumption to economic growth. →China is an energy dependent economy.

  8. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  9. Energy Economics of Farm Biogas in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, Pragasen; Grimberg, Stefan; Powers, Susan E

    2012-10-24

    Anaerobic digestion of farm and dairy waste has been shown to be capital intensive. One way to improve digester economics is to co-digest high-energy substrates together with the dairy manure. Cheese whey for example represents a high-energy substrate that is generated during cheese manufacture. There are currently no quantitative tools available that predict performance of co-digestion farm systems. The goal of this project was to develop a mathematical tool that would (1) predict the impact of co-digestion and (2) determine the best use of the generated biogas for a cheese manufacturing plant. Two models were developed that separately could be used to meet both goals of the project. Given current pricing structures of the most economical use of the generated biogas at the cheese manufacturing plant was as a replacement of fuel oil to generate heat. The developed digester model accurately predicted the performance of 26 farm digesters operating in the North Eastern U.S.

  10. Economic analysis of passive houses and low-energy houses compared with standard houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Cleyn, S.H. de; Vankerckhove, B.

    2008-01-01

    As the energy demand used for space heating accounts for 78% of EU15 household delivered energy consumption, significant reductions in energy demand can be achieved by promoting low-energy buildings. Our study investigates three building types: the standard house, the low-energy house and the passive house. As more far-reaching measures concerning energy savings usually lead to higher investments, the aim of our study is to perform an economic analysis in order to determine the economic viability of the three building types

  11. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  12. The German energy policy. Future prospects and new economic opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the German energy policy: share of renewable energy sources in the German energy mix by 2050, societal commitments of citizens, towns and regions as pillars of the energy transition, research and innovation: the keys of a successful energy transition in Germany, the coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, a safe, affordable and ecological energy transition, renewable energies guidance towards market economy, grids as central and vital elements of the energy transition, the electricity market and the new framework for renewable energies, new economic models to be exploited for smart grids, a change of paradigm with 'smart markets'

  13. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  14. The methodology of energy policy-making in economical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursina, B.

    1998-08-01

    Scrutiny and careful study in energy is a subject that in human science has been investigated from different point of view. The expansion of this research, because of its importance and effect in different dimensions of human life, has also arrived in the field of political and economic sciences. Economics evaluates the energy phenomenon at the side of elements such as labor, capital and technology in the production functions of firms. The nature of these discussions is mainly from the viewpoint of micro analyses. Nevertheless, the variation and challenges concerning energy and environment during the recent decades and the economists` detailed investigations in its analysis and evaluation have led to the arrival of energy discussions in a special shape in macro planning and large economic models. The paper compares various energy models - EFDM, MEDEE, MIDAS and HERMES. This extent of planning and consequently modelling which lacks a background in the processes of economic researches, deals with analysis of energy and economics reacting effects. Modelling of energy-economy interaction and energy policy in modeling macroeconomics large models are new ideas in energy studies and economics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sustainable energy. Economic growth for the Netherlands with green potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijbesma, F.; Oudeman, M.

    2010-02-01

    Research of the economic potential and options for enhancing renewable energy in the Netherlands. The following research questions were addressed: What is the current and future economic value of renewable energy in the Netherlands?; What are the areas in which the Netherlands has a unique point of departure with respect to knowledge and activities?; How can the economic potential be optimally deployed? Can the opportunities be increased by making it a key area?; What are other ways are there to enhance the economic development?. [nl

  16. Cooperation, social capital and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernandes Gonçalves da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to define social capital as social infrastructure and to try to include this variable in an economic growth model. Considering social capital in such a way could have an impact on the productivity of production factors. Firstly, I will discuss how institutional variables can affect growth. Secondly, after analyzing several definitions of social capital, I will point out the benefits and problems of each one and will define social capital as social infrastructure, aiming to introduce this variable into an economic growth model. Finally, I will try to open the way for subsequent empirical studies, both in the area of measuring the stock of social infrastructure as well as those comparing economies, with the idea of showing the impact of social infrastructure on economic growth.

  17. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...

  18. Causality relationship between energy demand and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to examine the causal relationship between electricity demand and economic growth in Nigeria using data for 1970 – 2003. The study uses the Johansen cointegration VAR approach. The ADF and Phillips – Perron test statistics were used to test for stationarity of the data. It was found that the data were ...

  19. Economics of Energy Conservation: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunatilake, Herath; Padmakanthi, Dhammika

    2008-01-01

    Global energy security relies heavily on exhaustible fossil fuels, whose use contributes significantly to global environmental problems. The recent unprecedented rise in oil prices and the threat of global warming highlight the urgent need for solutions to the energy and environment problem. Shifting to clean renewable energy sources - the long-term solution - has been slow despite efforts of the global community since the 1970s. Demand side management (DSM) is part of the solution to the ene...

  20. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  1. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  2. Solar energy options: Technical economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, R

    1982-01-01

    A general system approach on the earth suggests the conversion and distribution of solar energy as electricity, gas, solid and liquid fuels; the historical trend in energy management techniques is in favour of this hard technical proposal, because experience there exists on methods of transmission or transportation of previous kinds of energy vectors mentioned, and small changes in lifestyles toward energy conservation have to be considered in the final uses of the energy. Less hard system technologies will permit direct heat and electricity production close to the channels of energy consumptions; these systems will function as energy savers and their full exploitation implies greater impacts on energy use and lifestyles. As a general trend for government policies as well as for public decision impact on the social decision process, the proliferation of solar systems would permit to produce energy for the 'flowing energetic consumptions' (civil, transportation, agriculture, telecommunications, lighting, etc.) while the not renewable fuels could be properly invested in the production of strategic or durable materials; in this scheme the role of renewable resources is well defined to stabilize the whole civil system in which we are at present organized.

  3. Economical energy use in road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, A

    1980-01-01

    The energy situation calls for a more rational use of energy. Although the overall share of road transport in energy consumption is only 12%, this sector is looked upon to make a substantial contribution to the saving of energy. The production of more efficient motor vehicles as well as changing patterns in the use of such vehicles will probably lead to a lower overall consumption of fuel by 1985 regardless of an increase in the number of vehicles registered. This can only be achieved if the progress made in vehicle construction is not annihilated by a deterioration in traffic flow owing to insufficient improvement of the road network.

  4. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO 2 induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig

  5. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  6. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  7. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  8. Italian energy economics in an integrated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Whereas the comparison of 1973-1990 statistical data representing national dependency on foreign energy supplies reflects the overall successful effort by the major Common Market countries to reduce their dependencies, it also evidences that Italy has in fact increased its dependency on foreign energy supplies by 1% to a worrisome 83% European high. Further analysis of the Italian energy situation reveals that, although in recent years energy strategies have been implemented to diversify the mix of energy sources and suppliers, the only diversification Italy has made is the substitution of a portion of its petroleum imports, used predominantly to meet rapidly rising power demand, with natural gas imports. Thus, the degree of vulnerability of this nation's energy supply base has not been altered significantly. It is now hoped that greater cooperation between Italy and its more energy self-sufficient European neighbours, as called for in the new European free trade marketing strategies, as well as, attempts to create and enforce new European environmental standards, will help and induce Italy to lessen its energy supply vulnerability

  9. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  10. The economic performance of regions in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Procházková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development in the Czech Republic contributed to the fact that at present none of the regions is significant backward compared to other. Individual regions have shown among themselves certain differences. This applies in particular to the economic performance of regions. This paper introduce results of our research. Main aim of the work was to indentify economic performace affecting factors of regions NUTS 3 in Czech Republic. It was necessary to define quantity of economic performance to meet this goal. We used them to create method of valuating economic performance of regions. We weighed quantities (e.g. GDP, unemployment rate, net disposable income according to their importance. This procedure was applied to individual regions. We determined the level of economic performance of Czech regions. We present overview of factors and using statistical methods we test their importance to the economic performance of Czech regions.

  11. An aggregated energy security performance indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martchamadol, Jutamanee; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► AESPI shows a country’s (or province’s) energy security status. ► AESPI considers social, economic and environmental aspects using 25 indicators. ► AESPI shows the impact of the trend of energy policies/measures. ► AESPI could be a tool for monitoring and evaluating the impact of energy policies. -- Abstract: An “Aggregated Energy Security Performance Indicator (AESPI)” has been developed by considering 25 individual indicators representing social, economy and environmental dimensions. The principle used, data required and the methodology for the development of AESPI have been detailed. AESPI requires time series data for its development and its value ranges from 0 to 10. The characteristics of AESPI have been compared with the existing indicators in terms of methodology, data requirements, analysis possible and the applications. The advantages of AESPI is that it not only assists in knowing the past energy security status of a country, but also helps in assessing the future status considering the energy policies and plans of the country, thus enabling the monitoring of the impacts of the policies.

  12. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Seeco Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Lincoln, Nebraska is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  13. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  14. Economic Dispatch of Electric Energy Storage with Multi-service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a generic optimization model that explores the difficulty met by Electric Energy Storage (EES) systems when economic dispatch for multiple-service provision is requested. Such a model is further used to investigate the economic performance of an EES system which meets the 10...

  15. Economic Evaluation of Dual-Level-Residence Solar-Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    105-page report is one in a series of economic evaluations of different solar-energy installations. Using study results, an optimal collector area is chosen that minimizes life-cycle costs. From this optimal size thermal and economic performance is evaluated.

  16. Economical aspects of renewable energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.

    1999-01-01

    This article is the summary of a presentation at the exhibition 'Habitat and Garden' at Lausanne (Switzerland) about the effects of renewable energy development on economy and employment. Several studies over this subject do exist and some companies have a considerable know-how in this field. One particularly important question is the impact of non-renewable energy taxes. An answer is available from already published studies: taxes with a yearly yield of 800 millions CHF (about 500 millions USD) would create a net number of 60,000 to 84,000 new jobs, provided that they are integrally used for renewable energy support [de

  17. Energy-economical optimization of industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, A.; Saliba, S.; Franke, R.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic optimization of an industrial estate networks all electrical components of a location and combines energy trading, energy management and production processes. This allows to minimize the energy consumption from the supply network and to relieve the power grid and to maximize the profitability of the industrial self-generation. By analyzing the potential is detected and the cost of optimization solution is estimated. The generation-side optimization is supported through demand-side optimization (demand response). Through a real-time optimization the of Use of fuels is managed, controlled and optimized. [de

  18. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  19. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  20. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature (Saxenian, 2002; 2006, Ruzzlier et al, 2007; Honig and Drori, 2010, Drodi et al, 2010)). This paper aims at reducing this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  1. Economic and ordinal benefits of Hydrogen Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantoni, C.; Zoli, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing economic, environmental and energy investments is particularly suited for hydrogen technologies, because it makes it possible to calculate business returns, negative externalities and, above all, the economic benefits to the citizens: the monetizable positive externalities and the ordinal benefits, i.e. those which cannot be reduced to a simple monetary value. [it

  2. Energy price increases and economic development in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong CO

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of higher energy costs (particularly petroleum price increases) on economic development in Malaysia, 1973 to 1983 - outlines trends in gross domestic product, balance of payments, trade and economic growth; considers household income and fuel expenditure of low income rural communitys; deals with choice of technology and employment in certain high power consumption industries; discusses energy policy implications. Graphs, maps, questionnaires, refe...

  3. Dollars from Sense: The Economic Benefits of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This document illustrates direct economic benefits, including job creation, of renewable energy technologies. Examples of electricity generation from biomass, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, and geothermal energy are given, with emphasis on the impact of individual projects on the state and local community. Employment numbers at existing facilities are provided, including total national employment for each renewable industry where available. Renewable energy technologies offer economic advantages because they are more labor-intensive than conventional generation technologies, and they use primarily indigenous resources.

  4. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsani, Stela Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of Beijing's energy use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xu Linyu; Song Huimin

    2011-01-01

    In line with rapid economic development, urban energy consumption is increasing rapidly, resulting in environmental problems. After considering several methods to evaluate the environmental performance of energy use, including: energy ecological footprint, input-output analysis, emergy-exergy analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making, an environmental performance evaluation model is proposed, which combines the analytical hierarchy process, fuzzy extent analysis, and membership degree analysis. In the model, 18 sub-indicators of environmental performance from energy use planning are classified into four categories: structure of energy use and industry, technology and efficiency of energy use, environmental impacts caused by energy use, and the socio-economic benefits of energy use. Membership degree analysis is applied to each indicator. Three energy use scenarios which are, respectively, environment-friendly, technology-led, and economic policy-led are evaluated. The results show that the technology-led energy use planning is best. The sustainable energy use policies are proposed from three aspects, including optimizing the energy use and industrial structure, encouraging development of energy-saving and air pollution control technologies, and enhancing legislation on energy use management. The policies are helpful to optimize the trade-offs between economic growth and environmental protection in Beijing. - Highlights: → Our paper establishes a system of indicators according to the structure of urban energy use planning. → We have created a comprehensive environmental performance evaluation model in the research. → The model and results can serve as an important basis for decision-making to guide local government.

  6. Investigation of international energy economics. [Use of econometric model EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Clement, M.; Foley, T.J.; Rao, S.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Division of International Affairs of the Energy Research and Development Administration is assessing the long-range economic effects of energy research and development programs in the U.S. and other countries, particularly members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In support of this effort, a program was designed to coordinate the capabilities of five research groups--Rand, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program could evaluate the international economics of proposed or anticipated sources of energy. This program is designed to be general, flexible, and capable of evaluating a diverse collection of potential energy (nuclear and nonnuclear) related problems. For example, the newly developed methodology could evaluate the international and domestic economic impact of nuclear-related energy sources, but also existing nonnuclear and potential energy sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Major items to be included would be the cost of exploration, cost of production, prices, profit, market penetration, investment requirements and investment goods, economic growth, change in balance of payments, etc. In addition, the changes in cost of producing all goods and services would be identified for each new energy source. PNL developed (1) a means of estimating the demands for major forms of energy by country, and (2) a means of identifying results or impacts on each country. The results for each country were then to be compared to assess relative advantages. PNL relied on its existing general econometric model, EXPLOR, to forecast the demand for energy by country. (MCW)

  7. Endogenous economic growth, EROI, and transition towards renewable energy

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Court; Pierre-André Jouvet; Frédéric Lantz

    2015-01-01

    Due to their initial lack of emphasis on energy and natural resources, exogenous and endogenous growth models have suffered the same critic regarding the limits to economic growth imposed by finite Earth resources. Thus, various optimal control models that incorporate energy or natural resources have been developed during the last decades. However, in all these models the importance of the Energy Return On Energy Investment (EROI) has never been raised. The EROI is the ratio of the quantity o...

  8. The energy industries reorganization in the economic globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouroux, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author wonders on the energy supply evolution since thirty years and more specially the fossil fuels industries reconstruction. The energy panorama has been completely modified by a serial of processes which stopped the nuclear energy expansion and replaced the fossil fuels in the front of the energy scene. The processes are examined to evaluate the consequences of theses transformations on the model of economic development developed by the capitalism. (A.L.B)

  9. Energy and economic development [Brazil: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Schaeffer, R.

    2006-01-01

    When energy specialists discuss the relationships between energy use and economic development, the focus is usually on how energy supports economic growth, alleviates poverty and increases people's well-being. On rare occasions, though, the effect that a country's choices for promoting economic development have on energy production and use is a matter of concern. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the way Brazil's choices for promoting economic development over time have impacted primary and final energy use in the country. Economic growth has different levels of quality, which lead to different economic development paths. Some paths are more effective than others in creating wealth and in protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations. Quality actually matters as much for economic development as for energy. This chapter is divided into four sections covering energy and economic development relationships, the evolution of final energy use in Brazil, strategies to enhance sustainable energy development in the country and a summary of main issues. In Section 5.1, energy and economic development relationships are discussed, setting the background for the analysis of the impacts on final energy use of some of Brazil's choices for promoting economic development. The section begins by focusing on the basics of energy and economic development relationships. It should be noted that most energy specialists usually discuss only the basics of energy and economic development (the 'energy in support of economic development' theme), but this approach alone is not enough to explain differences in countries' final energy use patterns, or to identify strategies to enhance sustainable energy development. In this sense, the main contribution of this section is to further illuminate the role of social and economic choices in determining the effectiveness of a given country's economic development and that country's primary and final

  10. Economic consequences of reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The net economic value of reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle was estimated using a stochastic dynamic simulation model. The objective was to compare the economic consequences of reproductive performance scenarios (“average” and “poor”) of a cow having a good reproductive performance and to

  11. The energy performance contract - key towards energy efficiency in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa Corina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Energy Performance Contract (EPC as a business model for energy efficiency. More precisely, it examines, using two case studies, enablers and disablers – from an economic, legal and institutional/managerial perspective – for advancing this arrangement across the EU. The EU has set a 20% energy savings target by 2020 (roughly equivalent to turning off 400 power stations, with an even more ambitious target of 27% by 2030. To reach these ambitious targets, the investments needed are approximately EUR 100 bn/year across the EU (according to the European Commission. Energy efficiency is not, as fervent proponents often claim, the low hanging fruit in terms of investment efforts. Like any other sub-sector, such as transmission and distribution, it demands innovative financing instruments to ensure adequate scale-up. In the paper, I use two comparative case studies to identify and classify the disablers and enablers of Energy Performance Contracting/Energy Services Companies (ESCOs development: the European frontrunner, namely Germany, and a laggard, namely Romania. As research methodology, I use literature review, comparisons between similar government policy planning and evaluation documents, and stakeholder interviews. While academic literature on the topic (Seefeldt, 2003; Wilhelm, 2015 is developed for Germany, for Romania a critical reflection on EPC promotion policy is to be found only in industry documents (e.g.: ARPEE, 2013; Tractebel, 2015. The German success demonstrates that, contrary to the belief of Romanian stakeholders, it is not the lack of a standardized contract model that prevents EPC development, but lack of genuine commitment, drive and leadership of public officials in promoting this financing instrument. A solid communication between public authorities and private beneficiaries, and public administration capacity for impact assessment and evidence-based policy planning are two other significant

  12. Economic modelling of energy services: Rectifying misspecified energy demand functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Lester C.; Ryan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that energy demand is derived, since energy is required not for its own sake but for the energy services it produces – such as heating, lighting, and motive power – energy demand models, both theoretical and empirical, often fail to take account of this feature. In this paper, we highlight the misspecification that results from ignoring this aspect, and its empirical implications – biased estimates of price elasticities and other measures – and provide a relatively simple and empirically practicable way to rectify it, which has a strong theoretical grounding. To do so, we develop an explicit model of consumer behaviour in which utility derives from consumption of energy services rather than from the energy sources that are used to produce them. As we discuss, this approach opens up the possibility of examining many aspects of energy demand in a theoretically sound way that have not previously been considered on a widespread basis, although some existing empirical work could be interpreted as being consistent with this type of specification. While this formulation yields demand equations for energy services rather than for energy or particular energy sources, these are shown to be readily converted, without added complexity, into the standard type of energy demand equation(s) that is (are) typically estimated. The additional terms that the resulting energy demand equations include, compared to those that are typically estimated, highlight the misspecification that is implicit when typical energy demand equations are estimated. A simple solution for dealing with an apparent drawback of this formulation for empirical purposes, namely that information is required on typically unobserved energy efficiency, indicates how energy efficiency can be captured in the model, such as by including exogenous trends and/or including its possible dependence on past energy prices. The approach is illustrated using an empirical example that involves

  13. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  14. Economics of alternative energy supply in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. V.

    1977-10-15

    Alternative means of supplying the main categories of energy demand in New Zealand are examined, using a common economic basis. In this context alternative means are defined to include those not presently in significant large-scale use in New Zealand but which have been demonstrated to be broadly technically feasible. Energy demand is conveniently divided into four categories each corresponding to a grade of energy required and each including all relevant demand in households, commerce, and industry. These categories are called low-grade heat, process heat, transport, and high-grade energy. The high-grade energy market is largely satisfied only by electricity and alternative means of supplying electricity are considered by other authors. The remaining categories are discussed. The comparison of alternatives includes a brief examination of how the comparative economics are affected by the economic criteria used and particularly the cash flow discount rate. The results obtained are of scoping accuracy only but some policy implications are suggested.

  15. Energy and economic milestones in Nigeria: Role of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S.O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric power supply could be the driving force critical to poverty reduction, economic growth and sustainable development in developing countries like Nigeria. Comparative analysis of several promising technologies that could be explored to achieve energy sufficiency however shows that nuclear power is more economically competitive and outstanding despite the relatively high initial capital cost. Furthermore, one of the critical conditions in deciding to invest in a specific electric power technology is the overall cost component of the new technology, nuclear therefore is in many places competitive with other forms of electricity generation. The fundamental attraction is about harnessing the sources of energy which takes cognizance of the environmental effects of burning fossil fuel and its security of supply. This paper therefore highlights the benefits of inclusion of nuclear energy in the Nigeria energy mix, a sine qua non for economic and social development, safer environment, wealth creation and a long term energy security.

  16. Economic potential of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Scientific feasibility of magnetic fusion is no longer seriously in doubt. Rapid advances have been made in both tokamak and mirror research, leading to a demonstration in the TFTR tokamak at Princeton in 1982 and the tandem mirror MFTF-B at Livermore in 1985. Accordingly, the basis is established for an aggressive engineering thrust to develop a reactor within this century. However, care must be taken to guide the fusion program towards an economically and environmentally viable goal. While the fusion fuels are essentially free, capital costs of reactors appear to be at least as large as current power plants. Accordingly, the price of electricity will not decline, and capital availability for reactor constructions will be important. Details of reactor cost projections are discussed and mechanisms suggested for fusion power implementation. Also discussed are some environmental and safety aspects of magnetic fusion

  17. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  18. On the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    The competitiveness of wind and solar power technologies is often evaluated in public debates by comparing levelized costs of electricity. This is, however, incorrect, as doing so neglects the economic value of technologies. Similarly, renewable energy support schemes are often designed to incentivize investors to only account for the marginal economic costs (MEC) but not for the marginal economic value (MEV el ) of renewable energy technologies, i.e., the revenue from selling electricity on the wholesale market during the unit's technical lifetime. In this paper, it is shown that the net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC) - defined as the difference between the MEC and the MEV el per kWh - should serve as the reference when discussing the economic attractiveness of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, renewable energy support schemes should incentivize investments in technologies and regions with the lowest net marginal economic costs per kWh (NMEC), as otherwise excess costs occur. This is demonstrated using the example of Germany and its technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020. By applying a linear electricity system optimization model, Germany's technology- and region-specific wind and solar power targets for 2020 are found to cause excess costs of more than 6.6 bn Euro 2010 . These are driven by comparatively high NMEC (low economic attractiveness) of offshore wind and solar power in comparison to onshore wind power in Germany up to 2020.

  19. Economic perspectives of SMSNRs in the energy market of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Hayashi, Toshikazu

    1988-01-01

    The marginal values of the investment cost were analyzed for each of five types of SMSNRs to penetrate into the energy system optimized by minimizing the total system cost. The results showed the upper values of the investment cost as 1.4, 1.35, and 1.45 times that of a large-scale LWR for a medium-sized LWR, a small-sized LWR, and a LWR for cogeneration, respectively. The economic conditions for SMSNRs to be adopted by electric utilities were analyzed through comparison of the financial performance of a Japan's typical electric utility in the two cases of selecting a large-scale LWR and a small-sized LWR. The results indicated that the upper limit of the construction cost is 1.4 times that of a large-scale LWR. (orig.)

  20. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  1. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  2. THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE BETWEEN THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAKÓ KINGA-ERZSÉBET

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Today the economic performance of enterprises is defined in a different way compared to traditional approaches, to understand the modern definitions will need to review the evolution of the concept from the beginnings until nowadays. In the traditional approach the economic performance of the enterprises was defined only by the perspective shareholders’, so the business owners, what is not surprising, as it was considered the source of rewarding investors and the main purpose of the business. Today a company is performing if he responds and at the economic level to the expectations of several stakeholder groups. In this article we review the evolution of these notions and we give a definition based on the modern approaches taking into account and the fact that, we can't discuss economic performance without social performance and environmental performance of an enterprise. In the last resort we aproach system measurement of the performance that meets the expectations generated by today's society.

  3. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  4. Economic and financial aspects of geothermal energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazo, F.M.; Datuin, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the historical development of geothermal energy in the Philippines, its present status and future possibilities. It also illustrates the average power generation and utilization from primary energy sources (hydro, oil, coal, and geothermal energy) in the country from 1981 to 1988. A comparison is made between electricity generating costs and results of operations from these power sources, showing that geothermal energy utilization is very competitive. Moreover, it also discusses the economic viability of geothermal energy utilization as a result of separate studies conducted by World Bank and an Italian energy consulting firm

  5. Energy expenditure, economic growth, and the minimum EROI of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fizaine, Florian; Court, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We estimate energy expenditure for the US and world economies from 1850 to 2012. Periods of high energy expenditure relative to GDP (from 1850 to 1945), or spikes (1973–74 and 1978–79) are associated with low economic growth rates, and periods of low or falling energy expenditure are associated with high and rising economic growth rates (e.g. 1945–1973). Over the period 1960–2010 for which we have continuous year-to-year data for control variables (capital formation, population, and unemployment rate) we estimate that, statistically, in order to enjoy positive growth, the US economy cannot afford to spend more than 11% of its GDP on energy. Given the current energy intensity of the US economy, this translates in a minimum societal EROI of approximately 11:1 (or a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level). Granger tests consistently reveal a one way causality running from the level of energy expenditure (as a fraction of GDP) to economic growth in the US between 1960 and 2010. A coherent economic policy should be founded on improving net energy efficiency. This would yield a “double dividend”: increased societal EROI (through decreased energy intensity of capital investment), and decreased sensitivity to energy price volatility. - Highlights: •We estimate energy expenditures as a fraction of GDP for the US, the world (1850–2012), and the UK (1300–2008). •Statistically speaking, the US economy cannot afford to allocate more than 11% of its GDP to energy expenditures in order to have a positive growth rate. •This corresponds to a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level. •In the same way, US growth is only possible if its primary energy system has at least a minimum EROI of approximately 11:1.

  6. Position Of Hydrogen Energy In Latvian Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: World energy resources are based on fossil fuels mostly (coal, oil, gas) which don't regenerate and will be run low after 30-80 years. Therefore it is necessary to elaborate alternative energy sources today. Also Latvia's energy balance is based mostly on the burning of fossil fuels and importing it from neighbor countries. One from much outstanding alternative energy sources is hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is a very important and most common element in the universe. Only hydrogen obtained from water and burnt in fuel cell back to water will be the renewed and sustainable fuel. There are hundred years old history of hydrogen related researches in Latvia, and there are researchers nowadays here trying to incorporate Latvia in the Hydrogen Society. The power supply in Latvia is based on local resources - water, wind, biogas (partly from waste), wood, peat, and on imported resources (natural gas, natural liquid gas, oil products (including heavy black oil) and coal. Total demand for electricity in Latvia only partly (63% in 2002) is covered with that produced on the site. If energy for heating in Latvia is produced from fossil fuels mostly (natural gas and heavy oil), than more than half of electricity produced in Latvia are based on local renewable resources. The water resources for the production of electricity in Latvia are almost exhausted - there are 3 large HEPS on Daugava River and more than 100 small HEPS on different rivers all over the Latvia. The building of small power stations in Latvia was accelerated very much after introduction of 'double tariff' for electricity from renewable, but from 2003 this time is over. Unfortunately directly power stations on small rivers made very big ecological distress on country side and no more expansion is welcome. The landfill gas in Latvia is a new resource and would result in additional capacity of 50 MW energy. Nowadays two projects started to realize for gas extraction from Getlini (Riga) and Grobina (Liepaja

  7. Utilization of oil wells for electricity generation: Performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2015-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the climate change, which is the most important challenge facing humanity, is anthropogenic and attributed to fossil fuel consumption. Therefore, deploying more renewable energy resources is an urgent issue to be addressed. Geothermal refers to existing heat energy in deep rock and sedimentary basins. Traditionally, geothermal energy has been exploited in places with plentiful hot water at relatively shallow depth. Unfortunately, the high exploration and drilling costs of boreholes is the main barrier to the commerciality of geothermal worldwide. In oil producing countries, such problems can be overcome by utilizing oil or gas wells. The current study presents thermodynamic and economic analyses of a binary geothermal power generation system for commercial electricity generation. Two different source temperatures (100 and 120 °C) and constant sink temperature (29 °C) were considered. The optimal working fluid and optimal design that improve the performance of the plant are determined. For the current costs in Qatar, the economical analysis of 5 MW geothermal plant shows that the levelized cost of electricity for the plant varies from 5.6 to 5.2 ¢/kW. Whereas, the payback period of such plants lies between 5.8 and 4.8 years. - Highlights: • Utilizing oil well makes geothermal plant competitive with other resources. • R32 seems to be the best working fluid. • The levelized cost of electricity for geothermal plant is less than 5.6 ¢/kWh. • The payback time of geothermal plant is less than 6 years.

  8. The underestimated contribution of energy to economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayres, R.U.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Lindenberger, D.; Warr, B.

    2013-01-01

    Standard economic theory regards capital and labour as the main factors of production that satisfy the "cost-share theorem". This paper argues that when a third factor, namely energy, is added physical constraints on substitution among the factors arise. We show that energy is a much more important

  9. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.; Muirhead, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  10. Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [Independent Researcher (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship between economic growth, pollutant emissions and energy consumption for South Africa for the period 1965-2006 in a multivariate framework which includes labour and capital as additional variables. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between pollutant emissions and economic growth. Further, applying a modified version of the Granger causality test we also found a unidirectional causality running from pollutant emissions to economic growth; from energy consumption to economic growth and from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions all without a feedback. The econometric evidence suggests that South Africa has to sacrifice economic growth or reduce its energy consumption per unit of output or both in order to reduce pollutant emissions. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country and at the same time reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by developing energy alternatives to coal, the main source of CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the econometric results upon which the policy suggestions are made should be interpreted with care, as they may not be sufficiently robust enough to categorically warrant the choice of an unpalatable policy option by South Africa. (author)

  11. Questions of economics. [solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeff, P

    1976-05-01

    The essay deals with questions of profitability in connection with the use of solar energy to heat buildings or to prepare hot water. The total problem is approached from 3 points of view: 1. General national economy point of view: Judgment by politicians determines the possibilities of support by the government. 2. The business economy aspect: Here the most important matter is to construct the plants with dimensions permitting to obtain the highest profits possible. 3. The financing model: possible incentives must be taken into consideration as well as technical aspects, e.g. the service life of the plants.

  12. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  13. Clean energy, non-clean energy, and economic growth in the MIST countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Li, Yi-Ying; Hsin-Chia Fu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between clean (renewable/nuclear) and non-clean energy consumption and economic growth in emerging economies of the MIST (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey) countries. The panel co-integration tests reveal that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship among GDP, capital formation, labor force, renewable/nuclear, and fossil fuel energy consumption. The panel causality results indicate that (1) there is a positive unidirectional short-run causality from fossil fuel energy consumption to economic growth with a bidirectional long-run causality; (2) there is a unidirectional long-run causality from renewable energy consumption to economic growth with positive bidirectional short-run causality, and a long-run causality from renewable to fossil fuel energy consumption with negative short-run feedback effects; and (3) there is a bidirectional long-run causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth and a long-run causality from fossil fuel energy consumption to nuclear energy consumption with positive short-run feedback effects. These suggest that MIST countries should be energy-dependent economies and that energy conservation policies may depress their economic development. However, developing renewable and nuclear energy is a viable solution for addressing energy security and climate change issues, and creating clean and fossil fuel energy partnerships could enhance a sustainable energy economy. - Highlights: • This novel study can provide more robust bases to strengthen sustainable energy policy settings. • Fossil fuel/nuclear energy use and economic growth is bidirectional causality. • Renewable energy consumption long term causes economic growth. • There is substitutability between renewable and fossil fuel energy. • Clean and non-clean energy partnerships can achieve a sustainable energy economy

  14. Asia energy mixes from socio-economic and environmental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thavasi, V.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable clean energy is the top social, economic, and environmental agenda of political leaders, policy makers, enlightened business executives, and civil society in Asia. Strong economic growth in Asia has caused a great demand for energy which has resulted in an enormous increase in CO 2 emissions. The association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN), India, China, South Korea and Japan are the most important regions in Asia as their economies have been growing steadily. These countries though heavily dependent on fossil fuels have stepped up their measures towards low-carbon society amid domestic affordability challenges and changing global mindset. This report highlights the current energy scenario in these countries and their effort towards an affordable and sustainable clean energy future. The energy policy to enhance energy security and improve environmental sustainability is also explicated in this article. (author)

  15. Energy and economic growth in the USA: a multivariate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the casual relationship between Gross Domestic Product and energy use for the period 1947-90 in the United States of America. The relationship between energy use and economic growth has been examined by both biophysical and neoclassical economists. In particular, several studies have tested for the presence of a causal relationships (in the Granger sense) between energy use and economic growth. However, these tests do not allow a direct test of the relative explanatory powers of the neoclassical and biophysical models. A multivariate adaptation of the test-vector autoregression (VAR) does allow such a test. A VAR of GDP, energy use, capital stock and employment is estimated and Granger tests for causal relationships between the variables are carried out. Although there is no evidence that gross energy use Granger causes GDP, a measure of final energy use adjusted for changing fuel composition does Granger cause GDP. (author)

  16. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  17. The economics of energy market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.; Kammen, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates three energy-sector market transformation programs: the US Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program to promote on-grid efficient lighting; the World Bank Group's new Photovoltaic Market Transformation Initiative; and the federal grain ethanol subsidy. The authors develop a benefit-cost model that uses experience curves to estimate unit cost reductions as a function of cumulative production. Accounting for dynamic feedback between the demand response and price reductions from production experience raises the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of the first two programs substantially. The BCR of the ethanol program, however, is approximately zero, illustrating a technology for which subsidization was not justified. Their results support a broader role for market transformation programs to commercialize new environmentally attractive technologies, but the ethanol experience suggests moderately funding a broad portfolio composed of technologies that meet strict selection criteria

  18. The economic growth enigma: Capital, labour and useful energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert; Voudouris, Vlasios

    2014-01-01

    We show that the application of flexible semi-parametric statistical techniques enables significant improvements in model fitting of macroeconomic models. As applied to the explanation of the past economic growth (since 1900) in US, UK and Japan, the new results demonstrate quite conclusively the non-linear relationships between capital, labour and useful energy with economic growth. They also indicate that output elasticities of capital, labour and useful energy are extremely variable over time. We suggest that these results confirm the economic intuition that growth since the industrial revolution has been driven largely by declining energy costs due to the discovery and exploitation of relatively inexpensive fossil fuel resources. Implications for the 21st century, which are also discussed briefly by exploring the implications of an ACEGES-based scenario of oil production, are as follows: (a) the provision of adequate and affordable quantities of useful energy as a pre-condition for economic growth and (b) the design of energy systems as ‘technology incubators’ for a prosperous 21st century. - Highlights: • Economic growth needs three factors of production. • We propose a semi-parametric generalised production function. • Exploitation of inexpensive fossil fuel resources has profound policy implications

  19. Energy consumption and economic growth revisited in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggoh, Jude C., E-mail: comlanvi-jude.eggoh@univ-orleans.fr [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Bangake, Chrysost [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Artois and Laboratoire EQUIPPE, Lille 1, FSES, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Rault, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Economie d' Orleans (LEO), Universite d' Orleans, Rue de Blois, BP: 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Toulouse Business School (France)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 21 African countries over the period from 1970 to 2006, using recently developed panel cointegration and causality tests. The countries are divided into two groups: net energy importers and net energy exporters. It is found that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy consumption, real GDP, prices, labor and capital for each group of countries as well as for the whole set of countries. This result is robust to possible cross-country dependence and still holds when allowing for multiple endogenous structural breaks, which can differ among countries. Furthermore, we find that decreasing energy consumption decreases growth and vice versa, and that increasing energy consumption increases growth, and vice versa, and that this applies for both energy exporters and importers. Finally, there is a marked difference in the cointegration relationship when country groups are considered. - Highlights: > We assess the energy consumption and economic growth nexus in 21 African countries. > There exists a long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. > This result is robust to cross-country dependence and for structural breaks. > Our findings finally support the feedback hypothesis of bidirectional causality.

  20. Achieving a secure energy future: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, David; Herdendorf, M.; Eisenfeld, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of the environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the number of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and transition to renewable energy sources are critical. An estimated 40% of current energy consumption could be produced employing solar energy technologies, but would require about 20% of total U.S. land area. Therefore, the development of solar energy technologies to substitute for fossil energy is projected to compete for land required for agriculture and forestry as well as have other environmental impacts

  1. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  2. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  3. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Economic MPC for a linear stochastic system of energy units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes comprehensively the work in four recent PhD theses from the Technical University of Denmark related to Economic MPC of future power systems. Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers...... in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms. In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable...... power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program. We provide linear models for a number of energy units in an energy system, formulate an Economic MPC for coordination of such a system. We indicate how advances in computational MPC makes the solutions...

  5. Modeling and optimization of a network of energy hubs to improve economic and emission considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroufmashat, Azadeh; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael; Sattari, Sourena; Roshandel, Ramin; Hajimiragha, Amir; Walker, Sean; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2015-01-01

    Energy hubs that incorporate a variety of energy generation and energy transformation technologies can be used to provide the energy storage needed to enable the efficient operation of a ‘smart energy network’. When these hubs are combined as a network and allowed to exchange energy, they create efficiency advantages in both financial and environmental performance. Further, the interconnectedness of the energy network design provides an added layer of reliability. In this paper, a complex network of energy hubs is modeled and optimized under different scenarios to examine both the financial viability and potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Two case studies consisting of two and three energy hubs within a network are considered. The modeling Scenarios vary according to the consideration of distributed energy systems and energy interaction between energy hubs. In the case of a network of two energy hubs, there is no significant economic or emissions benefit with only a 0.5% reduction in total cost and 3% reduction in CO_2 emission. In the case of a network of three energy hubs, there is a significant economic benefit ranging from 11% to 29%, and 11% emission reduction benefit, as well as a 13% reduction in natural gas consumption. - Highlights: • The generic form of the modified energy hub concept with network model is presented. • Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the benefits of energy hub network. • Distributed energy is shown to provide economic and environmental advantages. • Multi criteria optimization of the economic and environmental performance is done.

  6. The relationship between energy consumption structure, economic structure and energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Taiwen; Sun Linyan; Zhang Ying

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run equilibrium relationships, temporal dynamic relationships and causal relationships between energy consumption structure, economic structure and energy intensity in China. Time series variables over the periods from 1980 to 2006 are employed in empirical tests. Cointegration tests suggest that these three variables tend to move together in the long-run. In addition, Granger causality tests indicate that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy intensity to economic structure but not vice versa. Impulse response analysis provides reasonable evidences that one shock of the three variables will cause the periods of destabilized that followed. However, the impact of the energy consumption structure shock on energy intensity and the impact of the economic structure shock on energy consumption structure seem to be rather marginal. The findings have significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation and economic development. In order to decrease energy intensity, Chinese government must continue to reduce the proportion of coal in energy consumption, increase the utilization efficiency of coal and promote the upgrade of economic structure. Furthermore, a full analysis of factors that may relate to energy intensity (e.g. energy consumption structure, economic structure) should be conducted before making energy policies.

  7. Evaluation of energy economics of solar resorts on the Red Sea in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modet, Georgei

    2011-10-28

    This thesis investigates the energy performance of resorts in Egypt. The expansive tourism development results in higher demands of energy whilst increasing the burden on the country's economy. The objective is to evaluate solar resorts versus the conventional design in terms of energy, economic and environmental performances. An energy audit is conducted among five stars resorts in Sharm el Sheikh. A self developed evaluation model using environmental life cycle costing is used to evaluate the conventional resort versus the solar resort concept. The thesis concludes with the discussion of the results and recommendations for encouraging the use of renewable energy in the hotel sector in Egypt.

  8. The Energetics of Economics (Money as access to Energy)

    OpenAIRE

    Ternyik, Stephen I.

    2013-01-01

    Money is being portrayed as temporal access to energy and a new methodical approach to the energetics of the human economy is introduced.The economic evolution of world system energetics is put into the historical focus of all global monetary civilization, reaching back to Sumerian city states.This long wave energetics of human economic action clearly points to the biophysical boundaries of the globalized monetary production economy which is also based on natural law.The future perspective of...

  9. Essays in environmental and energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancevic, Pedro I.

    Chapter 1: I measure the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment on the productivity and output of US coal-fired power generating units. The Act led to power units adopting a number of different pollution abating behaviors, one of which was an input change to lower SO2 emitting coal. A key feature of coal generating units is each one is designed to burn a particular variety of coal, with significant deviations from the targeted coal characteristics resulting in productivity loss. The main innovation is to quantify the effect that switching to cleaner coal had on productivity, output and generation costs. With data spanning over twenty one years, I first compute the unconstrained coal type of each unit and document ensuing deviations caused by switching to cleaner coal. I then incorporate the effect of this deviation directly into a production function to explicitly quantify the resulting productivity loss. Chapter 2: Since the 1990-CAAA was implemented and a market for SO2 emission permits was established, coal-fired power generating units have had to choose among three main compliance alternatives: i) burn high-sulfur coal and buy additional permits to cover the excess emissions, ii) retrofit the boiler and convert it to low-sulfur coal, or iii) adopt a flue gas desulfurization unit (scrubber). The decision problem has dynamic implications driven by the evolution of input, output, and allowance prices and is revised whenever significant changes in the industry occur. I assume output level is randomly and exogenously assigned to each boiler and estimate a structural dynamic discrete choice model to recover the relative compliance costs. Chapter 3: We study a cycle of subsidized energy prices and estimate its welfare impact on households in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region. A simple framework explains its emergence in terms of the preference of a median household (voter) for receiving transfer gains followed by a future flow of transfer losses. We evaluate

  10. Factors influencing economic performance of the South Moravian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Živělová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with selected factors influencing economic performance of the South Moravian Region in the years 2003–2009. The economic performance of the region is evaluated by means of a contribution to the Gross Domestic Product of the Czech Republic. Considering the fact that the level of economic activity depends on the exploitation rate of production factors in the considered region, both development of soil exploitation rate and development of labour market indicators correlated with working force utilization are analysed, a number of employed adults and registered unemployment are taken into consideration. Attention is paid to the economic activity rate. The formation of the Gross Fixed Capital, which an assumption of favourable economic performance, and development of Gross Added Value are evaluated.All the regions nowadays fumble with the negative impacts of the economic crisis. According to the analysis of the economic performance of the South Moravian Region and the analysis of the factors influencing this performance, it could be stated, that the development of the South Moravian Region could be evaluated quite positively.

  11. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  12. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  13. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  14. Economic and environmental performance of the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decision to explore effects...

  15. economic assessment of the performance of private sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Economic and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria ... This paper critically attempts to assess the performance of the private sector ... economy would depend to a large extent on the quantity ..... New York, USA: McGraw.

  16. Energy demand, economic growth, and energy efficiency - the Bakun dam-induced sustainable energy policy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In embarking on a dynamic course of economic development and industrial modernism, Malaysia sees the need to increase its electricity generation capacity through the development of a mega-dam project - the Bakun dam. Although hydroelectricity generation offers one of the benign options in accommodating the increasing energy consumption per capita in Malaysia, it is argued that the construction of Bakun's dam which involves a complete and irreversible destruction of 69,640 ha of old forest ecosystem remains a difficult and uncertain endeavour. It is further argued that apart from mega-dam technology, there are also other means to orchestrate a sustainable energy system in Malaysia. These include the implementation of demand and supply initiatives, such as the deployment of energy saving technology or influencing behavioral change towards a sustainable energy consumption pattern

  17. Determinants of Malaysian and Singaporean Economics Undergraduates' Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Da Wan; Roland K. Cheo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of economics undergraduates' academic performance in the top national universities of Singapore and Malaysia: the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the University of Malaya (UM). Using three basic components of economics as the dependent variable, i.e. basic microeconomics, basic macroeconomics and statistics/econometrics, it was found that students' pre-university grade is the most important determinant in undergraduates' performance. However, un...

  18. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  19. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  20. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... be expressed as a function of two parameters representing the energy performance and two parameters representing the geometry of the window. The two energy performance parameters are the net energy gain per area of the glazing unit and the sum of the heat losses through the frame and the assembly per length...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters...

  1. Storing energy for cooling demand management in tropical climates: A techno-economic comparison between different energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Sze, Jia Yin; Balamurugan, Nagarajan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of energy storage in cooling applications. Cold energy storage technologies addressed are: Li-Ion batteries (Li-Ion EES), sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES); phase change material (PCM TES), compressed air energy storage (CAES) and liquid air energy storage (LAES). Batteries and CAES are electrical storage systems which run the cooling systems; SHTES and PCM TES are thermal storage systems which directly store cold energy; LAES is assessed as a hybrid storage system which provides both electricity (for cooling) and cold energy. A hybrid quantitative-qualitative comparison is presented. Quantitative comparison was investigated for different sizes of daily cooling energy demand and three different tariff scenarios. A techno-economic analysis was performed to show the suitability of the different storage systems at different scales. Three parameters were used (Pay-back period, Savings-per-energy-unit and levelized-cost-of-energy) to analyze and compare the different scenarios. The qualitative analysis was based on five comparison criteria (Complexity, Technology Readiness Level, Sustainability, Flexibility and Safety). Results showed the importance of weighing the pros and cons of each technology to select a suitable cold energy storage system. Techno-economic analysis highlighted the fundamental role of tariff scenario: a greater difference between peak and off-peak electricity tariff leads to a shorter payback period of each technology. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation of energy storage solutions for cooling applications. • Comparison between five energy storage (EES, SHTES, PCM, CAES, LAES) is performed. • Qualitative and quantitative performance parameters were used for the analysis. • LAES/PCM can be valid alternatives to more established technologies EES, SHTES, CAES. • Tariffs, price arbitrage and investment cost play a key role in energy storage spread.

  2. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  3. Tuna cannery energy conservation interventions: Technical/economic feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. (Calabria Univ. Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    An energy audit was conducted on a 230,000 can (x 80 g)/day tuna cannery to determine where technically and economically feasible energy savings interventions could be made. The plant is equipped with an oil fired boiler which supplies steam for cooking and sterilization purposes. In the energy/cost analysis, it was found that the most significant and cost effective energy savings could be obtained by the substitution of the four sterilization chambers with three sets of twin sterilization/heat exchange chambers.

  4. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.

  5. Economic chances and problems of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in an evolutionary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohn, B.

    1992-01-01

    To organize and ensure energy supply is of pivotal importance for social development. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issue of nuclear energy within the stress field of society, technology, energy and evolution. Nuclear energy use is studied with regard to its evolutionary fit, on the basis of an integrating analysis overriding economic considerations. So the criterion of customary economics is expanded by the evaluation criterion of evolutionary principles. After considering the theoretical structure of environment and resource economy and its limits, the evolutionary background of energy and energy use is examined. Evolution strategies are outlined to show how structures and orders are formed in the course of evolution and how energy resources are exploited. In view of the global ecological crisis, solution strategies require a solid concept of an evolutionary fitting energy system the requirement profile of which can be obtained, by means of fitting criteria, from a synthesis of economic theory and the outlined evolution strategies. In order to sound the evolutionary fit of nuclear energy use on the basis of the theoretical foundations of economics and evolution and of the fitting criteria obtained from their synthesis, the status of the problem and its multifacetted interconnections are structured. Critical analysis of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is performed by means of a systematics which is to ensure that the mental order gradually approaches the evaluation of the evolutionary fit of nuclear power. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Lund, Henrik; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2011-01-01

    that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy......Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100% renewable energy...... system by the year 2050 are presented for a complete energy system including transport. Two short-term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The energy systems are analysed and designed with hour-by-hour energy system analyses. The analyses reveal...

  7. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, T.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  8. Economics of the energy economy; Oekonomie der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrichs, Birgit

    2008-11-15

    The series designed by the Federal Association of Energy and Water Economy (BDEW) presents the topic energy by means of an interdisciplinary way in seven magazines. Each magazine is dedicated to important sub-topics. The series does not only address teachers of subjects in the field of natural sciences like physics, biology and chemistry but also teachers of the subjects social studies, geography, work studies and technology of the forms 5 - 10. The present seventh magazine of the study sequence is dedicated to the subject economics of the energy economy. The following aspects are described: the history of energy supply by pipelines, from a monopoly to competition, the electric power and gas market and its mechanism, basic elements of the energy policy, the role of the energy economy in the overall economy as well as perspectives of the world energy supply. (orig./RHN)

  9. Economic analysis of flat plate collectors of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsabuncuoglu, I.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although solar energy potential in Turkey is far more than its total annual energy consumption, because of technical, economic and efficiency problems it cannot be harnessed to its fullest extent. Solar energy collecting systems have an initial cost two to five times higher than alternatives using electricity, LPG, fuel or other solid energy sources. However, their annual repair and maintenance costs are much lower than alternatives due to high energy prices. Solar systems with inflated annual costs have a minimum present value of US$867.19. Solar energy systems can be recommended for the countries that want a dependable and environmentally sound energy source. However, investment in R and D activities is necessary to reduce total cost of the system through improved efficiency and better production technology. (author)

  10. The economic and financial performance of Bahrain's Fisheries Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulqader, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work is based on an extensive socio-economic survey conducted at all Bahrain landing sites in the period July-November, 2002. Based on boat size and the type of fishing gear used, eight fisheries sectors were determined, these included small boats using wire traps, shrimp trawls, gillnets, hooks and lines and barrier traps. It also included large boats using wire traps, shrimp trawls and gillnets. The economic and financial performances of these sectors were evaluated. The ratio of net catch flow to total earnings was used to measure the economic performance, while the return over investment was used to measure the financial performance. Higher economic returns (except for gillnet and shrimp trawl fisheries) were found in the case of small boats where smaller investments are found. This indicated that an over-fishing condition exists in Bahrain's fisheries, which is clearly found in the case of the shrimp trawl fishery. (author)

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth in China: A reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha Yalta, A.; Cakar, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    In conventional causality testing based on asymptotic distribution theory, there is a high risk of wrongly rejecting the true null of no causality especially when the sample size is as small as typically seen in the literature. In this study, we offer a formal diagnosis of the existing contradictory results on the causal relationship between energy consumption and real GDP. We also employ a time series oriented advanced data generation process to perform simulation based inference for the People's Republic of China. Our study covers the 1971–2007 period and considers five different aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption measures as well as three different lag orders in both a bivariate as well as a multivariate frameworks. Our maximum entropy bootstrap based analysis, which avoids pretest biases and is also robust to Type I errors, supports the neutrality hypothesis in 53 out of the total of 60 model estimations. The strong results show that coarse aggregate data has a limited potential to observe the complex causal linkages between energy consumption and economic growth. Future policy oriented research on this nexus requires more focused analyses based on sectoral and provincial data. - Highlights: ► Some of the contradictory findings on the energy–growth nexus are due to asymptotic testing under small samples. ► The bootstrap method can provide huge improvements upon the approximations of asymptotic theory. ► 53 out of a total of 60 models that we consider consistently support the neutrality hypothesis for China. ► Future policy oriented research on this nexus should aim toward detailed analyses using sectoral and provincial data.

  12. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  13. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO_2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-01

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO_2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO_2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO_2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990–2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO_2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO_2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO_2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic

  14. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  15. Economic viability of wind and solar energy for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkari, Z.F.

    1994-01-01

    Non conventional energy sources have begun to move from fringes of technological possibility towards commercial viability. Out of the four sources, i e. solar, wind, biogas and minimicro hydel the first two viz. wind and solar energy are of relevance for industries in western region of India. This has to be seen in the context of developments in technology and hence economics both worldwide and in India. (author)

  16. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondja Wandji, Yris D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the nature of the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Cameroon through a three-step approach: (i) Study the stationarity of the chronic, (ii) test of causality between variables and (iii) estimate the appropriate model. The study concludes in a non-stationarity of the series. Using the data in first difference, the Granger causality test yields a strong evidence for unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. Cointegration tests also show that these two series are co-integrated and the Error Correction Model (ECM) reveals that every percentage increase in Oil products consumption increases economic growth by around 1.1%. This result confirms the intuition that an economic policy aimed at improving energy supply will necessarily have a positive impact on economic growth. On the other side, a lack of energy is a major bottleneck for further economic development in Cameroon. - Highlights: • The series of GDP, ELECTRICITY, OIL and BIOFUELS are integrated of order 1. • The Granger causality test yields a unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. • No causal link between GDP and ELECTRICITY, and no more between GDP and BIOFUELS. • Cointegration tests also show that only OIL and GDP are co-integrated. • Every percentage increase in OIL increases GDP by around 1.1%

  17. How to estimate realistic energy savings in Energy Performance Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Altmann, Nagmeh; Berecová, Monika

    Given the fact that most MS use fixed or other kinds of default values as boundary condition input for energy performance calculations, it is not surprising that the calculated energy performance differs from the measured energy consumption. As a consequence, the calculated energy savings due...... stationary calculation tools using monthly average values. The optimum solution for energy performance certificates and calculating realistic energy savings is to have two calculations. One calculation, using default values to calculate the label itself, and one with actual input parameters for calculating...... energy performance before and after implementing energy saving measures. Actual values though, may be difficult to identify, so there is a need to make adaptations to reality easy. Even if actual values are available, there are still issues that cause calculated energy savings to differ from the obtained...

  18. The economic power of energy and the need to integrate it with energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Weiser, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Drastic oil price changes, the associated economic perturbations, the coupling of energy conversion to entropy production in the form of emissions, and the problems of climate change call for a reappraisal of energy in economic theory. We review econometric growth analyses that do not weigh the production factors capital, labor, and energy by their cost shares. Their reproduction of economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of 20th century is good. According to these analyses, energy's output elasticity, which measures its economic power, is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor's output elasticity and cost share the opposite is true. This is consistent with profit and welfare optimization, if hitherto ignored technological constraints are taken into account. Computing the motion of the German industrial sector in its cost mountain, employing empirical data on factor quantities and prices, supports these results. The pivotal role of energy in economic growth provides leverage to energy policies that care about social well being and climate stability. - Highlights: • The article indicates the importance of thermodynamics for economics. • Due to technological constraints output elasticities deviate from factor cost shares. • We point out energy policy implications from the high output elasticities of energy.

  19. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  20. Nuclear energy and economic competitiveness in several normative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2009-01-01

    The serious challenge imposed by the necessity of reducing the gases emission of greenhouse effect in the electric generation sector, it has renovated the interest in the new plants construction of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, since the use of the nuclear energy began to descend ago more of 25 years, it is has speculated continually about the possible nuclear rebirth. Are such predictions based in solid basis or are mere groundless prognostics? The objective of the present document is to analyze the economic aspects of the nuclear energy, to identify the key factors that they allow to determine its competitiveness and to sound the possible markets for the new plants of nuclear energy. To achieve this, it is divided in the following sections: Revision of the current state of the nuclear energy, including the location, the type and capacity of the plants; Identification of the variables that determine the economic situation of the nuclear energy; Revision of the recent predictions and of the economic aspects of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant of Finland; A revision by market of the possible future of the new nuclear facilities in the coming decade. (Author)

  1. Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

  2. Economic implications of fusion-fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Schulte, S.C.

    1979-04-01

    The principal conclusions that can be made based on the estimated costs reported in this paper are twofold. First, hybrid reactors operating symbiotically with conventional fission reactors are a potentially attractive supply alternative. Estimated hybrid energy system costs are slightly greater than estimated costs of the most attractive alternatives. However, given the technological, economic, and institutional uncertainties associated with future energy supply, differences of such magnitude are of little significance. Second, to be economically viable, hybrid reactors must be both fuel producers and electricity producers. A data point representing each hybrid reactor driver-blanket concept is plotted as a function of net electrical production efficiency and annual fuel production. The plots illustrate that the most economically viable reactor concepts are those that produce both fuel and electricity

  3. Economic competitiveness of seawater desalinated by nuclear and fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2001-01-01

    The levelized discounted production water cost method and the new desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP1.1) were used to compare the economics of desalination using nuclear or fossil energy. The results indicate that nuclear desalination is more economic than fossil desalination with reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and multi-stage flash (MSF). The desalination water cost varies depending on the desalination technology and the water plant size from 0.52-1.98 USD·m -3 with the lowest water price by RO and the highest by MSF. The sensitivity factors for the economic competitiveness increases in order of the discounted rate, desalination plant scale, fossil fuel price, specific power plant investment, seawater temperature and total dissolve solid (TDS). The highest water cost is about 22.6% more than the base case

  4. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  5. Day-ahead economic optimisation of energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Groot, de R.J.W.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the day-ahead economic optimisation of energy storage systems within the setting of electricity spot markets. The case study is about a lithium-ion battery system integrated in a low voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic generation in the

  6. Energy and Economic Losses Due to Constant Power Outages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the economic implication of electricity self-generation in Nigeria. In this regard, energy and exergetic utilization efficiencies of 19 representative generators and gas turbines from Afam power station were assessed based on real data obtained through survey of companies, oral interview, individuals and ...

  7. The rhetoric of calculations. Economical arguments for development of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Joeran

    2004-01-01

    The thesis discusses the theoretical economics and social factors for development of new energy technologies and has chapter on: New energy technologies in an economical and political change, technology development from innovation economy to economical sociology, opinion formation in the energy sector, establishing energy economical discussion, economy as pidgin, financial factors, forming social education and market power versus language strife

  8. Economic growth, regional disparities and energy demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Yu; Shi, Xunpeng; Zhang, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Using the panel data of 27 provinces between 1978 and 2008, we employed a instrumental regression technique to examine the relationship between economic growth, energy demand/production and the related policies in China. The empirical results show that forming a cross-province integrated energy market will in general reduce the response of equilibrium user costs of energy products to their local demand and production, through cross-regional energy transfer (including both energy trade and cross-regional reallocation). In particular, reducing transportation costs and improving marketization level are identified as two important policy instruments to enhance the role of energy market integration. The findings support the argument for a more competitive cross-province energy transfer policies and calls for more developed energy connectivity and associate institutional arrangements within China. These policy implications may also be extended to the East Asia Summit region where energy market integration is being actively promoted. - Highlights: • Development driving energy demand has different impacts on energy prices than others. • EMI will reduce the response of equilibrium energy prices to local demand and production. • Reducing transportation costs and improving marketization level enhance the role of EMI. • More market competition and better physical and institutional connectivity are better. • Policy implications to China may be extended to the East Asia Summit region

  9. Influences of economic development in the Brazilian energy efficiency projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main goal to present some of the issues regarding the effects of the Brazilian economy in the effectiveness of national energy efficiency projects in order to provide some guidelines for optimizing the energy saving actions. The replacement of traditional electric motors with high efficiency motors has been considered, or that brings innovation and increases the need to search for new technologies for Brazilian industries. We must consider whether this new paradigm requires a strong federal government's investment in Brazil in order to allow the implementation of energy efficiency programs, mainly in small and medium industries. This document is divided into three main parts. The first part deals with some aspects of the economic crisis. The second presents the most important data of the National Electricity Conservation (PROCEL and Energy Efficiency Program of the ANEEL (National Electric Energy Agency. The third shows data on Small and Medium Industries and how their energy efficiency programs were affected.

  10. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  11. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. City and Energy Infrastructures between Economic Processes and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage. 

  13. A reconsideration of effect of energy scarcity on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the U.S. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing measures of scarcity (unit costs and relative energy price), changes in the trend in resource scarcity for NG, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became a significantly scarcer resource during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for NG and crude oil but not for bituminous and anthracite coals. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. NG, bituminous and anthracite coals, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s, i.e. the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for NG and crude oil demonstrate similar patterns. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing resource scarcity trends, an objective effort is made to identify a long run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the U.S. over the period 1889-1992. (author)

  14. Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreement Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    FEMP developed the Energy Savings Performance Contracting Energy Sales Agreement (ESPC ESA) Toolkit to provide federal agency contracting officers and other acquisition team members with information that will facilitate the timely execution of ESPC ESA projects.

  15. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  16. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  17. Economic analysis of the energy national strategy 2012-2026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.

    2012-10-01

    The energy national strategy contemplates the execution of the climatic change law, which establishes that at 2024 the 35% of the electric generation should be given by means of the clean sources use (non originators of greenhouse gases). In the energy national strategy 2012-2026 three possible scenarios to execute this goal are proposed, in two of them is considered the participation of the nuclear energy, the economic implications of these three scenarios are analyzed in this study as well as the reduction in emissions that would derive of their implementation. (Author)

  18. Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

    2000-10-01

    The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

  19. Developing an Energy Performance Modeling Startup Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the NAHB Research Center began assessing the needs and motivations of residential remodelers regarding energy performance remodeling. This report outlines: the current remodeling industry and the role of energy efficiency; gaps and barriers to adding energy efficiency into remodeling; and support needs of professional remodelers to increase sales and projects involving improving home energy efficiency.

  20. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco de; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  1. U. S. Energy and Economic Growth, 1975--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, E. L.; Cooper, C. L.; Edmonds, F. C.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reister, D. B.; Weinberg, A. M.; Whittle, C. E.; Zelby, L. W.

    1976-09-01

    This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based.

  2. Alternative energy supply strategies for Pakistan and their economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, A.I.; Khan, A.M.; Khan, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan is beset with serious energy supply difficulties arising from a fast growing demand for commercial energy, a poor energy resource base and the high cost of imported energy. The commercial energy requirements are expected to rise from 22.4 million tonnes of coal equivalent (tce) in 1980 to 80 million tce by the year 2000 and to about 200 million tce by 2020, while the country's proven fossil-fuel reserves are only 440 million tce and cannot cope with the demand for long. Pakistan is already dependent on imported energy for 90% of its oil requirements or 30% of the total commercial energy, and is spending 5.5% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on energy imports. The paper analyses the economic implications of a few alternative energy supply strategies. These strategies correspond to two different rates of petroleum exploration and development activity, a high and a low average size of new petroleum finds, and the large-scale use of nuclear power starting in 1990 or after the year 2000. It is found that in the most favourable case (high level of petroleum drilling activity with a high success rate and nuclear power use starting in 1990) Pakistan would be able to achieve self-sufficiency in oil by 2010 and in the total energy supply shortly after 2020. The energy sector's investment requirement will, however, increase gradually from 3% of GDP now to almost 6% of GDP by 2020. (author)

  3. The causality between energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, Guelistan; Erdal, Hilmi; Esenguen, Kemal

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies the causality test to examine the causal relationship between primary energy consumption (EC) and real Gross National Product (GNP) for Turkey during 1970-2006. We employ unit root tests, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and the Philips-Perron (PP), Johansen cointegration test, and Pair-wise Granger causality test to examine relation between EC and GNP. Our empirical results indicate that the two series are found to be non-stationary. However, first differences of these series lead to stationarity. Further, the results indicate that EC and GNP are cointegrated and there is bidirectional causality running from EC to GNP and vice versa. This means that an increase in EC directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further EC. This bidirectional causality relationship between EC and GNP determined for Turkey at 1970-2006 period is in accordance with the ones in literature reported for similar countries. Consequently, we conclude that energy is a limiting factor to economic growth in Turkey and, hence, shocks to energy supply will have a negative impact on economic growth

  4. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility

  5. Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

  6. Environmental and economical aspects of selected energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    An analysis of environmental and economical aspects of selected renewable energy systems is presented. The aim was to provide a basis for estimating the competitive status in each case, to review the consequences of technological development, to identify attractive markets and to evaluate the effects of various economic conditions. Calculation methods are described and individual solar heating systems are compared to oil-fired boilers, boilers fired with solid fuels are compared to oil-fired boilers and straw-fired cogeneration plants are compared with coal, fuel-oil and straw-fired district heating plants. Results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  7. Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Freedom and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Bello Ajide

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The controversies that trailed whether direct impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI on growth are conditional on a certain intermediating links or not, has made an inquiry into the likely mediating links in the FDI growth space a recurring subject of discourse.While the importance of institution has prominently featured as playing a vital role on the one hand, economic freedom (a key institutional component has consistently been elected, as a good candidate surrogate on the other hand. It is against this backdrop this study examines the effect of FDI inflow on economic performance in the SSA region giving prominence to economic freedom. The results support the view that economic freedom is germane in influencing the economic-wide performance in the region but have insignificant effects on the different sector performances. It is recommended that economic freedom be given priority in the region and FDI should be attracted to other sectors other than the primary sector, as it is the case.

  8. Energy consumption and energy R and D in OECD: Perspectives from oil prices and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Wong, Siang; Chia, Wai-Mun; Chang, Youngho

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the short-run and long-run elasticities of various types of energy consumption and energy R and D to changes in oil prices and income of the 20 OECD countries over the period of 1980–2010 using the Nerlove partial adjustment model (NPAM). We find negative income elasticity for coal consumption but positive income elasticity for oil and gas consumption suggesting the importance of economic growth in encouraging the usage of cleaner energy from coal to oil and gas. By introducing time dummies into the regressions, we show that climatic mitigation policies are able to promote the usage of cleaner energies. Through the dynamic linkages between energy consumption and energy R and D, we find that fossil fuel consumption promotes fossil fuel R and D and fossil fuel R and D in turn drives its own consumption. Renewable energy R and D which is more responsive to economic growth reduces fossil fuel consumption and hence fossil fuel R and D. - Highlights: • Economic growth encourages the use of cleaner forms of energy. • Economic growth promotes renewable energy R and D. • Subsidies for renewable energy R and D promote renewable energy consumption. • Fossil fuel R and D promotes fossil fuel consumption in countries with oil reserves. • Oil consumption reduces significantly with higher oil prices

  9. Role of the breeder in long-term energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    Private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long-run time horizon were studied using the ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic- and energy-sector interactions. The impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide that enters the atmosphere is considered. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO 2 and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the study showed that breeder technology provides a much-larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO 2 without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths

  10. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  11. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  12. The economic and energy-economic development of Armenia - new strategies in matters of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitechian, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    For geopolitical, economic, technical and structural reasons, Armenia's power generating capacity, which formerly was 3500 megawatts, is now, at the beginning of the nineties, a mere 650 megawatts. Consequently, the Armenian government in 1993 decided to rebuild unit 2 of the Mesamor nuclear power station in order for it to become operational in 1995. Armenia is a member of the IAEO and WANO. (DG) [de

  13. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, Ellene; Kagochi, John; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2010-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  14. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Ellene [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 210 Campbell, Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kagochi, John [School of Business Administration, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007, N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, 77901 (United States); Jolly, Curtis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 212 Comer, Hall Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  15. Energies and raw materials, economic energy situation april 1998; Energies et matieres premieres, conjoncture energetique avril 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Here is the economic energy situation in France in April 1998. The energy consumption, the evolution of the different energy sources are given. The energy invoice is decreasing with the fall of petroleum price. The imports and energy demand are studied. Energy data are given in tables, comparison between the months of January in the three years 1996, 1997,1998 for consumption, invoices, prices are reported in curves. (N.C.)

  16. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  18. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  19. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi-Chung; McCarl, Bruce; Chang, Ching-Cheng; Tso, Chunto

    2011-01-01

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: → This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. → Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. → The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. → Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  20. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  1. Energy use for economic growth: A trivariate analysis from Tunisian agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebri, Maamar; Abid, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Following the importance of energy in the agrarian economies, the investigation of the causal relationship between energy consumption in agriculture sector and economic growth has a fundamental role in implementing suitable policies. This paper examines the causal relationship between energy consumption and agricultural value added, controlling for trade openness, in Tunisia from 1980 to 2007. The relationship is investigated at aggregated as well as disaggregated components of energy consumption, including oil and electricity. Using Granger's technique, it is shown that various results are obtained regarding the direction of causality between competing variables. Nevertheless, the most common finding suggest that trade openness and both aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption Granger causes agricultural value added. Therefore, the energy-led growth and trade-led growth hypotheses are supported in the Tunisian agriculture sector. An important policy implication resulting from this study is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to agriculture value added and, therefore, shocks to energy supply would have a negative impact onto agriculture performance. Furthermore, trade liberalization seems to be a stimulus factor to the Tunisian agriculture development. - Highlights: ► We study the energy consumption-economic growth nexus of Tunisian agriculture sector. ► We use Johansen's cointegration approach and Granger causality. ► Energy consumption can be considered as limiting factor to agricultural performance. ► Electrical energy will represent an important input to agricultural production growth.

  2. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed. (paper)

  3. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed.

  4. A technical and economic analysis of one potential pathway to a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    requirements, 5) adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6) producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7) using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results...

  5. GDP Structure and Economic Performance in Sub-Saharan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Smutka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa belongs to important regions of the world economy with specific problems distinguishing this part of the world from other regions. The region is suffering because of limited economy structure and high level of poverty. Low economic performance ranks most of African countries among the worldwide poorest ones (both from the point of view of total economy performance and also individuals living standards; the development is hindered by political instability and also by other accompanied problems as high level of corruption, deficit of democracy, low level of education, limited investments, criminality, local conflicts, civil wars etc. On the other hand, African natural, economy and social resources and unexploited opportunities in many areas offer a potential for a considerable economic development. Understanding the current economic position of African states thus may reveal causes of problematic development and outline ways to overcome existing shortcomings. The aim of the paper is to analyze main changes in area of GDP structure formation (agricultural, industrial and services sector share in GDP and value performance which have occurred in selected African (Sub-Saharan countries. Changes are analyzed both in relation to the total GDP and GDP per capita. The authors identify main trends of economic development in the Sub-Saharan region and to specify differences among Sub-Saharan countries with the intention to identify particular groups of African countries according to their economic structure and to identify differences in their GDP formation.

  6. Economic structure and performance of forest-based industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Laughlin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the economic structure, conduct, and performance of industries dependent on the nation's forests that are topics of special importance for research. A major challenge to research involving industrial organization of forest-based industries is to link descriptions of structure, conduct, and industrial performance in ways that facilitate public and private policy making. Not to be overlooked is the need to continue efforts to monitor changes in structure and conduct dimensions at the national level and to conduct baseline studies of industry structure-conduct-performance at regional, state, and local levels. Specifically needed is research that will improve understanding of restructuring within the wood-based industry; definitions of the wood-based industry and segments thereof; linkages between structure and regional economic development; timberland as a managerial and economic variable; structural consequences of technological innovations; corporate strategies as related to performance; structural dimensions in an international setting; and structure and performance of nonwood-based forest industries. Economics research focused in such directions will go far toward improving the manner in which the nation's many forest industries organize and conduct their activities

  7. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    Apart from the enigmatic FSU, there is little prospect of long term growth for non-OPEC oil supply and a strong likelihood that over the next few years the trend will flatten and then decline irrevocably. Decline will come faster if the spectacular discoveries in the deep water offshore plays of the southern Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico attract sufficient investment to match the loss of production in the North Sea. Deep water oil supply might be expected to reach a peak of as much as 6-7 million barrels a day by the time the North Sea has lost more than half its current output in the period beyond 2010. But economics play as strong a role as geology in real world oil business. Current indicators suggest that the prolific deep water wells are delivering less oil than expected and for a shorter period. That means less revenue. This paper outlines the disappointing performance of recent offshore fields, in both deep water and conventional water depths, and suggests consequences for global supply in the next decade. The 30 year success story of non-OPEC oil supply stems directly from the oil price revolution of the 1970s, without which the North Sea and most other offshore oil plays would not have been economic. The non-OPEC oil boom was also necessary because access to the cheap oil of the Persian Gulf and a few other plays were simply not available to the international private sector oil industry, as they had been before. That era is now over. It is ending not because oil is too cheap, but because there are powerful reasons for change. Firstly there is not enough oil left to make a difference beyond the next few years. Secondly, the economics of deep water and other offshore oil may not be attractive enough. Thirdly the doors to the Middle East are now being opened again to companies that can write those assets on their balance sheets and generate profits, allowing better return on investment and their higher share prices. There is no more compelling reason for a

  8. Economic analysis of potential uses of geothermal energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.

    1978-02-01

    The economic feasibility and water quality considerations of the cultural practice of soil warming was evaluated using existing technical, agronomic, and economic data. It was hypothesized that it is technically and economically feasible to use geothermal energy in the cultural practice of soil warming for specific crops. The analysis attempted to reject the hypothesis. Since the hypothesis could not be rejected, the results are presented as a profit equation suitable for inclusion in the GEOCOST computer program. This determination of economic feasibility utilized heterogeneous crop yield data by comparing the elasticity of response with a normalized product-factor price ratio. Soil warming was determined to be feasible when the elasticity of production was equal to or greater than the normalized product-factor price ratio. A farm enterprise was determined profitable if net returns were positive. An empirical model in which the energy dissipation rate is a function of the difference between heat source temperature and mean monthly air temperature was transformed to utilize data describing the total heat applied during the growing season. Heat input was then measured as the total number of calories per square centimeter applied during the growing season.

  9. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  10. Economic Efficiency and Investment Implementation in Energy Saving Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Investment in building thermoinsulation is a subject to appraisal for efficiency from the position of discounted cash flows taken specifically by energy saving. The appraisal of investment as optimal is attended by achieving the shortest term for investment implementation, the lowest investment outlays, the maximum total net value of energy savings, the shortest investment payback period. The complex application of the dynamic methods for appraising economic efficiency of an investment – net present value, internal rate of return, profitability index and discounted payback period, involves drawing of particular values which comparison definitely will show if this kind of investment is practically “attractive”. However, the question for significance weight of each of these indicators above in decision making for implementation a particular real investment still remains unsolved. This requires working out a system of criteria, priorities that can determine which of the indicators for economic efficiency of specific investment project will have the highest significance.

  11. An object-oriented approach to energy-economic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.A.; Fox, J.A.; Sands, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the experiences in creating an object-oriented economic model of the U.S. energy and agriculture markets. After a discussion of some central concepts, they provide an overview of the model, focusing on the methodology of designing an object-oriented class hierarchy specification based on standard microeconomic production functions. The evolution of the model from the class definition stage to programming it in C++, a standard object-oriented programming language, will be detailed. The authors then discuss the main differences between writing the object-oriented program versus a procedure-oriented program of the same model. Finally, they conclude with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the object-oriented approach based on the experience in building energy-economic models with procedure-oriented approaches and languages.

  12. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  13. Essays on the economics of decarbonization and renewable energy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima Claudia

    2014-06-05

    The thesis consists of five essays investigating various aspects associated with the decarbonization of Europe's power sector and the politically incentivized expansion of renewable energy generation. The first essay analyzes the economic implications of alternative decarbonization pathways and policy instruments for Europe's power sector up to 2050 and illustrates the importance of ensuring competition between all low-carbon technologies in order to limit the costs of decarbonization. The second essay analyzes the economic inefficiency associated with the concept of grid parity for the case of photovoltaic (PV). In order to both enhance overall welfare and avoid redistributional effects, the indirect financial incentive for in-house PV electricity consumption should be abolished. The third essay discusses the system price effect of wind and solar power generation and illustrates that the decrease in the marginal value of wind and solar power (as a consequence of increased penetration) is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany. The fourth essay adds to the ongoing debate surrounding the cost-efficient achievement of politically implemented renewable energy targets. Renewable energy support schemes that fail to incentivize investors to account for differences in the marginal value of wind and solar power generation are associated with excess costs as they prevent the equalization of net marginal costs across technologies and regions. The fifth essay analyzes the economic value of storage as a function of the overall generation mix and illustrates the economic inefficiency arising from feed-in tariff systems for the special case of thermal energy storage units in concentrating solar power plants.

  14. Economic Model Predictive Control for Large-Scale and Distributed Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura

    Sources (RESs) in the smart grids is increasing. These energy sources bring uncertainty to the production due to their fluctuations. Hence,smart grids need suitable control systems that are able to continuously balance power production and consumption.  We apply the Economic Model Predictive Control (EMPC......) strategy to optimise the economic performances of the energy systems and to balance the power production and consumption. In the case of large-scale energy systems, the electrical grid connects a high number of power units. Because of this, the related control problem involves a high number of variables......In this thesis, we consider control strategies for large and distributed energy systems that are important for the implementation of smart grid technologies.  An electrical grid has to ensure reliability and avoid long-term interruptions in the power supply. Moreover, the share of Renewable Energy...

  15. Renewable energy-based electricity for rural social and economic development in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.

  16. Energy and economic development in isolated regions: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Maldonado, P.

    1992-01-01

    High production costs and inadequate supply of electricity are severe handicaps to economic development in remote areas. Costs are increased further by the low level and high variability of electric loads. In order to face these problems a simultaneous development of wind diesel energy resources and productive projects with demand management is proposed. This paper illustrates such a case in Southern Chile where present electricity costs are reduced as consumption is increased from 85 to 468 KWh/person/year. A new refrigeration plant increases the storage capacity for the small fishing activity and effectively uses the output of wind energy generators. (author)

  17. Economic aspects of energy saving in greenhouses: physical considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Danloy, L; Gay, J B; Mercier, J A; Reist, A

    1989-01-01

    An important result of experiments carried out over the past six years in a trial greenhouse at CERN (The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland) was the development of a simple and precise method for calculating the energy requirements of a glasshouse; this is valid for any type of greenhouse and climate. An economic study is made using the above method for evaluating the financial effectiveness of various energy-saving methods: double glazing of the side walls, low emissivity glass 'Hortiplus' roofing, soil level heating and a thermal screen.

  18. Expansionary economic effects of energy conversion under stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, energy conversion such as nuclear power phaseout and deployment of renewable energy or survival of nuclear power had been actively argued pro and con. Both sides admitted extra costs were needed but their economic effects would be contrary dependent on business state. Under better economy, extra costs would be actual burden of total economy. Under stagnation as was long in Japan at present, extra costs brought about expansion of employment and economy with simulated consumption increase. Industry conversion would occur such industry intensively using power would depreciate and energy conserved industry would grow. Difference of power use intensity between industries made difficult in energy conversion because present Japanese industry constitution was mostly formed based on cheap power cost for industry use. Even taking account of international competition, the same would be true by adjusting finance balance sheet and currency exchange rate. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Economics of the Nuclear Energy Considered CO2 Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Yong Min

    2011-01-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has greatly increased along with its rapid economic growth and industrialization since the 1970s. Total energy consumption increased at an average annual growth rate. Due to the lack of domestic energy resources, however, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased. Also Climate change, resulting from increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), is considered one of the biggest environmental dangers facing the world today. The objective and approach of this study are to compare the different types of scenarios in terms of the power plant type and CO 2 emission from each power plant. We estimated cost of electricity generation using fuel cost, O and M cost(Operation and Maintenance Cost) and CO 2 emission

  20. Direct regional energy/economic modeling (DREEM) design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P.D.; Pleatsikas, C.J.

    1979-10-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the use of regional and multiregional economic models for estimating the indirect and induced impacts of Federally-mandated energy policies. It includes an examination of alternative types of energy policies that can impact regional economies and the available analytical frameworks for measuring the magnitudes and spatial extents of these impacts. One such analytical system, the National Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES), currently operational in the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), is chosen for more detailed investigation. The report summarizes the models capabilities for addressing various energy policy issues and then demonstrates the applicability of the model in specified contexts by developing appropriate input data for three scenarios. These scenarios concern the multi-state impacts of alternative coal-mining-development decisions, multi-regional impacts of macroeconomic change, and the comprehensive effects of an alternative national energy supply trajectory. On the basis of this experience, the capabilities of NRIES for analyzing energy-policy issues are summarized in a concluding chapter.

  1. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  2. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  3. Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, Shannon L.; DeVuyst, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ► Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ► Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ► Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ► Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ► Additional research is needed to create a more precise policy solution.

  4. Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Barnes, Justin R.; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States (US) and Brazil have been the two leading producers of fuel ethanol since the 1970s. National policies have supported the production and use of ethanol from corn and sugarcane. US support in particular has included exemption from federal gasoline excise taxes, whole or partial exemption from road use (sales) taxes in nine states, a federal production tax credit, and a federal blender's credit. In the last decade the subsidization of grain-based ethanol has been increasingly criticized as economically inefficient and of questionable social benefit. In addition, much greater production of ethanol from corn may conflict with food production needs. A promising development is the acceleration of the technical readiness of cellulosic alcohol fuels, which can be produced from the woody parts of trees and plants, perennial grasses, or residues. This technology is now being commercialized and has greater long-term potential than grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is projected to be much more cost-effective, environmentally beneficial, and have a greater energy output to input ratio than grain ethanol. The technology is being developed in North America, Brazil, Japan and Europe. In this paper, we will review the historical evolution of US federal and state energy policy support for and the currently attractive economics of the production and use of ethanol from biomass. The various energy and economic policies will be reviewed and assessed for their potential effects on cellulosic ethanol development relative to gasoline in the US. (author)

  5. Energy consumption and economic development after the energy price increases of 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The interdependence between energy consumption and economic development are highlighted in this research, which focuses on energy price rises between 1973 and 1989. Three groups of countries are identified, developing and developed market economies and centrally planned economies. Two areas of interdependence are examined, firstly the dynamic relationship between primary energy consumption growth and real economic growth and secondly the static relationship between primary energy consumption and national income. In the period under review, developing market economies reacted most strongly to higher energy prices, with lower energy consumption while maintaining real growth in the Gross Domestic Product. However developing countries and centrally planned economies increased their energy consumption per unit of national income although the rate of increase slowed after 1975. (UK)

  6. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  8. Economic reform, energy, and development: the case of Mexican manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Francisco; Gallagher, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Given increasing concern over global climate change and national security there is a burgeoning interest in examining the relationship between economic growth and energy use in developed and developing countries. More specifically, decoupling energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) has fast come to be seen as in the interests of national economies and the world as a whole. Recent attention has been paid to the dramatic decreases in the energy intensity of the Chinese economy, which fell by 55% between 1975 and 1995. Do other developing economies follow similar trajectories? This paper examines the energy intensity of the Mexican economy for the period 1988-1998. Although the long-term trend in Mexican energy intensity is rising, the energy intensity of the Mexican economy began to decline in 1988. This paper explores the factors that have contributed to this reduction. Diminishing Mexican energy use per unit of GDP has been driven by significant decreases in industrial energy intensity. We show that these changes have resulted from changes in the composition of Mexican industrial structure, and technological change

  9. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  10. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) in concrete tanks was investigated. Four outdoor concrete tanks measuring 2.5 x 2 m was used for the study for 24 weeks culture period. The culture systems included the use of algae only at the stocking rates of 4 ...

  11. Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance and economic effects of replacing soybean meal with palm kernel cake (PKC) in broiler diet was investigated in other to determine the optimal level of inclusion for maximum production in broilers. A total of 120 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups of 30 birds each.

  12. Theory and Application of an Economic Performance Measure of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Niu (Cuizhen); X. Guo (Xu); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHomm and Pigorsch (2012a) use the Aumann and Serrano index to develop a new economic performance measure (EPM), which is well known to have advantages over other measures. In this paper, we extend the theory by constructing a one-sample confidence interval of EPM, and construct

  13. Performance, Carcass Evaluation And Economics Of Production Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-weeks feeding trial involving 162,8-week old goldline cockerel birds was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and economics of production of cockerels fed whole cassava plant meal (WCPM). Diet 1 was maize based and served as the control, diet 2 ...

  14. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  15. INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MODELING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldeanu Dana Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the most important financial and economic indicators at the level of some organizations from the same sector of activity, the selection of performance ratios and generating a particular analysis model help companies to move from the desire

  16. Process of technical performance: essential features and their economic view

    OpenAIRE

    Zhylinska, O.

    2010-01-01

    Essential features of technical performance have been defined in the context of similarity of its components such as research and development, training of technical/engineering personnel and providing technical services. Also peculiarities of economic view have been examined in terms of information model of managing.

  17. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA PIUS

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus ( ... from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated ... in the reduction of the availability of natural fish food ..... lowest profit, while algae only had the lowest cost and ... Also, maximizing production in terms of.

  18. Productive and Economic Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Different Nutritional Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JMS Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of nutritional plans on the productive and economic performance of Hubbard Flex broiler chickens. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, consisting of five treatments. Treatments consisted of five different nutritional plans: a basal diet containing the nutrient and energy levels recommended by literature and designated reference diet; two diets containing 1.5% and 3% lower levels than the reference diet; and two diets containing 1.5% and 3% higher levels than the reference diet (-3%, -1.5%, reference plan, +1.5% and +3%. Feed intake (FI, body weight (BW, feed conversion rate (FCR, livability (L and productive efficient index (PEI were determined when broilers were 42 days old. Broilers were processed, and carcass and parts (breast fillet, leg, and wings yields were determined. The economic viablility of the nutitional plans was evaluated as a function of feed cost/kg live and carcass weights, economic efficiency index (EEI, and cost index (CI. Feed intake and the feed conversion rate decreased as dietary nutrient and energy levels increased. Feed cost/kg live weight, economic efficiency index, and cost index cost increased as dietary nutrient and energy levels increased. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio, production efficiency index, and breast yield improved with increasing nutritional and energy levels. However, worse economic results were obtained with higher nutritional and energy levels.

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  1. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  2. Energy and economic savings using geothermal heat pumps in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Biagio; Coppola, Gaetano; Raucci, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical study on 20 years Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) operation is achieved. • Increase in ground temperature due to GSHP can occur during 20 years operation. • Economical and GHG savings using GSHP show divergent trends for different climates. - Abstract: A technical and economic feasibility study is performed on residential buildings, heated and cooled by geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) equipped with energy piles. The analysis is carried out for two different climate locations and building energy needs, which have been evaluated following the current European standard ISO 13790. The energy pile system performance coupled with the GHP has been numerically calculated by using the PILESIM2 software over 20 years of operation. The Primary Energy Saving (PES) indices were calculated comparing the actual GHPs systems with traditional cooling and heating systems, together with their sensitivity to thermal and cooling loads for two different climate locations. Also, economic savings and greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction have been calculated resulting from the GHPs use. The results show that in mild climates, where the GHPs are mainly used as HP, the annual average temperature of the ground around the energy piles can increase up to about 10 °C after many years of operation, whereas in cold climates the increase is nearly negligible. Thus, the economical profit of GHPs is more difficult to achieve in mild climates than in cold ones. Conversely, GHG emission reduction is found to be larger in mild climates than in cold ones

  3. Procedure to Measure Indoor Lighting Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Blair, N.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides standard definitions of performance metrics and methods to determine them for the energy performance of building interior lighting systems. It can be used for existing buildings and for proposed buildings. The primary users for whom these documents are intended are building energy analysts and technicians who design, install, and operate data acquisition systems, and who analyze and report building energy performance data. Typical results from the use of this procedure are the monthly and annual energy used for lighting, energy savings from occupancy or daylighting controls, and the percent of the total building energy use that is used by the lighting system. The document is not specifically intended for retrofit applications. However, it does complement Measurement and Verification protocols that do not provide detailed performance metrics or measurement procedures.

  4. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  5. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  6. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  7. Performance Agent Groups in the Promotion of Smart Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krūzmētra Maiga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Any country is interested in economic growth regardless of its development level in any period; yet an increasingly important role in defining growth is played by the term ‘smart growth’. The EU development strategy until 2020 defines smart growth as a strategic objective. Smart growth does not take place automatically. It is affected both by the condition of the economic, social and natural environments and by subjective factors - the competence of performance agents. The present research distinguished three groups of rural space and regional performance agents: national institutions, local governments and communities of residents of the territories examined by the research. The research summarised the opinions of experts (Latvia n=171; Lithuania n=163 from the south-eastern part of Latvia and the north-eastern part of Lithuania with the purpose of assessing the contribution of the performance agent groups to the promotion of smart economic growth. The research aimed to identify the positive indications of the contribution made by each performance agent group as well as the largest problems affecting the promotion of smart economic growth in each country. Despite the fact that the sample groups were not representative (did not reflect the views of the entire population, the obtained survey data and the results of this analysis provided insight into the performance agents’ action ratings from the bottom-up position and allowed comparing the situations in Latvia and Lithuania. The research has become an urgent task in project No. 5.2.3 “Rural and Regional Development Processes and Opportunities in Latvia in the Context of Knowledge Economy” in National Research Programme 5.2. "Economic Transformation, Smart Growth, Governance and Legal Framework for the State and Society for Sustainable Development - a New Approach to the Creation of a Sustainable Learning Community: EKOSOC-LV”.

  8. Business cycle and economic-wide energy intensity: The implications for energy conservation policy in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of voluntary and involuntary energy conservation policies, developing countries in Africa continue to struggle to achieve energy efficiency targets. Consequently, energy intensity levels have risen threatening the security of the energy system. This raises the important question: is there an economic state that induces agents to be energy conscious? In this study, we study the case of Algeria's energy intensity from 1971 to 2010. First, the paper argues that there is a certain economic state that economic agents find investing in energy conservation a viable option. Any state different from that would mean not investing in energy conservation. Second, the paper argues that the economy can do better even with an infinitesimal reduction in fuel subsidy, and that the gains in revenue from the policy can compensate for the negative socio-economic and equity impacts associated with such a policy. Third, the paper argues that, so long as, industrial expansion in the country move parallel with investment in technological innovation, long-term sustainable growth and energy conservation targets are jointly feasible. Fourth, the paper shows that income elasticity evolves with the business cycle, and the absorptive capability of the host country affects how FDI (foreign direct inflows) impact energy intensity. - Highlights: • Low income states inhibit fuel substitution and investment in energy conservation. • Income elasticity evolves as we pass through boom and recessionary periods. • The goals of sustainable growth and energy conservation are not mutually exclusive. • Absorptive capability affects the impact of FDI on energy intensity

  9. Technical-economic analysis of electric energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Florian; Curuia, Marian; Brad, Sebastian; Anghel, Mihai; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations in electric energy consumption and changes that affected last years the electric energy market, as well, entail perturbations in transport and distribution systems due to outrunning of their current physical capacities. Consequently, storing the electric energy in buffer systems appears to be a must owing to its strategic and economical importance. Indeed, it can enhance firmly the capacity of fulfilling the electric energy demands in real time and so, avoiding the blackout events caused by disruptions in power supply . Also, of great importance is the role of energy storing systems as backing ancillaries for promoting variable or uncertain renewable sources (like photovoltaic or wind sources). The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising system of direct storing of electricity by means of magnetic energy deposing in a short-circuited superconducting loop. However difficulties related to the use o superconducting systems and cryogenic temperatures (concerning construction and maintenance) hinder at present the application of SMES systems on a scale larger than some particular applications. Actually, owing to the lack of alternative solutions the rather high costs are accepted in such cases

  10. Techno-economic prospects for CO2 capture from distributed energy systems, , 19(March 2013), 2013, pp. 328-347

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, T.; Ramirez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 emissions from distributed energy systems are expected to become increasingly significant, accounting for about 20% for current global energy-related CO2 emissions in 2030. This article reviews, assesses and compares the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from distributed energy systems

  11. INVESTMENT FUNDS’ PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolzan Carmen Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the performance of investment funds during the period 2006-2010, intending to comprise the portfolio performance’s dynamics before, during and after the present economic and financial crises climax. We categorize investment funds according to their investment strategy and geographical focus and distinguish a number of 11 classes. In order to analyze their returns’ dynamics, we create a fund performance index for each category using principal components method. The instability created in financial system in 2007 had a direct impact on institutional investors’ portfolios regardless of investment strategy, effects that have rapidly propagated on real economy. Analyzing index’s dynamics correlated with economic growth we conclude that financial and economic environment react in the same direction, but with a certain time delay, to instability factors. We also underline the major impact of boom and bust evolution of financial markets on real economy, cause of the current economic and financial crises.

  12. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  13. Relationship of Energy Growth to Economic Growth under Alternative Energy Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, Jr., D. J.; Dullien, R.; Hudson, E.

    1976-03-01

    This report is the first of a series of studies that will analyze the economic and social impacts of research, development, and demonstration plans of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Two policy proposals were examined against a Base Case set of economic and energy projections for the years 1985, 1990, and 2000: (1) the introduction of RD and D-initiated energy supply and end-use conversion technologies to expand domestic energy supply and to improve the efficiency and flexibility of its use; and (2) the imposition of taxes and tariffs on petroleum and natural gas to reduce demand for these primary energy sources. Targets for the amounts of imports of oil and gas were specified by ERDA as follows: 10 percent (or less) of total U.S. energy consumption in 1985; 8 percent (or less) of total U.S. energy consumption in 1990; and 5 percent (or less) of total U.S. energy consumption in 2000. The purpose of the analysis was to first identify the degree to which the introduction of new energy technologies and/or the imposition of energy taxes could reduce oil and gas imports toward the target levels; and second, to estimate the effects of these policies on the economy and the environment. These economic and environmental effects are thus a measure of the costs associated with meeting the import targets. The benefits of these policies, in the form of increased economic and political security were not measured. The analysis was based on an analytic framework which linked detailed mathematical process engineering and economic models to more aggregate econometric models. The four models employed are described.

  14. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  15. An Interdisciplinary Education of Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, M. V.; Mazzatenta, C.; Wong, K.; Socha, A.

    2017-12-01

    This following project demonstrates an interdisciplinary method of teaching Sustainability, Energy and Green Economics. It is shown that an interdisciplinary approach to introduce students to the foundations of sustainability strongly connects education with real world applications, and highlights the growing influence of sustainable practices on the world at large. The authors will present results from the interdisciplinary course "Sustainability, Energy and Green Economy" taught at the Center of Sustainable Energy, Bronx Community College, City University of New York (CSE-BCC-CUNY) by faculty from Physics, Chemistry, Biology. The course curriculum covers the relationship of humans within their environment, the facts of climate change, an analysis of the current global energy portfolio, the burgeoning renewable energy sector, and connections between consumption and quality of life. The students are exposed to empirical data and asked to evaluate trends to ascertain the future energy and resource demands of a growing global population. The students are lead through an estimation of their own carbon footprint. Emphasis is made on the concept of `Life Cycle Analysis' and how such analyses can be used to create market value and a "green product". The interdisciplinary approach to teach students on how the principles of sustainability are building the green economy and how to build a successful career within today's workforce encourages students to apply the critical lens of sustainability to all aspects of their personal lives, as well as local, regional and global economies. The authors will present data collected by students to formulate and articulate a hypothesis specifically related to the sustainability of societal and economic market trends.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  17. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  18. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paga, Enrique; Birol, Fatih

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  19. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  20. Technical and Economic Potential of Distributed Energy Storages for the Integration of Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Trier, Daniel; Hansen, Kenneth

    Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role decentral...... indicate that sector coupling along with an intelligent choice of distributed energy storage technologies can enable the integration of large shares of fluctuating renewable energy in an energy efficient and cost-effective way.......Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role...... decentralised energy storages (DES) should play in integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources. The technical and economic potential for DES solutions is quantified using energy system modelling, and it is identified which DES technologies have the largest total (technical and economic) potential. For this...

  1. Analysis of economic and energy utilization aspects for waste heat aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.; Wilson, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    A waste heat aquaculture system using extensive culture techniques to produce fin and shellfish is currently under investigation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system uses nutrients in waste water streams to grow algae and zooplankton which are fed to fish and clams. A tilapia polyculture association and the freshwater clam Corbicula are the animals cultured in the system. The investigations were performed to determine the economic feasibility of the system and examine energy utilization in the system. A net energy analysis was performed to identify the energy saving potential for the system. This analysis includes all energy costs (both direct and indirect) associated with building and operating the system. The results of the economic study indicated that fish production costs of $0.55/kg ($0.25/lb) were possible. This cost, however, depends upon the fish production rate and food conversion efficiency and could rise to as much as $1.65/kg ($0.75/lb). Clam production costs were found to be in the neighborhood of $0.37/kg of clam meat ($1.24/bushel). The energy utilization study results indicated that, when all energy costs are included, fish from the aquaculture system may require only 35% of the net energy now required for fish products from the ocean. However, the energy requirements also depend on system parameters and could be as large as the energy required for ocean caught products. Clams can be produced in the aquaculture system using only about 25% of the net energy required by traditional means. The results of the analysis indicate that the system appears to be economically feasible. They also indicate that significant energy savings are possible if waste heat aquaculture products replace ocean caught products.

  2. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study

  3. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.B.; Rosa, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  4. Economics in Criticality and Restoration of Energy Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gale A.; Flaim, Silvio J.; Folga, Stephen M.; Gotham, Douglas J.; McLamore, Michael R.; Novak, Mary H.; Roop, Joe M.; Rossmann, Charles G.; Shamsuddin, Shabbir A.; Zeichner, Lee M.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2005-03-01

    Economists, systems analysts, engineers, regulatory specialists, and other experts were assembled from academia, the national laboratories, and the energy industry to discuss present restoration practices (many have already been defined to the level of operational protocols) in the sectors of the energy infrastructure as well as other infrastructures, to identify whether economics, a discipline concerned with the allocation of scarce resources, is explicitly or implicitly a part of restoration strategies, and if there are novel economic techniques and solution methods that could be used help encourage the restoration of energy services more quickly than present practices or to restore service more efficiently from an economic perspective. AcknowledgementsDevelopment of this work into a coherent product with a useful message has occurred thanks to the thoughtful support of several individuals:Kenneth Friedman, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance, provided the impetus for the work, as well as several suggestions and reminders of direction along the way. Funding from DOE/OEA was critical to the completion of this effort.Arnold Baker, Chief Economist, Sandia National Laboratories, and James Peerenboom, Director, Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, provided valuable contacts that helped to populate the authoring team with the proper mix of economists, engineers, and systems and regulatory specialists to meet the objectives of the work.Several individuals provided valuable review of the document at various stages of completion, and provided suggestions that were valuable to the editing process. This list of reviewers includes Jeffrey Roark, Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority; James R. Dalrymple, Manager of Transmission System Services and Transmission/Power Supply, Tennessee Valley Authority; William Mampre, Vice President, EN Engineering; Kevin Degenstein, EN Engineering; and Patrick Wilgang, Department of Energy, Office of

  5. Energy and economic development in Lithuania and neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskas, V.; Shtremeikiene, D.

    1995-01-01

    In Lithuania as also in neighbouring countries (Poland, Latvia, Belarus, Russia) economic reforms are going on. All these countries, better or worse, slower or quicker, are restructuring their economies from centrally planned into market based ones. The neighbouring countries also are the main Lithuania's trading partners, and Russia is a sole supplier of crude oil and natural gas. This article deals with the analysis of the latest economic development in Lithuania and in neighbouring countries, as well as with it impact on the development of the Lithuanian energy sector. The analysis is based on the statistical data of the last few years and on some projections of future development. (author). 12 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs

  6. Economic performances optimization of the transcritical Rankine cycle systems in geothermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min-Hsiung; Yeh, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal economic performance of the TRC system are investigated. • In economic evaluations, R125 performs the most satisfactorily, followed by R41 and CO 2 . • The TRC system with CO 2 has the largest averaged temperature difference. • Economic optimized pressures are always lower than thermodynamic optimized operating pressures. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the economic optimization of a TRC system for the application of geothermal energy. An economic parameter of net power output index, which is the ratio of net power output to the total cost, is applied to optimize the TRC system using CO 2 , R41 and R125 as working fluids. The maximum net power output index and the corresponding optimal operating pressures are obtained and evaluated for the TRC system. Furthermore, the analyses of the corresponding averaged temperature differences in the heat exchangers on the optimal economic performances of the TRC system are carried out. The effects of geothermal temperatures on the thermodynamic and economic optimizations are also revealed. In both optimal economic and thermodynamic evaluations, R125 performs the most satisfactorily, followed by R41 and CO 2 in the TRC system. In addition, the TRC system operated with CO 2 has the largest averaged temperature difference in the heat exchangers and thus has potential in future application for lower-temperature heat resources. The highest working pressures obtained from economic optimization are always lower than those from thermodynamic optimization for CO 2 , R41, and R125 in the TRC system

  7. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.

  8. Thermo-economic performance of HTGR Brayton power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J. L.; Herranz, L. E.; Moratilla, B. Y.; Fernandez-Perez, A.

    2008-01-01

    High temperature reached in High and Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) results in thermal efficiencies substantially higher than those of actual nuclear power plants. A number of studies mainly driven by achieving optimum thermal performance have explored several layout. However, economic assessments of cycle power configurations for innovative systems, although necessarily uncertain at this time, may bring valuable information in relative terms concerning power cycle optimization. This paper investigates the thermal and economic performance direct Brayton cycles. Based on the available parameters and settings of different designs of HTGR power plants (GTHTR-300 and PBMR) and using the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the effects of compressor inter-cooling and of the compressor-turbine arrangement (i.e., single vs. multiple axes) on thermal efficiency have been estimated. The economic analysis has been based on the El-Sayed methodology and on the indirect derivation of the reactor capital investment. The results of the study suggest that a 1-axis inter-cooled power cycle has a similar thermal performance to the 3-axes one (around 50%) and, what's more, it is substantially less taxed. A sensitivity study allowed assessing the potential impact of optimizing several variables on cycle performance. Further than that, the cycle components costs have been estimated and compared. (authors)

  9. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  10. Methodology for the economic optimisation of energy storage systems for frequency support in wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Lewis; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Corchero-García, Cristina; Cruz-Zambrano, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimisation of energy storage system with wind power plant for frequency response. • Energy storage option considered could be economically viable. • For a 50 MW wind farm, an energy storage system of 5.3 MW and 3 MW h was found. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for the economic optimisation of the sizing of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) whilst enhancing the participation of Wind Power Plants (WPP) in network primary frequency control support. The methodology was designed flexibly, so it can be applied to different energy markets and to include different ESS technologies. The methodology includes the formulation and solving of a Linear Programming (LP) problem. The methodology was applied to the particular case of a 50 MW WPP, equipped with a Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRB) in the UK energy market. Analysis is performed considering real data on the UK regular energy market and the UK frequency response market. Data for wind power generation and energy storage costs are estimated from literature. Results suggest that, under certain assumptions, ESSs can be profitable for the operator of a WPP that is providing frequency response. The ESS provides power reserves such that the WPP can generate close to the maximum energy available. The solution of the optimisation problem establishes that an ESS with a power rating of 5.3 MW and energy capacity of about 3 MW h would be enough to provide such service whilst maximising the incomes for the WPP operator considering the regular and frequency regulation UK markets

  11. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Barba-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in the winery sector is receiving increased attention from governments, environmental groups, and consumers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a firm’s environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its definition of business performance, which includes business environmental performance in terms of reducing the firm’s environmental impacts and eco-efficiency in the use of resources such as water, energy, and raw materials, in addition to its economic performance. A model is proposed and tested using a sample of 312 Spanish wineries. Data were analysed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. The fitness and robustness of the structural model proved adequate. The results indicate positive correlation of environmental proactivity with economic and environmental performance. Although environmental proactivity improves business performance, it has a greater impact on reducing environmental impacts and improving eco-efficiency.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  13. Energy consumption and economic growth on the focus on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Filiz [Sakarya Univ., Sakarya (Turkey). Dept. of Financial Econometric; Pektas, Ali Osman [Bahcesehir Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ozkan, Omer [Istanbul Medeniyet Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2017-01-15

    Since the quest for global and personal prosperity, the drive to eradicate poverty and the motivation to ensure sustainability for the world are collectively dependent on a supply of safe, emissions-free power there are many studies in literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. This study tries to enlarge the dimensions of these researches by using a large dataset. The second aim of this study is to focus on Nuclear energy consumption. According to the empirical results of the study, Energy consumption is found as co-integrated with the GDP in all 55 countries. There exist bidirectional causality between nuclear, renewable energy consumption and the GDP. Additionally, the unidirectional causality extends from economic growth to hydroelectric, petroleum, coal and total energy consumption.

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth on the focus on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkan, Filiz; Pektas, Ali Osman; Ozkan, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Since the quest for global and personal prosperity, the drive to eradicate poverty and the motivation to ensure sustainability for the world are collectively dependent on a supply of safe, emissions-free power there are many studies in literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. This study tries to enlarge the dimensions of these researches by using a large dataset. The second aim of this study is to focus on Nuclear energy consumption. According to the empirical results of the study, Energy consumption is found as co-integrated with the GDP in all 55 countries. There exist bidirectional causality between nuclear, renewable energy consumption and the GDP. Additionally, the unidirectional causality extends from economic growth to hydroelectric, petroleum, coal and total energy consumption.

  15. Does energy efficiency improve technological change and economic growth in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Calì, Massimiliano; Velde, Dirk Willem te

    2016-01-01

    Does a trade-off exist between energy efficiency and economic growth? This question underlies some of the tensions between economic and environmental policies, especially in developing countries that often need to expand their industrial base to grow. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing the relationship between energy efficiency and economic performance at the micro- (total factor productivity) and macro-level (countries' economic growth). It uses data on a large sample of manufacturing firms across 29 developing countries to find that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with higher total factor productivity for the majority of these countries. The results are robust to a variety of checks. Suggestive cross-country evidence points towards the same relation measured at the macro-level as well. - Highlights: •Total factor productivity is an accurate proxy of technological change. •Energy efficiency triggers total factor productivity especially in manufacturing. •Technological change via energy efficiency in manufacturing is an engine of growth.

  16. Is nuclear energy reasonable with national economic regards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, L.

    1989-01-01

    In answering the question of whether a nuclear phaseout can be acceptable with national economic respects, one is confronted with the following basic question: Are the risks associated with nuclear energy reasonable in terms of safety and the conservation of the environment. Effective and responsible action in this question presupposes a clear political will and judgment. Because of the necessity of having to put up in the case of nuclear energy - a basic innovation whose development has yet a long way to go - with nuclear legal terms, are faced with a dilemma. In the opinion of energy engineers and the energy industry, the central part of the controversy on nuclear power is about the problem of coming to terms on what will be acceptable to the population as necessary precautionary measures for the event of an accident. Obviously, it is for the legislator to decide on the compatibility and social adequacy of a risk, not for the judge to interpret it on the basis of nuclear legal terms. Our national economy is now and in the future challenged with the task to research, develop, and realize hazard-prone technologies in order to shape the future. Where readiness to accept risks can no longer be assumed in the future, development prospects will be curbed in parallel. What national economic consequences will result from this, and whether they will be acceptable with national econiomic regards, is a question that has not so far been dealt with by the studies on a phaseout of nuclear energy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  18. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  19. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  20. The use of economic forecasts in Danish economic policy, with special emphasis on energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the use of economic forecasts in Danish economic policy, with special emphasis on energy and the environment. Two different approaches have been used to forecast energy consumption and its effects on environment in Denmark and other countries. These are the macro economic and the technical approaches. The technical approach is based on technical expertise related to energy production and energy consumption, and the article asks whether the forecasts produced by this approach are superior to macro economic forecasts of energy consumption. This question is interesting because the implications for policy resulting from the two approaches seem to be different. The analysis may have relevance to other areas outside the main economic field. (au) 22 refs

  1. Effects of stochastic energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Martinsen, Dag; Wagner, Hermann-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In view of the currently observed energy prices, recent price scenarios, which have been very moderate until 2004, also tend to favor high future energy prices. Having a large impact on energy-economic scenarios, we incorporate uncertain energy prices into an energy systems model by including a stochastic risk function. Energy systems models are frequently used to aid scenario analysis in energy-related studies. The impact of uncertain energy prices on the supply structures and the interaction with measures in the demand sectors is the focus of the present paper. For the illustration of the methodological approach, scenarios for four EU countries are presented. Including the stochastic risk function, elements of high energy price scenarios can be found in scenarios with a moderate future development of energy prices. In contrast to scenarios with stochastic investment costs for a limited number of technologies, the inclusion of stochastic energy prices directly affects all parts of the energy system. Robust elements of hedging strategies include increasing utilization of domestic energy carriers, the use of CHP and district heat and the application of additional energy-saving measures in the end-use sectors. Region-specific technology portfolios, i.e., different hedging options, can cause growing energy exchange between the regions in comparison with the deterministic case. (author)

  2. Role of the breeder in long term energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this study the authors report the results of their study of private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long run time horizon. For this purpose, the authors employ the well known ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic and energy sector interactions. In this first of their planned series of studies, they consider the impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that enters the atmosphere. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO 2 and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the authors find that the breeder technology is chosen to provide a much larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO 2 without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths

  3. Political and economic heritage of postcommunist Europe and energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transition countries include a group of countries with similar political, economic and social problems that signify the period after the end of the cold war and the fall of Communism. The paper presents the characteristics of the European Communist countries before and after the fall of the iron curtain, which influenced the transition process toward market economy. The centralist (Russian) economy model had enormous advantages at the beginning, particularly in the energy sector, owing to unlimited consumption of blood, sweat and tears during the construction of major power plants. The bureaucratic system executed ruthless expropriation of land and the existing power system, neglecting the environment and human health and even disregarding the feasibility of new power plants. The market creation and particularly the creation of an energy market, under which we understand selling and buying of all forms of energy, fuels, power plants' equipment and capital for energy sector, asks for a series of tasks from the Eastern European countries. They must accept market rules, standards of highly industrialised western countries and achievements in parliamentary democracy as the canon of behaviour in democracy. Setting up a legal infrastructure for the private sector, devising a taxation system, determining ownership rights, stabilising the macro economy in the sense of managing the government budget so as to avoid an excessive fiscal deficit, and stabilising monetary policy are primary tasks of the transition countries. The paper particularly reviews the tasks specifically related to the energy sector and analyses the problems taking into account national strategic interests. (author)

  4. FISCAL EFFECTIVENESS UNDER REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrudin Nasrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting agricultural sector performance and seeks the most effective policy in the presence of regional economic integration. It predicts the effectiveness of fiscal policy on the agricultural sector performance in four periods; the new order regime, the economic crisis, and pre and post China Free Trade Area (CAFTA. It also predicts the impact of fiscal policy on agricultural sector performance when CAFTA is fully implemented. It finds that fiscal policy is more effective in the optimum allocation of expenditures. It also finds that the agricultural sector can grow faster when the portion of capital expenditure increases.Keywords: Fiscal effectiveness, economic integration, agricultureJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17AbstrakMakalah ini menyelidiki efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam mendorong kinerja sektor pertanian dan mencari kebijakan yang paling efektif dengan adanya integrasi ekonomi regional. Makalah ini memprediksi efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam meningkatkan kinerja sektor pertanian dalam empat periode; rezim orde baru, krisis ekonomi, sebelum pelaksanaan China Free Trade Area (CAFTA, dan setelah pelaksanaan CAFTA. Makalah ini juga memprediksi dampak kebijakan fiskal terhadap kinerja sektor pertanian saat CAFTA sepenuhnya dilaksanakan. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa kebijakan fiskal lebih efektif dalam alokasi optimal dari pengeluaran. Analisis juga menemukan bahwa sektor pertanian dapat tumbuh lebih cepat ketika porsi peningkatan belanja modal meningkat.Keywords: Efektivitas fiskal, integrasi ekonomi, pertanianJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17

  5. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Burcu; Ari, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  6. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Burcu [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Economics; Ari, Ayse [Nigde Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Economics

    2016-01-15

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  7. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  8. Local versus Global Environmental Performance of Dairying and Their Link to Economic Performance: A Case Study of Swiss Mountain Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Repar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complying with the carrying capacity of local and global ecosystems is a prerequisite to ensure environmental sustainability. Based on the example of Swiss mountain dairy farms, the goal of our research was firstly to investigate the relationship between farm global and local environmental performance. Secondly, we aimed to analyse the relationship between farm environmental and economic performance. The analysis relied on a sample of 56 Swiss alpine dairy farms. For each farm, the cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment was calculated, and the quantified environmental impacts were decomposed into their on- and off-farm parts. We measured global environmental performance as the digestible energy produced by the farm per unit of global environmental impact generated from cradle-to-farm-gate. We assessed local environmental performance by dividing farm-usable agricultural area by on-farm environmental impact generation. Farm economic performance was measured by work income per family work unit, return on equity and output/input ratio. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship, trade-offs or synergies between global and local environmental performance indicators. Interestingly, trade-offs were observed far more frequently than synergies. Furthermore, we found synergies between global environmental and economic performance and mostly no significant relationship between local environmental and economic performance. The observed trade-offs between global and local environmental performance mean that, for several environmental issues, any improvement in global environmental performance will result in deterioration of local environmental performance and vice versa. This finding calls for systematic consideration of both dimensions when carrying out farm environmental performance assessments.

  9. Maintaining a Viable Energy Savings Performance Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Katherine L; Huckeby, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Substantial amounts of information are available on Energy Savings Performance Contract award requirements, measurement, and verification, but we have found very little information on the day-to-day...

  10. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  11. Architectural design and energy performance; Conception architecturale et performance energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 06 - Valbonne (France); Pouget, A. [Bureau Etude Thermique, 75 - Paris (France); Sesolis, B. [TRIBU, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    This day was organized around the energy performance of the architecture in three parts. A first time dealt with the design of new buildings and private houses. Simulation tools for the energy optimization and practice of design are discussed. The second part was devoted to the new 2000 regulation with an open discussion on the regulatory costs. The last part forecasted the evolution until 2015 taking into account the french program of fight against the greenhouse effect, the limitation of the air conditioning consumption and the definition of a quality label concerning the energy performances. (A.L.B.)

  12. Economic Operation of Supercritical CO2 Refrigeration Energy Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ryan

    With increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy resources, improved methods of energy storage are becoming a crucial stepping stone in the path toward a smarter, greener grid. SuperCritical Technologies is a company based in Bremerton, WA that is developing a storage technology that can operate entirely on waste heat, a resource that is otherwise dispelled into the environment. The following research models this storage technology in several electricity spot markets around the US to determine if it is economically viable. A modification to the storage dispatch scheme is then presented which allows the storage unit to increase its profit in real-time markets by taking advantage of extreme price fluctuations. Next, the technology is modeled in combination with an industrial load profile on two different utility rate schedules to determine potential cost savings. The forecast of facility load has a significant impact on savings from the storage dispatch, so an exploration into this relationship is then presented.

  13. Energy economics. CO{sub 2} emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yiming [Beijing Institute of Technology (China). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research; Liu, Lancui [Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing (China). Center for Climate and Environmental Policy; Wu, Gang; Zou, Lele [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Policy and Management

    2011-07-01

    ''Energy Economics: CO{sub 2} Emissions in China'' presents a collection of the researches on China's CO{sub 2} emissions as studied by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP). Based on the analysis of factors related to global climate change and CO{sub 2} emissions, it discusses China's CO{sub 2} emissions originating from various sectors, diverse impact factors, as well as proposed policies for reducing carbon emissions. Featuring empirical research and policy analysis on focused and critical issues involving different stages of CO{sub 2} emissions in China, the book provides scientific supports for researchers and policy makers in dealing with global climate change. (orig.)

  14. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  15. Study on the energy performance of glazing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia MOGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A proper thermal design of the building envelope represents an important factor for the energy economics. Glazing surfaces represent one of the important elements in the hygrothermal design activity of a building envelope. The window’s thermal performance has also a strong influence on the thermal performance of the opaque area of the wall. This fact imposed the research of the real interaction, of cooperation and of mutual influences of the characteristics between the two components of the wall of the building envelope, respectively the opaque and the glazing area. Optimal constructive details for the opaque and glazing area of the wall need to be properly designed in order to achieve the required thermal and energy performances imposed for new types of buildings, e.g. passive houses, zero energy buildings.

  16. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  17. Le realizzazioni dell'economia sovietica. (Soviet economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While in the 1950s Soviet output grew faster than most other industrial countries, the early 1960s has seen a noticeable slowing down in growth. The present paper puts these economic developments into perspective to judge the efficacy of Soviet policy in its attempt to achieve maximum growth and transform an underdeveloped into a developed country. The author first assesses Soviet performance and policy at different stages of development, before assessing the level attained. The purposes for which output is used and the major factors responsible for Soviet performance are then analysed. Finally, likely future developments are considered.JEL: P27, O40

  18. Diversification and Corporate Performance: Evidence from China’s Listed Energy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiming Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, China’s energy industry has been continuously depressed due to a slowdown in its economic development. China’s energy companies have made considerable efforts to promote their corporate performance to mitigate this performance decline and to ensure the sustainable development of China’s energy industry, macro economy, society and environment. In this paper, the effects of two business strategies—industrial diversification and international diversification—on the performance of listed energy firms are empirically investigated. The empirical results show the following: (1 industrial diversification hinders corporate performance; (2 for industrially-diversified energy companies, related diversified strategies are more effective than unrelated diversified strategies; and (3 international diversification improves the performance of renewable energy firms, but hinders the performance of conventional energy firms. These results suggest that as economic conditions are not currently optimal, China’s energy companies should pay more attention to their main businesses and generate more products to satisfy market demand.

  19. Socio-economic overview of wind energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A social scientist's perspective is presented on the socio-economic impacts of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in Ontario. The main organization for delivering electricity in Ontario is Ontario Hydro. This utility has two WECS, an experimental 3.5 kW generator and a hybrid wind/diesel facility at a remote northern community. Ontario Hydro is reviewing its supply options and anticipates wind power would likely be used in niche applications involving off-grid hybrid systems where the cost of displaced generation is high. On-grid applications would likely be in the form of dispersed non-utility generation. The potential contribution of wind power to Ontario's electricity supply mix could be as little as 1 MW by the year 2000 or as high as 40 MW by the year 2014, depending on costs and technological developments. Socio-economic criteria used by the utility for assessing individual supply options include job creation, regional economic development, local community impacts, social acceptance, and distribution of risks and benefits. Initial observations of potential effects of WECS are discussed, including site selection, manufacturing, construction, and operation. Barriers to implementation of WECS in Ontario include the limited number of good wind sites, the intermittent nature of WECS power, and the currently uneconomic nature of WECS for bulk electricity systems. However, WECS have environmentally attractive features and are socially acceptable. 10 refs., 3 figs

  20. Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mory, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation