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Sample records for energy drinks jock

  1. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  2. Jocks, gender, binge drinking, and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Donald F; Barnes, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence (family vs. nonfamily), and gender as well as by examining the impact of binge drinking on the sport-violence relationship. Regression analyses using a sample of 608 Western New York adolescents indicated that (a) jock identity (but not athletic participation) was associated with more frequent violence, (b) jock identity predicted nonfamily violence (but not family violence), and (c) the link between jock identity and nonfamily violence was stronger for boys than for girls. Binge drinking predicted family violence among nonjocks only.

  3. Jocks, gender, race, and adolescent problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Joseph H; Barnes, Grace M; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between identification with the "jock" label and adolescent alcohol consumption, specifically problem drinking. Operationalization of problem drinking included frequency measures of heavy drinking, binge drinking, and social problems related to alcohol (e.g., trouble with family, friends, school officials over drinking). Self-identified adolescent "jocks" were more likely to engage in problem drinking than their non-jock counterparts, even after controlling for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, physical maturity, social maturity, and frequency of athletic activity. Jock identity was strongly associated with higher binge drinking frequency in Black adolescent girls. This study underscores the need to distinguish between objective and subjective meanings of athletic involvement when assessing the relationship between sport and adolescent health-risk behavior.

  4. Jock Itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jock Itch ... jock itch because it's commonly seen in active people who sweat a lot while playing sports. But anyone can get this infection. What Are ...

  5. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  6. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  7. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  8. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  9. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  10. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  12. What do we know about energy drinks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süber Dikici

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks are popular among young individuals andmarketed to college students, athletes, and active individualsbetween the ages of 21 and 35 years. In the beginningconsumption of energy drinks can significantlyimprove physical and mental performance. Energy drinkscontain a mixture of compounds, of which caffeine, guarana,and herbal supplements such as ginkgo and ginsengare major components. Unfortunately, the body ofliterature is limited and it is not known whether these improvementsare due to the caffeine other herbal ingredients.Severe clinical manifestations may occur after useof energy drinks with alcohol The aim of this article is risingawareness about the ingredients of energy drinks andclinical manifestations that may occur after usage and updateabout knowledge.Key words: Energy drinks, energy drinks ingredients,clinical manifestations

  13. Perceptions about energy drinks are associated with energy drink intake among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks are growing in popularity among youth because of their stimulant properties. However, they can increase blood pressure and are associated with serious consequences such as cardiac arrest. This study examined the associations between energy drink perceptions and energy drink consumption among youth. The design was a cross-sectional study using the YouthStyles Survey 2011. The online survey was administered at home. Subjects were youths aged 12 to 17 years in the summer of 2011 (n = 779). Energy drink consumption, perceptions about energy drinks, and sociodemographic and behavioral variables were measured. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Overall, 9% of youth drank energy drinks, 19.5% agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens, and 12.5% agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink. The proportion of youth consuming energy drinks once per week or more was highest among youth aged 16 to 17 years and among those who are physically active three to six times a week. The odds for drinking energy drinks once per week or more was higher among youth who agreed that energy drinks are safe drinks for teens (odds ratios [OR] = 7.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] =3.6, 16.4) and among those who agreed that energy drinks are a type of sports drink (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.4, 10.7). These findings suggest that many youth may be unaware or misinformed about the potential health effects and nutritional content of energy drinks. Efforts to improve education among youth about the potential adverse effects of consuming energy drinks are needed.

  14. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  15. Energy Drinks: A Contemporary Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita; Deuster, Patricia A; Shearer, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

  16. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  17. Are energy Drinks Scapegoats? Decomposing Teenagers' Caffeine intake from Energy Drinks and Soda Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir

    2018-02-22

    Energy drinks have been repeatedly blamed for contributing to caffeine intake among teenagers. This study aimed to estimate and compare the caffeine intake of US teenagers from soda drinks versus energy drinks and shots. Data were taken from a 2015 nationally representative survey (Monitoring the Future) of 8th and 10th graders in the US (47.2% 8th grade; 51.1% female). Participants reported their numbers of consumed sodas, diet sodas, energy drinks, and energy shots per day. These were converted into mg caffeine/day and were contrasted with common guidelines for healthy caffeine intake, stratified by age group and sex. Error-bar charts, ANOVA and ROC curves were used for contrasting caffeine intake from soda drinks and energy drinks, as well as their contribution to exceeding recommended caffeine intake cutoffs. First, in both sexes and grades the intake from soda drinks was significantly higher than the intake from energy drinks. The soda and energy drink intake for males was higher than the intake for females; intake for 8th graders was higher than this of 10th graders. Second, caffeine intake from soda drinks was significantly higher even in those who exceeded the recommended maximum caffeine intake. Third, caffeine intakes from soda and energy drinks were efficacious in explaining the exceeding of the recommended threshold for daily caffeine intake, but the explanatory power of soda drinks was larger. From a caffeine consumption standpoint, health professionals should emphasize reduction in both soda and energy drinks.

  18. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  19. ENERGY- DRINKS: COMPOSITION AND HEALTH BENEFITS 186

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... weak regulatory environment; efforts need to be made to ensure consumer .... Amazon basin in Brazil, where it has had a long history of use (Angelo et al., ..... energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related ...

  20. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  2. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  3. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  5. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  6. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 Diet Dr. Pepper 12 oz 0 Diet Pepsi 12 oz 0 Dr. Pepper 12 oz 150 ... 12 oz 160 Orange Crush 12 oz 195 Pepsi 12 oz. 150 Sierra Mist 12 oz 150 ... Vanilla Coca-Cola 12 oz 150 Wild Cherry Pepsi 12 oz 160 Energy Drinks AMP Energy Strawberry ...

  7. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggres...

  8. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. [Studies on the determinants of energy drinks intake by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Agnieszka; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Górnicka, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks are among the most popular functional products. They contain bioactive substances which may produce beneficial effects on the body, but excessive consumption of energy drinks or use them in accordance with their intended use may be dangerous to health. The aim of the study was to assess determinants and circumstances of energy drinks consuming in selected group of students, their opinion and knowledge on energy drinks. The study was conducted in March 2011 in Warsaw and included 92 students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) and from University of Physical Education (UPE). The data was collected using diagnostic survey. Energy drinks consumed 67% of the respondents. The most common reason for drinking energy drinks was to stay awake (45.2%). They most often drank them during the examination session (21.0%) and afterwards they experienced stimulation (72.9%), but also palpitations (32.2%) and insomnia (25.8%). Students who consumed energy drinks confirmed that they are effective (88.7%) and tasty (41.9%), but dangerous for health (43.5%). Majority of all users of energy drinks (80.7%) mixed them with alcohol. Every fourth respondent did not read the composition of the consumed beverages. Energy drinks have been a popular food product among students. After energy drinks consumption students often felt agitated but also experienced negative symptoms. Young people have to pay attention to the composition of energy drinks, what proves their consciousness.

  10. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  11. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. A literature search was performed using the keywords "energy drink and Red Bull(®)" and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality.

  12. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  13. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  14. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  15. Energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    -demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...

  16. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  17. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited.

  18. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and biking, or high-intensity exercise such as soccer, basketball, or hockey). These drinks contain carbohydrates (sugar), ... look like a quick way to fill any nutrition gaps in your child's diet, but these nutrients ...

  19. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  20. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  1. Sports/energy drinks consumption among young athletes in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athletes who had 'ever' tried a sport drink were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those who had 'never' tasted the drink. Main reasons for using such drinks for regular users varied across the selected groups of athletes and included obtaining energy and boosting performance while doing sport. Most athletes claimed to be ...

  2. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  4. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  5. Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report.

  6. Effects of Oral Administration of Energy Drinks on Blood Chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Energy drinks are canned or bottled carbonated beverages that contain large amounts of caffeine and sugar with additional ingredients, such as BVitamins, amino acids and herbal stimulants. Previous reports have shown that consumption of large amounts of these energy drinks may result in adverse health ...

  7. Patterns of energy drink advertising over US television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Sargent, James D; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    To describe programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience for television channels with high levels of energy drink advertising airtime. Secondary analysis of energy drink advertising airtime over US network and cable television channels (n = 139) from March, 2012 to February, 2013. Programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in each channel's base audience were extracted from cable television trade reports. Energy drink advertising airtime. Channels were ranked by airtime; programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience were summarized for the 10 channels with the most airtime. Over the study year, 36,501 minutes (608 hours) were devoted to energy drink advertisements; the top 10 channels accounted for 46.5% of such airtime. Programming themes for the top 10 channels were music (n = 3), sports (n = 3), action-adventure lifestyle (n = 2), African American lifestyle (n = 1), and comedy (n = 1). MTV2 ranked first in airtime devoted to energy drink advertisements. Six of the 10 channels with the most airtime included adolescents aged 12-17 years in their base audience. Energy drink manufacturers primarily advertise on channels that likely appeal to adolescents. Nutritionists may wish to consider energy drink media literacy when advising adolescents about energy drink consumption. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Caffeine Content in Popular Energy Drinks and Energy Shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, Selasi; Leggit, Jeffrey; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The use of energy beverages is high among the general population and military personnel. Previous studies have reported discrepancies between the actual amount of caffeine in products and the amount of caffeine on stated labels. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the content of caffeine listed on the labels of various energy drinks and energy shots. Top-selling energy drinks (n = 9) and energy shots (n = 5) were purchased from retail stores. Three of each of the 14 products were purchased and analyzed for caffeine content by an independent laboratory. Of the 14 products tested, 5 did not provide caffeine amounts on their facts panel-of those, 3 listed caffeine as an ingredient and 2 listed caffeine as part of a proprietary blend. The remaining 9 (of 14) products stated the amounts of caffeine on their labels, all of which were within 15% of the amount indicated on the label. In this study, although the energy beverages that indicated the amount of caffeine it contained had values within ±15% of the amount listed on the label, a potentially acceptable range, this finding is not acceptable with regard to current labeling regulations, which require added ingredients to total 100%. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Energy Drink Consumption Practices of Young People in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.

  10. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  14. Mineral Composition and Nutritive Value of Isotonic and Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, Anna; Grzesiak, Magdalena; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Several very popular brands of isotonic and energy drinks consumed for fluid and electrolyte supplementation and stimulation of mental or physical alertness were chosen for investigation. Liquid beverages available in polyethylene bottles and aluminum cans as well as products in the form of tablets and powder in sachets were studied. The total concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn), both essential and toxic, were simultaneously determined in preconcentrated drink samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) equipped with pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers. Differences between the mineral compositions of isotonic and energy drinks were evaluated and discussed. The highest content of Na was found in both isotonic and energy drinks, whereas quite high concentrations of Mg were found in isotonic drinks, and the highest amount of calcium was quantified in energy drinks. The concentrations of B, Co, Cu, Ni, and P were higher in isotonic drinks, but energy drinks contained greater quantities of Ag, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Mo and toxic elements, as Cd and Pb. A comparison of element contents with micronutrient intake and tolerable levels was performed to evaluate contribution of the investigated beverages to the daily diet. The consumption of 250 cm(3) of an isotonic drink provides from 0.32% (for Mn) up to 14.8% (for Na) of the recommended daily intake. For the energy drinks, the maximum recommended daily intake fulfillment ranged from 0.02% (for V) to 19.4 or 19.8% (for Mg and Na).

  15. Effects of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Bishoy; Kohansieh, Michelle; Makaryus, Amgad N

    2017-11-26

    Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products' sales and regulation of their contents should continue.

  16. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster1, Christoph Aufricht2, Chris Alford31Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Währinger Gürtel, Wien, Austria; 3University of the West of England, Psychology Department, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UKBackground: Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol.Methods: A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase.Results: There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse.Conclusion: Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The

  17. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks in adolescents in Slovakia: implications for paediatric nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bašková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study analyzed the consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks as well as attitudes towards their consumption. Design: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC is a cross-sectional school-based study focused on the target group of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents. It employs a universal, internationally standardized questionnaire. Methods: The study analyzes results of the HBSC survey carried out in Slovakia in 2014. A total of 10,179 schoolchildren from grades 5 through 9 participated (a response rate of 78.8%. Gender and age differences were analyzed in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old respondents. Results: The consumption of soft drinks varied from 16.9% (11-year-old girls to 29.0% (15-year-old boys. More than 8 in 10 respondents accepted the consumption of soft drinks. As much as 34.4% of boys and 18.8% of girls aged 15 years reported the use of energy drinks at least weekly, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all age groups and the rates increasing with age. Conclusion: In Slovakia, consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks is widely popular and socially accepted among adolescents. There is a need for more effective interventions including adoption of appropriate legislative norms. Pediatric nursing plays an important role through outpatient primary as well as hospital care.

  18. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Daily conformity drinking motivations are associated with increased odds of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2018-04-01

    Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  1. [Abuse of energy drinks: does it pose a risk?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Energy drinks designate "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid containing a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and liveliness". Their introduction has raised many reluctance and reserves after numerous cardiovascular and neurological injuries among regular consumers. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on energy drinks. The review focuses to show that excessive energy drinks consumption cause many complications. The literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2014, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: energy drinks, caffeine, taurine, toxicity, dependence, complications. Occasional or moderate consumption of these cans seem to present little risk to healthy adults. However, their repeated consumption in proportions that far exceed the recommendations for recommended use by the manufacturers, combined with the use of alcohol or illicit drugs consumption increases the risk of occurrence of somatic and psychiatric complications, especially among underage, and subjects with cardiovascular and neurological history. Repeated consumption of energy drinks increases the risk of somatic and psychiatric complications. Further studies must be controlled to improve our understanding of other possible negative consequences on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy and sports drinks in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Catherine M; Blair, Becky

    2017-10-01

    Sports drinks and caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) are commonly consumed by youth. Both sports drinks and CEDs pose potential risks for the health of children and adolescents and may contribute to obesity. Sports drinks are generally unnecessary for children engaged in routine or play-based physical activity. CEDs may affect children and adolescents more than adults because they weigh less and thus experience greater exposure to stimulant ingredients per kilogram of body weight. Paediatricians need to recognize and educate patients and families on the differences between sport drinks and CEDs. Screening for the consumption of CEDs, especially when mixed with alcohol, should be done routinely. The combination of CEDs and alcohol may be a marker for higher risk of substance use or abuse and for other health-compromising behaviours.

  3. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20 who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1 reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months. Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol

  4. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with

  5. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  6. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  7. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively. The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively. 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively. Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45. A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

  8. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  9. Dental plaque pH variation with regular soft drink, diet soft drink and high energy drink: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Bendgude, Vikas; Mahuli, Amit V; Dave, Bhavana; Kulkarni, Harshal; Mittal, Simpy

    2012-03-01

    A high incidence of dental caries and dental erosion associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH response of dental plaque to a regular, diet and high energy drink. Twenty subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects were between the ages of 20 and 25 and had at least four restored tooth surfaces present. The subjects were asked to refrain from brushing for 48 hours prior to the study. At baseline, plaque pH was measured from four separate locations using harvesting method. Subjects were asked to swish with 15 ml of the respective soft drink for 1 minute. Plaque pH was measured at the four designated tooth sites at 5, 10 and 20 minutes intervals. Subjects then repeated the experiment using the other two soft drinks. pH was minimum for regular soft drink (2.65 ± 0.026) followed by high energy drink (3.39 ± 0.026) and diet soft drink (3.78 ± 0.006). The maximum drop in plaque pH was seen with regular soft drink followed by high energy drink and diet soft drink. Regular soft drink possesses a greater acid challenge potential on enamel than diet and high energy soft drinks. However, in this clinical trial, the pH associated with either soft drink did not reach the critical pH which is expected for enamel demineralization and dissolution.

  10. Energy Drinks Mixed with Alcohol: What are the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549

  11. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  12. The Effects of Energy Drinks on Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marlon R.

    Fatigue problems have been widespread in the air traffic control industry; in past years a common practice among air traffic controllers has been to consume highly caffeinated beverages to maintain awareness and thwart sleep deprivation. This study sought to examine what impact the consumption of an energy drink had on Air Traffic Control Collegiate Training Initiative students at Middle Tennessee State University to solve Air Traffic Selection and Training Battery Applied Math type test problems. Participants consumed a Red Bull energy drink or a placebo and then were asked to complete speed, time, distance, and rate of climb and descent rates questions in addition to answering questions regarding their perception of energy drinks. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to compare scores of participants. The experimental group which received the energy drink averaged slightly lower (M=77.27, SD=19.79) than the control group, which consumed the placebo beverage (M=81.5, SD=19.01), but this difference was not statistically significant.

  13. Energy Drink Cocktails: A Dangerous Combination for Athletes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks (EDs) on college campuses and in communities has become a considerable public health concern. Among college students, intercollegiate athletes have been identified as being particularly at-risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resultant health and behavioral consequences. The main purpose of this…

  14. Characteristics of University Students Who Mix Alcohol and Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Green, Michaela R.; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research has identified correlates (e.g., drug use, risky sex, smoking) of using alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMEDs). Few studies have investigated common mental health-related concerns (e.g., depression, sleep). Participants: Alcohol-using college students (n = 380 never used AMEDs, n = 180 used AMEDs) were recruited in the study…

  15. Apoptosis of rats’ cardiomyocytes after chronic energy drinks consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawinski Miroslaw Aleksander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are beverages containing caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal extracts, and sugar or sweeteners. They are marketed as capable of improving stamina, athletic performance and concentration, moreover, as serving as a source of energy. Still, there are very few papers describing the impact of ED on cell biology – including cell apoptosis within tissues. Therefore, in our study, we assessed the symptoms of rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis after 8 weeks consumption of ED.

  16. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Daily Context of Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    The link between use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) and alcohol-related harms is well established, but limited research has examined the context in which AmEDs are consumed. Identifying the social and environmental characteristics of use may illuminate whether AmEDs are used in settings that could increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors or experiencing harms. This study used a 2-week daily diary assessment to compare days in which AmEDs were consumed ("AmED days") and days where other types of alcohol were used ("non-AmED days") on where, when, and with whom drinking occurred. Participants were 122 (90 women) heavy drinking college students who reported mixing caffeine with alcohol at least once in the past week. Data were collected across 389 drinking days; 40 of these days involved AmED use. Multilevel modeling findings revealed that odds of drinking AmEDs were higher on days where individuals drank at a bar or club and drank at home relative to other locations. In addition, odds of pregaming were higher on AmED days as compared to non-AmED days. AmED use was linked with lower odds of drinking game behavior. Overall, AmEDs appear to be consumed in potentially risky contexts. In combination with prior findings that AmED days are linked with heavier alcohol use and more harms experienced, these findings support the unique nature of AmED consumption in terms of the factors that may predict or maintain potentially hazardous drinking patterns. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  18. A comparison of sports and energy drinks--Physiochemical properties and enamel dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Poonam; Hall-May, Emily; Golabek, Kristi; Agustin, Ma Zenia

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sports and energy drinks by children and adolescents has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. It is essential for dental professionals to be informed about the physiochemical properties of these drinks and their effects on enamel. The present study measured the fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity of multiple popular, commercially available brands of sports and energy drinks. Enamel dissolution was measured as weight loss using an in vitro multiple exposure model consisting of repeated short exposures to these drinks, alternating with exposure to artificial saliva. The relationship between enamel dissolution and fluoride levels, pH, and titratable acidity was also examined. There was a statistically significant difference between the fluoride levels (p = 0.034) and pH (p = 0.04) of the sports and energy drinks studied. The titratable acidity of energy drinks (11.78) was found to be significantly higher than that of sports drinks (3.58) (p energy drinks (Red Bull Sugar Free, Monster Assault, Von Dutch, Rockstar, and 5-Hour Energy) were found to have the highest titratable acidity values among the brands studied. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was significantly higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. The effect of titratable acidity on enamel weight loss was found to vary inversely with the pH of the drinks. The findings indicated that energy drinks have significantly higher titratable acidity and enamel dissolution associated with them than sports drinks. Enamel weight loss after exposure to energy drinks was more than two times higher than it was after exposure to sports drinks. Titratable acidity is a significant predictor of enamel dissolution, and its effect on enamel weight loss varies inversely with the pH of the drink. The data from the current study can be used to educate patients about the differences between sports and energy drinks and the effects of these drinks on tooth enamel.

  19. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  20. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  1. Use and Perceptions of Caffeinated Energy Drinks and Energy Shots in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, Danielle; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Hammond, David

    2017-12-01

    In Canada, energy drinks and energy shots are currently classified and regulated differently (food and drugs versus natural health products, respectively), on the assumption that they are used and perceived differently. The current study examined potential differences in use and perceptions of energy drinks and shots. An online survey was conducted in 2015 using a national commercial online panel of youth and young adults aged 12-24 years (n=2,040 retained for analysis in 2016). Participants were randomized to view an image of an energy shot or drink, and were asked about 14 potential reasons for using the product. Past consumption of each product was also assessed. Chi-square and t-tests were conducted to examine differences in use and perceptions between products. Overall, 15.6% of respondents reported using both energy shots and drinks. Of all respondents, ordering of the reasons for use of each product was comparable. Despite differences in prevalence of ever-use of energy shots and drinks, consumption patterns and perceived reasons for using the products are similar. The findings provide little support for regulating energy shots differently than energy drinks. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effects of energy drinks in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés; Romero, César; Arroyave, Cristhian; Giraldo, Fabián; Sánchez, Leidy; Sánchez, Julio

    2017-09-01

    To determine the acute effects of a variety of recognized energy drinks on medical students, based on the hypothesis that these beverages may affect negatively cardiovascular parameters, stress levels and working memory. Eighty young healthy medical students were included in the study. 62.5 % of the participants were male, and the age mean was 21.45 years. Each person was evaluated via measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, oxygen saturation, breath rate, temperature, STAI score (to assess anxiety state), salivary cortisol and N-back task score (to determine cognitive enhancement). These evaluations were performed before and following the intake of either carbonated water or one of three energy drinks containing caffeine in similar concentrations and an undetermined energy blend; A contained less sugar and no taurine. Thirty-minute SBP increased significantly in the A and C groups. The B group exhibited a diminution of the percentage of the 1-h SBP increase, an increase of 1-h DBP and QTc shortening. HR showed an increase in the percent change in the A and C groups. Cortisol salivary levels increased in the B group. The STAI test score decreased in the C group. The percent change in N-back scores increased in the A group. The data reinforce the need for further research on the acute and chronic effects of energy drinks to determine the actual risks and benefits. Consumers need to be more informed about the safety of these energy drinks, especially the young student population.

  3. Not Just "Rocks for Jocks": Who Are Introductory Geology Students and Why Are They Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer; McConnell, David A.; Budd, David A.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann; Jones, Megan H.; Knight, Catharine C.; Matheney, Ronald K.; Perkins, Dexter; Wirth, Karl R.

    2012-01-01

    Do students really enroll in Introductory Geology because they think it is "rocks for jocks"? In this study, we examine the widely held assumption that students view geology as a qualitative and remedial option for fulfilling a general education requirement. We present the first quantitative characterization of a large number of…

  4. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  5. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  6. Energy and exergy analyses of malt drink production in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadare, D.A.; Nkpubre, D.O.; Oni, A.O.; Falana, A.; Waheed, M.A.; Bamiro, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy requirements and exergy inefficiencies for processing of malt drink were estimated for a Nigerian brewery. The process was divided into twenty-one basic unit operations and grouped into four main group operations: silo house, brew house, filter room and packaging house. The energy intensity for processing a batch of 9.8 tonnes brew grains to 562 hl of malt drink was estimated as 261.63 MJ/hl consisting of electrical (41.01%), thermal (58.81%) and manual (0.19%) of the total energy. The most energy intensive group operation was the Packaging House operation, followed by the Brew House operation with energy intensities of 223.19 and 35.94 MJ/hl, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the packaging house operation was responsible for most of the inefficiency (92.16%) followed by brew house operation (7.17%) and the silo house and filter room operations with less than 1% of the total exergy lost. The most exergy loss took place in the pasteurizer, which accounted for 59.75% of the overall system inefficiency. Modification in the pasteurizer and use of spent grains as alternate source of energy in the steam boiler were recommended to improve the energy efficiency of the system.

  7. Energy and exergy analyses of malt drink production in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadare, D.A.; Nkpubre, D.O.; Oni, A.O.; Falana, A.; Bamiro, O.A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Ibadan, P. M.B. 1, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria); Waheed, M.A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Agriculture, P. M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2010-12-15

    Energy requirements and exergy inefficiencies for processing of malt drink were estimated for a Nigerian brewery. The process was divided into twenty-one basic unit operations and grouped into four main group operations: silo house, brew house, filter room and packaging house. The energy intensity for processing a batch of 9.8 tonnes brew grains to 562 hl of malt drink was estimated as 261.63 MJ/hl consisting of electrical (41.01%), thermal (58.81%) and manual (0.19%) of the total energy. The most energy intensive group operation was the Packaging House operation, followed by the Brew House operation with energy intensities of 223.19 and 35.94 MJ/hl, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the packaging house operation was responsible for most of the inefficiency (92.16%) followed by brew house operation (7.17%) and the silo house and filter room operations with less than 1% of the total exergy lost. The most exergy loss took place in the pasteurizer, which accounted for 59.75% of the overall system inefficiency. Modification in the pasteurizer and use of spent grains as alternate source of energy in the steam boiler were recommended to improve the energy efficiency of the system. (author)

  8. Acute visual loss and intraretinal hemorrhages associated to energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Christina W; Wu, Max; Wu, Lihteh

    2017-12-01

    To report the association of acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages and energy drink consumption. Case report and literature review. A 48-year-old hypertensive man developed an elevation in systemic blood pressure, tachycardia, and acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages shortly after drinking several cans of energy drinks. High consumption of energy drinks may lead to intraretinal hemorrhages and acute visual loss.

  9. Moderated mediation of the relationships between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, and energy drink use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Parent, Mike C; McCurdy, Eric R; Bradstreet, Tyler C

    2015-11-01

    The consumption of energy drinks is a growing health-risk behavior for young men in the United States. The present study investigated the relationship between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, energy drink use, and sleep disturbances. The authors recruited 467 adult males from universities and the Internet who provided data on their endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, outcome expectations for use of energy drinks, use of energy drinks, and sleep disturbances. A theoretical model positing moderated mediation was tested using structural equation modeling and conditional process modeling. The results supported the hypothesized model in which endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology was linked with increased outcome expectations for benefits of energy drinks, which in turn was linked with increased energy drink consumption, and which finally was linked with greater sleep disturbance symptoms. The relationship between masculinity ideology and energy drink outcome expectations was moderated by age (significant for younger men but not for older men), and the relationship between energy drink outcome expectations and energy drink use was moderated by race (significant for White men but not for racial minority men). The present study adds to the literature on potential negative health implications of the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology by offering a link between predictors of energy drink use (masculinity ideology, outcome expectations) and health outcomes of energy drink use (e.g., sleep disturbance). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  11. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: Associations with risky drinking and functioning in high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    Mixing alcohol with energy drinks is associated with heavier drinking and related problems among college students. However, little is known about how high school drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks (AmED) compare to those who do not (AwoED). This study compares high school AmED and AwoED users on their alcohol use during middle and high school, as well as key domains of functioning in high school. Two surveys were conducted three years apart in adolescents initially recruited from 16 middle schools in Southern California. The analytic sample consists of 696 past month drinkers. Multivariable models compared AmED and AwoED users on alcohol use, mental health, social functioning, academic orientation, delinquency and other substance use at age 17, and on their alcohol use and related cognitions at age 14. AmED was reported by 13% of past month drinkers. AmED and AwoED users did not differ on alcohol use or cognitions in middle school, but AmED users drank more often, more heavily, and reported more negative consequences in high school. AmED users were also more likely to report poor grades, delinquent behavior, substance use-related unsafe driving, public intoxication, and drug use than AwoED users in high school. Group differences were not found on mental health, social functioning, or academic aspirations. AmED use is common among high school drinkers. The higher risk behavioral profile of these young AmED users, which includes drug use and substance use-related unsafe driving, is a significant cause for concern and warrants further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  13. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  14. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background : This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods : Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results : Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions : In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  15. Cardiovascular responses to energy drinks in a healthy population: The C-energy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Teri M; Shah, Sachin; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; Franklin, Teresa T; Connolly, Therese Farrell; Chien, Walter; Charos, George S; Pelter, Michele M

    2016-07-01

    Energy drink consumption has increased significantly over the past decade and is associated with greater than 20,000 emergency department visits per year. Most often these visits are due to cardiovascular complaints ranging from palpitations to cardiac arrest. To determine if energy drinks alter; blood pressure, electrolytes, activated bleeding time (ACT), and/or cardiac responses measured with a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) Holter. Continuous ECG data was collected for five hours (30 minutes baseline and 4 hours post consumption [PC]). Subjects consumed 32 ounces of energy drink within one hour and data (vital signs and blood samples) was collected throughout the study period. Paired students t-test and a corresponding non-parametric test (Wilcoxon signed rank) were used for analysis of the data. Fourteen healthy young subjects were recruited (mean age 28.6 years). Systolic blood pressure (baseline=132, ±7.83; PC=151, ±11.21; P=.001); QTc interval (baseline=423, ±22.74; PC=503, ±24.56; P500 milliseconds PC. Other T-wave changes were noted in 9/14 (64.3%) subjects PC. Energy drinks increased systolic blood pressure, altered electrolytes, and resulted in repolarization abnormalities. These physiological responses can lead to arrhythmias and other abnormal cardiac responses highlighting the importance that emergency room personnel assess for energy drink consumption and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Use of caffeinated energy drinks among secondary school students in Ontario: Prevalence and correlates of using energy drinks and mixing with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David; McCrory, Cassondra; Dubin, Joel A; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-03-12

    Caffeinated energy drinks have become increasingly popular among young people, raising concern about possible adverse effects, including increased alcohol consumption and related risk behaviours. The current study examined consumption of caffeinated energy drinks and use of energy drinks with alcohol, as well as associations with socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, among a sample of secondary school students in Ontario. Survey data from 23,610 grade 9-12 students at 43 purposefully sampled Ontario secondary schools participating in the baseline wave (2012/13) of the COMPASS study were analyzed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Outcomes were any energy drink use, frequency of use, and use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks; covariates were age, sex, race, spending money, bodymass index (BMI), weight-related efforts and alcohol use. Two-way interactions between sex and other covariates were tested. Nearly one in five students (18.2%) reported consuming energy drinks in a usual week. Use of energy drinks was associated (p < 0.01) with all socio-demographic variables examined and was more common among students who were male, off-reserve Aboriginal, had some spending money, had a BMI outside of "healthy" range, were trying to lose weight, and/or reported a higher intensity of alcohol use. Interactions with sex were observed for age, spending money and weight-related efforts. Use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol in the previous 12 months was reported by 17.3% of the sample, and was associated with race, spending money, and more frequent binge drinking. Regular use of energy drinks was common among this sample of students and strongly linked to alcohol consumption.

  17. Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified.

  18. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%, being curious about the products (32.0%, enjoying the flavor (31.3%, or preparing for school exams (26.7%. Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents’ home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink’s effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  19. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  20. [The effect of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, P; van Diepen, M A C; Nieuwenhuis, L; Boulogne, T L A

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturers of energy drinks claim that their drinks can have a positive effect on cognitive performance. So far, there is little evidence that energy drinks do in fact enhance the cognitive performance of adolescents. To find out, via a series of tests, whether the manufacturers of energy drinks are justified in claiming that their drinks improve the cognitive performance of young people. In a quasi-experimental design a number of young people (aged 15-18) were divided into three groups: a control group, each of whose members drank water beforehand; a placebo group whose members drank a glass of sugar-free lemonade, and an experimental group whose members drank a currently available energy drink (Megaforce). Pencil and paper tests were administered to the members of each group in order to measure attention and concentration, learning ability, memory, verbal and numerical reasoning, numerical aptitude and vocabulary. No significant differences between groups were found that could solely be ascribed to the effect of energy drink. Given the warnings about the potential health-risks of energy drinks and the fact that no evidence was found for positive effects of energy drinks on the cognitive performance of young people, we are of the opinion that youngsters should stay away from such drinks.

  1. Gender/Racial Differences in Jock Identity, Dating, and Adolescent Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602

  2. Longitudinal patterns of alcohol mixed with energy drink use among college students and their associations with risky drinking and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Scaglione, Nichole; Reavy, Racheal; Turrisi, Rob

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a form of risky drinking among college students, a population already in danger of heavy drinking and associated consequences. The goals of the current longitudinal study were to (a) identify types of AmED users between the first and second year of college and (b) examine differences among these groups in rates of highrisk drinking and consequences over time. A random sample of college student drinkers (n = 1,710; 57.7% female) completed baseline and 6-month follow-up measures assessing alcohol-related behaviors. AmED use was endorsed by 40% of participants during the course of the study. As anticipated, four distinct groups of AmED users were identified (nonusers, initiators, discontinuers, and continuous users) and were significantly different from one another on drinking and consequence outcomes. Further, significant Time × Group interaction effects were observed for drinking and overall consequences. Generally, across all outcomes and time points, nonusers reported the lowest rates of drinking and consequences, whereas continuous users consistently reported the highest rates of drinking and consequences. Students who initiated AmED use during the course of the study also reported anabrupt increase in alcohol use and reported consequences. Findings suggest students who consistently engage in and initiate AmED use also engage in riskier drinking behaviors and experience higher rates of consequences. Interventions that specifically target AmED use may be warranted and have the potential to reduce alcohol-related consequences.

  3. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  4. A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Merle; Urquhart, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study involves the biochemical analysis of the components of commonly available energy drinks, which many students purchase at fairly high prices. Students research the ingredients in each product and their physiological role in the human body, and then attempt to match what they learn with the product manufacturers' marketing claims.…

  5. Health risks of energy drinks: what nurses and consumers need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbeau, Janis R

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks have become very popular, yet they present health concerns and workplace safety issues related to mental and physical effects of the drinks, which are mainly related to the central nervous system and include heightened alertness, altered sleep patterns, arrhythmias and, rarely, seizures. In the workplace, any pharmacologic agent or substance, such as energy drinks, may present a risk to the delivery of health care, and the use energy drinks during pregnancy and lactation are a concern and patient education is warranted. © 2012 AWHONN.

  6. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  7. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  8. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multi...

  9. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H.

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Methods Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collec...

  10. The effects of temporal perspective on college students' energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jarim; Anagondahalli, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Consideration of future consequences (CFC) describes the extent to which individuals consider potential future outcomes of their present behaviors. This personality trait has been found to predict repetitive health behaviors. Research is yet to explore the role of health beliefs, which may mediate the relationship between CFC and self-directed health behaviors. Thus, this study examined how CFC affects energy drink-related health beliefs and consumption behavior. A cross-sectional correlational online survey with 1,050 college students was conducted. Key measures include the CFC Scale, health belief measures, and current energy drink consumption pattern. CFC was associated with energy drink consumption as well as several health beliefs. CFC had indirect effects on energy drink consumption through health beliefs, including perceived severity of consuming energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.191, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-.271, -.122]), perceived benefits of avoiding energy drinks (indirect effect estimate = -.108, 95% CI [-.174, -.050]), and perceived barriers in abstaining from energy drinks (energy level-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = -.274, 95% CI [-.387, -.181]; and socialization-related barriers, indirect effect estimate = .152, 95% CI [.078, .249]). As the first study to examine CFC's indirect effects on a self-directed health behavior through health beliefs, this study extended CFC's applicability by examining its role in the context of college students' energy drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Energy Drinks and Coffee on Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Janos; Somberg, John C

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial function plays an important role in circulatory physiology. There has been differing reports on the effect of energy drink on endothelial function. We set out to evaluate the effect of 3 energy drinks and coffee on endothelial function. Endothelial function was evaluated in healthy volunteers using a device that uses digital peripheral arterial tonometry measuring endothelial function as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Six volunteers (25 ± 7 years) received energy drink in a random order at least 2 days apart. Drinks studied were 250 ml "Red Bull" containing 80 mg caffeine, 57 ml "5-hour Energy" containing 230 mg caffeine, and a can of 355 ml "NOS" energy drink containing 120 mg caffeine. Sixteen volunteers (25 ± 5 years) received a cup of 473 ml coffee containing 240 mg caffeine. Studies were performed before drink (baseline) at 1.5 and 4 hours after drink. Two of the energy drinks (Red Bull and 5-hour Energy) significantly improved endothelial function at 4 hours after drink, whereas 1 energy drink (NOS) and coffee did not change endothelial function significantly. RHI increased by 82 ± 129% (p = 0.028) and 63 ± 37% (p = 0.027) after 5-hour Energy and Red Bull, respectively. The RHI changed after NOS by 2 ± 30% (p = 1.000) and by 7 ± 30% (p = 1.000) after coffee. In conclusion, some energy drinks appear to significantly improve endothelial function. Caffeine does not appear to be the component responsible for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct Clinical Health Effects of the Consumption of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drink in Dutch Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, Karin; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    The direct clinical health effects of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) consumption are largely unknown. Using data from a nationwide questionnaire, two groups were compared: adolescents who consumed an energy drink at the event (ED+) and adolescents who did not (ED–). Blood alcohol

  14. Energy drink consumption among young Australian adults: associations with alcohol and illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S A; Allen, Karina L; O'Sullivan, Therese; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-01

    Energy drinks are becoming increasingly popular among young people. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its associations with socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol, cigarette and illicit drug use in a population-based sample of young adults participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. We used self-administered questionnaires to assess energy drink consumption patterns, alcohol intake, cigarette and illicit drug use at the 20-year cohort follow-up. Data was also collected on socio-demographics, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake. Our sample included 1234 participants (47% male, mean age 20 ± 0.5 years). We considered energy-drink consumption as a categorical (users versus non-users) variable. Overall, 48% of participants consumed energy drinks at least once per month, with an average intake of 1.31 ± 0.75 cans per day amongst energy drink users. The most significant correlates of energy drink use were being in part-time or full-time employment, being male, being a cigarette smoker, having heavier alcoholic spirit consumption patterns and being an ecstasy user (all pconsumption patterns be a cigarette smoker and use illicit drugs relative to non-users. More research is needed regarding the health risks associated with energy drink use in young adults, including their possible role in the development of substance abuse problems. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-11-27

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Penergy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Pdrinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  16. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  17. Exposure and perceptions of marketing for caffeinated energy drinks among young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2018-02-01

    To examine exposure to energy drink marketing among youth and young adults, and test perceptions of energy drink advertisements (ads) regarding target audience age and promoting energy drink use during sports. A between-group experiment randomly assigned respondents to view one of four energy drink ads (sport-themed or control) and assessed perceptions of the ad. Regression models examined marketing exposure and perceptions. Online survey (2014). Canadians aged 12-24 years (n 2040) from a commercial panel. Overall, 83 % reported ever seeing energy drink ads through at least one channel, including on television (60 %), posters/signs in stores (49 %) and online (44 %). Across experimental conditions, most respondents (70·1 %) thought the ad they viewed targeted people their age or younger, including 42·2 % of those aged 12-14 years. Two sport-themed ads were more likely to be perceived as targeting a younger audience (adjusted OR (95 % CI): 'X Games' 36·5 %, 4·16 (3·00, 5·77); 'snowboard' 19·2 %, 1·50 (1·06, 2·13)) v. control (13·3 %). Participants were more likely to believe an ad promoted energy drink use during sports if they viewed any sport-themed ad ('X Games' 69·9 %, 8·29 (6·24, 11·02); 'snowboard' 76·7 %, 11·85 (8·82, 15·92); 'gym' 66·8 %, 7·29 (5·52, 9·64)) v. control (22·0 %). Greater reported exposure to energy drink marketing was associated with perceiving study ads as promoting energy drink use during sports. Energy drink marketing has a high reach among young people. Ads for energy drinks were perceived as targeting youth and promoting use during sports. Such ads may be perceived as making physical performance claims, counter to Canadian regulations.

  18. Does Sport-Drink Use During Exercise Promote an Acute Positive Energy Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Iulian B; Horswill, Craig A

    2016-10-01

    Sports drinks have been implicated in contributing to obesity and chronic diseases by providing surplus calories and excess sugars. Using existing literature we compared energy intake from sports drinks consumed during exercise with the exercise-induced calorie expenditure to determine whether sports drink use might eliminate the energy deficit and jeopardize conditions for improved metabolic fitness. We identified 11 published studies that compared sport drink consumption to placebo during exercise with a primary focused on the effect of sport drinks or total carbohydrate content on enhancing physical performance. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using VO 2 , RER, and exercise duration for the exercise protocol. Energy ingestion (EI) was determined using the carbohydrate dosing regimen administered before and during the exercise protocol. A two-tailed t test was used to test whether the energy balance (EI-EE) was different from zero (alpha level = 0.05). Sport drink consumption during aerobic exercise of sufficient duration (≥ 60 min) did not abolish the energy deficit (p sports drinks to enhance performance did not abolish the caloric deficit of aerobic exercise. Sports drinks can be used in accordance with research protocols that typically provide 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour when exercising at adequate durations for moderate to high intensity and still maintain a substantive caloric deficit.

  19. Consumption Patterns of Energy Drinks in Portuguese Adolescents from A City in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Albino; Ferreira, Carmo; Sousa, Dinis; Costa, Sandra

    2018-04-30

    Energy drinks are youth-targeted beverages that contain high amounts of caffeine and other stimulants. A number of deleterious health effects associated with consumption of these drinks have already been reported. Despite the health concerns, energy drinks research has been sparse, especially at younger ages. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drinks consumption and patterns of use among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of students aged between 11 - 17 years-old attending four public schools in Braga, cluster sampled. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to access sociodemographic data, self-reported academic performance as well as energy drinks consumption patterns, attitudes, awareness and associated symptoms. In a total of 1414 adolescents studied (mean age 15.1 ± 1.5 years; 53.9% were females), 56.7% reported to have used energy drinks at least once (62.5% in males; 52.1% in females). Of those, 34% described a regular consumption (at least once a month) and 14.1% a weekly consumption. The most common reasons for energy drinks consumption were the pleasant taste (49%), desire to increase global energy (35%) or sports performance (33%). On average, energy drinks users were older compared with non-users. Energy drinks consumption was associated with male gender and with self-reported worse academic performance. Approximately onethird experienced at least one symptom after consumption. In addition, 39.9% of energy drinks consumers reported mixing those with alcohol. Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing. The prevalence found for its consumption in this study is similar to that reported in the literature. Knowledge about motivation, general awareness of the risks or other variables related to consumption of these drinks might allow a better characterization of this behavior. This study showed a high prevalence of energy drinks consumption among adolescents from a city in Northern Portugal

  20. The Role of Adolescent Victimization in Energy Drink Consumption: Monitoring the Future, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Leal, Wanda E; Posick, Chad; Vaughn, Michael G; Olivan, Myrah

    2018-05-21

    Energy drinks have been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes among youth. Even so, the underlying risk factors for energy drink consumption among youth are less frequently examined. The present study examines the link between adolescent victimization experiences (i.e., property and violent victimization) and energy drink consumption among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. We employed the seven most recent cohorts (2010-2016) from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to acquire the U.S. Youths reported the extent to which they consumed energy drinks. Additionally, three indicators of property victimization and four indicators of violent victimization were available in the data. The findings reveal a significant dose-response relationship between energy drink consumption and victimization. This relationship was especially pronounced among females. For instance, more than 52% of females with the highest count of various violent victimization experiences consumed energy drinks, which was three times the rate of females who had no previous violent victimization experiences. Practitioners who interact with adolescent victims may probe for energy drink usage in addition to other addictive substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. Additional scrutiny may also be in order in regulating the amount of caffeine and sugar allowed in these beverages.

  1. Energy drinks and escalation in drug use severity: An emergent hazard to adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Wanda E; Jackson, Dylan B

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine whether energy drink consumption contributes to drug use and, more specifically, an escalation in the severity of drug use. We first examine the association between energy drink use and hard drug use, and subsequently investigate whether soft drug use mediates this relationship. Potential moderating influences are also investigated by testing whether the degree of mediation varies by age, gender, and race. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of 8th (ages 13-14), 10th (ages 15-16), and 12th (ages 17-18) grade adolescents from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey. Negative binomial regression is employed to examine associations between energy drink consumption and soft and hard drug use. Mediation results indicate that energy drink consumption is significantly associated with increased soft drug use, which is, in turn, associated with significant increases in hard drug use. This cascading effect of energy drink consumption on drug use appears to be stronger among younger females and older males. Results for the moderating effect of race are mixed. Energy drinks appear to pose an important threat to adolescent health in the form of soft and hard drug use. The United States may want to consider adopting energy drink policies similar to European countries and Canada, which require warning labels on beverages with high caffeine content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at

  3. Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Miles-Chan, Jennifer Lynn; Charrière, Nathalie; Loonam, Cathríona R; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report effects on blood pressure and heart rate. However, inconsistencies in the current literature render it difficult to draw firm conclusions with regard to the effects of energy drinks on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables. These inconsistencies are due, in part, to differences in methodologies, volume of drink ingested, and duration of postconsumption measurements, as well as subject variables during the test. Recent well-controlled, randomized crossover studies that used continuous beat-to-beat measurements provide evidence that cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of energy drinks are best explained by the actions of caffeine and sugar, with little influence from other ingredients. However, a role for other active constituents, such as taurine and glucuronolactone, cannot be ruled out. This article reviews the potentially adverse hemodynamic effects of energy drinks, particularly on blood pressure and heart rate, and discusses the mechanisms by which their active ingredients may interact to adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Research areas and gaps in the literature are discussed with particular reference to the use of energy drinks among high-risk individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted legal and illegal substance use at 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrense-Dias, Yara; Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2016-11-01

    This study examined whether consuming energy drinks at the age of 14 predicted substance use at 16. We followed 621 youths from an area of Switzerland who completed a longitudinal online survey in both 2012 and 2014 when they were 14 and 16 years of age. At 14, participants, who were divided into nonenergy drink users (n = 262), occasional users (n = 183) and regular users (n = 176), reported demographic, health-related and substance use data. Substance use at 16 was assessed through logistic regression using nonusers as the reference group and controlling for significant variables at 14. At the bivariate level, energy drink consumption was associated with substance use at both 14 and 16. Energy drink consumers were also more likely to be male, older, less academic, sleep less on schooldays and live in an urban area. In the multivariate analysis, smokers, alcohol misusers and cannabis users at the age of 16 were significantly more likely to have been regular energy drink users at the age of 14. Consuming energy drinks at 14 years of age predicted using legal and illegal substances at 16. Health providers should screen young adolescents for energy drink use and closely monitor weekly users. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  6. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED or energy shots (ES. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and

  7. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.

  8. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  9. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  10. Association between energy drink intake, sleep, stress, and suicidality in Korean adolescents: energy drink use in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Lee, Junghyun H

    2016-10-13

    A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15.09 ± 1.72 years), were analyzed. Questionnaires were administered to collect information related to dietary behavior including energy drink intake and junk food consumption. Single item measures of sleep dissatisfaction, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were also administered. Associations between energy drink intake and sleep dissatisfaction, perceived severe stress, persistent depressive mood, and suicidality were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from demographic and lifestyle factors could be controlled for statistically. Energy drink intake was significantly associated with sleep dissatisfaction (adjusted odd ratios [AORs] = 1.64 and 1.25), severe stress (AORs = 2.23 and 1.38), depressive mood (AOR = 2.59 and 1.51), suicidal ideation (AORs = 3.14 and 1.43), suicide plan (AORs = 4.65 and 1.78), and suicide attempt (AORs = 6.79 and 1.91), with a higher risk for more frequent use of energy drinks (≥5 times/wk) than for less frequent use (1-4 times/wk). The detrimental effect of energy drinks on mental health was particularly prominent in frequent junk food consumers. Our data suggest that energy drink intake had detrimental effects related to stress, sleep dissatisfaction, mood, and suicidality, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional study design

  11. In vitro effect of energy drinks on human enamel surface

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    Marise Sano Suga MATUMOTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Energy drinks (ED possess low pH and citric acid in their composition, making them potentially erosive beverages that can contribute to the high dental erosion rates found currently in the general population and also in young people. Objective To evaluate the mean pH and titratable acidity of commercial ED and the influence of a brand of ED on the superficial microhardness of human enamel. Material and method Ten commercial ED were selected and the pH of two lots of each ED with and without gas was obtained. Acid titration was conducted with the addition of NaOH aliquots until the pH 7 was reached. Eighteen human enamel specimens were allocated in three groups (N=6, Red Bull (RB, Red Bull Light (RBL and distilled water (C, submitted to an acid challenge with the ED, six consecutive times, with 12 hours intervals, during three days. Knoop microhardness was measured before and after the acid challenge. Result All ED brands tested presented low pH levels ranging from 2.1 to 3.2. Regarding titratable acidity, it was found that the amount of base required promoting the neutralization of the solutions ranged from 1200μL to 3750μL. Samples of human enamel in the RB and RBL groups submitted to the acid challenge presented significantly decreased Knoop microhardness when compared with the group C. Conclusion All ED examined have potential to promote mineral loss due to the low pH and high titratable acidity. The ED analyzed promoted significant mineral losses on the dental enamel surface.

  12. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2013-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Consumption Patterns of Energy Drinks in Portuguese Adolescents from A City in Northern Portugal

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    Albino Martins

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of energy drinks consumption among adolescents from a city in Northern Portugal, with self-reported symptoms after consumption and common concomitant use of alcohol.

  14. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  15. Energy drinks, caffeine, junk food, breakfast, depression and academic attainment of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Richards, Gareth

    2018-06-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed, and concerns have been raised about possible negative outcomes. The aim of the present research was to examine associations between consumption of energy drinks, caffeine and junk food, and academic attainment in a sample of UK secondary school students. A total of 3071 students agreed to participate in the study; 2677 completed the survey on one occasion (52.4% female, 47.6% male; approximately 20% of the sample from each school year) and 1660 (49.6% female, 50.4% male) completed the survey a second time, approximately six months later. The academic attainment measure was based on Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 grades for Maths and English. In the cross-sectional analyses, logistic regressions showed that consumption of energy drinks was associated with a greater likelihood of being in the low academic achievement group. This was not found for other sources of caffeine. The effect of energy drinks was still significant when demographic, academic and health/lifestyle variables were covaried. However, inclusion of an unhealthy diet variable (junk food) removed the significant effect of energy drinks. Similar observations were made in the longitudinal study, with the poorer attainment of those who consumed energy drinks reflecting breakfast omission and depression. The present findings indicate that consumption of energy drinks is associated with an increased likelihood of poor academic attainment that reflects energy drink consumption being part of an unhealthy diet or being associated with skipping breakfast rather than a more specific effect, such as being a source of caffeine. Although the current study extends previous research by utilising a longitudinal design, intervention studies are now required to better answer questions relating to causality and direction of effect.

  16. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  17. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Teevale, Tasileta; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-03-01

    With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012). In total, 8500 students answered a comprehensive questionnaire about their health and well-being, including multiple measures of mental well-being, and were weighed and measured for height. More than one-third (35%) of young people consumed energy drinks in the past week, and 12% consumed energy drinks four or more times in the past week. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, greater emotional difficulties and lower general subjective well-being. Frequent energy drink consumption was also associated with binge drinking, smoking, engagement in unsafe sex, violent behaviours, risky motor vehicle use and disordered eating behaviours. There was no association between consumption of energy drinks and student body size. Consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of health risk behaviours for young people. Strategies to limit consumption of energy drinks by young people are warranted. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  19. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  20. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (Psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  1. Assessment of pattern for consumption and awareness regarding energy drinks among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Mughal, Anum; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Saleem, Shafaq; Rao, Masood Hussain; Aftab, Anum; Hanif, Maliha; Ahmed, Alina; Khan, Agha Muhammad Hammad

    2013-01-01

    Energy drink is a type of beverage which contains stimulant drugs chiefly caffeine and marketed as mental and physical stimulator. Coffee, tea, soft drinks and other caffeinated beverages are not considered as energy drinks. Purpose of our study was to evaluate the awareness of medical students regarding energy drinks and their pattern and reason of energy drinks consumption. This was a cross sectional and observational study conducted during the period of January - December 2012 at four Medical Colleges (Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Medical College and Liaquat National Medical College) of Karachi, Pakistan. Over all 900 M.B.B.S students were invited to participate after taking written consent but viable questionnaire was submitted by 866 students, estimated response rate of 96%. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS version 19. Out of 866 participants, majority were females 614 (70.9%) and only 252 (28.5%) were males, with a mean age of 21.43 ± 1.51 years. Energy drinks users were 350 (42.89%) and non users were 516 (59.58%). Only 102 (29.3%) users and 159 (30.7%) non users know the correct definition of Energy drinks. Regarding awareness, mostly user and non users thought that usage of energy drinks had been on rise due to its usefulness in reducing sleep hours [users193 (43.9%), nonusers 247 (56.1%) (p energy drinks by non-users were "awareness from its side effects" 247 (47.8%) and "have no specific reason" 265 (51.3%). Most common side effects reported by users were fatigue 111 (31.7%) and weight gain 102 (29.4%). In sum, the fact that despite serious side effects of weight gaining and fatigue, practice of consuming energy drinks is highly prevalent among medical students, particularly because they are ever ready to boost their energy level and reduce sleep hours due to stress of exams and projects. This warrants the creation of continued public health awareness about the appropriate use of caffeinated beverages, their

  2. Sports and energy drink consumption among a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Objective National data for the U.S. show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults ages 20–34. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health risk behaviors associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviors, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviors, sleep patterns, and substance use. Setting Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998–1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects The sample consisted of 2,287 participants (55% female, mean age=25.3). Results Results showed 31.0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18.8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use, and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (pEnergy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviors, trouble sleeping, and substance use among men and women (penergy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviors in the design of programs and services for young adults. PMID:25683863

  3. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  4. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included ( n  = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  5. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  6. Producing drinking water with the aid of waste heat or solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A method developed in Finland for the production of drinking water is described. The energy required comes either from the waste heat of nuclear power plants or from solar installations. The method has been tested in a pilot plant with an output of 120 m/sup 3/ drinking water per day. The construction of plants with an output of 500 m/sup 3/ per day is still in the planning stage.

  7. Utilization of high energy electron beam in the treatment of drinking and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Borrely, S.I.; Morita, D.M.

    1991-08-01

    Samples of drinking water and waste water were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% tri halomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7 μg/1 to 45μg/1, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid waste water. (author)

  8. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Martineau, Chantal; Vanderkooy, Pat; Fenton, Nancy; Hammond, David

    2017-03-01

    The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons). Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and "ever" exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance), were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language). Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported "ever" consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other), and residents of British Columbia. Among "ever-consumers," 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18-24), aboriginal respondents (vs. white only), and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were "experimental" consumers (i.e., consumed ≤ 5 drinks in their lifetime). Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  9. Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Among Youth and Young Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Reid, MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12–24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons. Separate logistic regression models for two outcomes, past-week consumption and “ever” exceeding two energy drinks in a day (as per common guidance, were conducted to examine associations with demographic variables (sex, age, geographic region, race/ethnicity, and language. Overall, 73.6% of respondents reported “ever” consuming energy drinks; 15.6% had done so in the past week. Any consumption of energy drinks in the past week was more prevalent among males, Aboriginal respondents (vs. white only or mixed/other, and residents of British Columbia. Among “ever-consumers,” 16.0% reported ever consuming more than two energy drinks in a day. Exceeding two in a day was more prevalent among older respondents (young adults aged 18–24, aboriginal respondents (vs. white only, and British Columbia residents. While the majority of youth and young adults had consumed energy drinks, about half were “experimental” consumers (i.e., consumed ≤5 drinks in their lifetime. Approximately one in six consumers had exceeded the usual guidance for maximum daily consumption, potentially increasing their risk of experiencing adverse effects.

  10. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults' interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands' websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants' attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

  12. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults’ interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on “digital native” young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults’ consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18–24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands’ websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants’ attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising. PMID:28152016

  13. Energy drinks: psychological effects and impact on well-being and quality of life-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill.

  14. Energy drinks available in Ireland: a description of caffeine and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaver, Laura; Gilpin, Susannah; Fernandes da Silva, Joana Caldeira; Buckley, Claire; Foley-Nolan, Cliodhna

    2017-06-01

    To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed. Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14-35 mg and 2·9-15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugar. Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.

  15. Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fahad; Rehman, Hiba; Babayan, Zaruhi; Stapleton, Dwight; Joshi, Divya-Devi

    2015-04-01

    With the rising consumption of so-called energy drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing significant adverse health events after the ingestion of these beverages. To gain further insight about the clinical spectrum of these adverse events, we conducted a literature review. Using PubMed and Google-Scholar, we searched the literature from January 1980 through May 2014 for articles on the adverse health effects of energy drinks. A total of 2097 publications were found. We then excluded molecular and industry-related studies, popular media reports, and case reports of isolated caffeine toxicity, yielding 43 reports. Energy drink consumption is a health issue primarily of the adolescent and young adult male population. It is linked to increased substance abuse and risk-taking behaviors. The most common adverse events affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems. The most common ingredient in energy drinks is caffeine, and it is believed that the adverse events are related to its effects, as well as potentiating effects of other stimulants in these drinks. Education, regulation, and further studies are required.

  16. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together. The differential and combinatorial effects of caffeine and taurine on the developing brain are reviewed here with an emphasis on the adolescent brain, which is still maturing. Key data from animal studies are summarized to highlight both reported benefits and adverse effects reported following acute and chronic exposures. The data suggest that age is an important factor in both caffeine and taurine toxicity. Although the aged or diseased brain might benefit from taurine or caffeine supplementation, it appears that adolescents are not likely to benefit from supplementation and may, in fact, suffer ill effects from chronic ingestion of high doses. Additional work is needed though to address gaps in our understanding of how taurine affects females, since the majority of animal studies focused exclusively on male subjects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 μg·mL(-1), p caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  18. Energy drinks and youth self-reported hyperactivity/inattention symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah L; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stephanie A; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and to examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Middle school students (n = 1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the 5-item Hyperactivity/Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among boys versus girls and among black and Hispanic versus white students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure, and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed, and other potential confounders. Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  20. The Associations Between E-Cigarettes and Binge Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Energy Drinks Mixed With Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-03-01

    Use of e-cigarettes by youth is proliferating worldwide, but little is known about the behavioral profile of youth e-cigarette users and the association of e-cigarette use with other health-risky behaviors. This study examines the associations between e-cigarette use and tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use among a large sample of Canadian youth. Using Canadian data from 39,837 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in year 3 (2014-2015) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine how current use of e-cigarettes were associated with tobacco, marijuana, binge drinking, and energy drinks mixed with alcohol. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by sex. Overall, 9.75% of respondents were current e-cigarette users. Current cigarette smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.009), current marijuana users (OR = 5.549), and noncurrent marijuana users (OR = 3.653) were more likely to report using e-cigarettes than noncigarette smokers and nonmarijuana users. Gender differences among males and females showed higher risk of e-cigarette use among female current marijuana users (OR = 7.029) relative to males (OR = 4.931) and female current smokers (OR = 3.284) compared to males (OR = 2.862). Compared to nonbinge drinkers, weekly (OR = 3.253), monthly (OR = 3.113), and occasional (OR = 2.333) binge drinkers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Similarly, students who consume energy drinks mixed with alcohol (OR = 1.650) were more likely to use e-cigarettes compared to students who do not consume them. We identify that youth who binge drink or use marijuana have a greater increased risk for using e-cigarettes compared to cigarette smokers. These data suggest that efforts to prevent e-cigarette use should not only be discussed in the domain of tobacco control. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  3. Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

    2014-11-01

    There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P volleyball players.

  4. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco; Barbero-Alvarez, Jose Carlos; Muñoz, Víctor; Portillo, Luis Javier; Gonzalez-Rave, Jose Maria; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    There is little information about the effects of caffeine intake on female team-sport performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance in female soccer players during a simulated game. A double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized experimental design was used in this investigation. In two different sessions, 18 women soccer players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg in the form of an energy drink or an identical drink with no caffeine content (placebo). After 60 min, they performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a 7 × 30 m sprint test followed by a simulated soccer match (2 × 40 min). Individual running distance and speed were measured using GPS devices. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the CMJ height (26.6 ± 4.0 vs 27.4 ± 3.8 cm; P 18 km/h (161 ± 99 vs 216 ± 103 m; P caffeine/kg might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in female soccer players.

  5. Children and young people’s perceptions of energy drinks: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people’s attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10–11 years (n = 20) and 13–14 years (n = 17) from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach. Results Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys). Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers’ claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling. Conclusions The lack of a single dominant factor in participants’ consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a ‘silver bullet’ in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible. PMID:29190753

  6. Children and young people's perceptions of energy drinks: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Crossley, Stephen J; Cheetham, Mandy; Lake, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people's attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context. Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10-11 years (n = 20) and 13-14 years (n = 17) from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach. Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys). Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers' claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling. The lack of a single dominant factor in participants' consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a 'silver bullet' in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible.

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Energy Drinks in Familial Long QT Syndrome: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Belinda; Ingles, Jodie; Medi, Caroline; Driscoll, Timothy; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-03-15

    Caffeinated energy drinks may trigger serious cardiac effects. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of caffeinated energy drink consumption in patients with familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). From 2014-2016, 24 LQTS patients aged 16-50 years were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of energy drink (ED) versus control (CD) with participants acting as their own controls (one week washout). The primary study outcome was an increase in corrected QT interval (QTc) by >20ms. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In 24 patients with LQTS (no dropout), mean age was 29±9 years, 13/24 (54%) were female, and 8/24 (33%) were probands. Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant change in QTc with ED compared with CD (12±28ms vs 16±27ms, 3% vs 4%, p=0.71). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased with ED compared to CD (peak change 7±16mmHg vs 1±16mmHg, 6% vs 0.8%, p=0.046 and 8±10 vs 2±9mmHg, 11% vs 3% p=0.01 respectively). These changes correlated with significant increases in serum caffeine (14.6±11.3 vs 0.5±0.1μmol/L, penergy drink consumption. Caffeinated energy drinks have significant haemodynamic effects in patients with LQTS, especifically an acute increase in blood pressure. Since dangerous QTc prolongation was seen in some LQTS patients, we recommend caution in young patients with LQTS consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  9. Children and young people's perceptions of energy drinks: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelina Visram

    Full Text Available Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people's attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context.Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10-11 years (n = 20 and 13-14 years (n = 17 from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach.Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys. Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers' claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling.The lack of a single dominant factor in participants' consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a 'silver bullet' in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible.

  10. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  11. Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks by High School Athletes in the United States: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Fields

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports and energy (S/E drinks are commonly used by high school (HS athletes, yet little is known about this population’s consumption patterns or the drinks’ side-effects. The objectives of this pilot study were to survey HS athletes about their use of S/E drinks and assess potential side-effects. One hundred American HS athletes (72 were female; 27 were male; one did not identify gender were part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey. The mean age of the athletes was 16.0 ± 1.1 years. The athletes self-reported S/E consumption patterns, motivations for consumption, and drink side-effects. Nearly two-thirds (59.5% of athletes surveyed were at least occasional users of sports drinks, and more than one-third (37.3% were at least occasional users of energy drinks. Of the athletes who had ever drunk an S/E drink, 49.5% drank their first sport drink at ≤ 8 years and 41.3% consumed their first energy drink ≤ 11–12 years of age. The most common motivation for consumption of sports drinks was to rehydrate (84.1% and of energy drinks was to gain energy (61.8%. Side effects of S/E drinks were frequently reported; 25.3% of energy drink users reporting being nervous/jittery after consumption. Thus HS athletes should be cautioned about consumption of S/E drinks until more is understood about their short- and long-term side-effects.

  12. If it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck…: Energy "shots" should be regulated as energy drinks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2016-06-27

    In 2012, Health Canada transitioned caffeinated energy drinks from Natural Health Product to Food and Drug classification and regulations, implementing temporary guidelines with requirements such as caffeine content limits, mandatory cautionary labelling, and restrictions on health claims. "Energy shots" often contain as much or more caffeine compared to energy drinks and have been associated with a similar number of adverse health events. However, current requirements for energy drinks do not apply to energy shots, which remain classified as "natural health products" on the basis that they are "not consumed or perceived as foods" in the same way as energy drinks. An online survey was conducted with Canadian youth and young adults aged 12-24 years (N = 2040) in October 2014 to examine perceptions of energy shots. Respondents viewed an image of a popular energy shot and were asked which term best described it, with six randomly-ordered options. The vast majority (78.8%) perceived the energy shot as an "energy drink" (vs. "supplement", "vitamin drink", "natural health product", "soft drink" or "food product"). Given consumer perceptions and the similarity in product constituents, there is little basis for regulating energy shots differently from energy drinks; these products should be subject to similar labelling and health warning requirements.

  13. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  14. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  15. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Pyridoxine and Riboflavin in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Andre´s, P.; Escuder-Gilabert, L.; Martín-Biosca, Y.; Sagrado, S.; Medina-Herna´ndez, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, as familiar consumer products, have been widely used in laboratory courses to help promote student interest, as well as to connect lecture concepts with laboratory work. Energy drinks contain B vitamins: pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) of which amounts are high enough to be of concern. In this work, a fast and…

  17. High stress, lack of sleep, low school performance, and suicide attempts are associated with high energy drink intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2017-01-01

    Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance. In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13-18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P stress, inadequate sleep, and low school performance were related with more energy drink intake and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Frequent energy drink intake was positively related with suicide attempts, even after adjusting for stress, sleep time, and school performance.

  18. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  19. The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Stensel, David J; Watson, Phillip; James, Lewis J

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate and protein ingestion post-exercise are known to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, but the effects of post-exercise nutrient intake on subsequent appetite are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether protein induced satiety that has been reported at rest was still evident when pre-loads were consumed in a post-exercise context. Using a randomised, double blind, crossover design, 12 unrestrained healthy males completed 30 min of continuous cycling exercise at ~60% VO2peak, followed by five, 3 min intervals at ~85% VO2peak. Ten min post-exercise, subjects consumed 500 ml of either a low energy placebo (15 kJ) (PLA); a 6% whey protein isolate drink (528 kJ) (PRO); or a 6% sucrose drink (528 kJ) (CHO). Sixty min after drink ingestion, a homogenous ad-libitum pasta lunch was provided and energy intake at this lunch was quantified. Subjective appetite ratings were measured at various stages of the protocol. Energy consumed at the ad-libitum lunch was lower after PRO (5831 ± 960 kJ) than PLA (6406 ± 492 kJ) (P0.315). Considering the post-exercise drink, total energy intake was not different between trials (P=0.383). There were no differences between trials for any of the subjective appetite ratings. The results demonstrate that where post-exercise liquid protein ingestion may enhance the adaptive response of skeletal muscle, this may be possible without affecting gross energy intake relative to consuming a low energy drink. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Drink vs. Coffee: The Effects on Levels of Alertness in Fatigued Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    energy drink. After 30 minutes, each subject repeated the subjective and cognitive testing. The Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) was used for...Nakata A, Otsuka Y, Haratani T, et al. Validation of the Karolinska sleepiness scale against performance and EEG variables. Clin Neurophysiol 2006...KSS Karolinska sleepiness scale PDA personal digital assistant PVT psychomotor vigilance task VAS visual analog scale

  1. Energy Drinks: Topical Domain in the Emerging Literature and Neglected Areas of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence statistics indicate that consumption of Energy drinks (EDs), often in combination with alcohol, is quite popular in the younger generation and particularly with college students. As literature on this topic is advancing at a rapid pace, it seemed instructive to examine which topics are emphasized in emerging EDs research. To that end, a…

  2. Perceived Stress, Energy Drink Consumption, and Academic Performance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; DeBarr, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored relationships regarding perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. Participants: Participants included 136 undergraduates attending a large southern plains university. Methods: Participants completed surveys including items from the Perceived Stress Scale and items to…

  3. The potential adverse effect of energy drinks on executive functions in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; Lee, N.C.; Weeda, W.D.; Krabbendam, L.; Huizinga, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Manufacturers of energy drinks (EDs) claim their products improve cognitive performance. Young adolescents are in a critical developmental phase. The impact of ED intake on their development is not yet clear. Therefore, we studied the associations of both caffeine intake and ED

  4. Real men are made, not born! Incidental exposure to energy drinks may promote men's tolerance of physical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abetkoff, Darren; Karlsson, Torulf; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The energy drink market has grown exponentially since the debut of Red Bull. Advertising of energy drinks tends to reinforce an emphasis on masculine identification. However, no previous study has addressed the symbolic effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance, that is, a particular masculine characteristic. We conducted a priming-based experiment to show that energy drink primes elevated men's pain tolerance. Induced conformity to masculinity norms mediated the priming effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance. These findings suggest that mere reminders of masculinity-related products can lead men to behave accordingly in seemingly irrelevant domains (i.e., pain tolerance). Besides distraction and placebo treatment, the connection between a symbolic masculinity prime and greater tolerance of pain may shed lights on an alternative route for pain control. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Proposed actions for the US Food and Drug Administration to implement to minimize adverse effects associated with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Colby, David A; Devine, Paige

    2014-07-01

    Energy drink sales are expected to reach $52 billion by 2016. These products, often sold as dietary supplements, typically contain stimulants. The Dietary Supplement Protection Act claims an exemplary public health safety record. However, in 2011 the number of emergency department visits related to consumption of energy drinks exceeded 20,000. Nearly half of these visits involved adverse effects occurring from product misuse. Political, social, economic, practical, and legal factors shape the landscape surrounding this issue. In this policy analysis, we examine 3 options: capping energy drink caffeine levels, creating a public education campaign, and increasing regulatory scrutiny regarding the manufacture and labeling of energy drinks. Increased regulatory scrutiny may be in order, especially in light of wrongful death lawsuits related to caffeine toxicity resulting from energy drink consumption.

  6. Antibacterial protection by enterocin AS-48 in sport and energy drinks with less acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The low pH and acid content found in sports and energy drinks are a matter of concern in dental health. Raising the pH may solve this problem, but at the same time increase the risks of spoilage or presence of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, commercial energy drinks were adjusted to pH 5.0 and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes (drinks A to F), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis (drink A) during storage at 37 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was able to grow in drink A and survived in drinks D and F for at least 2 days. Addition of enterocin AS-48 (1 microg/ml final concentration) rapidly inactivated L. monocytogenes in all drinks tested. S. aureus and B. cereus also survived quite well in drink A, and were completely inactivated by 12.5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 25 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. B. licheniformis was able to multiply in drink A, but it was completely inactivated by 5 microg/ml enterocin AS-48 after 2 days of storage or by 12.5 microg/ml bacteriocin after 1 day. Results from the present study suggest that enterocin AS-48 could be used as a natural preservative against these target bacteria in less acidic sport and energy drinks.

  7. Ultra-violet Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine in Soft and Energy Drinks Available in Yenagoa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amos-Tautua; W. Bamidele Martin; E.R.E. Diepreye

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the pH and levels of caffeine in eight brands of carbonated and energy drinks available in local market in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Quantitative analysis of caffeine was performed by a simple and fast standard UV spectrophotometric method, using carbon tetrachloride as the extracting solvent. Results showed that the pH of the beverages were slightly acidic ranging from 5.92-6.44. The minimum caffeine level was observed in the carbonated soft drink Coca Cola (4...

  8. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  9. Heart rate, blood pressure and repolarization effects of an energy drink as compared to coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Christmas, Kevin M; Patik, Jordan C; Bhella, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of energy drinks on haemodynamic and cardiac physiology. Comparisons were made to coffee as well as water consumption. In Protocol #1 the caffeine content was normalized to body weight to represent a controlled environment. Heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac QTc interval were assessed in 15 participants, on 4 days, prior to and for 6·5 h postconsumption of (i) energy drink (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight; low dose), (ii) energy drink (3 mg caffeine per kg body weight; medium dose), (iii) coffee (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight) and (iv) 250 ml water. In Protocol #2, the beverages were consumed in volumes that they are purchased to represent real-life conditions. The aforementioned measurements were repeated in 15 participants following (i) 1 16 oz can of energy drink (16 oz Monster), (ii) 1 24 oz can of energy drink (24 oz Monster), (iii) 1 packet of Keurig K-Cup Starbucks coffee (coffee) and (iv) 250 ml water. The order of the beverages was performed in a randomized double-blinded fashion. For both protocols, QTc interval, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were unchanged in any condition (P>0·05). Diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure were slightly elevated in Protocol #1 (P0·05). These findings suggest that acute consumption of these commonly consumed beverages has no negative effect on cardiac QTc interval. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  11. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  12. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.Methods: Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages.Results: A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol included "I like the taste" (58.6%, “To keep me awake” (54.3%, “It gives me energy” (44.3%, "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%, "It increases alertness" (28.8%, “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%, and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%. A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group. The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%, “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%, and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%. No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6% reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions.Conclusion: The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol do so because they like the taste

  14. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-07-10

    Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  16. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263

  17. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629. Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%. Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  18. Why (not) alcohol energy drinks? A qualitative study with Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance; Berry, Nina

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) are a recent entry to the ready-to-drink market, but there is an absence of research into the reasons young people consume these products and their consumption-related experiences. The aim of the current study was to investigate university students' perceptions of, and experiences with, pre-mixed AEDs. Four focus groups with undergraduate university students in a large regional city in New South Wales; with transcripts coded for key themes. Participants reported a number of benefits of AED consumption, many of which were similar to other ready-to-drinks, such as taste and image. However, the primary benefits of AEDs related to their capacity to wake the drinker up at the beginning of the evening and facilitate partying and drinking over a longer period. Many of the participants reported experiencing or observing negative effects from drinking AEDs, some quite severe, but this did not appear to act as a deterrent to their consumption. Given the popularity and perceived benefits of AEDs-and evidence from previous research that their consumption is associated with increases in intoxication levels, risky behaviours and harmful alcohol-related consequences-there is a need to consider a range of strategies to reduce harmful consumption of AEDs. While educational interventions may be of benefit, there is also a role for regulation of the packaging and marketing of a product that is associated with substantial harms. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks and Panax ginseng in healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N

    2016-09-01

    Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-12-01

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Monitoring of metallic contaminants in energy drinks using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Serpil; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Kilic, Murat

    2018-03-09

    In this study, an improved method was validated for the determination of some metallic contaminants (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), Mn, and antimony (Sb)) in energy drinks using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The validation procedure was applied for the evaluation of linearity, repeatability, recovery, limit of detection, and quantification. In addition, to verify the trueness of the method, it was participated in an interlaboratory proficiency test for heavy metals in soft drink organized by the LGC (Laboratory of the Government Chemist) Standard. Validated method was used to monitor for the determination of metallic contaminants in commercial energy drink samples. Concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mn, and Sb in the samples were found in the ranges of 0.76-6.73, 13.25-100.96, 0.16-2.11, 9.33-28.96, 334.77-937.12, 35.98-303.97, 23.67-60.48, 5.45-489.93, and 0.01-0.42 μg L -1 , respectively. The results were compared with the provisional guideline or parametric values of the elements for drinking waters set by the WHO (World Health Organization) and EC (European Commission). As, Cd, Cu, and Sb did not exceed the WHO and EC provisional guideline or parametric values. However, the other elements (Cr, Pb, Fe, Ni, and Mn) were found to be higher than their relevant limits at various levels.

  3. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  4. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  5. Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  6. Energy drink consumption and the perceived risk and disapproval of drugs: Monitoring the Future, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Leal, Wanda E

    2018-07-01

    Energy drinks have become quite popular in recent years among adolescents, prompting a wealth of recent research examining the potential deleterious consequences of energy drink consumption among youth. The present study adds to this body of work by exploring perceptions of risk and disapproval of soft and hard drugs among adolescents and whether such attitudes are predicted by patterns of energy drink/shot consumption. Data were derived from the seven most recent cohorts (2010-2016) of the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, a nationally representative survey of U.S. youth. The significance of associations between energy drink/shot consumption and drug perceptions/attitudes was tested using logistic regression techniques employing adjustments for covariates and cohort-specific fixed effects. Energy drink/shot consumption was largely associated with significant increases in the odds of failing to perceive any risk of drug use and failing to disapprove of drug use among youths, regardless of whether attitudes concerning soft or hard drugs were examined. These associations were particularly robust in the case of habitual energy drink/shot consumers (relative to occasional consumers or abstainers). Additional efforts should be made to heighten awareness and education concerning the potential dangers of energy drink consumption among youth, particularly as it pertains to drug attitudes and diminished perceptions of substance use risk. Policies that minimize energy drink consumption among youth as well as programs that educate parents and teachers about the drug attitudes of youths who regularly consume energy drinks and promote active monitoring of these adolescents may be worthwhile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF A HPLC ANALYSIS METHOD FOR TAURINE AND CAFFEINE IN ENERGY DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-IOANA [CHIRITA] TAMPU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a rapid, inexpensive, reliable and selective isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks with two common detectors in series: evaporating light scattering detector (ELSD and an ultraviolet (UV detector. Satisfactory analysis results were obtained on an Astec apHera NH2 column using methanol/water (30:70 v/v as mobile phase. The optimized method was used for the analysis of commercial energy drinks containing large amounts of carbohydrates (100 g·L-1 and considerably lower amounts of taurine and caffeine (4 and 0.6 g·L-1, respectively. The advantages of this method consist of its lack of preliminary samples treatment and also the fact that basic LC instrumentation was employed.

  9. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults? interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (age...

  10. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models.

  11. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Arınç, Hüseyin; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Yolcu, Mustafa; Ozyildirim, Serhan; Kayardi, Mahmut; Cosgun, Mehmet; Erguzel, Nuri; Gunduz, Huseyin; Uyan, Cihangir

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull) on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram.Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or tho...

  12. Energy drinks and their component modulate attention, memory, and antioxidant defences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, M T Costa; Couto-Pereira, N S; Lampert, C; Arcego, D M; Toniazzo, A P; Limberger, R P; Dallegrave, E; Dalmaz, C; Arbo, M D; Leal, M B

    2017-08-12

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the subchronic consumption of energy drinks and their constituents (caffeine and taurine) in male Wistar rats using behavioural and oxidative measures. Energy drinks (ED 5, 7.5, and 10 mL/kg) or their constituents, caffeine (3.2 mg/kg) and taurine (40 mg/kg), either separately or in combination, were administered orally to animals for 28 days. Attention was measured though the ox-maze apparatus and the object recognition memory test. Following behavioural analyses, markers of oxidative stress, including SOD, CAT, GPx, thiol content, and free radicals, were measured in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. The latency time to find the first reward was lower in animals that received caffeine, taurine, or a combination of both (P = 0.003; ANOVA/Bonferroni). In addition, these animals took less time to complete the ox-maze task (P = 0.0001; ANOVA/Bonferroni), and had better short-term memory (P caffeine and taurine, there was a significant increase in the production of free radicals in the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus (P caffeine and taurine improved memory and attention, and led to an imbalance in the antioxidant defence system. These results differed from those of the group that was exposed to the energy drink. This might be related to other components contained in the energy drink, such as vitamins and minerals, which may have altered the ability of caffeine and taurine to modulate memory and attention.

  13. Effect of Energy Drinks on Discoloration of Silorane and Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Ahangari, Zohreh; Khafri, Soraya; Rahmani, Aghil

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of two energy drinks on color change (ΔE) of two methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin after one week and one month. Thirty cubic samples were fabricated from Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT composite resins. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Baseline color values (L*a*b*) of each specimen were measured using a spectrophotometer according to the CIEL*a*b* color system. Ten randomly selected specimens from each composite were then immersed in the two energy drinks (Hype, Red Bull) and artificial saliva (control) for one week and one month. Color was re-assessed after each storage period and ΔE values were calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Filtek Z250 composite showed the highest ΔE irrespective of the solutions at both time points. After seven days and one month, the lowest ΔE values were observed in Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 composites immersed in artificial saliva, respectively. The ΔE values of Filtek Z250 and Z350XT composites induced by Red Bull and Hype energy drinks were not significantly different. Discoloration of Filtek P90 was higher in Red Bull energy drink at both time points. Prolonged immersion time in all three solutions increased ΔE values of all composites. However, the ΔE values were within the clinically acceptable range (<3.3) at both time points.

  14. Cross-sectional surveys of the amount of sugar, energy and caffeine in sugar-sweetened drinks marketed and consumed as energy drinks in the UK between 2015 and 2017: monitoring reformulation progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2017-12-14

    To investigate the sugar, energy and caffeine content of sugar-sweetened drinks marketed and consumed as energy drinks available in the UK. We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2015 and 2017 of energy drinks available in the main UK retailers. The sugar (sugars g/100 mL), energy (kcal/100 mL), caffeine (mg/100 mL) and serving size were collected from product packaging and nutrition information panels of energy drinks available in the nine main UK grocery retailers, three health and beauty retailers and one convenience store. The number of formulations (per 100 mL) and number of products (per serving) have fallen (from 75 to 49 and from 90 to 59) between 2015 and 2017, respectively. Energy drinks surveyed showed a 10% reduction in sugar, from 10.6 to 9.5 g/100 mL (P=0.011) and a 6% reduction in energy content (P=0.005) per 100 mL between 2015 and 2017. The average caffeine content of energy drinks, with a warning label, has remained high at 31.5±0.9 in 2015 and 31.3±1.0 mg/100 mL in 2017. Despite there being reductions, sugar, energy and caffeine content remain at concerning levels in 2017. To reduce the harmful impact of energy drinks, further reduction in sugar and a reduction in caffeine by reformulation are urgently needed. Other measures such as ban on the sale of energy drinks to children and smaller product sizes should also be explored, while warning labels should be kept. A reduction in sugar, energy and caffeine content and overall energy drinks consumption could be beneficial in reducing sugar, energy and caffeine intake of consumers of energy drinks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Factors influencing young people's use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Jones, Sandra C; Stafford, Julia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A growing evidence base demonstrates the negative health outcomes associated with the consumption of energy drinks (ED) and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED), especially among young people. Work to date has focused on the physiological effects of ED and AMED use and the motivations associated with consumption, typically among college students. The present study adopted an exploratory, qualitative approach with a community sample of 18-21 year olds to identify relevant barriers, motivators, and facilitators to AMED use and to explicate the decision-making processes involved. The sensitisation method was used to collect data from a cohort of 60 young adult drinkers over a period of six months via individual interviews, focus groups, and introspections. The findings indicate that there may be a general understanding of the negative consequences of AMED use, and that these consequences can constitute barriers that serve to discourage frequent consumption among young people. This outcome suggests the potential application of positive deviance and social norms approaches in interventions designed to reduce AMED use among this population segment. The results are promising in the identification of a large number of concerns among young adults relating to AMED use. These concerns can constitute the focus of future communications with this target group. The results are likely to have relevance to other countries, such as the US and the UK, that share similar alcohol cultures and where energy drinks have achieved comparable market penetration rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth eRichards; Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  17. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  18. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Promotion Strategies in the Industry of Energy Drinks in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks remain one of the most dynamic segments of soft drinks. Recent developments indicate that companies are extending their activities. The fact that the category of energy drinks is so successful is leading to a highly competitive environment. Therefore, to increase profit and to create a firm position in such a competitive market, promotion policies and its strategies and forms by companies should be properly understood and implemented.  To this end, this part of the paper will review literature from various authors for purposes of understanding the role of drafting and implementing promotion strategies and marketing itself in companies in general. Data from theoretical aspect have served as guidance in conducting the practical part of this paper on the ground.  In the second part of the paper, a practical research was conducted; a survey questionnaire with owners of two energy drink producers in Kosovo was carried out, i.e., “Golden Eagle” and “Red Rain”. As a result of primary data we have obtained from the survey, we established the extent of the basic knowledge of these companies. At first, regarding marketing in general, but also on promotion and promotion strategies in particular. Also, there were selected 30 customers of these two companies from the random sample to see whether there was an impact of promotion forms that these companies used on their choosing of products.  Finally, from the data obtained from primary and secondary sources we managed to come to certain specific and meaningful conclusions both in terms of the companies we studied, but also about other companies of the same or other similar sectors.

  20. Correlates of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among youth across 10 US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shivani R; Cottler, Linda B; Striley, Catherine W

    2016-06-01

    Predictors of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) among youth have been understudied. The current analyses investigated the prevalence of and correlates for use of AmED among alcohol users from a national study of stimulant use among youth. The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) assessed behaviors and risk factors for stimulant use from 11,048 youth, 10-18 years of age recruited from entertainment venues across 10 US cities. Of the four cross sections, two had questions on having alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in the past 30 days along with sociodemographic characteristics, current tobacco and marijuana use and current nonmedical use of prescription opioids, anxiolytics, and stimulants. Only 13 to18 year olds and those who reported alcohol use were included in the analyses. Overall, 28.4% (1392 out of 4905) of the 13 to18 year olds reported past 30-day alcohol use. Among alcohol users, 27% reported having alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that use of AmED was significantly associated with tobacco and marijuana use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Underage drinking is common among youth and more than a quarter of these drinkers use AmED. Use of AmED is significantly associated with tobacco and marijuana use and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Drug and alcohol intervention programs should educate on the risks of AmED, as the same population is at high-risk for use of AmED and alcohol/drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (pcompany of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  2. Energy drink exposures reported to Texas poison centers: Analysis of adverse incidents in relation to total sales, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Watts, Susan H; Herrera, Jessica; Larson, Joshua; Baeza, Salvador; Kingston, Richard L

    2018-05-21

    The ill-defined term "energy drink" includes a disparate group of products (beverages, shots, concentrates, and workout powders) having large differences in caffeine content and concentration and intended use. Hence, inaccurate conclusions may be drawn when describing adverse events associated with "energy drinks". The FDA is considering new regulation of these products but product specificity is needed to evaluate safety. To help address this, we queried Texas Poison Center Network data for single substance exposures to "energy drinks" from 2010 to 2014, then analyzed adverse events by product type. We specifically compared energy beverage exposures with sales data for the same time period to evaluate the safety profile of this category of energy drinks. Among 855 documented "energy drink" exposures, poison center-determined outcome severity revealed 291 with no/minimal effects, 417 judged nontoxic or minor/not followed, 64 moderate and 4 major effects, and no deaths. Serious complications included 2 seizures and 1 episode of ventricular tachycardia. Outcome severity by category for beverages: 11 moderate/1 major effects (none in children energy drinks". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of energy drink consumption on corrected QT interval and heart rate variability in young obese Saudi male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed; Majeed, Farrukh; Yar, Talay; AlRahim, Ahmed; Alhawaj, Ali Fouad; Alzaki, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has adverse effects on the heart that might be potentiated in obese individuals. Since the incidence of obesity and use of energy drinks is high among Saudi youth, we used non-invasive tests to study hemodynamic changes produced by altered autonomic cardiac activ.ity following consumption of energy drinks in obese male students. This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, over a one-year period from December 2013 to December 2014. In Saudi male university students we measured continuous ECG recordings and a one-minute deep breathing maneuver to measure the expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio, the mean heart rate range (MHRR), the mean percentage variability. (M%VHR) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) at 0, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of energy drink. We enrolled 31 students (18 overweight/obese and 13 normal weights. QTc was significantly in.creased at 60 min as compared with the resting state in overweight/obese subjects (P=.006). Heart rate variability was significantly less in obese as compared with normal weight subjects at 60 minutes as indicated by E:I ratio, (P=.037), MHRR (P=.012), M%VHR (P=.040) after energy drink consumption. Significant increases in diastolic (P=.020) and mean arterial blood pressure (P=.024) were observed at 30 minutes in the obese group. Hemodynamic changes after intake of energy drinks in obese subjects indicate that obesity and energy drinks could synergistically induce harmful effects. This finding warrants efforts to caution the obese on intake of energy drinks and timely intervention to motivate changes in lifestyle.

  4. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  5. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage.

  6. Energy drink consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality among college students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Jahrami, Haitham; Al-Hilali, Marwa M; Chehyber, Noor J; Ali, Sara O; Shahda, Sara D; Obaid, Reyad S

    2017-07-01

    Intake of caffeinated energy drinks has significantly increased, specifically among young adults and adolescents. College students are prone to developing unhealthy eating habits and dependence on stimulants, which puts them at a greater risk of sleep problems. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of caffeinated energy drink consumption and its association with sleep quality in college students. A sample of 919 randomly selected adults (237 males and 682 females) from various colleges at the University of Sharjah/United Arab Emirates participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using an online validated questionnaire. The current study revealed that 376 students (41%) were consuming energy drinks on a regular basis. Approximately half of the students had normal sleep patterns; the other half had sleep problems (anxiety and intermittent sleep). Results of the present study revealed a significant (r = -0.10, P consumption of energy drinks and sleep quality and patterns. Moderate consumption of energy drinks was reported among college students. Consumption of energy drinks was significantly associated with changes in sleep quality and patterns of students. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  7. Caffeine Concentrations in Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and Energy Drink Flavored E-liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Lee, Grace E; Kimbrell, J Brett; Rybak, Michael E; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-04-01

    Most electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain a solution of propylene glycol/glycerin and nicotine, as well as flavors. E-cigarettes and their associated e-liquids are available in numerous flavor varieties. A subset of the flavor varieties include coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink, which, in beverage form, are commonly recognized sources of caffeine. Recently, some manufacturers have begun marketing e-liquid products as energy enhancers that contain caffeine as an additive. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of caffeine in e-liquids was developed, optimized and validated. The method was then applied to assess caffeine concentrations in 44 flavored e-liquids from cartridges, disposables, and refill solutions. Products chosen were flavors traditionally associated with caffeine (ie, coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink), marketed as energy boosters, or labeled as caffeine-containing by the manufacturer. Caffeine was detected in 42% of coffee-flavored products, 66% of tea-flavored products, and 50% of chocolate-flavored e-liquids (limit of detection [LOD] - 0.04 µg/g). Detectable caffeine concentrations ranged from 3.3 µg/g to 703 µg/g. Energy drink-flavored products did not contain detectable concentrations of caffeine. Eleven of 12 products marketed as energy enhancers contained caffeine, though in widely varying concentrations (31.7 µg/g to 9290 µg/g). E-liquid flavors commonly associated with caffeine content like coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink often contained caffeine, but at concentrations significantly lower than their dietary counterparts. Estimated daily exposures from all e-cigarette products containing caffeine were much less than ingestion of traditional caffeinated beverages like coffee. This study presents an optimized and validated method for the measurement of caffeine in e-liquids. The method is applicable to all e-liquid matrices and could potentially be used to ensure regulatory

  8. High stress, lack of sleep, low school performance, and suicide attempts are associated with high energy drink intake in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Although an association between energy drinks and suicide has been suggested, few prior studies have considered the role of emotional factors including stress, sleep, and school performance in adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the association of energy drinks with suicide, independent of possible confounders including stress, sleep, and school performance.In total, 121,106 adolescents with 13-18 years olds from the 2014 and 2015 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were surveyed for age, sex, region of residence, economic level, paternal and maternal education level, sleep time, stress level, school performance, frequency of energy drink intake, and suicide attempts. Subjective stress levels were classified into severe, moderate, mild, a little, and no stress. Sleep time was divided into 6 groups: < 6 h; 6 ≤ h < 7; 7 ≤ h < 8; 8 ≤ h < 9; and ≥ 9 h. School performance was classified into 5 levels: A (highest, B (middle, high, C (middle, D (middle, low, and E (lowest. Frequency of energy drink consumption was divided into 3 groups: ≥ 3, 1-2, and 0 times a week. The associations of sleep time, stress level, and school performance with suicide attempts and the frequency of energy drink intake were analyzed using multiple and ordinal logistic regression analysis, respectively, with complex sampling. The relationship between frequency of energy drink intake and suicide attempts was analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling.Higher stress levels, lack of sleep, and low school performance were significantly associated with suicide attempts (each P < 0.001. These variables of high stress level, abnormal sleep time, and low school performance were also proportionally related with higher energy drink intake (P < 0.001. Frequent energy drink intake was significantly associated with suicide attempts in multiple logistic regression analyses (AOR for frequency of energy intake ≥ 3 times a week = 3.03, 95

  9. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297

  10. Alcohol and energy drinks: a pilot study exploring patterns of consumption, social contexts, benefits and harms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennay Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants, others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.

  11. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile A. Marczinski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED. However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers, 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  12. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: consumption patterns and motivations for use in U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.

  13. Perceptions and Knowledge of Caffeinated Energy Drinks: Results of Focus Groups With Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Bowman, Carolyn; Fenton, Nancy; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2017-04-01

    To examine use, knowledge, and perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) among youth. Qualitative research using focus group discussions (n = 4). Two Canadian cities (Toronto and Montreal). Youth aged 12-18 years (n = 41). Perceived definitions of CEDs, reasons for use, knowledge of health effects, use with alcohol, marketing perceptions, and use and understanding of cautionary statements on packaging. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth identified CEDs as products that provide energy and contain caffeine and sugar. Compared with mainstream CED brands and energy shots, youth were less likely to perceive Gatorade, Coca-Cola, and a Starbucks beverage as energy drinks, despite some ambiguity. The majority of participants believed that CEDs, including mixed with alcohol, were not necessarily harmful in moderation and that marketing was targeted toward older youth and young adults. Awareness of cautionary statements on CEDs was low; cautionary statements were perceived as difficult to find and read owing to the design and small font. Findings suggest a need to increase public education regarding the potential risks of CED consumption, including enhancements to the mandated cautionary statements, with greater attention to the impact of CED marketing on youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy drink consumption and the relation to socio-demographic factors and health behaviour among young adults in Denmark. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  16. The multiplicative effect of combining alcohol with energy drinks on adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Canale, Natale; Potente, Roberta; Scalese, Marco; Griffiths, Mark D; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2018-07-01

    There has been increased concern about the negative effects of adolescents consuming a combination of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). To date, few studies have focused on AmED use and gambling. The present study analyzed the multiplicative effect of AmED consumption, compared to alcohol alone, on the likelihood of at-risk or problem gambling during adolescence. Data from the ESPAD®Italia 2015 study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students (ages 15 to 19years) were used to examine the association between self-reported AmED use (≥6 times,≥10 times, and ≥20 times during the last month) and self-reported gambling severity. Multivariate models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios to evaluate the association between alcohol use, AmED use, and gambling among a representative sample of adolescents who reported gambling in the last year and completed a gambling severity scale (n=4495). Among the 19% students classed as at-risk and problem gamblers, 43.9% were classed as AmED consumers, while 23.6% were classed as alcohol consumers (i.e. did not mix alcohol with energy drinks). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, AmED consumers were three times more likely to be at-risk and problem gamblers (OR=3.05) compared to non-consuming adolescents, while the effect became less pronounced with considering those who consumed alcohol without the addition of energy drinks (OR=1.37). The present study clearly established that consuming AmED might pose a significantly greater risk of experiencing gambling-related problems among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  18. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J. D. Stookey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI, energy expenditure (EE, fat oxidation (FO and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  19. Comparison of caffeine disposition following administration by oral solution (energy drink) and inspired powder (AeroShot) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizure, S Casey; Meibohm, Bernd; Nelson, Kembral; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B

    2017-12-01

    To determine the disposition and effects of caffeine after administration using a new dosage form (AeroShot) that delivers caffeine by inspiration of a fine powder into the oral cavity and compare it to an equivalent dose of an oral solution (energy drink) as the reference standard. Healthy human subjects (n = 17) inspired a 100 mg caffeine dose using the AeroShot device or consumed an energy drink on separate study days. Heart rate, blood pressure and subject assessments of effects were measured over an 8-h period. Plasma concentrations of caffeine and its major metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic, cardiovascular and perceived stimulant effects were compared between AeroShot and energy drink phases using a paired t test and standard bioequivalency analysis. Caffeine disposition was similar after caffeine administration by the AeroShot device and energy drink: peak plasma concentration 1790 and 1939 ng ml -1 , and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 15 579 and 17 569 ng ml -1 × h, respectively, but they were not bioequivalent: AeroShot AUC of 80.3% (confidence interval 71.2-104.7%) and peak plasma concentration of 86.3% (confidence interval 62.8-102.8%) compared to the energy drink. Female subjects did have a significantly larger AUC compared to males after consumption of the energy drink. The heart rate and blood pressure were not significantly affected by the 100 mg caffeine dose, and there were no consistently perceived stimulant effects by the subjects using visual analogue scales. Inspiration of caffeine as a fine powder using the AeroShot device produces a similar caffeine profile and effects compared to administration of an oral solution (energy drink). © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Behavioral effects of the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks on alcohol hangover in an experimental mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2018-03-23

    In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eRichards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced six months apart to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous six months, demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at six-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  2. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  3. Utilization of the high energy electrons beams generated in accelerator for treatment of drinking water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Borrely, S.I.; Morita, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of drinking water and wastewater were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% of trihalomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7μg/l to 45μg/l, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid wastewater. (author)

  4. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs, energy drinks (EDs, or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93], high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73], family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82] and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70] versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]. Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  5. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance effects and metabolic consequences of caffeine and caffeinated energy drink consumption on glucose disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E

    2014-10-01

    This review documents two opposing effects of caffeine and caffeine-containing energy drinks, i.e., their positive effects on athletic performance and their negative impacts on glucose tolerance in the sedentary state. Analysis of studies examining caffeine administration prior to performance-based exercise showed caffeine improved completion time by 3.6%. Similar analyses following consumption of caffeine-containing energy drinks yielded positive, but more varied, benefits, which were likely due to the diverse nature of the studies performed, the highly variable composition of the beverages consumed, and the range of caffeine doses administered. Conversely, analyses of studies administering caffeine prior to either an oral glucose tolerance test or insulin clamp showed a decline in whole-body glucose disposal of ~30%. The consequences of this resistance are unknown, but there may be implications for the development of a number of chronic diseases. Both caffeine-induced performance enhancement and insulin resistance converge with the primary actions of caffeine on skeletal muscle. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Synergistic effect of energy drinks and overweight/obesity on cardiac autonomic testing using the Valsalva maneuver in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Farrukh; Yar, Talay; Alsunni, Ahmed; Alhawaj, Ali Fouad; AlRahim, Ahmed; Alzaki, Muneer

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and caffeine consumption may lead to autonomic disturbances that can result in a wide range of cardiovascular disorders. To determine autonomic disturbances produced by the synergistic effects of overweight or obesity (OW/OB) and energy drinks. Cross-sectional, analytical. Physiology department at a university in Saudi Arabia. University students, 18-22 years of age, of normal weight (NW) and OW/OB were recruited by convenience sampling. Autonomic testing by the Valsalva ratio (VR) along with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure were measured at baseline (0 minute) and 60 minutes after energy drink consumption. Autonomic disturbance, hemodynamic changes. In 50 (27 males and 23 females) subjects, 21 NW and 29 OW/OB, a significant decrease in VR was observed in OW/OB subjects and in NW and OW/OB females at 60 minutes after energy drink consumption. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial blood pressure were also significantly higher in OW/OB and in females as compared to NW and males. BMI was negatively correlated with VR and diastolic blood pressure at 60 minutes. Obesity and energy drinks alter autonomic functions. In some individuals, OW/OB may augment these effects. Due to time and resource restraints, only the acute effects of energy drinks were examined.

  9. Impact of the safe drinking water act on energy development. Final issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymont, F.J.; Shore, R.; Goldberg, M.

    1977-11-01

    Energy development activities will be impacted by the Underground Injection Control Regulations that are formulated under Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The thrust of Part C of the Act is to protect groundwater that now is or in the future might be used for drinking water. A new draft of the regulations, on which this analysis is based, is currently being considered. These regulations will be either another set of proposed regulations or will be interim final which means they can be enforced immediately but EPA will still entertain comments on them and modify them if necessary. There are four possible situations in which the Underground Control Regulations would not apply. They are: If the aquifer in question can be left unprotected despite the fact that its solids level is less than 10,000 mg/1; if the aquifer is oil or mineral producing; if the aquifer is located at a depth that would made recovery of drinking water uneconomical; and if the aquifer is already contaminated. However, the individual states have to demonstrate this to the satisfaction of the EPA administrator. If none of the conditions holds, construction, monitoring operating and reporting requirements will be necessary to receive a permit. The economic impact of these requirements is uncertain but could involve significant economic and time expenditures. Permits do not have to be renewed and one permit can serve for a whole field of wells. However, the permit application requires a significant amount of information and will take a considerable amount of time and expense to fill out. Solution mining operations also will incur extra expenses establishing initial water quality profiles and maintaining monitoring wells

  10. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-07-29

    Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1-3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  11. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs. Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%, followed by price (21%. One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  12. Adverse effects of caffeinated energy drinks among youth and young adults in Canada: a Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; Zukowski, Sara

    2018-01-09

    Energy drink consumption has increased dramatically among young Canadians, with anecdotal evidence of adverse health effects. There is a lack of population-based studies to examine the prevalence of adverse events from energy drinks, particularly among young people. The current study sought to assess adverse events from energy drinks among a population-based sample of youth and young adults in Canada. An online survey was conducted in 2015 with a national sample of youth (aged 12-17 yr) and young adults (aged 18-24 yr) recruited from a consumer panel. Respondents reported prior consumption of energy drinks as well as adverse outcomes, concurrent activities associated with the outcomes and whether medical attention was sought or considered. Adverse events from coffee were also assessed for comparison. Weighted analyses are reported. Of the 2055 respondents, 1516 (73.8%) reported having ever consumed an energy drink, and 1741 (84.7%) reported having ever consumed coffee (unweighted). Overall, 55.4% of respondents who had ever consumed an energy drink reported that they had experienced at least 1 adverse event, including fast heartbeat (24.7%), difficulty sleeping (24.1%), headache (18.3%), nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (5.1%), chest pain (3.6%) and seizures (0.2%); 3.1% had sought or had considered seeking medical help for an adverse event. The prevalence of reported adverse events was significantly greater among energy drink consumers than among coffee consumers (36.0%) (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.56]), as was the proportion who reported seeking or considering seeking medical help for adverse events (3.1% v. 1.4%) (OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.39-3.41]). More than half of youth and young adults who had consumed energy drinks reported adverse outcomes, some serious enough to warrant seeking medical help. The adverse outcomes were consistent with the physiologic effects of caffeine but were significantly more prevalent than with other sources of

  13. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  14. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  15. Improved time to exhaustion following ingestion of the energy drink Amino Impact™

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    Ratamess Nicholas A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a commercially available energy drink on time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise. In addition, subjective measures of energy, focus, and fatigue were examined Methods Fifteen subjects (9 men and 6 women; 20.9 ± 1.0 y; 172.1 ± 9.1 cm; 71.0 ± 9.4 kg; 16.9 ± 9.7% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Subjects reported to the laboratory in a 3-hr post-absorptive state and were provided either the supplement (SUP; commercially marketed as Amino Impact™ or placebo (P. During each laboratory visit subjects performed a treadmill run (70% VO2 max to exhaustion. Mean VO2 was measured during each endurance exercise protocol. Subjects were required to complete visual analog scales for subjective measures of energy, focus and fatigue at the onset of exercise (PRE, 10-mins into their run (EX10 and immediately post-exercise (IP. Results Time to exhaustion was significantly greater (p = 0.012 during SUP than P. Subjects consuming the supplement were able to run 12.5% longer than during the placebo treatment. Subjects consuming SUP reported significantly greater focus (p = 0.031, energy (p = 0.016, and less fatigue (p = 0.005 at PRE. Significant differences between groups were seen at EX10 for focus (p = 0.026 and energy (p = 0.004, but not fatigue (p = 0.123. No differences were seen at IP for either focus (p = 0.215, energy (p = 0.717 or fatigue (p = 0.430. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that the supplement Amino Impact™ can significantly increase time to exhaustion during a moderate intensity endurance run and improve subjective feelings of focus, energy and fatigue.

  16. Sleepy Teens and Energy Drink Use: Results From an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M; Tucker, Joan S; Ewing, Brett; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the association between use of energy drinks or products (EP), EP expectancies, and the association between EP use and sleep in a racially and ethnically diverse sample (N = 2,485) of adolescents. Prevalence of EP use was approximately 18%, with no statistically significant racial or ethnic differences in prevalence. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in EP expectancies; Hispanic and Multiracial or Other groups endorsed less positive expectancies than Whites and Asians. EP use was significantly associated with later weekend bedtimes, shorter weekend total sleep time (TST), a smaller weekend-weekday difference in TST, and more trouble sleeping, even after adjusting for covariates. There were no significant race or ethnicity interactions between EP use and sleep. EP use is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents across racial or ethnic groups.

  17. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  18. The Benefits and Risks of Energy Drinks in Young Adults and Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Julianne; Eshel, Inbal; Marion, Donald W

    2017-07-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The instrument demonstrated high interitem consistency (Cronbach's α > .80). To further explore the state of knowledge on EDs, and to prompt further discussion of ED use and how it may related to military treatment protocols and supporting educational products, we conducted a literature review of English language publications listed in the National Library of Medicine using the search term "energy drinks" and published during the last 5 years to determine what is known about EDs in terms of their potential benefits and health risks. The active ingredients in most EDs are caffeine, and to a lesser extent taurine and sugars. Several reports suggest that the combination of these ingredients is more active than the caffeine alone. Despite the positive attributes of EDs, there are increasing reports of serious and potentially life-threatening side effects. Most recently there also has been a dramatic increase in the use of ED/alcohol combination drinks, and there are preliminary studies that suggest important adverse effects with this combination. A 2013 National Institutes of Health expert workshop concluded that more clinical studies are needed to clearly define the health risks associated with ED use. The needs assessment points to a desire for more ED knowledge of health providers working with TBI patients. A few key themes emerged from the exploratory

  19. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, Laila; Vercammen, Kelsey; Lu, Chang; Richardson, Scott; Tamez, Martha; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-01-01

    As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED) are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  20. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Shaar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  2. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  3. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with psource of information about the impact of smoking cigarettes on health for 52.63% women and 56.52% men, about the alcohol effect on health for 57.02% women and 45.65% men, while about energy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63

  4. Sleep duration and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy drinks (EDs) among adolescents. Data on 9,473 adolescents aged 11-20 years were obtained from the 2015 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide and cross-sectional school based survey of students in middle and high school. Respondents self-reported their sleep duration and consumption of SSBs and EDs. Those who did not meet the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendation were considered short sleepers. Overall, 81.4% and 12.0% of respondents reported that they had at least one SSBs and EDs in the past week, respectively. Males were more likely than females to consume SSBs and EDs. High school students were more likely than those in middle school to report drinking EDs. After adjusting for multiple covariates, results from logistic regression analyses indicated that short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of SSB consumption in middle school students (odd ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.11), but not those in high school (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86-1.31). Short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of ED consumption in both middle (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and high school (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.38-2.30) students. Short sleep duration was associated with consumption of EDs in middle and high school students and with SSBs in middle school students only. Future studies are needed to establish causality and to determine whether improving sleep patterns can reduce the consumption of SSBs and EDs among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy drink consumption in Italian university students: food habits and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, V; Diolordi, L; Pirrone, M; Donini, L M; Del Balzo, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of ED (Energy drink) among young people, both alone and in association with alcohol, as well as the food habits and lifestyle of ED consumers. An anonymous closed-ended questionnaire, was administered to a sample of students. The questionnaire is composed of 30 questions with multiple answers. The students, who come from different regions in Italy, were enrolled at two Italian Universities: Rome and Cagliari. T-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed and chi-square test was used to compare observed and expected frequencies. The sample was composed by 618 females and 389 males and revealed statistically significant differences related to the gender in terms of lifestyle and food habits. About 2/3 of the sample has consumed ED at least once. ED consumers in the total sample accounted for 655 students (65,0%). The 41.3% of the females and the 58,8% of males were ED consumers. Habitual consumers represent the 15,8% of the ED consumers, while occasional consumers the 84,2 %. Habitual and occasional consumers show statistically significant differences both for the lifestyle and the food habits. The 72.1% of ED consumers drink ED in association with alcohol (ED-based cocktails). Our results suggest that would be recommended to inform consumers about the side effects related to an excessive use of ED, particularly when combined with alcohol: indeed, this combination is known to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, on the nervous system, leading in particular to sleeping disorders.

  6. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  7. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  9. Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use as an Event-Level Predictor of Physical and Verbal Aggression in Bar Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Quigley, Brian M; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K; Ball, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    Young adult use of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks (AmEDs) has been globally linked with increased odds of interpersonal aggression, compared with the use of alcohol alone. However, no prior research has linked these behaviors at the event level in bar drinking situations. The present study assessed whether AmED use is associated with the perpetration of verbal and physical aggression in bar conflicts at the event level. In Fall 2014, a community sample of 175 young adult AmED users (55% female) completed a web survey describing a recent conflict experienced while drinking in a bar. Use of both AmED and non-AmED alcoholic drinks in the incident were assessed, allowing calculation of our main predictor variable, the proportion of AmEDs consumed (AmED/total drinks consumed). To measure perpetration of aggression, participants reported on the occurrence of 6 verbal and 6 physical acts during the bar conflict incident. Linear regression analyses showed that the proportion of AmEDs consumed predicted scores for perpetration of both verbal aggression (β = 0.16, p bar environments, and total number of drinks. Results of this study suggest that in alcohol-related bar conflicts, higher levels of young adult AmED use are associated with higher levels of aggression perpetration than alcohol use alone and that the elevated risk is not attributable to individual differences between AmED users and nonusers or to contextual differences in bar drinking settings. While future research is needed to identify motivations, dosages, and sequencing issues associated with AmED use, these beverages should be considered a potential risk factor in the escalation of aggressive bar conflicts. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  11. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  12. Informing Intervention Strategies to Reduce Energy Drink Consumption in Young People: Findings From Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Martin, Karen; Costa, Beth; Christian, Hayley; Kaur, Simmi; Harray, Amelia; Barblett, Ann; Oddy, Wendy Hazel; Ambrosini, Gina; Allen, Karina; Trapp, Gina

    2017-10-01

    To determine young people's knowledge of energy drinks (EDs), factors influencing ED consumption, and intervention strategies to decrease ED consumption in young people. Eight group interviews with young people (aged 12-25 years). Community groups and secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Forty-one young people, 41% of whom were male and 73% of whom consumed EDs. Factors influencing ED consumption and intervention strategies informed by young people to reduce ED consumption. Two researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis on the data using NVivo software. Facilitators of ED consumption included enhanced energy, pleasant taste, low cost, peer pressure, easy availability, and ED promotions. Barriers included negative health effects, unpleasant taste, high cost, and parents' disapproval. Strategies to reduce ED consumption included ED restrictions, changing ED packaging, increasing ED prices, reducing visibility in retail outlets, and research and education. Because many countries allow the sale of EDs to people aged consumption. In addition to more research and education, these strategies included policy changes targeting ED sales, packaging, price, and visibility. Future research might examine the feasibility of implementing such interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance and activity patterns in elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian, Pablo; Del Coso, Juan; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Soriano, Lidon; Muñoz, Victor; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical and match performance in elite badminton players. Sixteen male and elite badminton players (25.4 ± 7.3 year; 71.8 ± 7.9 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomised experiment. On two different sessions, badminton players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed the following tests: handgrip maximal force production, smash jump without and with shuttlecock, squat jump, countermovement jump and the agility T-test. Later, a 45-min simulated badminton match was played. Players' number of impacts and heart rate was measured during the match. The ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased squat jump height (34.5 ± 4.7 vs. 36.4 ± 4.3 cm; P jump peak power (P jump height (37.7 ± 4.5 vs. 39.5 ± 5.1 cm; P jump peak power (P jump performance and activity patterns during game in elite badminton players.

  14. Comparison of the effect of caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on auditory and visual reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Shanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the consumption of energy drinks in the last decade which raises a concern regarding its safety. Glucose improves information processing and cognition. But research on only glucose containing drink is lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Red Bull,a caffeine containing energy drink and Glucon D on visual and auditory reaction time in medical students. A total of 30 students,15 boys and 15 girls, in the age group 18 to 22 yrs were recruited for the study after taking approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. At the beginning, a baseline record of pulse, blood pressure, ART and VRT were taken for all students. The students were given Red Bull and readings were taken after 30 minutes. After an interval of five days the same procedure was repeated with Glucon D. All readings were taken between 10-12 a.m. On comparing the effect of Red Bull on either sex, there was no significant difference. On comparing the effect of the two energy drinks, the p value between the effect of Red Bull and Glucon D on ART was 0.457 and on VRT was 0.314.Both were not statistically significant. There was a significant increase in pulse rate with Red Bull (P=0.036. The mean DBP increased marginally with Red Bull which was not significant (P=0.496.

  15. Consumption and correlates of sweet foods, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks among primary school children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Ali Saad R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week. Approximately 56.3%children were reportedly drinking carbonated beverages weekly and 17.1% in daily basis. Weekly consumption of energy drinks was reported in 21.9% and daily consumption in 4.3% of the children. Daily sweets consumption was positively associated with children age (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-9.5, p=0.035), consuming carbonated beverages (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.2-5.2, p less than 0.001), energy drinks (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.4, p=0.029), eating high fat food (OR= 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4, p=0.023), and inversely with children body mass index (BMI) (OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.9, p less than 0.001). Consuming carbonated beverages on regular basis was positively associated with consuming energy drinks (OR=9.0, 95% CI: 4.0-21.0, p less than 0.001).  Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary choices were found to be prevalent at early age. Comprehensive intervention programs should be established to prevent unhealthy dietary choices and promote healthier dietary behaviors. Qualitative studies are needed for better understanding of children's dietary behaviors.

  16. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks (not including 100% fruit juice). If soda habits start when kids are little, chances are they ... Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide to Eating for Sports ...

  17. A glucose-caffeine 'energy drink' ameliorates subjective and performance deficits during prolonged cognitive demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2004-06-01

    Effects of a combination of caffeine and glucose were assessed in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies during extended performance of cognitively demanding tasks. In the first study, 30 participants received two drinks containing carbohydrate and caffeine (68 g/38 mg; 68 g/46 mg, respectively) and a placebo drink, in counter-balanced order, on separate days. In the second study 26 participants received a drink containing 60 g of carbohydrate and 33 mg of caffeine and a placebo drink. In both studies, participants completed a 10-min battery of tasks comprising 2-min versions of Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks and a 5-min version of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP), plus a rating of 'mental fatigue', once before the drink and six times in succession commencing 10 min after its consumption. In comparison to placebo, all three active drinks improved the accuracy of RVIP performance and both the drink with the higher level of caffeine in first study and the active drink in the second study resulted in lower ratings of mental fatigue. These results indicate that a combination of caffeine and glucose can ameliorate deficits in cognitive performance and subjective fatigue during extended periods of cognitive demand.

  18. Energy drink ingredients. Contribution of caffeine and taurine to performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Martin, Frances Heritage; Carr, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    While the performance-enhancing effects of energy drinks are commonly attributed to caffeine, recent research has shown greater facilitation of performance post-consumption than typically expected from caffeine content alone. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the independent and combined effect of taurine and caffeine on behavioural performance, specifically reaction time. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, within-subjects design, female undergraduates (N=19) completed a visual oddball task and a stimulus degradation task 45min post-ingestion of capsules containing: (i) 80mg caffeine, (ii) 1000mg taurine, (iii) caffeine and taurine combined, and (iv) matched placebo. Participants completed each treatment condition, with sessions separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Whereas no significant treatment effects were recorded for reaction time in the visual oddball task, facilitative caffeine effects were evident in the stimulus degradation task, with significantly faster reaction time in active relative to placebo caffeine conditions. Furthermore, there was a trend towards faster mean reaction time in the caffeine condition relative to the taurine condition and combined caffeine and taurine condition. Thus, treatment effects were task-dependent, in that independent caffeine administration exerted a positive effect on performance, and co-administration with taurine tended to attenuate the facilitative effects of caffeine in the stimulus degradation task only. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany J. Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  20. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children's Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany J; Bell, Lucinda K; Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Rangan, Anna M; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-12-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children's consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars.

  1. Contribution of Discretionary Foods and Drinks to Australian Children’s Intake of Energy, Saturated Fat, Added Sugars and Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions are required to reduce children’s consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2–18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars. Per consumer intake identified cereal-based takeaway foods; cakes, muffins and slices; meat pies and other savoury pastries; and, processed meats as top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and sodium across most age groups. Subgroups of sugar-sweetened drinks and cakes, muffins and slices were consistently key contributors to added sugars intake. This study identified optimal targets for interventions to reduce discretionary choices intake, likely to have the biggest impact on moderating energy intake while also reducing intakes of saturated fat, sodium and/or added sugars. PMID:29194425

  2. Effect of Caffeine Contained in Sports Drink on Hormones Producing Energy Following Sprint Test Performance in Male Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayiz Abumoh'd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of caffeine contained in sports drink on hormones producing energy and sprint test performance in male soccer players. Twelve participants (25.97 ± 2.70 y performed the test under thre e conditions (one week apart: caffeine with sports drink (SD-CAF, sports drink (SD, and placebo (PLA. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol, participants performed SD-CAF trial (5 mg/kg of caffeine contained in 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test (7 × 30 m, SD trial (solely 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test, or placebo. Blood analysis indicated significantly higher level of free thyroxine in SD-CAF (21.450 ± 3.048 compared to SD (18.742 ± 1.151 and PLA (16.983 ± 1.783. Similar findings existed regarding insulin (P 0.05. No significant differences were observed between trials in first–fourth repetitions (P > 0.05. Time of fifth-seventh repetitions were significantly lower in SD-CAF compared to SD and PLA (P < 0.05, and were significantly lower in SD than that in PLA (P < 0.05. The time of 7th repetition was (4.331 ± 0.210, 4.610 ± 0.197, 4.81 6 ± 0.171 s for SD-CAF, SD, and PLA, respectively; P < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine interferes hormones that are responsible for producing energy which in turn have a positive effect on repeated sprint bouts.

  3. ENERGY DRINKS CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYPERACTIVITY/INATTENTION BEHAVIOUR AMONG THE INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH SCHOOL MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad S. Alsamghan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND New studies has revealed the consumption of energy drinks as a common, linked with potential risky hyperactivity/inattention behaviour among the adolescent and especially college students. To assess the prevalence of the energy drinks consumption and to evaluate hyperactivity/inattention behaviour symptoms among the adolescent intermediate and high school male and female students in Abha city. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students who were studying in the intermediate and high school. Schools were randomly selected and all students (N=602 participated with consent. Total sample size included 602 students, 50% students from intermediate school and 50% students from high school. The tools used in the present study to collect the information from the students were a structured standardised questionnaire includes the basics characteristic, demographic and consumption of energy drinks related information. RESULTS Prevalence of the energy drinks consumption among students studying in intermediate and high school level was 303 (50.3%. Male 162 (53.3% are more consuming energy drinks than female 141 (46.7%. Students who are studying in high school (56.1% drinking more energy drinks than students (43.9% in higher level. Mean score of SDQ was 21.53±5.414 falling in abnormal category. Mean±SD score of the hyperactivity subscale of the SDQ was 3.76±1.980. Female students 66 (21.9%, p=0.162 are more likely to score hyperactivity subscale compared to male students 52 (17.3% (Table 1. Bivariate logistic regression analysis (Table 2 revealed that there was a significance association found with risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.47, 95% Cl=1.61, 3.78 who consumed energy drinks. Most of the types of energy drinks types were associated with hyperactivity as regression analysis results shown. No association observed with study levels. CONCLUSION Energy drinks

  4. Consumption of energy drinks among Québec college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Masson, Marianne; Loslier, Julie; Paquin, Pierre; Bertrand, Karine

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of energy drinks (ED) raises concerns because of adverse health effects possibly linked with high levels of caffeine and sugar intake. The study looks at the scope of ED consumption as well as some of the associated characteristics. Thirty-six public colleges in the Canadian province of Québec agreed to participate in a descriptive cross-sectional study (n = 36). In February 2013, participating colleges invited their students to answer an online questionnaire on consumption of ED, alcoholic ED (AED), and ED in combination with other psychotropic drugs. A descriptive and correlational analysis was carried out. Logistic regressions explored associations between ED consumption and associated characteristics. Of the students who successfully completed the questionnaire and participated in the study (n = 10,283), a low proportion consumed ED (9.1%; n = 935) and/or AED (1.1%; n = 109) at least once a week in the previous month. Although low in proportion, a number of participants reported having used ED with other stimulant psychoactive substances (n = 247) and ≥3 ED/day (n = 193) or ≥3 AED/occasion (n = 167), which can pose a risk for serious adverse effects. Weekly ED consumption was associated with consumption of ≥20 cups of coffee/week, smoking, excessive use of alcohol and past use of cannabis, glues or solvents and amphetamines. A majority of respondents are not heavy users of ED, AED, or ED with drugs. Yet, the profiles of ED consumption potentially harmful to health that characterize some participants indicate that the potential health consequences of such behaviour are of concern.

  5. The potential adverse effect of energy drinks on executive functions in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Van Batenburg-Eddes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Manufacturers of energy drinks (EDs claim their products improve cognitive performance. Young adolescents are in a critical developmental phase. The impact of ED intake on their development is not yet clear. Therefore, we studied the associations of both caffeine intake and ED consumption with executive functions (EFs, and the role of pubertal status and sleeping problems. Methods. A sample of 509 participants (mean age: 13.1 years, SD 0.85 participated in the study. The level of pubertal development was classified in five pubertal status categories. Participants were asked to report their caffeine (for example coffee and ED consumption for each day of the week. In addition, they indicated sleep quality by reporting problems falling asleep or waking up and/or interrupted sleep. EFs were assessed by self- and parent reports of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. Results. Consuming on average one or more ED(s a day was associated with more problems in self-reported behavior regulation and metacognition, and with more problems in parent-reported metacognition. Only high caffeine consumption (two or more cups a day was associated with parent-reported problems with metacognition. The sum of caffeine and ED use was associated with a higher amount of problems with self-reported metacognition and parent reported behavior regulation. The effect estimates for the association between caffeine and ED use combined and EFs did not exceed those of EDs or caffeine separately. Adjusting for pubertal status, gender, educational level, number of sleeping problems and hours of sleep did not change the effect estimates substantially. Conclusion. The observed associations between ED consumption and EFs suggest that regular consumption of EDs - even in moderate amounts – may have a negative impact on daily life behaviors related to EF in young adolescents.

  6. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  7. Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor for the analysis of vitamin B12 in energy drinks: A novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, L.S.; Thakur, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic representation of immunochemiluminescence based dipstick technique for detection of vitamin B 12 . (b) Enzymatic dephosphorylation of dioxetane by alkaline phosphatase. Highlights: ► Dipstick based immunochemiluminescence biosensor proposed for vitamin B 12 analysis. ► The limit of detection of vitamin B 12 is 1 ng mL −1 and applied in energy drinks. ► Chemiluminescence generated was inversely proportional to vitamin B 12 concentration. ► Chemiluminescence analytical procedure was compared with ELISA. ► Alkaline phosphatase was stable chemiluminescent enzyme than Horse Radish Peroxidase. - Abstract: In this article, we describe a dipstick based immunochemiluminescence (immuno-CL) biosensor for the detection of vitamin B 12 in energy drinks. The method is a direct competitive type format involving the immobilization of vitamin B 12 antibody on nitrocellulose membrane (NC) followed by treatment with vitamin B 12 and vitamin B 12 –alkaline phosphatase conjugate to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with substrate disodium 2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro {1,2-dioxetane-3,2¢-(5¢-chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan}-4-yl)-1-phenyl phosphate (CDP-Star) to generate chemiluminescence (CL). The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the vitamin B 12 concentration. After systematic optimization, the limit of detection was 1 ng mL −1 . The coefficient of variation was below 0.2% for both intra- and inter-assay precision. Vitamin B 12 was extracted from energy drinks with recovery ranged from 90 to 99.4%. Two different energy drinks samples were analyzed, and a good correlation was observed when the data were compared with a reference enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The developed method is suitable for an accurate, sensitive, and high-throughput screening of vitamin B 12 in energy drinks samples. The dipstick technique based on immuno-CL is suitable for the

  8. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Shelina; Cheetham, Mandy; Riby, Deborah M; Crossley, Stephen J; Lake, Amelia A

    2016-10-08

    To examine patterns of energy drink consumption by children and young people, attitudes towards these drinks, and any associations with health or other outcomes. Rapid evidence assessment and narrative synthesis. 9 electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of relevant studies and searches of the internet. A total of 410 studies were located, with 46 meeting the inclusion criteria. The majority employed a cross-sectional design, involved participants aged 11-18 years, and were conducted in North America or Europe. Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people was found to be patterned by gender, with boys consuming more than girls, and also by activity levels, with the highest consumption observed in the most and least sedentary individuals. Several studies identified a strong, positive association between the use of energy drinks and higher odds of health-damaging behaviours, as well as physical health symptoms such as headaches, stomach aches, hyperactivity and insomnia. There was some evidence of a dose-response effect. 2 experimental studies involving small numbers of junior athletes demonstrated a positive impact on limited aspects of sports performance. 3 themes emerged from the qualitative studies: reasons for use; influences on use; and perceived efficacy and impact. Taste and energy-seeking were identified as key drivers, and branding and marketing were highlighted as major influences on young people's consumption choices. Awareness of possible negative effects was low. There is growing evidence that consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of adverse outcomes and risk behaviours in terms of children's health and well-being. However, taste, brand loyalty and perceived positive effects combine to ensure their popularity with young consumers. More research is needed to explore the short-term and long-term impacts in all spheres, including health, behaviour and education. CRD42014010192. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  9. Responsible drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  10. Effects of chronic consumption of energy drinks on liver and kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were withdrawn at the start of the experiment, and at the 6th and 12th weeks for assay of hepatic and ... and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United. States of ... coagulate and the sera were stored at -20 °C ..... reduced in size with narrowing of the urinary space. (arrows). .... drinks a growing problem. Drug ...

  11. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students' lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health.

  12. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  13. Chemical analysis of Zam Zam water of Saudi Arabia and drinking water supplies of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Sharif, A.K.M.; Idriss A, K.M.; Alamgir, M.

    1991-01-01

    The quality of water plays an important role to the living beings. Chemical analysis have been performed on Zam Zam water of Saudi Arabia and drinking water of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Bangladesh. Quantitative measurements of some essential elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co and Ni) and toxic elements (Pb and Cd) were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometric method. Tests indicate that all three samples (Zam Zam, tap and solar pump water) are drinkable and palatable. pH measurements show that Zam Zam water is alkaline whereas both tap and solar pump water are slightly acidic

  14. Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water and Wastewater Using High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Behjat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of electron beam as a strong oxidation method for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater has been investigated. Drinking water samples were prepared from wells in rock zones in Yazd Province. Wastewater samples were collected from Yazd Wastewater Treatment Plant. Samples were irradiated by 10 MeV electron beam accelerator at Yazd Radiation Processing Center. The irradiation dose range varied from 0.5-5 kGy. Biological parameters and microbial agents such as aerobic mesophiles and coliforms including E. coli count before and after irradiation versus irradiation dose were obtained using MPN method. The data obtained from irradiated water and wastewater were compared with un-irradiated (control samples. The results showed a removal of 90% of all microorganisms at irradiation doses below 5 kGy, suggesting electron beam irradiation as an effective method for disinfection of wastewater.

  15. Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Ferris, Jason; Winstock, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing. Method Participants (n = 74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification ...

  16. Adolescent consumption of sports and energy drinks: linkages to higher physical activity, unhealthy beverage patterns, cigarette smoking, and screen media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Dewolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Data were drawn from Eating and Activity in Teens, a population-based study. Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN completed classroom-administered surveys. A total of 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6-12. Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only after vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption, to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of alcohol and alcohol mixed with energy drinks on non-medical prescription stimulant use in a nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff M; Williams, Ronald D; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use. Pearson-product moment coefficients were used to determine strength of variable relationships. Significant differences were found in frequency of Ritalin (p energy drink and AmED use, as the combined effects of stimulants contained in energy drinks and the depressant effects of alcohol appear to be associated with increased non-medical prescription stimulant use. Research on the influential factors related to energy drinks, alcohol, and non-medical prescription stimulants will help practitioners to more appropriately design prevention and intervention strategies addressing these high-risk behaviors. (Am J Addict 2016;25:378-384). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  19. The effects of aquifer thermal energy storage on groundwater quality and the consequences for drinking water production: A case study from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonte, M.; van der Berg, G.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Boukes, H.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system located 570 m from a public water supply well field in the south of the Netherlands to investigate the relation between production of renewable energy with an ATES system and the production of drinking water. The data show that the

  20. Cognitive and physiological effects of an "energy drink": an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew B; Kennedy, David O

    2004-11-01

    Both glucose and caffeine can improve aspects of cognitive performance and, in the case of caffeine, mood. There are few studies investigating the effects of the two substances in combination. We assessed the mood, cognitive and physiological effects of a soft drink containing caffeine and glucose as well as flavouring levels of herbal extracts. The effects of different drink fractions were also evaluated. Using a randomised, double-blind, balanced, five-way crossover design, 20 participants who were overnight fasted and caffeine-deprived received 250 ml drinks containing 37.5 g glucose; 75 mg caffeine; ginseng and ginkgo biloba at flavouring levels; a whole drink (containing all these substances) or a placebo (vehicle). Participants were assessed in each drink condition, separated by a 7-day wash-out period. Cognitive, psychomotor and mood assessment took place immediately prior to the drink then 30 min thereafter. The primary outcome measures included five aspects of cognitive performance from the Cognitive Drug Research assessment battery. Mood, heart rate and blood glucose levels were also monitored. Compared with placebo, the whole drink resulted in significantly improved performance on "secondary memory" and "speed of attention" factors. There were no other cognitive or mood effects. This pattern of results would not be predicted from the effects of glucose and caffeine in isolation, either as seen here or from the literature addressing the effects of the substances in isolation. These data suggest that there is some degree of synergy between the cognition-modulating effects of glucose and caffeine which merits further investigation.

  1. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Chinapaw, Mai J; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26-0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36-1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12-1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67-1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67-1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72-2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink consumption and this association was moderated

  2. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  3. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression by bile acids, meal replacement and energy drinks, milk, and coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Styer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enterohepatic pathway involving the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 and bile acids (BA has been linked with the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Specifically, diabetic patients had lower FGF19 circulating levels but postoperative FGF19 and BA levels were higher in diabetic patients that experience remission of T2D, as compared to non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients that do not experience remission. It has been proposed that this may be due to the direct flow of digestate-free bile acids into the ileum benefiting mostly T2D patients without severe diabetes. METHODS/RESULTS: We used a human colorectal cell line (LS174T that endogenously expresses FGF19, real time PCR, and Elisas for precise quantitation of FGF19 mRNA and secreted protein levels. We report here that BA and fractions of BA stimulated FGF19 in vitro but this effect was partially blocked when BA were pre-incubated with a lipoprotein mix which emulates digested food. In addition, we show that FGF19 mRNA was stimulated by meal replacement drinks (Ensure, Glucerna, SlimFast, non-fat milk, and coffee which has been linked with reduced risk for developing diabetes. Pure caffeine and the 5-hour Energy drink, on the other hand, decreased FGF19 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, FGF19 expression in vitro is modifiable by popular drinks suggesting that such approaches could potentially be used for modulating FGF19 expression in humans.

  4. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression by bile acids, meal replacement and energy drinks, milk, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Amanda M; Roesch, Stephen L; Argyropoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The enterohepatic pathway involving the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and bile acids (BA) has been linked with the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Specifically, diabetic patients had lower FGF19 circulating levels but postoperative FGF19 and BA levels were higher in diabetic patients that experience remission of T2D, as compared to non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients that do not experience remission. It has been proposed that this may be due to the direct flow of digestate-free bile acids into the ileum benefiting mostly T2D patients without severe diabetes. We used a human colorectal cell line (LS174T) that endogenously expresses FGF19, real time PCR, and Elisas for precise quantitation of FGF19 mRNA and secreted protein levels. We report here that BA and fractions of BA stimulated FGF19 in vitro but this effect was partially blocked when BA were pre-incubated with a lipoprotein mix which emulates digested food. In addition, we show that FGF19 mRNA was stimulated by meal replacement drinks (Ensure, Glucerna, SlimFast), non-fat milk, and coffee which has been linked with reduced risk for developing diabetes. Pure caffeine and the 5-hour Energy drink, on the other hand, decreased FGF19 mRNA. In summary, FGF19 expression in vitro is modifiable by popular drinks suggesting that such approaches could potentially be used for modulating FGF19 expression in humans.

  5. Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Mita, Gustavo Damiano; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of five bisphenols in canned energy drinks by UPLC with fluorescence detection, after clean up on molecularly imprinted polymers, is herein described. The method was validated at two concentration levels, calculating trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, specificity, linearity of detector response, the limits of quantifications and the limits of detection for each bisphenol. The method is specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) down to 0.50ng/mL; it was employed to determine contamination levels from these bisphenols in forty energy drinks of different brands, collected from the market in Naples. BPA was detected in 17 out of 40 samples (42.5%); in some energy drinks also BPF, BADGE and BFDGE were determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  7. Energy recovery from the drinking-water supply of Gordola, Switzerland; Ricupero energetico nell'acquedotto di Gordola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M.

    2007-08-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Gordola, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to provide the necessary pressure reduction in the drinking-water supply system between the springs in the mountains and the reservoir in the valley whilst generating electrical power at the same time. Four variants for the realisation of the new hydropower installation are presented and discussed. A Pelton turbine that meets all drinking-water quality requirements would be used to generate electrical power using the pressure obtained from the height-difference of around 249 metres. In the two most favorable variants the maximum power generated would be 35 kW and the expected electricity production 160,000 kWh/year. Return on investment is achieved if the generated electricity is sold at a price of at least 0.15 CHF/kWh.

  8. Use pattern and predictors of use of highly caffeinated energy drinks among South Korean adolescents: a study using the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dongmun; Song, Inmyung; Jang, Gyeongil; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Shin, Ju-Young

    2017-09-24

    Concerns about the use of highly caffeinated energy drinks among Korean adolescents remains. We compared adolescents' perceptions regarding the use of drinks to their behaviours and factors. A structured questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model was administered to 850 freshmen and sophomores at three high schools in Bucheon, South Korea. Benefits were defined as beneficial effects from the use of highly caffeinated energy drinks (eg, awakening from sleepiness) and harms as adverse effects of the drinks (eg, cardiac palpitation). Likelihood of action represents the likelihood of taking actions that are perceived to be more beneficial after comparison of the benefits and harms of caffeine use. Descriptive analysis was used to quantify the relationship between their beliefs about highly caffeinated energy drinks and their use. We conducted hierarchical logistic regression to compute ORs and 95% CIs for: (1) demographic factors, (2) health threat, (3) likelihood of action and (4) cues to act. Altogether, 833 students responded to the questionnaire (effective response rate=98.0%). About 63.0% reported use of highly caffeinated energy drinks and 35.2% had used them as needed and habitually. The more susceptible the respondents perceived themselves to be to the risk of using these drinks, the less likely they were to use them (OR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.06). The more severe the perception of a health threat, the less that perception was associated with use (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.67). Likelihood of action was the strongest predictor of use, explaining 12.5% in use. Benefits and harms (OR: 4.43, 95% CI 2.77 to 7.09; OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.99) also were significant predictors. Enhancing adolescents' perceptions of benefits and harms regarding using highly caffeinated energy drinks could be an effective way to influence the use of these drinks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  9. Experimenting with photoelectrochemical cells in drinking straws: practical aids for learning about solar energy in school or at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleyard, S J

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized ZnO with a Cu 2+ /Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ electrolyte can be easily made at home or in a school classroom with household chemicals and other readily available materials. The cells, which are made with wire housed within plastic drinking straws, have open-circuit voltages of 0.5–0.7 V and short-circuit currents of about 0.5–2.5 mA cm −2 . Step-by-step instructions are provided on how to construct the photoelectrochemical cells, as are suggestions about how to use the cells to explore some concepts associated with utilizing solar energy

  10. Commentary on Marczinski and colleagues: mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C

    2013-02-01

    This commentary discusses the study by Marczinski and colleagues in which they used an alcohol priming procedure to examine the effects of an alcohol/energy drink mixture on the priming effect. The significance of the main findings from this study and new avenues of investigation are discussed. Using an alcohol priming paradigm, Marczinski and colleagues report that an alcohol/energy drink combination (AmED) prolongs the desire-to-drink rating compared with alcohol alone. The results of this laboratory study add to the growing body of literature that the intoxicating effects of AmED are different than the intoxication by alcohol alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Co-ingestion of energy drinks with alcohol and other substances among a sample of people who regularly use ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Sindicich, Natasha; Dunn, Matthew; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Sutherland, Rachel; Entwistle, Gavin; Burns, Lucinda; Bruno, Raimondo

    2016-05-01

    Despite the potential harms of mixing unregulated drugs with energy drinks (ED), research to date has primarily been focused on EDs co-ingested with alcohol. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to explore the rate of use, harms and correlates of EDs co-ingested with alcohol and other drugs among a sample of people who regularly use illicit stimulant drugs. In 2010, 693 Australians who regularly used ecstasy completed a 1-h interview about their past six-month ED and drug use. Three-quarters of the sample (77%) had recently consumed EDs with other substances, primarily alcohol (70%) and ecstasy (57%). People who consumed ED with alcohol versus those who had consumed ED with ecstasy and with alcohol (only 8% reported only consuming ED with ecstasy) had similar profiles in regards to demographics, drug use, mental health and drug-related problems. Primary motives for consuming ED with alcohol included increased alertness (59%), the taste (25%), to party for longer (23%) and to combat fatigue (16%). One-half (52%) and one-quarter (27%) of participants who consumed EDs with alcohol and with ecstasy respectively had recently experienced adverse outcomes post-consumption, primarily headaches (24% and 11%) and heart palpitations (21% and 14%). Co-ingestion of EDs with licit and illicit drugs is common among people who regularly use ecstasy and related drugs. Adverse outcomes of co-ingestion suggest that targeted education regarding negative interactive drug effects is crucial for harm reduction. [Peacock A, Sindicich N, Dunn M, Whittaker E, Sutherland R, Entwistle G, Burns L, Bruno R. Co-Ingestion of Energy Drinks with Alcohol and Other Substances among a Sample of People Who Regularly Use Ecstasy. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:352-358]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Analytical Method Validation and Determination of Pyridoxine, Nicotinamide, and Caffeine in Energy Drinks Using Thin Layer Chromatography-Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentinus Dika Octa Riswanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Food supplement which contains vitamins and stimulants such as caffeine were classified as energy drink. TLC-densitometry method was chosen to determine the pyridoxine, nicotinamide, and caffeine in the energy drink sample. TLC plates of silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase and methanol : ethyl acetate : ammonia 25% (134:77:10 was used as the mobile phase. The correlation coefficient for each pyridoxine, nicotinamide, and caffeine were 0.9982, 0.9997, and 0.9966, respectively. Detection and quantitation limits of from the three analytes were 4.05 and 13.51 µg/mL; 13.15 and 43.83 µg/mL; 5.43 and 18.11 µg/mL, respectively. The recovery of pyridoxine, nicotinamide, and caffeine were within the required limit range of 95-105%. The percent of RSD were below the limit value of 5.7% for caffeine and nicotinamide and 8% for pyridoxine. The content amount of pyridoxine in the sample 1 and 2 were 33.59 ± 0.981 and 30.29 ± 2.061 µg/mL, respectively. The content amount of nicotinamide in the sample 1 and 2 were 106.53 ± 3.521 and 98.20 ± 3.648 µg/mL, respectively. The content amount of caffeine in the sample 1 and 2 were 249.50 ± 5.080 and 252.80 ± 2.640 µg/mL, respectively. Robustness test results showed that the most optimal method conditions should be applied for the analysis.

  13. Thermogenic effect of meltdown RTD™ energy drink in young healthy women: a double blind, cross-over design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faigenbaum Avery D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the acute metabolic effects of a high-energy drink in healthy, physically-active women. Methods Ten women (20.4 ± 0.70 y; 166.9 ± 7.2 cm; 67.0 ± 7.0 kg; 29.6 ± 6.5% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. Subjects reported to the laboratory in a 3-hr post-absorptive state and were provided either 140 ml of the high-energy drink (SUP; commercially marketed as Meltdown RTD™ or placebo (P. Subjects consumed two 70 ml doses of SUP or P, separated by 30 min and rested in a semi-recumbent position for 3 hours. Resting oxygen consumption (VO2 and heart rate (HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. Blood pressure (BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. Area under the curve (AUC analysis was computed for VO2, whereas a 3-hour average and hourly averages were calculated for respiratory quotient (RQ, total kcal, HR, BP, and profile of mood states (POMS. Results AUC analysis revealed a 10.8% difference (p = 0.03 in VO2 between SUP and P. No difference in VO2 was seen between the groups in the first hour, but VO2 in SUP was significantly greater than P in the second (13.9%, p = 0.01 and third hours (11.9%, p = 0.03. A difference (p = 0.03 in energy expenditure was seen between SUP (1.09 ± 0.10 kcal·min-1 and P (0.99 ± 0.09 kcal·min-1 for the 3-hour period. Although no difference in energy expenditure was seen in the first hour, significant differences between SUP and P were observed in the second (1.10 ± 0.11 kcal·min-1 and 0.99 ± 0.09 kcal·min-1, respectively; p = 0.02 and third hour (1.08 ± 0.11 kcal·min-1 and 0.99 ± 0.09 kcal·min-1, respectively; p = 0.05. Average systolic BP was significantly higher (p = 0.007 for SUP (110.0 ± 3.9 mmHg compared to P (107.3 ± 4.4 mmHg. No differences were seen in HR, diastolic BP, or POMS

  14. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... in risky behavior, including drinking and driving, sexual activity (such as unprotected ... the risk of physical and sexual assault Underage youth who drink are ...

  15. The effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) on subjective intoxication and alertness : results from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loo, Aurora J A E; van Andel, Nienke; van Gelder, Charlotte A G H; Janssen, Boris S G; Titulaer, Joep; Jansen, Jimmy; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this double blind placebo controlled study was to examine if specific effects on subjective intoxication and alertness-sleepiness ratings could be demonstrated after consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) when compared to consuming alcohol only (AO). METHODS: 56

  16. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol

  17. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and

  18. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  19. Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including older adults. 3 Marketing analysts reported increasing sales of energy shots in 2011 that were expected ... perceived health benefits are largely due to marketing techniques rather than scientific evidence. Because of the drinks’ ...

  20. Energy efficient electrocoagulation using a new flow column reactor to remove nitrate from drinking water - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-07-01

    In this investigation, a new bench-scale electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) has been applied for drinking water denitrification. FCER utilises the concepts of flow column to mix and aerate the water. The water being treated flows through the perforated aluminium disks electrodes, thereby efficiently mixing and aerating the water. As a result, FCER reduces the need for external stirring and aerating devices, which until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors. Therefore, FCER could be a promising cost-effective alternative to the traditional lab-scale EC reactors. A comprehensive study has been commenced to investigate the performance of the new reactor. This includes the application of FCER to remove nitrate from drinking water. Estimation of the produced amount of H 2 gas and the yieldable energy from it, an estimation of its preliminary operating cost, and a SEM (scanning electron microscope) investigation of the influence of the EC process on the morphology of the surface of electrodes. Additionally, an empirical model was developed to reproduce the nitrate removal performance of the FCER. The results obtained indicated that the FCER reduced the nitrate concentration from 100 to 15 mg/L (World Health Organization limitations for infants) after 55 min of electrolysing at initial pH of 7, GBE of 5 mm, CD of 2 mA/cm 2 , and at operating cost of 0.455 US $/m 3 . Additionally, it was found that FCER emits H 2 gas enough to generate a power of 1.36 kW/m 3 . Statistically, the relationship between the operating parameters and nitrate removal could be modelled with R 2 of 0.848. The obtained SEM images showed a large number dents on anode's surface due to the production of aluminium hydroxides. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-10-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150-200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Erosive effect of energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol on human enamel surface.An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the erosive effect of energy drinks (ED alone and mixed with alcohol on the human enamel surface in vitro. Methods: Twenty non-erupted human third molars were vertically sectioned in half. Specimens were exposed to 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva or 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva plus 5mL of alcohol (Pisco. Exposure times were set at 30min and 60min. Erosive assessments were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The ED analyzed were Mr. Big, Kem Extreme, Red Bull, and Monster Energy. ED pH measurements were performed at 25°C and titration was done with NaOH 0.1mol/L. Results: The pH ranges were: ED alone 2.55 to 3.46, ED mixed with artificial saliva 2.60 to 3.55, ED mixed with Pisco 2.82 to 3.70, and ED mixed with both 2.92 to 3.86. The pH of Pisco was 6.13, and Pisco mixed with artificial saliva had a pH of 6.23. Titration showed a pH range from 3.5 to 5.7. SEM-EDS analysis showed that Mr. Big and Monster led to clear demineralization at 30 min and remineralization at 60m in. Pisco slightly decreased the erosive effect of these ED. Kem Xtreme and Red Bull led to no demineralization in the first hour. Conclusion: According to the pH, acidity and EDS analysis, the ED of the present study likely caused enamel erosion in human teeth surface dependent on exposure time.

  3. Intake of energy-dense snack foods and drinks among Dutch children aged 7-12 years: how many, how much, when, where and which?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To describe the energy-dense snack food (EDSF) and energy-dense drink (EDD) consumption of children in the Netherlands and investigate subgroup differences. The amounts consumed, eating occasions, places of consumption and consumed types are reported. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were used to describe the EDSF and EDD consumption. Subgroup differences concerning these intakes were identified with ANCOVA. Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Children (n 860) aged 7-12 years. The mean number of EDSF events was 3·3 (sd 1·6) per day, yielding 1569·7 (sd 928·7) kJ. Average EDD consumption was 594·2 (sd 342·3) ml/d, yielding 737·2 (sd 495·9) kJ. Over 90 % of the children consumed more energy from non-core foods per day than recommended. Differences in EDSF and EDD consumption were found between several subgroups. Most importantly, we found higher intakes among older children and children with low educated mothers. Almost half of the EDSF events took place in the afternoon and at home. Cookies and sweets were consumed during half of the EDSF events. Almost one-third of the EDD were consumed in the afternoon. The majority of these drinks were consumed at home and most were soft drinks. The results demonstrate that snack food and drink consumption is highly prevalent among Dutch children. Health promotion efforts addressing these behaviours are warranted and the present study could accelerate these initiatives. Focusing on children with low educated parents and on snacking at home after school offers the greatest potential to reduce snack food and drink intakes.

  4. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. Methods: A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. Results: No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Conclusion: Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio. PMID:25868042

  5. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2015-11-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio.

  6. Iron removal, energy consumption and operating cost of electrocoagulation of drinking water using a new flow column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-03-15

    The goal of this project was to remove iron from drinking water using a new electrocoagulation (EC) cell. In this research, a flow column has been employed in the designing of a new electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) to achieve the planned target. Where, the water being treated flows through the perforated disc electrodes, thereby effectively mixing and aerating the water being treated. As a result, the stirring and aerating devices that until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors are unnecessary. The obtained results indicated that FCER reduced the iron concentration from 20 to 0.3 mg/L within 20 min of electrolysis at initial pH of 6, inter-electrode distance (ID) of 5 mm, current density (CD) of 1.5 mA/cm 2 , and minimum operating cost of 0.22 US $/m 3 . Additionally, it was found that FCER produces H 2 gas enough to generate energy of 10.14 kW/m 3 . Statistically, it was found that the relationship between iron removal and operating parameters could be modelled with R 2 of 0.86, and the influence of operating parameters on iron removal followed the order: C 0 >t>CD>pH. Finally, the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images showed a large number of irregularities on the surface of anode due to the generation of aluminium hydroxides. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Diego B; Del Coso, Juan; Casonatto, Juliano; Polito, Marcos D

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance. The search for references was conducted in the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SPORTDiscus until December 2015. Thirty-four studies published between 1998 and 2015 were included in the analysis. Using a random-effects model, effect sizes (ES) were calculated as the standardized mean difference. Overall, ED ingestion improved physical performance in muscle strength and endurance (ES = 0.49; p performance (slope = 0.0001; p = 0.04), but not between caffeine dosage (mg) and performance (slope = 0.0009; p = 0.21). ED ingestion improved performance in muscle strength and endurance, endurance exercise tests, jumping and sport-specific actions. However, the improvement in performance was associated with taurine dosage.

  8. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    2016-01-01

    A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. The most frequent neutral motives reported for AMED consumption included "I like the taste" (66.5%), and "to celebrate a special occasion" (35.2%). 52.6% of AMED consumers reported consuming AMED for at least one of five negative motives, primarily "to get drunk" (45.6%). Despite these negative motives those students reported consuming significantly less alcohol and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions compared to alcohol-only (AO) occasions. Although the motives for consuming AMED and AMOB were comparable, more participants reported consuming AMED "to celebrate a special occasion", "to get drunk", because they "received the drink from someone else" or "because others drink it as well". However, significantly more students reported consuming AMOB than AMED because "It feels like I can drink more alcohol". Alcohol consumption was significantly less on AMED occasions compared to AMOB occasions, and both occasions significantly less than AO occasions. The majority of reasons for consuming AMED relate to neutral motives. Although 52.6% of students reported one or more negative motives for AMED consumption (predominantly "to get drunk") this had no differential effect on total alcohol consumption. The differences in motives suggest AMED is consumed more to enjoy special occasions and as a group-bonding experience, however alcohol consumption is significantly lower on such occasions in comparison to when AMOB or AO are consumed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cerebro- and Cardio-vascular Responses to Energy Drink in Young Adults: Is there a Gender Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnard, Cathríona R; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Grasser, Erik K

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are suspected to induce potential adverse cardiovascular effects and have recently been shown to reduce cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in young, healthy subjects. Gender differences in CBFV in response to EDs have not previously been investigated, despite the fact that women are more prone to cardiovascular disturbances such as neurocardiogenic syncope than men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore gender differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to EDs. We included 45 subjects in a retrospective analysis of pooled data from two previous randomized trials carried out in our laboratory with similar protocols. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, impedance cardiography, transcranial Doppler, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) measurements were made for at least 20 min baseline and for 80 min following the ingestion of 355 mL of a sugar-sweetened ED. Gender and time differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular parameters were investigated. CBFV was significantly reduced in response to ED, with the greatest reduction observed in women compared with men (-12.3 ± 0.8 vs. -9.7 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance indicated significant time (P < 0.01) and gender × time (P < 0.01) effects. The percentage change in CBFV in response to ED was independent of body weight and etCO2. No significant gender difference in major cardiovascular parameters in response to ED was observed. ED ingestion reduced CBFV over time, with a greater reduction observed in women compared with men. Our results have potential implications for women ED consumers, as well as high-risk individuals.

  10. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  11. ETAP-ERN project: assessment of drinking water treatment by nano filtration powered by renewable energy; Proyecto ETAP-ERN: evaluacion del tratamiento del agua potable mediante energia renovable y nanofiltracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ramirez, J. A.; Garcia-Vaquero Marin, N.

    2009-07-01

    ETAP-ERN project is mainly to evaluate the potential of nano filtration to complement or replace, if necessary drinking water conventional treatment, in order to obtain higher drinking water quality and sanitary guarantee at a minimum cost. The use of photovoltaic and wind energy power systems does this plant to be unique worldwide. The pilot plant, 50 m{sup 3}/day capacity, has two subunits: energy power (60 kWh) and water production. It will be located at the drinking water treatment plant of El Montanes, Puerto Real (Cadiz, Spain). (Author)

  12. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  13. Heat recovery with heat pumps in non-energy intensive industry: A detailed bottom-up model analysis in the French food and drink industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, Gondia Sokhna; Guerassimoff, Gilles; Maïzi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First bottom-up energy model for NEI at 4-digit level of NACE for energy analysis. • Energy end-use modelling due to the unsuitability of end-product/process approach. • Analysis of heat recovery with HP on industrial processes up to 2020 in French F and D. • Energy consumption and emissions drop respectively by 10% compared to 2001 and 9% to 1990. • Results only achieved at heat temperature below 100 °C, concentrated in 1/3 of F and D sectors. - Abstract: Rising energy prices and environmental impacts inevitably encourage industrials to get involved in promoting energy efficiency and emissions reductions. To achieve this goal, we have developed the first detailed bottom-up energy model for Non-Energy Intensive industry (NEI) to study its global energy efficiency and the potential for CO 2 emissions reduction at a 4-digit level of NACE classification. The latter, which is generally neglected in energy analyses, is expected to play an important role in reducing industry energy intensity in the long term due to its economic and energy significance and relatively high growth rate. In this paper, the modelling of NEI is done by energy end-use owing to the unsuitability of the end-product/process approach used in the Energy Intensive industry modelling. As an example, we analysed the impact of heat recovery with heat pumps (HP) on industrial processes up to 2020 on energy savings and CO 2 emissions reductions in the French food and drink industry (F and D), the biggest NEI sector. The results showed HP could be an excellent and very promising energy recovery technology. For further detailed analysis, the depiction of HP investment cost payments is given per temperature range for each F and D subsector. This model constitutes a useful decision-making tool for assessing potential energy savings from investing in efficient technologies at the highest level of disaggregation, as well as a better subsectoral screening

  14. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  15. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  16. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  17. Experimenting with Photoelectrochemical Cells in Drinking Straws: Practical Aids for Learning about Solar Energy in School or at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized ZnO with a Cu[superscript 2+]/Fe[superscript 2+]/Fe[superscript 3+] electrolyte can be easily made at home or in a school classroom with household chemicals and other readily available materials. The cells, which are made with wire housed within plastic drinking straws, have open-circuit voltages of…

  18. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, caramel and riboflavin in cola-type and energy drinks by synchronous fluorescence technique coupled with partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziak, L'udovít; Májek, Pavel; Hroboňová, Katarína; Cacho, František; Sádecká, Jana

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop a multivariate method for the rapid determination of caffeine and Class IV caramel in cola-type soft drinks and of caffeine, Class III caramel and riboflavin in energy drinks using synchronous fluorescence spectra. The synchronous fluorescence spectra were recorded at constant wavelength difference 90 nm from 200 to 500 nm. Reference values of analyte concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection combined with the standard addition method were used to create the partial least squares (PLS) models. High coefficients of determination (>0.99) were obtained in 0.2-4.2, 0.25-5.25, 0.4-10.0 and 0.007-0.054 mg L(-1) range for caffeine, Class III caramel, Class IV caramel and riboflavin, respectively. The PLS models were used to determine the concentration of analytes in different drink samples. The method provided comparable results with those found using the HPLC method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface hardness evaluation of different composite resin materials: influence of sports and energy drinks immersion after a short-term period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Erdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different composite resin restorative materials over a 1-month period. Material and Methods: A total of 168 specimens: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise were prepared using a customized cylindrical metal mould and they were divided into six groups (N=42; n=7 per group. For the control groups, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and the water was renewed daily. For the experimental groups, the specimens were immersed in 5 mL of one of the following test solutions: Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull, for two minutes daily for up to a 1-month test period and all the solutions were refreshed daily. Surface hardness was measured using a Vickers hardness measuring instrument at baseline, after 1-week and 1-month. Data were statistically analyzed using Multivariate repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05. Results: Multivariate repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the hardness of the restorative materials in different immersion times (p<0.001 in different solutions (p<0.001. The effect of different solutions on the surface hardness values of the restorative materials was tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests, and it was observed that specimens stored in distilled water demonstrated statistically significant lower mean surface hardness reductions when compared to the specimens immersed in sports and energy drinks after a 1-month evaluation period (p<0.001. The compomer was the most affected by an acidic environment, whereas the composite resin materials were the least affected materials. Conclusions: The effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of a restorative material depends on the duration of exposure time, and the composition of the material.

  20. The energy issue in drinking water facilities. Assessment for the reduction of energy consumption and for the use of renewable energy within the Syndicat des eaux d'lle-de-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.; Guery, B.; Ferrari, J.P.; HABART, M.

    2013-01-01

    The energy challenges for the Syndicat des eaux d'Ile-de-France (Sedif), the biggest drinking water utility in France, are particularly significant, since its facilities for the production and distribution of drinking water, in particular the pumping station, consume the electrical equivalent of a town of 25,000 inhabitants (ca. 200 GWh per year). This consumption generates 15,700 tonnes in CO 2 equivalent annually. Furthermore, the Sedif area has numerous sites with a strong potential for the production of renewable energy: 21 photovoltaic, 4 wind, 15 geothermal and 10 close to a heating network. In order to meet these challenges, the Sedif wishes to integrate into its energy policy, the EU targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, to increase energy efficiency by 20% and to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% of its overall consumption between now and 2020. In order to do this, the public utility has set these targets for the one part, within the scope of its project ownership and for the other part, within that of the operations delegated to Veolia Eau d'Ile-de-France SNC. The energy consumption of 20 sites, which are undergoing renovation work between 2011 and 2015, will be better controlled, through the installation of high-efficiency motors or transformers and the replacement of thermal ozone destructors. Five pilot projects to produce or use renewable energy have been undertaken since 2010: the implementation of photovoltaic installations for power production on the main units' roofs, the installation of photovoltaic panels on the tanks at Chatillon and on the new tank at Villejuif, the erection of a wind turbine on the new tank at Palaiseau, and the replacement of the heating systems in the production plant at Choisy-le-Roi. The remaining improvement levers are those that Sedif is imposing on its delegates, Veolia Eau d'Ile-de-France SNC, within the framework of a new 12-year contract [from 1 January 2011). (authors)

  1. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... period of uncontrolled overeating). Today the generally accepted definition of binge drinking in the United States is ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  4. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT ... Since Colonial times, drinking alcohol has been part of American culture and its use by young people has been accepted by many as part ...

  5. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  6. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  7. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among u.s. 12th-grade students: prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Meghan E; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) after alcohol consumption. Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and white students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors and other substance use. AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  10. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. Methods: The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years, who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP—systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP—as well as heart rate (HR and blood glucose (BG measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. Results: In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine, the participants presented a significant increase in DBP (p = 0.003, by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP (p = 0.809. No significant changes were noted in HR (p = 0.750. Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase (p < 0.001 in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Conclusions: Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  11. Caffeine and energy drink use by combat arms soldiers in Afghanistan as a countermeasure for sleep loss and high operational demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Riviere, Lyndon A; Williams, Kelly W; McGurk, Dennis; Lieberman, Harris R

    2018-03-11

    Combat deployments are characterized by high operational demands with limited opportunities for sleep leading to fatigue and degraded cognitive and operational performance. Caffeine in moderate doses is recognized as an effective intervention for physical and cognitive decrements associated with sleep loss. This report is based on data collected by two separate, independently conducted surveys administered in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. It assessed caffeine use and sleep disruption among U.S. Army combat soldiers (J-MHAT 8; n = 518) and among deployed soldiers with different military assignments (USARIEM Deployment Survey; n = 260). Daily caffeine intake assessed in the J-MHAT 8 survey averaged 404 ± 18 mg. In the USARIEM Deployment Survey, intake was 303 ± 29 mg and was significantly higher among combat arms soldiers (483 ± 100 mg) compared to combat service support personnel (235 ± 23 mg). In both surveys, over 55% of total caffeine intake was from energy drinks. Additional sources of caffeine included coffee, tea, sodas, gum, candy, and over-the-counter medications. Higher caffeine intake was not associated with ability to fall asleep at night or wake-up in the morning (J-MHAT 8 survey). Higher caffeine consumption was associated with disrupted sleep from high operational tempo and nighttime duties of combat operations. Overall caffeine consumption and energy drink use in Afghanistan was greater than among non-deployed soldiers and civilians. Caffeine was frequently used as a countermeasure during night operations to offset adverse effects of sleep loss on physical and cognitive function, consistent with current Department of the Army recommendations.

  12. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Ferris, Jason; Winstock, Adam

    2017-05-01

    The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing. Participants (n=74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), and reported whether they wished to reduce alcohol use. Lifetime ED, caffeine tablet and intranasal caffeine spray use were reported by 69.2%, 24.5% and 4.9%. Median age of ED initiation was 16 years. For those aged 16-37, median years using EDs increased from 4 to 17 years of consumption, where it declined thereafter. Greater ED use frequency was associated with: being male; under 21 years of age; studying; and past year caffeine tablet/intranasal spray, tobacco, cannabis, amphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine use. Past year, infrequent (1-4days) and frequent (≥5days) past month ED consumers reported higher AUDIT scores and lower PWI scores than lifetime abstainers; past month consumers were less likely to report a desire to reduce alcohol use. ED use is part of a complex interplay of drug use, alcohol problems, and poorer personal wellbeing, and ED use frequency may be a flag for current/future problems. Prospective research is required exploring where ED use fits within the trajectory of other alcohol and drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lippevelde, W.; te Velde, S.J.; Verloigne, M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Manios, Y.; Bere, E.; Jan, N.; Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Kovacs, E.; Brug, J.; Maes, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of

  15. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children : The ENERGY study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremariam, M.K.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Bere, E.; Kovacs, E.; Verloigne, M.; Stok, F.M.; Manios, Y.; Brug, J.; Lien, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental

  16. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  17. Rapid and interference-free analysis of nine B-group vitamins in energy drinks using trilinear component modeling of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Gu, Hui-Wen; Xiao, Rong; Xie, Li-Xia; Liu, Zhi; Fang, Huan; Wang, Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and interference-free method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine B-group vitamins in various energy drinks. A smart and green strategy that modeled the three-way data array of LC-MS with second-order calibration methods based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) algorithms was developed. By virtue of "mathematical separation" and "second-order advantage", the proposed strategy successfully solved the co-eluted peaks and unknown interferents in LC-MS analysis with the elution time less than 4.5min and simple sample preparation. Satisfactory quantitative results were obtained by the ATLD-LC-MS and APTLD-LC-MS methods for the spiked recovery assays, with the average spiked recoveries ranging from 87.2-113.9% to 92.0-111.7%, respectively. These results acquired from the proposed methods were confirmed by the LC-MS/MS method, which shows a quite good consistency with each other. All these results demonstrated that the developed chemometrics-assisted LC-MS strategy had advantages of being rapid, green, accurate and low-cost, and it could be an attractive alternative for the determination of multiple vitamins in complex food matrices, which required no laborious sample preparation, tedious condition optimization or more sophisticated instrumentations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (EDs are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx and hippocampus (Hp of adult rats (90 days old. Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.

  19. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  20. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Stockwell, Tim

    2012-03-01

    For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms, for example in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content. A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labelling to track intake. Standard drink labelling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low-risk drinking guidelines. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  2. CFD in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wols, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic processes largely determine the efficacy of drinking water treatment systems, in particular disinfection systems. A lack of understanding of the hydrodynamics has resulted in suboptimal designs of these systems. The formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the energy

  3. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  4. In-vitro examination of the positive inotropic effect of caffeine and taurine, the two most frequent active ingredients of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, R; Kornberger, A; Branski, N; Buschmann, K; Stumpf, N; Beiras-Fernandez, A; Vahl, C F

    2017-08-10

    Our study aimed to evaluate changes in the contractile behavior of human myocardium after exposure to caffeine and taurine, the main active ingredients of energy drinks (EDs), and to evaluate whether taurine exhibits any inotropic effect at all in the dosages commonly used in EDs. Myocardial tissue was removed from the right atrial appendages of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and prepared to obtain specimens measuring 4 mm in length. A total of 92 specimens were exposed to electrical impulses at a frequency of 75 bpm for at least 40 min to elicit their maximum contractile force before measuring the isometric contractile force (ICF) and duration of contraction (CD). Following this, each specimen was treated with either taurine (group 1, n = 29), or caffeine (group 2, n = 31) or both (group 3, n = 32). After exposure, ICF and CD measuring were repeated. Post-treatment values were compared with pre-treatments values and indicated as percentages. Exposure to taurine did not alter the contraction behavior of the specimens. Exposure to caffeine, in contrast, led to a significant increase in ICF (118 ± 03%, p caffeine and taurine also induced a statistically significant increase in ICF (124 ± 4%, p caffeine was similar to that achieved by a combination of both caffeine and taurine (p = 0.2). The relative ICF levels achieved by administration of caffeine and a combination of taurine and caffeine, respectively, were both significantly higher (p caffeine altered the contraction behavior of the specimen significantly in our in-vitro model, taurine did not exhibit a significant effect. Adding taurine to caffeine did not significantly enhance or reduce the effect of caffeine.

  5. Sleep quality and sleep patterns in relation to consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among Thai college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-09-01

    Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on the sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1 %. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0 %). Stimulant use (odds ratios (OR) 1.50; 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.02-1.98) also had a statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health.

  6. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  7. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  8. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.01). However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  9. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  10. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not Have a Problem Because I Only Drink Wine and Beer Problem drinking is not about what ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  11. Using environmental chemistry technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, and fat and oil based phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, William R.

    The first four chapters of this dissertation involve the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Various forms of a macroporous char prepared by partial gasification of subbituminous coal were studied for removal of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from water. In increasing order of effectiveness for arsenic(V) removal were untreated char water containing 500 micrograms/L of arsenic to levels below 10 micrograms/L. The capacity of the solid to remove arsenic was significantly diminished in water containing 4 mg/L of phosphate. An electrical current passed over 4 g of iron(III) oxide char in a column enabled removal of arsenic(III) from 14,000 mL of 500 micrograms/L arsenic(III) to below 10 micrograms/liter and at significantly higher flow rates than could be employed without electrolysis. The fifth chapter in this dissertation focused on the retention of organics onto a char/concrete pellet. A mixture of naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, biphenyl, toluene, tetrachloroethane, and chlorobenzene were impregnated into a loose granular char, a char/concrete pellet and a sand/concrete pellet. The results showed that the char/concrete pellet had significant advantages over the other forms. Chapters 6--9 focus on phase change materials (PCMs). These PCMs are made from fats and oils. PCMs are perhaps the only proven method that can provide near 100% thermal energy storage. In chapter 7 a novel HPLC method was developed that could provide quantification and qualification of the resulting products formed after PCM synthesis. In chapter 8 thermal cycling studies were conducted on the fat and oil based PCMs. These thermal cycle demonstrated that these PCMs were capable of going through a multitude of freeze and melt processes with little to no degradation if the appropriate preservative is used. Finally in chapter 9 the PCM is incorporated into a simulated 100 th scale house. A traditional freon based evaporator is used to freeze the PCM at night during electrical-off-peak hours

  12. The counter pressure Pelton turbine as a solution to the energy production in drinking water systems; Die Gegendruck-Peltonturbine als Loesung fuer die Energieproduktion in Trinkwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Reto [Haeny AG - Pumpen, Turbinen und Systeme, Jona (Switzerland); Juric, Thomas [A. Abel GmbH, Pumpen und Turbinen, Wundschuh (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    In drinking water slumbers green electricity. Up to now classical Pelton turbines or cheaper standard pumps running in reverse (PAT) were used. Both technologies have disadvantages or limitations regarding their possible applications, therefore, the optimal implementation of the existing potentials are often not entirely possible. The new ''Counter pressure Pelton turbine'' combines the advantages of both technologies and is therefore in many cases the ''most efficient solution''. (orig.)

  13. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG ampersand G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a open-quotes community water systemclose quotes (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG ampersand G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG ampersand G Idaho production wells

  14. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  15. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  16. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  17. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.

  18. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  19. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  20. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you've just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. 'We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,' said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues

  1. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  2. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  3. Disinfection of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensenauer, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection. (AJ) [de

  4. Disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensenauer, P

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for disinfecting drinking water are described, e.g. UV irradiation (optimal wavelength 210-250mm) with the advantage of constant water composition and the resulting danger of re-infection.

  5. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  6. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  7. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  8. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  9. Efeitos fisiológicos agudos da taurina contida em uma bebida energética em indivíduos fisicamente ativos Acute physiological effects of taurine content of an energy drink in physically active subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dall' Agnol

    2009-04-01

    , energy drinks are identified as liquid compounds ready for consumption, being made of carbohydrates, taurine, caffeine, glucoronolactone, inositol, and B-complex vitamins. Given the small number of studies on the use of taurine in energy drinks related to improved performance, this paper aimed to analyze the metabolic and haemodynamic responses resulted from the administration of the association of taurine and caffeine during an ergospyrometric test in physically active subjects. Therefore, twenty male individuals, 26 ±4.32 years and body mass 23.79 ±2.95, frequent practitioners of aerobic activities, were submitted to two test sessions in cycle ergometer hooked to a gas metabolic analyzer. The sessions schedule was double-blind, and 60 minutes before them the individuals were offered experimental drinks or placebo drinks. During the tests, the subjects were evaluated on the following variables: heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, blood lactate (Lac, subjective perceived exertion by Borg scale (SPE, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max, oxygen uptake at the compensation respiratory point (CRP, exercise time (ET and work load (WL. A paired t test was carried out for data analysis, where (p≤0.05. On the work load, the results indicated an increase of 10 watts with the administration of the experimental drink, with no statistical significance, though. (ED: 342 ±40.60; P: 332.50±56.83. The main results of this study point out that taurine administration contained in the energy drink did not influence in the levels of the investigated variables. Thus, we can conclude that the 2g dose used did not improve performance.

  10. The cerebellum for jocks and nerds alike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu ePopa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically the cerebellum has been implicated in the control of movement. However, the cerebellum’s role in non-motor functions, including cognitive and emotional processes, has also received increasing attention. Starting from the premise that the uniform architecture of the cerebellum underlies a common mode of information processing, this review examines recent electrophysiological findings on the motor signals encoded in the cerebellar cortex and then relates these signals to observations in the non-motor domain. Simple spike firing of individual Purkinje cells encodes performance errors, both predicting upcoming errors as well as providing feedback about those errors. Further, this dual temporal encoding of prediction and feedback involves a change in the sign of the simple spike modulation. Therefore, Purkinje cell simple spike firing both predicts and responds to feedback about a specific parameter, consistent with computing sensory prediction errors in which the predictions about the consequences of a motor command are compared with the feedback resulting from the motor command execution. These new findings are in contrast with the historical view that complex spikes encode errors. Evaluation of the kinematic coding in the simple spike discharge shows the same dual temporal encoding, suggesting this is a common mode of signal processing in the cerebellar cortex. Decoding analyses show the considerable accuracy of the predictions provided by Purkinje cells across a range of times. Further, individual Purkinje cells encode linearly and independently a multitude of signals, both kinematic and performance errors. Therefore, the cerebellar cortex’s capacity to make associations across different sensory, motor and non-motor signals is large. The results from studying how Purkinje cells encode movement signals suggest that the cerebellar cortex circuitry can support associative learning, sequencing, working memory, and forward internal models in non-motor domains

  11. The cerebellum for jocks and nerds alike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Historically the cerebellum has been implicated in the control of movement. However, the cerebellum's role in non-motor functions, including cognitive and emotional processes, has also received increasing attention. Starting from the premise that the uniform architecture of the cerebellum underlies a common mode of information processing, this review examines recent electrophysiological findings on the motor signals encoded in the cerebellar cortex and then relates these signals to observations in the non-motor domain. Simple spike firing of individual Purkinje cells encodes performance errors, both predicting upcoming errors as well as providing feedback about those errors. Further, this dual temporal encoding of prediction and feedback involves a change in the sign of the simple spike modulation. Therefore, Purkinje cell simple spike firing both predicts and responds to feedback about a specific parameter, consistent with computing sensory prediction errors in which the predictions about the consequences of a motor command are compared with the feedback resulting from the motor command execution. These new findings are in contrast with the historical view that complex spikes encode errors. Evaluation of the kinematic coding in the simple spike discharge shows the same dual temporal encoding, suggesting this is a common mode of signal processing in the cerebellar cortex. Decoding analyses show the considerable accuracy of the predictions provided by Purkinje cells across a range of times. Further, individual Purkinje cells encode linearly and independently a multitude of signals, both kinematic and performance errors. Therefore, the cerebellar cortex's capacity to make associations across different sensory, motor and non-motor signals is large. The results from studying how Purkinje cells encode movement signals suggest that the cerebellar cortex circuitry can support associative learning, sequencing, working memory, and forward internal models in non-motor domains.

  12. Tinea Infections (Ringworm, Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a special blue light called a Wood’s lamp, it will have a fluorescent appearance. Not all ... Give your youngster clean socks and underwear every day. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious ...

  13. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  14. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined......The aim of this article is to analyse social status differences in alcohol norms and practices seen from the perspective of ‘health governance’. Survey data on 1442 employees in a middle-sized, Danish firm are used to construct a Bourdieu-inspired social space, tied to four forms of capital......: economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...

  15. Regulating tritium in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article incorporates an article by E. Koehl from an internal Ontario Hydro publication, and a letter from the Joint Committee of Health and Safety of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering, submitted to the Ontario Minister of the Environment and Energy. The Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards had recommended that the limit for tritium in Ontario drinking water be reduced from 40,000 to 100 Bq/L, with a further reduction to 20 in five years. Some facts and figures are adduced to show that the effect of tritium in drinking water in Ontario is negligible compared to the effect of background radiation. The risk from tritium to the people of Ontario is undetectably small, and the attempt to estimate this risk by linear extrapolation is extremely dubious. Regulation entails social and economic costs, and the government ought to ensure that the benefits exceed the costs. The costs translate into nothing less than wasted opportunity to save lives in other ways. 3 refs

  16. Radioactivity standards for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, V.N.; Mahadevan, T.N.; Nair, R.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had issued drinking water specifications for radioactivity in 1991 as 0.1 Bq/L for gross α and 1 pCi/L for gross β. The specification for gross β should have been 1 Bq/L, however the basis for arriving at these standards were not clearly stated. The radiological basis for fixing the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) has, therefore, been reviewed in the present work. The values derived now for gross α (0.01 Bq/L) and gross β (0.34 Bq/L) are different from the values given above. In addition, the DWS for some important radionuclides using the ingestion dose factors applicable to members of the general public (adult as well as children) are given here. It is hoped that the presently suggested values will be accepted by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board and adopted by the BIS in the near future. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 ills

  17. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  18. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  19. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  20. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  1. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Rethink Your Drink!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of drinking a lot of water.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  3. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  4. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  5. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    CERN’s drinking water is monitored on a regular basis. A certified independent laboratory takes and analyses samples to verify that the water complies with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the system that supplies our drinking water is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the system, the water may become cloudy or discoloured, due to traces of corrosion. For this reason, we recommend: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap and heat it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until it is clear before drinking or making your tea or coffee. If you have any questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  6. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  7. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  8. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  9. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  10. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Late-Life Drinking Problems: The Predictive Roles of Drinking Level vs. Drinking Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2017-05-01

    Research on late-middle-aged and older adults has focused primarily on average level of alcohol consumption, overlooking variability in underlying drinking patterns. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of an episodic heavy pattern of drinking versus a high average level of drinking as prospective predictors of drinking problems. The sample comprised 1,107 adults ages 55-65 years at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and drinking problems were indexed across 20 years. We used prospective negative binomial regression analyses controlling for baseline drinking problems, as well as for demographic and health factors, to predict the number of drinking problems at each of four follow-up waves (1, 4, 10, and 20 years). Across waves where the effects were significant, a high average level of drinking (coefficients of 1.56, 95% CI [1.24, 1.95]; 1.48, 95% CI [1.11, 1.98]; and 1.85, 95% CI [1.23, 2.79] at 1, 10, and 20 years) and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking (coefficients of 1.61, 95% CI [1.30, 1.99]; 1.61, 95% CI [1.28, 2.03]; and 1.43, 95% CI [1.08, 1.90] at 1, 4, and 10 years) each independently increased the number of drinking problems by more than 50%. Information based only on average consumption underestimates the risk of drinking problems among older adults. Both a high average level of drinking and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking pose prospective risks of later drinking problems among older adults.

  12. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  13. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed:   Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear.   If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  14. CERN’s Drinking Water

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

      CERN’s drinking water is monitored, with regular samples being taken and analysed by a certified independent laboratory, which checks on compliance with national and European regulations for safe drinking water. Nevertheless, the drinking water network is very old and occasionally, especially after work has been carried out on the network, the clarity and colour of the water can be adversely affected due to high levels of corrosion in suspension. Some basic recommendations should always be followed: Never use hot water from the tap for drinking or cooking. If you need hot water, then draw water from the cold water tap before heating it. Only drink or cook with cold water. Let the cold water run until you notice that the water has become clear. If you have questions about the quality of CERN’s drinking water, then please contact: Jerome Espuche (GS/SEM), Serge Deleval (EN/CV) or Jonathan Gulley (DG/SCG).

  15. Talking to your teen about drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been drinking. How Problems at Home Might Influence Children to Drink Risky drinking or alcohol use in the home can lead to the same habits in children. At an early age, children become aware of the drinking patterns of their parents. Children are more likely to drink if: Conflict ...

  16. Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca em Universitários Saudáveis Após Ingesta de Bebida Energética / Heart Rate Variability in Healthy College Students After Energy Drink Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cesar Shirane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo é analisar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em universitários saudáveis, após ingestão de bebida energética. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, uni-cego que incluiu indivíduos de coração normal. Todos submeteram-se à monitorização eletrocardiográfica por 5 minutos, antes da ingestão de 250 ml do energético Red Bull® (grupo A – GA ou de placebo (grupo B – GB, numa relação 3:1, num período de 10 minutos. Após 45 minutos, um outro ECG foi realizado. Os indivíduos dos GA e GB permaneceram em repouso, sentados. Foi obtida a VFC antes e após a administração das substâncias, nos domínios do tempo (DT e da frequência (DF. Foram excluídos consumidores de energéticos, aqueles que tivessem ingerido álcool ou cafeína nas 24 h antes da investigação. Resultados: Foram incluídos 30 indivíduos no grupo A (16H, 14M, média de idade 22±3a, variando entre 17 e 36 a e 10 no grupo B (6H, 4M, média de idade 20±5a. Não se observou variação da frequência cardíaca antes e após nos GA e GB (70±10 vs 71±8 no GA [p=0,941] e, 69±8 vs. 70±9 no GB[p=0,881]. Houve incremento significativo da atividade vagal no GA, em comparação ao GB, tanto no DT (SDNN e RMSSD, como no DF (HF. O Red Bull® interferiu pouco no sistema simpático e na relação LF/HF nos GA e GB. Conclusões: O Red Bull® na dose empregada, aumentou a VFC por incremento do tônus parassimpáticos; não causou alteração no equilíbrio autonômico (relação LF/HF; esses achados confirmam os efeitos da cafeína sobre a VFC demonstrado em outros estudos. Objective: The objective is to analyze the heart rate variability in college students after energy drink intake. Materials and Methods. Prospective study, uni-blind which included normal individuals. All the students underwent electrocardiographic monitoring for 5 minutes before ingestion of 250 ml of Red Bull® (group A - GA or placebo (Group B - GB in a 3: 1 ratio, in a 10

  17. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Mærsk; Sparre, Anita Belza; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD versus...

  18. Knowledge of and attitudes to sports drinks of adolescents living in South Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, R M; Broughton, D; Morgan, M Z

    2017-06-23

    Background The UK sports drinks market has a turnover in excess of £200 million. Adolescents consume 15.6% of total energy as free sugars, much higher than the recommended 5%. Sugar sweetened beverages, including sports drinks, account for 30% of total free sugar intake for those aged 11-18 years.Objective To investigate children's knowledge and attitudes surrounding sports drinks.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children aged 12-14 were recruited to take part. Questions focussed on knowledge of who sports drinks are aimed at; the role of sports drinks in physical activity; and the possible detrimental effects to oral health. Recognition of brand logo and sports ambassadors and the relationship of knowledge to respondents' consumption of sports drinks were assessed.Results There was an 87% (160) response rate and 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks. 45.9% thought that sports drinks were aimed at everyone; approximately a third (50) viewed teenagers as the target group. Over two thirds recognised the brand logos, yet less than a third could identify brand ambassadors. About half were aware that dental erosion may result from consumption and approximately two thirds knew that they were linked to dental caries and energy provision. Despite this the majority claimed to drink them. As previously reported most of those drinking sports drinks did so because of the taste.Conclusion Whilst most of the respondents had some understanding of the detrimental effects on health the majority of them were drinking them regularly despite this knowledge. Work is therefore needed at a macro level, with soft drink manufacturers, to consider marketing and reformulation of products for adolescent consumers who appear to enjoy them.

  19. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Rethink Your Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  1. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  2. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  3. Biofilm in drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, Pietrangela

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth in drinking waters is today controlled adding small and non toxic quantities of sanitising products. An innovative electrochemical biofilm monitoring system, already successfully applied in industrial waters, could be confirmed as an effective diagnostic tool of water quality also for drinking distributions systems [it

  4. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  5. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  6. US Adults Drink 17 Billion Binge Drinks a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in dangerous driving, risky sexual behavior, and violent behavior. Over time, binge drinking also increases the ... Am J Prev Med 2018; 54(4). Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  7. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  8. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  9. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Responsibility for drinking water; Verantwortung fuer Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lein, Peter [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. Peter Lein, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Planners of drinking water supply systems, implementing sanitary companies as well as building owners probably can be made liable, if the user of drinking water supply systems suffer health damages by drinking water hygienic problems. The germinating of the drinking water with legionella often is the consequence of a not professional start-up of a plant immediately after completion.

  11. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  12. Radiological investigation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the report ''Radiological investigation of drinking water'' submitted by a working group of WHO to the Brussels meeting held between Nov 7 and 10, 1978. Annex II is emphasized of the WHO publication bearing the title ''The revision of WHO standards for drinking water''. It is shown that the draft of the revision does not basically differ from the revision introduced in Czechoslovakia and published in a revised standard CSN 83 0611 Drinking Water from 1978, including its harmonization with the Decree 59/72 Collect. of Laws on the protection of health from ionizing radiation, and from the standard CSN 83 0523 Radiometric analysis of drinking water. It is also shown that the text of the working group report contains some incorrect or unclear statements and views, which is explained by the misunderstanding of some ICRP recommendations. (H.S.)

  13. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... costs include health care expenses, crime, and lost productivity. Binge drinking cost federal, state, and local governments ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division of Population Health , Alcohol and Public Health , ...

  15. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  16. Social anxiety and drinking game participation among university students: the moderating role of drinking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ellen J; George, Amanda M; Brown, Patricia M

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of social anxiety with drinking game participation. Drinking games represent a popular form of drinking in university settings. Due to their structure, games may appeal to socially anxious drinkers, particularly among those seeking to fit in or cope with the social setting. To examine the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation among a university undergraduate sample and to investigate if drinking motives moderate this association. A total of 227 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years (73% female) who had consumed alcohol in the prior year were included in the current investigation. Hierarchical regression examined the influences of social anxiety and drinking motives on frequency of drinking game participation, as well the interactions of social anxiety with drinking for coping motives and conformity motives. Social anxiety failed to emerge as a significant predictor of frequency of drinking game participation. However, drinking to cope moderated the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Socially anxious students who drank to cope were more likely to participate in drinking games on occasions when they consumed alcohol than those who did not endorse this drinking motive. Results demonstrated the influence of drinking to cope in the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Future work should examine the relationship with other indicators of drinking game activity. Intervention efforts addressing social anxiety and drinking should consider motives for drinking, as well as drinking patterns.

  17. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking: an animal model of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; di Poce, Jason; Derenzo, Christopher C; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping provides an animal learning model of drug abuse, two studies evaluated the induction of ethanol drinking by autoshaping procedures. In Experiment 1, the sipper tube conditioned stimulus (CS) contained saccharin/ethanol solution and was repeatedly paired with food as an unconditioned stimulus (US). The CS-US paired group consumed more of the 0.1% saccharin-6% ethanol solution than did the CS-US random group, revealing that autoshaping conditioned responses (CR) induce ethanol drinking not attributable to pseudo-conditioning. Experiment 2 employed saccharin-fading procedures and showed that the paired vs random group differences in ethanol drinking were maintained, even as the saccharin was eliminated from the solution. The results show that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce high volumes of ethanol drinking when the presentation of a sipper tube containing an ethanol solution precedes the response-independent delivery of food. The high volume of ethanol consumed in a brief period of time suggests that Pavlovian autoshaping may be a model of binge drinking.

  18. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, “heroic drinking,” is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, “playful drinking,” has become more prevalent in Denmark as well......, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking", has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations where you need to play with different...... and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16).Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking", is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland...

  19. Perceived peer drinking norms and responsible drinking in UK university settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Jones, Andrew; Christiansen, Paul; Field, Matt

    2014-09-01

    Heavy drinking is common among students at UK universities. US students overestimate how much their peers drink and correcting this through the use of social norm messages may promote responsible drinking. We tested whether there is an association between perceived campus drinking norms and usual drinking behavior in UK university students and whether norm messages about responsible drinking correct normative misperceptions and increase students' intentions to drink responsibly. 1,020 UK university students took part in an online study. Participants were exposed to one of five message types: a descriptive norm, an injunctive norm, a descriptive and injunctive norm, or one of two control messages. Message credibility was assessed. Afterwards participants completed measures of intentions to drink responsibly and we measured usual drinking habits and perceptions of peer drinking. Perceptions of peer drinking were associated modestly with usual drinking behavior, whereby participants who believed other students drank responsibly also drank responsibly. Norm messages changed normative perceptions, but not in the target population of participants who underestimated responsible drinking in their peers at baseline. Norm messages did not increase intentions to drink responsibly and although based on accurate data, norm messages were not seen as credible. In this UK based study, although perceived social norms about peer drinking were associated with individual differences in drinking habits, campus wide norm messages about responsible drinking did not affect students' intentions to drink more responsibly. More research is required to determine if this approach can be applied to UK settings.

  20. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of drink driving within patrons of Australian night-time entertainment precincts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  4. Subtle changes in the flavour and texture of a drink enhance expectations of satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrickerd Keri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.

  5. Dose from drinking water Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Salonen, Laina; Huikuri, Pia; Arvela, Hannu

    1999-01-01

    The dose from drinking water originates almost totally from naturally occurring radionuclides in the uranium-238 series, the most important nuclide being radon-222. Second comes lead-210, and third polonium-210. The mean age-group-weighted dose received by ingestion of drinking water is 0.14 mSv per year. More than half of the total cumulative dose of 750 manSv is received by the users of private wells, forming 13% of the population. The most exposed group comprises the users of wells drilled in bedrock, who receive 320 manSv while comprising only 4% of the population. The calculated number of annual cancer incidences due to drinking water is very sensitive to the dose-conversion factors of ingested radon used, as well as to the estimated lung cancer incidences caused by radon released from water into indoor air. (au)

  6. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Home drinking-water purifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichini, Massimo; Pozio, Alfonso; Russo, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    To salve the widespread problem of contaminated drinking water, home purifiers are now sold in Italy as well as other countries. This article describes how these devices work, how safe they are to use and how safe the water they produce, in the broad context of regulations on drinking water and mineral water. A new device being developed by ENEA to treat municipal water and ground water could provide greater chemical and bacteriological safety. However, the appearance of these new systems makes it necessary to update existing regulations [it

  8. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  9. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  10. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  11. College Drinking: Get the Real Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environments. The walls of college sports arenas carry advertisements from alcohol industry sponsors. Alumni carry on the ... Environmental and peer influences combine to create a culture of drinking. This culture actively promotes drinking, or ...

  12. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  13. Basic Information about Your Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Ground Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Your Drinking Water Infographic: How does your water system work? The ...

  14. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  15. 144__Olukosi_drinking wate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and Giardia lamblia; nutrients (fertilizers), dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic and so on) and dissolved organics (WHO, 2011). The demand for drinking water in Kaduna state is supplied by ground water sources such as wells and boreholes, tap water in areas where it is available, packaged water and ...

  16. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer protection on the drinking water market

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor thesis is marketing research on consumer preferences and knowledge in the field of drinking water and also analyze and compare the price of tap water and bottled water. The theoretical part describes how the consumer market with drinking water is protected in the Czech Republic. They compared the advantages and disadvantages of both types of drinking water.

  18. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  19. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine...

  20. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  1. Drinking motives moderate the impact of pre-drinking on heavy drinking on a given evening and related adverse consequences-an event-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsche Emmanuel; Labhart Florian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To test whether (i) drinking motives predict the frequency of pre drinking (i.e. alcohol consumption before going out); (ii) drinking motives predict HDGE (heavy drinking on a given evening: 4+ for women 5+ for men) and related adverse consequences (hangover injuries blackouts etc.) even when pre drinking is accounted for and (iii) drinking motives moderate the impact of pre drinking on HDGE and consequences. Design: Using the internet based cellphone optimized assessment technique (ICA...

  2. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    "Thousands of boiling water" problem has been affecting people's quality of life and good health, and now most of the drinking fountains cannot effectively solve this problem, at the same time, ordinary drinking water also has high energy consumption, there are problems such as yin and yang water. Our newly designed dispenser uses a two-tank heating system. Hot water after heating, into the insulation tank for insulation, when the water tank in the water tank below a certain water level, the cold water and then enter the heating tank heating. Through the water flow, tank volume and other data to calculate the time required for each out of water, so as to determine the best position of the water level control, summed up the optimal program, so that water can be continuously uninterrupted supply. Two cans are placed up and down the way, in the same capacity on the basis of the capacity of the container, the appropriate to reduce its size, and increase the bottom radius, reduce the height of its single tank to ensure that the overall height of two cans compared with the traditional single change. Double anti-dry design, to ensure the safety of the use of drinking water. Heating tank heating circuit on and off by the tank of the float switch control, so that the water heating time from the tank water level control, to avoid the "thousands of boiling water" generation. The entry of cold water is controlled by two solenoid valves in the inlet pipe, and the opening and closing of the solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch in the two tanks. That is, the entry of cold water is determined by the water level of the two tanks. By designing the control scheme cleverly, Yin and yang water generation. Our design completely put an end to the "thousands of boiling water", yin and yang water, greatly improving the drinking water quality, for people's drinking water safety provides a guarantee, in line with the concept of green and healthy development. And in the small

  3. Bacteriological quality of drinks from vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P. R.; Burge, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 degrees C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines. PMID:3794325

  4. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  5. Drinking Level, Drinking Pattern, and Twenty-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Holahan, Carole K; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-07-01

    Research on moderate drinking has focused on the average level of drinking. Recently, however, investigators have begun to consider the role of the pattern of drinking, particularly heavy episodic drinking, in mortality. The present study examined the combined roles of average drinking level (moderate vs. high) and drinking pattern (regular vs. heavy episodic) in 20-year total mortality among late-life drinkers. The sample comprised 1,121 adults ages 55-65 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and total mortality was indexed across 20 years. We used multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Among individuals whose high level of drinking placed them at risk, a heavy episodic drinking pattern did not increase mortality odds compared with a regular drinking pattern. Conversely, among individuals who engage in a moderate level of drinking, prior findings showed that a heavy episodic drinking pattern did increase mortality risk compared with a regular drinking pattern. Correspondingly, a high compared with a moderate drinking level increased mortality risk among individuals maintaining a regular drinking pattern, but not among individuals engaging in a heavy episodic drinking pattern, whose pattern of consumption had already placed them at risk. Findings highlight that low-risk drinking requires that older adults drink low to moderate average levels of alcohol and avoid heavy episodic drinking. Heavy episodic drinking is frequent among late-middle-aged and older adults and needs to be addressed along with average consumption in understanding the health risks of late-life drinkers.

  6. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking......Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking...... water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used...

  7. Age of first use of energy beverages predicts future maximal consumption among naval pilot and flight officer candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sather

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: A lower age of first energy drink use suggests higher risk of single-occasion heavy episodic consumption in this military population. Researchers should further explore the relationship of early onset energy drink consumption and potential future health risks.

  8. Drinking-water monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring system was developed by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for monitoring the quality of drinking-water. It is based on the experience made with the installation of UWEDAT (registered trademark) environmental monitoring networks in several Austrian provinces and regions. The standard version of the drinking-water monitoring system comprises sensors for measuring chemical parameters in water, radioactivity in water and air, and meteorological values of the environment. Further measuring gauges, e.g. for air pollutants, can be connected at any time, according to customers' requirements. For integration into regional and supraregional networks, station computers take over the following tasks: Collection of data and status signals transmitted by the subsystem, object protection, intermediate storage and communication of data to the host or several subcentres via Datex-P postal service, permanent lines or radiotransmission

  9. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  10. Comammox in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Ma, Liping; Mao, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaotao; Xia, Yu; Yu, Ke; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizer (comammox) has fundamentally upended our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we reported four metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of comammox Nitrospira that were retrieved from metagenome datasets of tap water in Singapore (SG-bin1 and SG-bin2), Hainan province, China (HN-bin3) and Stanford, CA, USA (ST-bin4). Genes of phylogenetically distinct ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (hao) were identified in these four MAGs. Phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal proteins, AmoA, hao and nitrite oxidoreductase (subunits nxrA and nxrB) sequences indicated their close relationships with published comammox Nitrospira. Canonical ammonia-oxidizing microbes (AOM) were also identified in the three tap water samples, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in Singapore's and Stanford's samples and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in Hainan's sample. The comammox amoA-like sequences were also detected from some other drinking water systems, and even outnumbered the AOA and AOB amoA-like sequences. The findings of MAGs and the occurrences of AOM in different drinking water systems provided a significant clue that comammox are widely distributed in drinking water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students El uso de bebidas energizantes en estudiantes de educación física O uso de bebidas energéticas entre estudantes de educação física

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Carmen Ballistreri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the pattern of energy drinks consumption in a sample of physical education students through a self-applied questionnaire (socio-demographic data and characterization of consumption. Variables associated with consumption: gender, marital status, attending gym classes, athletic swim practice, and study in the morning. Consumption pattern (n=137: 2.2% once in their lives, 9.5% at least once in the last 12 months, 38% at least once in the last month, 39.4% six times or more in the last month, 10.9% 20 times or more in the last month. Justification for consumption: 54% to improve the taste of alcoholic drinks, 27.7% to extend their evening leisure periods, 13.9% to improve sports performance, 9.5% for stimulation, 8.8% enjoy the taste, 6.6% for curiosity and 4.4% to study. Of those who consumed energy drinks, 87.6% mixed it with alcohol, and 25.9% of the students reported they consume more alcohol when it is mixed with energy drinks. CONCLUSIONS: the consumption of energy drinks is associated to sports and drinking alcohol.OBJETIVO: caracterizar el patrón de uso de energizantes en muestra por conveniencia de estudiantes de educación física. Estudio descriptivo transversal. Instrumento: cuestionario auto aplicable para datos sociodemográficos y caracterizar el consumo. RESULTADOS: patrón de consumo (n = 137, 2,2 % una vez en la vida; 9,5 % por lo menos una vez en últimos 12 meses; 38 % por lo menos una vez en último mes; 39,4 % seis veces o más en último mes; 10,9 % veinte veces o más en último mes. Ocasiones de consumo: discotecas (75,2%, fiestas (48,9%; bares (38,7%; antes práctica deportes (14,6%, después práctica deportes (5,8%; al estudiar (4,4%. Razones del uso: 54% mejorar sabor alcohol; 27,7% divertirse toda la noche; 13,9% mejorar desempeño deportivo; 9,5% estimularse; 8,8% gustar bebida; 6,6% curiosidad, 4,4% estudiar. Quienes ya consumieron: 87,6 % combinó con

  12. New technologies of the energy 1. The renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This book, devoted to the renewable energies, is the first of three volumes taking stock on the new technologies of the energy situation. The first part presents the solar energy (thermal photovoltaic and thermodynamic), completed by a chapter on the wind energy. An important part is devoted to new hydraulic energies with the sea energies and the very little hydroelectricity and in particular the exploitation of the energy of the drinking water and wastes water pipelines. (A.L.B.)

  13. Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, D C; Hoffman, F O

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an assessment of lifetime risks of cancer incidence associated with the drinking water standard for tritium established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); this standard is an annual-average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 740 Bq L(-1). This risk assessment has several defining characteristics: (1) an accounting of uncertainty in all parameters that relate a given concentration of tritium in drinking water to lifetime risk (except the number of days of consumption of drinking water in a year and the number of years of consumption) and an accounting of correlations of uncertain parameters to obtain probability distributions that represent uncertainty in estimated lifetime risks of cancer incidence; (2) inclusion of a radiation effectiveness factor (REF) to represent an increased biological effectiveness of low-energy electrons emitted in decay of tritium compared with high-energy photons; (3) use of recent estimates of risks of cancer incidence from exposure to high-energy photons, including the dependence of risks on an individual's gender and age, in the BEIR VII report; and (4) inclusion of risks of incidence of skin cancer, principally basal cell carcinoma. By assuming ingestion of tritium in drinking water at the MCL over an average life expectancy of 80 y in females and 75 y in males, 95% credibility intervals of lifetime risks of cancer incidence obtained in this assessment are (0.35, 12) × 10(-4) in females and (0.30, 15) × 10(-4) in males. Mean risks, which are considered to provide the best single measure of expected risks, are about 3 × 10(-4) in both genders. In comparison, USEPA's point estimate of the lifetime risk of cancer incidence, assuming a daily consumption of drinking water of 2 L over an average life expectancy of 75.2 y and excluding an REF for tritium and incidence of skin cancer, is 5.6 × 10(-5). Probability distributions of annual equivalent doses to the whole body associated with the drinking

  14. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  15. The effects of water and dairy drinks on dietary patterns in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Arnberg, Karina; Trolle, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    but was unchanged in the dairy group during intervention. To conclude, an extra intake of fluid seems to favourably affect the rest of the diet by decreasing the intake of convenience foods, including sugar-sweetened beverages. A low energy drink, such as water, seems advantageous considering the total energy...

  16. Production, use and reuse of Dutch calcite in drinking water pellet softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmen, LJ; Schetters, M.J.A.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Kramer, O.J.I.; Kors, L.J.; Hofs, B; Koppers, H

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, 50% of the drinking water is treated with pellet softening for various reasons: i) public health (heavy metal solubility), ii) costs (warm water device maintenance, energy and soap requirement), iii) environmental benefits (energy and soap requirement) and iv) customer comfort

  17. Metabolic profiles in serum of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Shupei

    2011-08-01

    The toxicity of Nanjing drinking water on mouse (Mus musculus) was detected by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic method. Three groups of mice were fed with drinking water (produced by Nanjing BHK Water Plant), 3.8 μg/L benzo(a)pyrene as contrast, and clean water as control, respectively, for 90 days. It was observed that the levels of lactate, alanine, and creatinine in the mice fed with drinking water were increased and that of valine was decreased. The mice of drinking water group were successfully separated from control. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates (PAEs), and other organic pollutants in the drinking water were 0.23 μg/L, 4.57 μg/L, and 0.34 μg/L, respectively. In this study, Nanjing drinking water was found to induce distinct perturbations of metabolic profiles on mouse including disorders of glucose-alanine cycle, branched-chain amino acid and energy metabolism, and dysfunction of kidney. This study suggests that metabonomic method is feasible and sensitive to evaluate potential toxic effects of drinking water.

  18. RUSSIAN DRINKING: TOO LATE FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Evgenjevich Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian drinking for the first time demonstrates weakening of specialization in spirits drinking and stabilization of amount drunk. This suggests expectations of drinking qualitative turn, i.e. to consumer’s choice oriented to quality of drinking rather than to quantity, and further to lessening the drinking norm. Experience of wine-drinking countries of Europe and influence of pan-European homogenization of patterns of drinking, favor such a perspective. The marked decrease of drinking norm in wine-drinking countries was achieved with the minimal state intervention. Survey data (n=904 is provided to corroborate the claim that Russian drinking is able to self-regulate. The data witness weak support for government’s measures taken to restrict access to beverages sale in terms of age, time, place, and price; customers are likely to value freedom of choice unbridled. Governmental pursuance of simplistic access-and-pricing restrictive policies recently undertaken, may force Russian drinking back to another cycle of alcoholisation within the old ‘northern’ model. Bootlegging expansion, formerly progressive specialization in spirits drinking, habit of making gross purchases in population are explained by former experiences of coping with deficits, dry campaigns, and traditional culture of religious and secular abstinences. Scarcity of modes of compensatory behaviors and low concern for health also back up the special cultural status of alcohol. Government should seek for positive measures, viz. wider sporting involvement for students and inclusion for disabled to revive the nation’s regard for health and awareness of health-related risks.

  19. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrudey, Steve E.; Hrudey, Elizabeth J.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that dis...

  20. Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, H.J.; van Kreijl, C.F.; Hrubec, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter results of oxidation treatments with chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and ultraviolet (UV), with respect to their effects on activity (Ames test) in drinking water supplies are reviewed. In addition, the authors present the preliminary results of a pilot plant study on the effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on mutagenicity. Furthermore, results of several carcinogenicity studies performed with organic drinking water concentrates are discussed in relation to the results of a Dutch carcinogenicity study with mutagenic drinking water concentrates

  1. The interactive effect of paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of both paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems (depression and anxiety symptomatology). Surveys were administered to 566 10th and 11th grade students from the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Although significant main effects were not observed, significant interactions were found between paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking for internalizing problems, especially for boys. In general, these interactions indicated that when paternal problem drinking was high, depression symptomatology and anxiety symptomatology were lower if maternal problem drinking was low. Findings from this study highlight the need to consider both paternal and maternal problem drinking when examining the effects that parental problem drinking may have on adolescent adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  3. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  4. Uranium and drinking water; Uran und Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konietzka, Rainer [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet II 3.6 - Toxikologie des Trink- und Badebeckenwassers; Dieter, Hermann H.

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is provoking public anxiety based on the radioactivity of several isotopes and the connection to nuclear technology. Drinking water contains at the most geogenic uranium in low concentrations that might be interesting in the frame of chemical of toxicology, but not due to radiological impact. The contribution gives an overview on the uranium content in drinking water and health effects for the human population based on animal tests. These experiments indicate a daily tolerable intake of 0.2 microgram per kg body mass. The actual limiting value for uranium in drinking water is 0.3 microgram per kg body mass water (drinking water regulation from 2001).

  5. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...

  6. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  7. The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Mid-western University. Consistent with previous research, social drinking…

  8. Correlates of pro-drinking practices in drinking parents of adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Man Au

    Full Text Available Parental alcohol-related practices are important risk factors of adolescent drinking, but little is known about the factors associated with these parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs. We investigated the correlates of 9 PPDPs in drinking parents of adolescents in Hong Kong.A total of 2200 students (age 14.8±2.0; boys 63.2% participated in a school-based cross-sectional survey in 2012. Analysis was restricted to 1087 (61.8% students with at least 1 drinking parent as PPDPs were much more common in these families. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of each PPDP.Among 1087 students, the prevalence of PPDPs ranged from 8.2% for training drinking capacity to 65.7% for seeing parents drink. Only 14.8% of students had not experienced any of these practices. More frequent maternal drinking predicted parental training of drinking capacity. Older age predicted helping parents buy alcohol and parental encouragement of drinking. Adolescent girls were more likely to have received parental training of drinking capacity than boys. Higher perceived family affluence was associated with hearing parents saying benefits of drinking, and helping parents open bottle and pour alcohol.PPDPs were associated with parental drinking frequency and various socio-demographic factors. These results have implications on alcohol control programmes involving parents to tailor messages for reducing PPDPs based on the characteristics of adolescents and parents.