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Sample records for energy device wavegen

  1. Energy conserving refrigeration device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vork, W.D.; Lewis, R.D.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a gas refrigeration device having a primary generator, a secondary generator, an absorber, pumping means providing pressurized fluid to the primary generator and means for reducing the pressure of the output of the primary generator. The improvement comprises: a fluid powered motor plumbed to the output of the primary generator so as to utilize the energy in the pressured fluid at the generator outlet to run the motor; a primary pump driven by the fluid powered motor; and an auxiliary pump, the pumps being plumbed in parallel to one another, the output of the pumps being connected to the input of the primary generator.

  2. Lih thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  3. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  4. Energy generation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takashi; Tatsumi, Masami; Tada, Koji.

    1990-01-01

    In a reaction estimated as nuclear fusion, a portion near of electrode is heated locally to a high temperature by the heat of the reaction generated on the electrode, by which the electrode is melted or heavy water is boiled. Then, Continuous reaction is difficult and not practical. In view of the above, a cathode made of deuterium absorbing materials is put into heavy water and electric current is supplied, to continuously take place the reaction and an anode is disposed in a cylindrical cathode to cause reaction of energy generation therein in order to continuously take out the generated energy to the outside safely. Further, heavy water is circulated inside the cylindrical cathode to externally take out heavy water the temperature of which is elevated by the generated energy, and fresh heavy water is supplied to the inside of the cylindrical cathode. Thus, heavy water does not boil on the electrode, temperature elevation can be suppressed and melting of the electrode itself can be prevented. (N.H.)

  5. Graphene-based energy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, A Rashid bin Mohd

    2015-01-01

    This first book dedicated to the topic provides an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers for robust, workable energy generation and storage devices. Following a brief overview of the fundamentals of graphene, including the main synthesis techniques, characterization methods and properties, the first part goes on to deal with graphene for energy storage applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage. The second part is concerned with graphene-based energy-generation devices, in particular conventional as well as microbial and enzymatic f

  6. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial...... applications are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for 2025 are summarized in a table for on-shore and off-shore wind energy, solar power, including photovoltaic and concentering, wave energy...

  7. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  8. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  9. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei T.

    2018-04-03

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  10. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  11. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Energy sustainable development through energy efficient heating devices and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, M.

    2006-01-01

    Energy devices and buildings are sustainable if, when they operate, they use sustainable (renewable and refuse) energy and generate nega-energy. This paper covers three research examples of this type of sustainability: (1) use of air-to-earth heat exchangers, (2) computer control of heating and cooling of the building (via heat pumps and heat-recovery devices), and (3) design control of energy consumption in a house. (author)

  13. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  14. Theoretical efficiency limits for energy conversion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, Jonathan M.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2010-01-01

    Using energy more efficiently is a key strategy for reducing global carbon dioxide emissions. Due to limitations on time and resources, actions must be focused on the efficiency measures which will deliver the largest gains. Current surveys of energy efficiency measures assess only known technology options developed in response to current economic and technical drivers. However, this ignores opportunities to deliver long-term efficiency gains from yet to be discovered options. In response, this paper aims to calculate the absolute potential for reducing energy demand by improving efficiency, by finding the efficiency limits for individual conversion devices and overlaying these onto the global network of energy flow. The potential efficiency gains for each conversion device are found by contrasting current energy demand with theoretical minimum energy requirements. Further insight is gained by categorising conversion losses according to the underlying loss mechanisms. The result estimates the overall efficiency of global energy conversion to be only 11 per cent; global demand for energy could be reduced by almost 90 per cent if all energy conversion devices were operated at their theoretical maximum efficiency.

  15. Probabilistic Design of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferreira, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    and advocate for a probabilistic design approach, as it is assumed (in other areas this has been demonstrated) that this leads to more economical designs compared to designs based on deterministic methods. In the present paper a general framework for probabilistic design and reliability analysis of wave energy......Wave energy has a large potential for contributing significantly to production of renewable energy. However, the wave energy sector is still not able to deliver cost competitive and reliable solutions. But the sector has already demonstrated several proofs of concepts. The design of wave energy...... devices is a new and expanding technical area where there is no tradition for probabilistic design—in fact very little full scale devices has been build to date, so it can be said that no design tradition really exists in this area. For this reason it is considered to be of great importance to develop...

  16. LiH thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  17. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  18. Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices in India are listed. The list is arranged under the headings : solar water heating system, solar cooker, solar still and water pumping wind mill. In all 38 manufacturers are listed. The list gives the postal address, name of the contact person and phone number of each manufacturer. (M.G.B.)

  19. Reliability Assessment of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on reliability assessment of Wave Energy Device (WED) substructures with respect to fatigue loading. Failure due to fatigue is an important failure mode of most offshore structures. The focus of the fatigue reliability assessment is in this paper on welded details in steel...

  20. Engineered nanomembranes for smart energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Yu; Schmidt, Oliver G; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-03-07

    Engineered nanomembranes are of great interest not only for large-scale energy storage devices, but also for on-chip energy storage integrated microdevices (such as microbatteries, microsupercapacitors, on-chip capacitors, etc.) because of their large active surfaces for electrochemical reactions, shortened paths for fast ion diffusion, and easy engineering for microdevice applications. In addition, engineered nanomembranes provide a lab-on-chip electrochemical device platform for probing the correlations of electrode structure, electrical/ionic conductivity, and electrochemical kinetics with device performance. This review focuses on the recent progress in engineered nanomembranes including tubular nanomembranes and planar nanomembranes, with the aim to provide a systematic summary of their fabrication, modification, and energy storage applications in lithium-ion batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries, on-chip electrostatic capacitors and micro-supercapacitors. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between engineered nanomembranes and electrochemical properties of lithium ion storage with engineered single-tube microbatteries is given, and the flexibility and transparency of micro-supercapacitors is also discussed. Remarks on challenges and perspectives related to engineered nanomembranes for the further development of energy storage applications conclude this review.

  1. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  2. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  3. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  4. Multimodal piezoelectric devices optimization for energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Acciani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the piezoelectric effect to convert ambient vibration into useful electrical energy constitutes one of the most studied areas in Energy Harvesting (EH research. This paper presents a typical cantilevered Energy Harvester device, which relates the electrical outputs to the vibration mode shape easily. The dynamic strain induced in the piezoceramic layer results in an alternating voltage output. The first six modes of frequencies and the deformation pattern of the beam are carried out basing on an eigenfrequency analysis conducted by the MEMS modules of the COMSOL Multiphysic® v3.5a to perform the Finite Element Analysis of the model. Subsequently, the piezoelectric material is cut around the inflection points to minimize the voltage cancellation effect occurring when the sign changes in the material. This study shows that the voltage produced by the device, increases in as the dimensions of the cuts vary in the piezoelectric layer. Such voltage reaches the optimum amount of piezoelectric material and cuts positioning. This proves that the optimized piezoelectric layer is 16% more efficient than the whole piezoelectric layer.

  5. Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Batteryless Switch Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Sung-Chan; Kim, Sin-Woong; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, In-Sung; Song, Jaesung

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated a piezoelectric energy-harvesting system for a mechanical switch device. Piezoelectric ceramics of 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 were prepared by using a conventional solid-state reaction method. Li2O, Bi2O3, and CuO additions were used as sintering aids to develop piezoelectric ceramics for low-temperature sintering. Multilayer piezoelectric ceramics with 10×10×3 mm3 sizes and with Ag-Pd inner electrodes were manufactured by using the conventional tape-casting method with the prepared powder. A prototype of a piezoelectric batteryless switch device using the multilayer ceramics was produced. It showed an output peak-to-peak voltage of 3.8 V and an output power per strike of 18 µW. The performance of the device was good enough for practical use.

  6. Low Energy Dissipation Nano Device Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    The development of research on energy dissipation has been rapid in energy efficient area. Nano-material power FET is operated as an RF power amplifier, the transport is ballistic, noise is limited and power dissipation is minimized. The goal is Green-save energy by developing the Graphene and carbon nantube microwave and high performance devices. Higher performing RF amplifiers can have multiple impacts on broadly field, for example communication equipment, (such as mobile phone and RADAR); higher power density and lower power dissipation will improve spectral efficiency which translates into higher system level bandwidth and capacity for communications equipment. Thus, fundamental studies of power handling capabilities of new RF (nano)technologies can have broad, sweeping impact. Because it is critical to maximizing the power handling ability of grephene and carbon nanotube FET, the initial task focuses on measuring and understanding the mechanism of electrical breakdown. We aim specifically to determine how the breakdown voltage in graphene and nanotubes is related to the source-drain spacing, electrode material and thickness, and substrate, and thus develop reliable statistics on the breakdown mechanism and probability.

  7. Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Future large-scale implementation of wave energy converts (WECs) will introduce an anthropogenic activity in the ocean which may contribute to underwater noise. The Ocean houses several marine species with acoustic sensibility; consequently the potential impact of the underwater noise needs to be addressed. At present, there are no acoustic impact studies based on acquired data. The WEAM project (Wave Energy Acoustic Monitoring) aims at developing an underwater noise monitoring plan for WECs. The development of an acoustic monitoring plan must consider the sound propagation in the ocean, identify noise sources, understand the operational characteristics and select adequate instrumentation. Any monitoring strategy must involve in-situ measurements. However, the vast distances which sound travels within the ocean, can make in-situ measurements covering the entire area of interest, impracticable. This difficulty can be partially overcome through acoustic numerical modelling. This paper presents a synthetic study, on the application of acoustic forward modelling and the evaluation of the impact of noise produced by wave energy devices on marine mammals using criteria based on audiograms of dolphins, or other species. The idea is to illustrate the application of that methodology, and to show to what extent it allows for estimating distances of impacts due to acoustic noise.

  8. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  9. The strain capacitor: A novel energy storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb Shuvra, Pranoy; McNamara, Shamus

    2014-01-01

    A novel electromechanical energy storage device is reported that has the potential to have high energy densities. It can efficiently store both mechanical strain energy and electrical energy in the form of an electric field between the electrodes of a strain-mismatched bilayer capacitor. When the charged device is discharged, both the electrical and mechanical energy are extracted in an electrical form. The charge-voltage profile of the device is suitable for energy storage applications since a larger portion of the stored energy can be extracted at higher voltage levels compared to a normal capacitor. Its unique features include the potential for long lifetime, safety, portability, wide operating temperature range, and environment friendliness. The device can be designed to operate over varied operating voltage ranges by selecting appropriate materials and by changing the dimensions of the device. In this paper a finite element model of the device is developed to verify and demonstrate the potential of the device as an energy storage element. This device has the potential to replace conventional energy storage devices

  10. Metal sulfide electrodes and energy storage devices thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Woodford, William Henry; Li, Zheng; Carter, W. Craig

    2017-02-28

    The present invention generally relates to energy storage devices, and to metal sulfide energy storage devices in particular. Some aspects of the invention relate to energy storage devices comprising at least one flowable electrode, wherein the flowable electrode comprises an electroactive metal sulfide material suspended and/or dissolved in a carrier fluid. In some embodiments, the flowable electrode further comprises a plurality of electronically conductive particles suspended and/or dissolved in the carrier fluid, wherein the electronically conductive particles form a percolating conductive network. An energy storage device comprising a flowable electrode comprising a metal sulfide electroactive material and a percolating conductive network may advantageously exhibit, upon reversible cycling, higher energy densities and specific capacities than conventional energy storage devices.

  11. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  12. Modeling and Optimization of an Electrostatic Energy Harvesting Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of energy harvesting devices is complicated by the coupling between electrical and mechanical domains. In this paper, we present a coupled electromechanical model for electret-based resonant energy harvesters where the two output pads are placed on the same device side (single...

  13. Probabilistic Design of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferreira, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Wave energy has a large potential for contributing significantly to production of renewable energy. However, the wave energy sector is still not able to deliver cost competitive and reliable solutions. But the sector has already demonstrated several proofs of concepts. The design of wave energy d...

  14. Evaluation of Miscellaneous and Electronic Device Energy Use in Hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Douglas R.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard E.; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) consume about one-thirdof the primary energy used in US buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. In healthcare facilities, 30percent of the annual electricity was used by MELs in 2008. This paper presents methods and challenges for estimating medical MELs energy consumption along with estimates of energy use in a hospital by combining device-level metered data with inventories and usage information. An important finding is that common, small devices consume large amounts of energy in aggregate and should not be ignored when trying to address hospital energy use.

  15. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work......Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  16. Feasibility of energy harvesting techniques for wearable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Thaddaeus J; Subbian, Vignesh; Beyette, Fred R

    2014-01-01

    Wearable devices are arguably one of the most rapidly growing technologies in the computing and health care industry. These systems provide improved means of monitoring health status of humans in real-time. In order to cope with continuous sensing and transmission of biological and health status data, it is desirable to move towards energy autonomous systems that can charge batteries using passive, ambient energy. This not only ensures uninterrupted data capturing, but could also eliminate the need to frequently remove, replace, and recharge batteries. To this end, energy harvesting is a promising area that can lead to extremely power-efficient portable medical devices. This paper presents an experimental prototype to study the feasibility of harvesting two energy sources, solar and thermoelectric energy, in the context of wearable devices. Preliminary results show that such devices can be powered by transducing ambient energy that constantly surrounds us.

  17. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Polagye, Brian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Fabien, Brian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Thomson, Jim [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Kilcher, Levi [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company, Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  18. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  19. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  20. The Crest Wing Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of a continuation of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC), in the following referred to as ‘Phase 2'. The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave...

  1. Light Emission and Energy Transfer in Nanoscale Semiconductor Photonic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolbas, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this experimental program is to control the light emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms in nanoscale semiconductor structures in order to realize new or improved photonic devices...

  2. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempaský, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-01

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a "master" controlling the undulator "slave" energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  3. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  4. Energy-Based Devices in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.

  5. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Depestele, Jochen; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: ► We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. ► Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. ► Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. ► Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  6. Device interactions in reducing the cost of tidal stream energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical modelling is used to estimate the levelised cost of tidal stream energy. • As a case study, a model of Lynmouth (UK) is implemented and successfully validated. • The resolution of the model allows the demarcation of individual devices on the model grid. • Device interactions reduce the available tidal resource and the cost increases significantly. - Abstract: The levelised cost of energy takes into account the lifetime generated energy and the costs associated with a project. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of device interactions on the energy output and, therefore, on the levelised cost of energy of a tidal stream project, by means of numerical modelling. For this purpose, a case study is considered: Lynmouth (North Devon, UK), an area in the Bristol Channel in which the first tidal stream turbine was installed − a testimony of its potential as a tidal energy site. A state-of-the-art hydrodynamics model is implemented on a high-resolution computational grid, which allows the demarcation of the individual devices. The modification to the energy output resulting from interaction between turbines within the tidal farm is thus resolved for each individual turbine. The results indicate that significant changes in the levelised cost of energy values, of up to £0.221 kW h −1 , occur due to the aforementioned modifications, which should not be disregarded if the cost of tidal stream energy is to be minimised

  7. Discrete control of resonant wave energy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, A H; Babarit, A

    2012-01-28

    Aiming at amplifying the energy productive motion of wave energy converters (WECs) in response to irregular sea waves, the strategies of discrete control presented here feature some major advantages over continuous control, which is known to require, for optimal operation, a bidirectional power take-off able to re-inject energy into the WEC system during parts of the oscillation cycles. Three different discrete control strategies are described: latching control, declutching control and the combination of both, which we term latched-operating-declutched control. It is shown that any of these methods can be applied with great benefit, not only to mono-resonant WEC oscillators, but also to bi-resonant and multi-resonant systems. For some of these applications, it is shown how these three discrete control strategies can be optimally defined, either by analytical solution for regular waves, or numerically, by applying the optimal command theory in irregular waves. Applied to a model of a seven degree-of-freedom system (the SEAREV WEC) to estimate its annual production on several production sites, the most efficient of these discrete control strategies was shown to double the energy production, regardless of the resource level of the site, which may be considered as a real breakthrough, rather than a marginal improvement.

  8. Energy Storage Devices as Prime Power Supplies for Low Energy, High Voltage Marx Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES AS PRIME POWER SUPPLIES FOR LOW ENERGY , HIGH VOLTAGE MARX GENERATORS David Wetz University of Texas at Arlington...DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Directed Energy Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND...30-09-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Storage Devices as Prime Power Supplies for Low Energy , High Voltage Marx Generators 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  9. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  10. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet -Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2015-10-06

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  11. Throughput, Energy and Overhead of Multicast Device-to-Device Communications with Network Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation strategies in mobile networks typically rely in short range technologies, like LTE-A Device to Device (D2D) communications, for data exchange between devices forming mobile clouds. These communications provide a better device experience since the clouds offload the network. Nevertheless......, this assumes that the throughput gains and energy savings in multicasting are much larger between devices than the base station to the receivers. However, current mobile networks suffer from many different issues varying the performance in data rates, which calls into question these assumptions. Therefore......, a first objective of this work is to assess the operating regions where employing cooperation results in higher throughput and/or energy savings. We consider multicast scenarios with network coded mechanisms employing Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC). However, although RLNC is good for low amount...

  12. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A MEMS Energy Harvesting Device for Vibration with Low Acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Wang, Fei; Crovetto, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We propose a polymer electret based energy harvesting device in order to extract energy from vibration sources with low acceleration. With MEMS technology, a silicon structure is fabricated which can resonate in 2D directions. Thanks to the excellent mechanical properties of the silicon material...

  14. Feasibility test on green energy harvesting from physical exercise devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nirendra N.; Mourshed, M.; Masud, M. H.; Hossain, M. S.; Kamal, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of power is increasing day by day due to the increase of world population as well as the industrialization and modernization. Depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves and the adverse effects of their uses on the environment insist the researchers to find out some means of efficient and cost effective alternative energy sources from small to large scales. In a gymnasium the human metabolism power is used to drive the physical exercise devices. However there are a number of exercise device which can have the potential to generate electricity during physical exercise. By converting the available mechanical energy from these exercise devices into kinetic energy, electric power can be produced. In this work, energy was harvested from the most commonly used physical exercise devices used in the gymnasium - paddling and chin up. The paddle pulley and the chin up pulley were connected to the couple pulley which in turn coupled to an alternator by a V-belt to produce electrical energy and a rechargeable battery was used to store electrical energy. The power generation from the device depends upon the speed at which the alternator runs and the age limit. The electrical energy output was observed 83.6 watt at 1300 rpm and 62.5 watt at1150 rpm alternator speed for the paddling and chin up respectively recorded for an average adult. The device was designed for a constant 49N load on the alternator for both paddling and chin up operation. By running each of these devices for about 12 hours in a day, any gymnasium can avoid burning of almost 23.67 kg and 31.6 kg of diesel fuel per year for chin up and paddling respectively. Also it can cut off the CO2 emission to the environment which reveals itself a standalone green micro gym.

  15. Research on a new wave energy absorption device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Zhu, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    To reduce impact of global warming and the energy crisis problems caused by pollution of energy combustion, the research on renewable and clean energies becomes more and more important. This paper designed a new wave absorption device, and also gave an introduction on its mechanical structure. The flow tube model is analyzed, and presented the formulation of the proposed method. To verify the principle of wave absorbing device, an experiment was carried out in a laboratory environment, and the results of the experiment can be applied for optimizing the structure design of output power.

  16. Stingray tidal stream energy device - phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 150 kW Stingray demonstrator was designed, built and installed by The Engineering Business (EB) in 2002, becoming the world's first full-scale tidal stream generator. The concept and technology are described in the reports from Phases 1 and 2 of the project. This report provides an overview of Phase 3 - the re-installation of Stingray in Yell Sound in the Shetland Isles between July and September 2003 for further testing at slack water and on the flood tide to confirm basic machine characteristics, develop the control strategy and to demonstrate performance and power collection through periods of continuous operation. The overall aim was to demonstrate that electricity could be generated at a potentially commercially viable unit energy cost; cost modelling indicated a future unit energy cost of 6.7 pence/kWh when 100 MW capacity had been installed. The report describes: project objectives, targets and activities; design and production; marine operations including installation and demobilisation; environmental monitoring and impact, including pre-installation and post-decommissioning surveys; stakeholder involvement; test results on machine characteristics, sensor performance, power cycle analysis, power collection, transmission performance and efficiency, current data analysis; validation of the mathematical model; the background to the economic model; cost modelling; and compliance with targets set by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

  17. Stingray tidal stream energy device - phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The 150 kW Stingray demonstrator was designed, built and installed by The Engineering Business (EB) in 2002, becoming the world's first full-scale tidal stream generator. The concept and technology are described in the reports from Phases 1 and 2 of the project. This report provides an overview of Phase 3 - the re-installation of Stingray in Yell Sound in the Shetland Isles between July and September 2003 for further testing at slack water and on the flood tide to confirm basic machine characteristics, develop the control strategy and to demonstrate performance and power collection through periods of continuous operation. The overall aim was to demonstrate that electricity could be generated at a potentially commercially viable unit energy cost; cost modelling indicated a future unit energy cost of 6.7 pence/kWh when 100 MW capacity had been installed. The report describes: project objectives, targets and activities; design and production; marine operations including installation and demobilisation; environmental monitoring and impact, including pre-installation and post-decommissioning surveys; stakeholder involvement; test results on machine characteristics, sensor performance, power cycle analysis, power collection, transmission performance and efficiency, current data analysis; validation of the mathematical model; the background to the economic model; cost modelling; and compliance with targets set by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

  18. Ion energy analysis on a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chera, T.; Mandache, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A direct method of ion energy analysis on a plasma focus device, using a combined electrostatic deflection and time-of-flight technique, is presented in this paper. At low proton energy, the experimental distribution is approximated by an exponential one. The peak detected at high energies (around 7 keV) proves the existence of a fast ion group moving axially with a velocity of about 10 8 cm/s. (author)

  19. Devices, systems, and methods for harvesting energy and methods for forming such devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Novack, Steven D.

    2012-12-25

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate coupled with a photovoltaic material and a plurality of resonance elements associated with the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to collect energy in at least visible and infrared light spectra. Each resonance element is capacitively coupled with the photovoltaic material, and may be configured to resonate at a bandgap energy of the photovoltaic material. Systems include a photovoltaic material coupled with a feedpoint of a resonance element. Methods for harvesting energy include exposing a resonance element having a resonant electromagnetic radiation having a frequency between approximately 20 THz and approximately 1,000 THz, absorbing at least a portion of the electromagnetic radiation with the resonance element, and resonating the resonance element at a bandgap energy of an underlying photovoltaic material. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming resonance elements on a substrate and capacitively coupling the resonance elements with a photovoltaic material.

  20. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  1. Flexible energy storage devices based on nanocomposite paper

    OpenAIRE

    Pushparaj, Victor L.; Shaijumon, Manikoth M.; Kumar, Ashavani; Murugesan, Saravanababu; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Linhardt, Robert J.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2007-01-01

    There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. To build such fully flexible and robust electrochemical devices, multiple components with specific electrochemical and interfacial properties need to be integrated into single units. Here we show that these basic components, the electrode, separator, and electrolyte, can all be integrated into single contiguous nanocomposite units that can serve as ...

  2. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  3. Efficiency of a gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical wave energy to electrical energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Darula, Radoslav; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed gyroscopic device for conversion of mechanical ocean wave energy to electrical energy. Two models of the device derived from standard engineering mechanics from the literature are analysed, and a model is derived from analytical mechanics considerations. From...

  4. Method and apparatus for testing electrochemical energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for testing electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices includes means for sensing the current from the storage device and varying the load across the storage device in response to the current sensed. The system is equally adaptable to batteries and fuel cells. Means is also provided to sense system parameters from a plurality of locations within the system. Certain parameters are then stored in digital form for archive purposes and certain other parameters are used to develop control signals in a host processor.

  5. Flexible energy storage devices based on nanocomposite paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparaj, Victor L; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Kumar, Ashavani; Murugesan, Saravanababu; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Linhardt, Robert J; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2007-08-21

    There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. To build such fully flexible and robust electrochemical devices, multiple components with specific electrochemical and interfacial properties need to be integrated into single units. Here we show that these basic components, the electrode, separator, and electrolyte, can all be integrated into single contiguous nanocomposite units that can serve as building blocks for a variety of thin mechanically flexible energy storage devices. Nanoporous cellulose paper embedded with aligned carbon nanotube electrode and electrolyte constitutes the basic unit. The units are used to build various flexible supercapacitor, battery, hybrid, and dual-storage battery-in-supercapacitor devices. The thin freestanding nanocomposite paper devices offer complete mechanical flexibility during operation. The supercapacitors operate with electrolytes including aqueous solvents, room temperature ionic liquids, and bioelectrolytes and over record temperature ranges. These easy-to-assemble integrated nanocomposite energy-storage systems could provide unprecedented design ingenuity for a variety of devices operating over a wide range of temperature and environmental conditions.

  6. Energy harvesting and storage in 1D devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-06-01

    Power systems and electronic devices that are bulky and rigid are not practical for use in wearable applications that require flexibility and breathability. To address this, a range of 1D energy harvesting and storage devices have been fabricated that show promise for such applications compared with their 2D and 3D counterparts. These 1D devices are based on fibres that are flexible and can accommodate deformation, for example, by twisting and stretching. The fibres can be woven into textiles and fabrics that breathe freely or can be integrated into different materials that fit the curved surface of the human body. In this Review, the development of fibre-based energy harvesting and storage devices is presented, focusing on dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and their integrated devices. An emphasis is placed on the interface between the active materials and the electrodes or electrolyte in the 1D devices. The differing properties of these interfaces compared with those in 2D and 3D devices are derived from the curved surface and long charge transport path in 1D electrodes.

  7. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering.

  8. Organic nanostructured thin film devices and coatings for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy. This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the proc

  9. Fiber-shaped energy harvesting and storage devices

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Huisheng

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book covers flexible fiber-shaped devices in the area of energy conversion and storage. The first part of the book introduces recently developed materials, particularly, various nanomaterials and composite materials based on nanostructured carbon such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, metals and polymers for the construction of fiber electrodes. The second part of the book focuses on two typical twisted and coaxial architectures of fiber-shaped devices for energy conversion and storage. The emphasis is placed on dye-sensitized solar cells, polymer solar cells, lithium-ion b

  10. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  11. Energy level alignment at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Frisch, Johannes; Schlesinger, Raphael; Wilke, Andreas; Koch, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy level alignment is crucial for organic solar cell efficiency. ► Photoelectron spectroscopy can reliably determine energy levels of organic material interfaces. ► Care must be taken to avoid even subtle sample damage. -- Abstract: The alignment of energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices is crucial for their energy conversion efficiency. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a well-established and widely used technique for determining the electronic structure of materials; at the same time PES measurements of conjugated organic materials often pose significant challenges, such as obtaining sufficiently defined sample structures and radiation-induced damage of the organic layers. Here we report how these challenges can be tackled to unravel the energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, i.e., electrode/organic and organic/organic interfaces. The electronic structure across entire photovoltaic multilayer devices can thus be reconciled. Finally, general considerations for correlating the electronic structure and the photovoltaic performance of devices will be discussed

  12. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices Architectures, Design, Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Spreemann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic vibration transducers are seen as an effective way of harvesting ambient energy for the supply of sensor monitoring systems. Different electromagnetic coupling architectures have been employed but no comprehensive comparison with respect to their output performance has been carried out up to now. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices introduces an optimization approach which is applied to determine optimal dimensions of the components (magnet, coil and back iron). Eight different commonly applied coupling architectures are investigated. The results show that correct dimensions are of great significance for maximizing the efficiency of the energy conversion. A comparison yields the architectures with the best output performance capability which should be preferably employed in applications. A prototype development is used to demonstrate how the optimization calculations can be integrated into the design–flow. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices targets the design...

  13. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  14. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  15. Energy management in mobile devices with the cinder operating system

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    We argue that controlling energy allocation is an increasingly useful and important feature for operating systems, especially on mobile devices. We present two new low-level abstractions in the Cinder operating system, reserves and taps, which store and distribute energy for application use. We identify three key properties of control - isolation, delegation, and subdivision - and show how using these abstractions can achieve them. We also show how the architecture of the HiStar information-flow control kernel lends itself well to energy control. We prototype and evaluate Cinder on a popular smartphone, the Android G1. Copyright © 2011 ACM.

  16. Single Event Rates for Devices Sensitive to Particle Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, L. D.; Scheick, L. Z.; Banker, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Single event rates (SER) can include contributions from low-energy particles such that the linear energy transfer (LET) is not constant. Previous work found that the environmental description that is most relevant to the low-energy contribution to the rate is a "stopping rate per unit volume" even when the physical mechanisms for a single-event effect do not require an ion to stop in some device region. Stopping rate tables are presented for four heavy-ion environments that are commonly used to assess device suitability for space applications. A conservative rate estimate utilizing limited test data is derived, and the example of SEGR rate in a power MOSFET is presented.

  17. Laser, light, and energy devices for cellulite and lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer D; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2011-07-01

    Cellulite affects all races, and it is estimated that 85% of women older than 20 years have some degree of cellulite. Many currently accepted cellulite therapies target deficiencies in lymphatic drainage and microvascular circulation. Devices using radiofrequency, laser, and light-based energies, alone or in combination and coupled frequently with tissue manipulation, are available for improving cellulite. Laser assisted liposuction may improve cellulite appearance. Although improvement using these devices is temporary, it may last several months. Patients who want smoother skin with less visible cellulite can undergo a series of treatments and then return for additional treatments as necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasmon-Enhanced Energy Transfer in Photosensitive Nanocrystal Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Shahab; Akgul, Mehmet Zafer; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2017-06-27

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) interacted with localized surface plasmon (LSP) gives us the ability to overcome inadequate transfer of energy between donor and acceptor nanocrystals (NCs). In this paper, we show LSP-enhanced FRET in colloidal photosensors of NCs in operation, resulting in substantially enhanced photosensitivity. The proposed photosensitive device is a layered self-assembled colloidal platform consisting of separated monolayers of the donor and the acceptor colloidal NCs with an intermediate metal nanoparticle (MNP) layer made of gold interspaced by polyelectrolyte layers. Using LBL assembly, we fabricated and comparatively studied seven types of such NC-monolayer devices (containing only donor, only acceptor, Au MNP-donor, Au MNP-acceptor, donor-acceptor bilayer, donor-Au MNP-acceptor trilayer, and acceptor-Au MNP-donor reverse trilayer). In these structures, we revealed the effect of LSP-enhanced FRET and exciton interactions from the donor NCs layer to the acceptor NCs layer. Compared to a single acceptor NC device, we observed a significant extension in operating wavelength range and a substantial photosensitivity enhancement (2.91-fold) around the LSP resonance peak of Au MNPs in the LSP-enhanced FRET trilayer structure. Moreover, we present a theoretical model for the intercoupled donor-Au MNP-acceptor structure subject to the plasmon-mediated nonradiative energy transfer. The obtained numerical results are in excellent agreement with the systematic experimental studies done in our work. The potential to modify the energy transfer through mastering the exciton-plasmon interactions and its implication in devices make them attractive for applications in nanophotonic devices and sensors.

  19. Innovative wave energy device applied to coastal observatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Martellucci, Riccardo; Maximo, Peviani

    2017-04-01

    Marine environment is one of the most promising sources of renewable energy, whose exploitation could have an effect on several application fields. This work presents the design of an innovative device based on the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), that allows to convert wave energy into electricity, suitable for the typical Mediterranean wave climate. The flexibility of the device permits its installation either in deep or shallow waters, with reduced costs of deployment, maintenance and connection to the grid. Furthermore, the replicability of the design allows the device to be installed in array of several number of similar units. The technical concept is to convey the sea water within a vertical pipe, in which the water movements activate a rotor connected to a generator that transforms the energy of the water motion into electricity. The hydrodynamic design of the pipe is built to minimize the losses due to friction and turbulence and to exploit the maximum possible energy from wave motion. The wave energy is directly absorbed by the rotational movement of the turbine blades located in the water itself allowing a further reduction of the energy losses associated with the transformation of the linear water motion into electrical generation in the air phase (typical configuration of the OWC devices). In this work the device components are described considering two possible configurations that use a Wells turbine or a Bulb type turbine. The system can be realized at a low cost, because of the modularity of the device project, which allows large freedom of sizes and placements, being able to be installed both individually and in arrays. The modularity, associated with the fact that the main elements of the system are available on the market, makes the device particularly attractive from the economic point of view. Finally, it is realized with a high constructive flexibility: the proposed system can be transported floating and moored to existing coastal structures or

  20. Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT

    2010-03-09

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.

  1. Studying fish near ocean energy devices using underwater video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Hull, Ryan E.; Harker-Klimes, Genevra EL; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2017-09-18

    The effects of energy devices on fish populations are not well-understood, and studying the interactions of fish with tidal and instream turbines is challenging. To address this problem, we have evaluated algorithms to automatically detect fish in underwater video and propose a semi-automated method for ocean and river energy device ecological monitoring. The key contributions of this work are the demonstration of a background subtraction algorithm (ViBE) that detected 87% of human-identified fish events and is suitable for use in a real-time system to reduce data volume, and the demonstration of a statistical model to classify detections as fish or not fish that achieved a correct classification rate of 85% overall and 92% for detections larger than 5 pixels. Specific recommendations for underwater video acquisition to better facilitate automated processing are given. The recommendations will help energy developers put effective monitoring systems in place, and could lead to a standard approach that simplifies the monitoring effort and advances the scientific understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean and river energy devices.

  2. Making Image More Energy Efficient for OLED Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity. Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content. The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest (ROI of an image. Next, we gradually change luminance and saturation of region of noninterest (NON-ROI of the image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save 22.5% energy on average while preserving high quality of the image.

  3. Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, L.

    2009-12-07

    Paper, invented more than 2,000 years ago and widely used today in our everyday lives, is explored in this study as a platform for energy-storage devices by integration with 1D nanomaterials. Here, we show that commercially available paper can be made highly conductive with a sheet resistance as low as 1 ohm per square (Omega/sq) by using simple solution processes to achieve conformal coating of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver nanowire films. Compared with plastics, paper substrates can dramatically improve film adhesion, greatly simplify the coating process, and significantly lower the cost. Supercapacitors based on CNT-conductive paper show excellent performance. When only CNT mass is considered, a specific capacitance of 200 F/g, a specific energy of 30-47 Watt-hour/kilogram (Wh/kg), a specific power of 200,000 W/kg, and a stable cycling life over 40,000 cycles are achieved. These values are much better than those of devices on other flat substrates, such as plastics. Even in a case in which the weight of all of the dead components is considered, a specific energy of 7.5 Wh/kg is achieved. In addition, this conductive paper can be used as an excellent lightweight current collector in lithium-ion batteries to replace the existing metallic counterparts. This work suggests that our conductive paper can be a highly scalable and low-cost solution for high-performance energy storage devices.

  4. Energy-efficient Trajectory Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Blunck, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    . In this paper we propose a novel on-device sensor management strategy and a set of trajectory updating protocols which intelligently determine when to sample different sensors (accelerometer, compass and GPS) and when data should be simplified and sent to a remote server. The system is configurable with regards...... to be sent to a remote server, on-device simplification of the trajectories is needed to reduce the amount of data transmission. While there has recently been a lot of work on energy-efficient position tracking, the energy-efficient tracking of trajectories has not been addressed in previous work...... as by validating with a real-world deployment. The results demonstrate that our approach is able to provide considerable savings in the battery consumption compared to a state-of-the-art position tracking system while at the same time maintaining the accuracy of the resulting trajectory, i.e., support of specific...

  5. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  6. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  7. An Energy Saving Green Plug Device for Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloul, Albe; Sharaf, Adel; El-Hawary, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a low cost a FACTS Based flexible fuzzy logic based modulated/switched tuned arm filter and Green Plug compensation (SFC-GP) scheme for single-phase nonlinear loads ensuring both voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. The new Green Plug-Switched filter compensator SFC modulated LC-Filter PWM Switched Capacitive Compensation Devices is controlled using a fuzzy logic regulator to enhance power quality, improve power factor at the source and reduce switching transients and inrush current conditions as well harmonic contents in source current. The FACTS based SFC-GP Device is a member of family of Green Plug/Filters/Compensation Schemes used for efficient energy utilization, power quality enhancement and voltage/inrush current/soft starting control using a dynamic error driven fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The device with fuzzy logic controller is validated using the Matlab / Simulink Software Environment for enhanced power quality (PQ), improved power factor and reduced inrush currents. This is achieved using modulated PWM Switching of the Filter-Capacitive compensation scheme to cope with dynamic type nonlinear and inrush cyclical loads..

  8. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...... distance transmission of electric energy. In many applications the total size of filter components (capacitors and inductors) can be reduced compared to voltage driven topologies. One application is an audio amplifier arranged to drive a loudspeaker....

  9. Energy conversion device and method of reducing friction therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Lyudmila Mikhaylovna; Jansson, Kyle S; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim; Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Daughterty, Early Eugene; Higdon, Clifton Baxter; Elagamy, Kamel Abdel-Khalik; Hicks, Aaron Michael

    2013-10-08

    A device configured for converting energy includes a first surface, a second surface configured for moving with respect to the first surface during operation of the device, and a coating disposed on at least one of the first surface and the second surface. The coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy represented by the general formula AlMgB.sub.14--X, wherein X is present in an amount of from 0 to 70 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the ceramic alloy and is a doping agent selected from the group of Group IV elements and borides and nitrides thereof, and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon in a gradient concentration. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12.

  10. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  11. River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials (River DREAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Daniel P. [Bayer MaterialScience LLC

    2013-07-03

    The purpose of this project is to develop a generator called a Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED). It uses a galloping prism to convert water flow into linear motion. This motion is converted into electricity via a dielectric elastomer generator (DEG). The galloping mechanism and the DEG are combined to create a system to effectively generate electricity. This project has three research objectives: 1. Oscillator development and design a. Characterize galloping behavior, evaluate control surface shape change on oscillator performance and demonstrate shape change with water flow change. 2. Dielectric Energy Generator (DEG) characterization and modeling a. Characterize and model the performance of the DEG based on oscillator design 3. Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED) system modeling and integration a. Create numerical models for construction of a system performance model and define operating capabilities for this approach Accomplishing these three objectives will result in the creation of a model that can be used to fully define the operating parameters and performance capabilities of a generator based on the GHEED design. This information will be used in the next phase of product development, the creation of an integrated laboratory scale generator to confirm model predictions.

  12. Processing and characterization of multilayers for energy device fabrication (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Gurauskis, Jonas

    /catalytic layers.  Optical dilatometry has proven to be a powerful and fast tool to optimize the co-sintering of planar, asymmetric multilayers, consisting of a porous support and a dense membrane layer. The monitoring of dimensional changes and distortions in single and multilayers during de-binding and sintering......The performance of asymmetric multilayer structures in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)/solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC), tubular oxygen transport membranes (OTM) and similar high temperature energy devices is often determined by the ceramic fabrication (for given materials and design). A good...

  13. A quantum energy transport model for semiconductor device simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sho, Shohiro, E-mail: shoshohiro@gmail.com [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Odanaka, Shinji [Computer Assisted Science Division, Cybermedia Center, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes numerical methods for a quantum energy transport (QET) model in semiconductors, which is derived by using a diffusion scaling in the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. We newly drive a four-moments QET model similar with a classical ET model. Space discretization is performed by a new set of unknown variables. Numerical stability and convergence are obtained by developing numerical schemes and an iterative solution method with a relaxation method. Numerical simulations of electron transport in a scaled MOSFET device are discussed. The QET model allows simulations of quantum confinement transport, and nonlocal and hot-carrier effects in scaled MOSFETs.

  14. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    A fast position-sensitive detector was designed for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope (SLEEM), based on a thinned back-side directly electron-bombarded charged-coupled device (CCD) sensor (EBCCD). The principle of the SLEEM operation and the motivation for the development of the detector are explained. The electronics of the detector is described as well as the methods used for the measurement of the electron-bombarded gain and of the dark signal. The EBCCD gain of 565 for electron energy 5 keV and dynamic range 59 dB for short integration time up to 10 ms at room temperature were obtained. The energy dependence of EBCCD gain and the detection efficiency are presented for electron energy between 2 and 5 keV, and the integration time dependence of the output signals under dark conditions is given for integration time from 1 to 500 ms

  15. Amphoteric oxide semiconductors for energy conversion devices: a tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kalpana; Nowotny, Janusz; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2013-03-07

    In this tutorial review, we discuss the defect chemistry of selected amphoteric oxide semiconductors in conjunction with their significant impact on the development of renewable and sustainable solid state energy conversion devices. The effect of electronic defect disorders in semiconductors appears to control the overall performance of several solid-state ionic devices that include oxide ion conducting solid oxide fuel cells (O-SOFCs), proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs), batteries, solar cells, and chemical (gas) sensors. Thus, the present study aims to assess the advances made in typical n- and p-type metal oxide semiconductors with respect to their use in ionic devices. The present paper briefly outlines the key challenges in the development of n- and p-type materials for various applications and also tries to present the state-of-the-art of defect disorders in technologically related semiconductors such as TiO(2), and perovskite-like and fluorite-type structure metal oxides.

  16. Nano devices and circuit techniques for low-energy applications and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the development of core technologies to address two of the most challenging issues in research for future IT platform development, namely innovative device design and reduction of energy consumption. Three key devices, the FinFET, the TunnelFET, and the electromechanical nanoswitch are described with extensive details of use for practical applications. Energy issues are also covered in a tutorial fashion from material physics, through device technology, to innovative circuit design. The strength of this book lies in its holistic approach dealing with material trends, state-of-the-art of key devices, new examples of circuits and systems applications.    This is the first of three books based on the Integrated Smart Sensors research project, which describe the development of innovative devices, circuits, and system-level enabling technologies.  The aim of the project was to develop common platforms on which various devices and sensors can be loaded, and to create systems offering signific...

  17. Subcutaneous Photovoltaic Infrared Energy Harvesting for Bio-Implantable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunseong; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D

    2017-05-01

    Wireless biomedical implantable devices on the mm-scale enable a wide range of applications for human health, safety, and identification, though energy harvesting and power generation are still looming challenges that impede their widespread application. Energy scavenging approaches to power biomedical implants have included thermal [1-3], kinetic [4-6], radio-frequency [7-11] and radiative sources [12-14]. However, the achievement of efficient energy scavenging for biomedical implants at the mm-scale has been elusive. Here we show that photovoltaic cells at the mm-scale can achieve a power conversion efficiency of more than 17 % for silicon and 31 % for GaAs under 1.06 μW/mm 2 infrared irradiation at 850 nm. Finally, these photovoltaic cells demonstrate highly efficient energy harvesting through biological tissue from ambient sunlight, or irradiation from infrared sources such as used in present-day surveillance systems, by utilizing the near infrared (NIR) transparency window between the 650 nm and 950 nm wavelength range [15-17].

  18. Electrospinning of Nanofibers and Their Applications for Energy Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing demand of energy for economic development, it is urgent to develop renewable energy technologies to sustain the economic growth. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for one-dimensional (1D nanostructured fibers of metals, metal oxides, hydrocarbons, composites, and so forth. The resulting nanofibers (NFs with controllable diameters ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale possess unique properties such as a high surface-area-to-volume and aspect ratio, low density, and high pore volume. These properties make 1D nanomaterials more advantageous than conventional materials in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage devices. In this review, the key parameters for e-spinning are discussed and the properties of electrospun NFs and applications in solar cells, fuel cells, nanogenerators, hydrogen energy harvesting and storage, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of electrospinning and an outlook on the possible future directions are also discussed.

  19. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mitigation of large power spills by an energy storage device in a stand alone energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bhaumik (Debarati); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe unpredictable nature of wind energy makes its integration to the electric grid highly challenging. However, these challenges can be addressed by incorporating storage devices (batteries) in the system. We perform an overall assessment of a single domestic power system with a wind

  1. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  2. Parathyroid function following total thyroidectomy using energy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Fatih; Sakalli, Erdal; Abdurrahman, Ibrahim; Guler, Burak

    2016-07-01

    LigaSure precise (LP) and harmonic scalpel (HS) are two energy-based devices used in thyroidectomy surgery. We aimed to compare the effect of these two devices in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, by highlighting the post-operative parathyroid function. A total of 201 consecutive patients for whom total thyroidectomy had been planned were prospectively classified into two groups. There were 104 patients in LP group and 97 patients in HS group. Hypoparathyroidism was followed up by serially measuring the levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum calcium. The early iPTH level was 29 (8-50) pg/mL in group LP, and 17 (4-43) pg/mL in group HS. The early iPTH level was significantly lower in the HS group (p parathyroid hormone levels impaired in the HS group more than LP group in the early period, these levels were in the normal limits in both groups. These levels were not significant between groups in the long time period.

  3. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  4. The eCOMBAT: Energy consumption monitoring tool for battery powered communication device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available computing, communication and networking applications. One of the best ways to obtain energy-efficient communication and networking is to invest in the renewable energy sources to charge batteries for communication devices and to develop smart energy...

  5. Guest Editorial Advanced Distributed Control of Energy Conversion Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudi, Ali; Guerrero, Josep M.; Lewis, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this special issue on advanced distributed control of energy conversion devices and systems are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) ac energy conversion systems; 2) dc energy conversion systems; and 3) optimization and standards.......The papers in this special issue on advanced distributed control of energy conversion devices and systems are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) ac energy conversion systems; 2) dc energy conversion systems; and 3) optimization and standards....

  6. On-Board Thermal Management of Waste Heat from a High-Energy Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klatt, Nathan D

    2008-01-01

    The use of on-board high-energy devices such as megawatt lasers and microwave emitters requires aircraft system integration of thermal devices to either get rid of waste heat or utilize it in other areas of the aircraft...

  7. Multiple Timescale Energy Scheduling for Wireless Communication with Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary challenge in wireless communication with energy harvesting devices is to efficiently utilize the harvesting energy such that the data packet transmission could be supported. This challenge stems from not only QoS requirement imposed by the wireless communication application, but also the energy harvesting dynamics and the limited battery capacity. Traditional solar predictable energy harvesting models are perturbed by prediction errors, which could deteriorate the energy management algorithms based on this models. To cope with these issues, we first propose in this paper a non-homogenous Markov chain model based on experimental data, which can accurately describe the solar energy harvesting process in contrast to traditional predictable energy models. Due to different timescale between the energy harvesting process and the wireless data transmission process, we propose a general framework of multiple timescale Markov decision process (MMDP model to formulate the joint energy scheduling and transmission control problem under different timescales. We then derive the optimal control policies via a joint dynamic programming and value iteration approach. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the performances of the proposed schemes.

  8. Photonic nanomanufacturing of high performance energy device on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongchao; Wang, Shutong; Li, Ruozhou; Hou, Tingxiu; Chen, Min; Hu, Anming

    2017-02-01

    With the developing of wearable electronics and information society, integrated energy storage devices are urgently demanded to be integrated on flexible substrates. We successfully demonstrated using direct laser-reduction of the hydrated GO and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) nanocomposite to fabricate in-plane micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) with fast ion diffusion on paper. The electrode conductivity of these flexible nanocomposites reaches up to 1.1 x 106 S m-1, which enhances superior rate capability of micro-supercapacitors, and large specific capacitances of 0.77 mF cm-2 (17.2 F cm-3 for volumetric capacitance) at 1 V s-1, and 0.46 mF cm-2 (10.2 F cm-3) at 100 V s-1. We also have demonstrated that pulsed laser irradiation rapidly converts the polyimide (PI) sheets into an electrically conductive porous carbon structure in ambient conditions. The specific capacitance of single layer surface supercapacitors can reach 20.4 mF/cm2 at 0.1 mA/cm2 discharge current density. Furthermore, we successfully fabricate the multi-layer supercapacitor with the PI substrate using 3D femtosecond laser direct writing, and the specific capacitances of three layers supercapacitors is 37.5 mF/cm2.

  9. Light Emission and Energy Transfer in Nanoscale Semiconductor Photonic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolbas, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The proposed research impacts device development and system architectures by demonstrating light emitters for wavelength division multiplexing, three dimensional IOEC structures, broadly tunable...

  10. SUBWAY POWER SYSTEMS WITH MODERN SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS AND ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kholod

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five subway power systems, a traditional power system and power systems with an active rectifier and an energy storage device, are considered. Estimation of energy loss in the analyzed subway power systems circuits is made.

  11. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on new solid state devices for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This paper contains articles on semiconductor devices used in the detection of high energy particles. Some articles reported: Position sensitive semiconductor devices; Scintillation techniques and optical devices; Radiation damage to detectors; VLSI for physics; and experience with Si detectors in NA32

  13. Marine Current Energy Devices: Current Status and Possible Future Applications in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage....

  14. Application of energy storage devices in power systems | Gupta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the major disadvantages in electric power supply system have been flickering and deviations in power supply which make some of the electronic equipments and domestic devices highly sensitive to it. To avoid such problems we need to find out devices that can provide a backup during the time of voltage sags ...

  15. Bias-Flip Technique for Frequency Tuning of Piezo-Electric Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Devices that harvest electrical energy from mechanical vibrations have the problem that the frequency of the source vibration is often not matched to the resonant frequency of the energy harvesting device. Manufacturing tolerances make it difficult to match the Energy Harvesting Device (EHD resonant frequency to the source vibration frequency, and the source vibration frequency may vary with time. Previous work has recognized that it is possible to tune the resonant frequency of an EHD using a tunable, reactive impedance at the output of the device. The present paper develops the theory of electrical tuning, and proposes the Bias-Flip (BF technique, to implement this tunable, reactive impedance.

  16. Commercialisation of solar energy devices in developing contries - problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onyeonwu, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The solar energy needs of developing countries are examined. Areas of possible applications of solar energy devices and the spectrum of the consumer market are discussed. Prospects for commercialization of these devices are examined from the point of view of economic factors, market size, unit cost and regional preference. Problems facing consumers with respect to uncertainty in the life expectancy of the devices are discussed. (SPH)

  17. Functional nanomaterials and devices for electronics, sensors and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This book contains reviews of recent experimental and theoretical results related to nanomaterials. It focuses on novel functional materials and nanostructures in combination with silicon on insulator (SOI) devices, as well as on the physics of new devices and sensors, nanostructured materials and nano scaled device characterization. Special attention is paid to fabrication and properties of modern low-power, high-performance, miniaturized, portable sensors in a wide range of applications such as telecommunications, radiation control, biomedical instrumentation and chemical analysis. In this book, new approaches exploiting nanotechnologies (such as UTBB FD SOI, Fin FETs, nanowires, graphene or carbon nanotubes on dielectric) to pave a way between “More Moore” and “More than Moore” are considered, in order to create different kinds of sensors and devices which will consume less electrical power, be more portable and totally compatible with modern microelectronics products.

  18. Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Device Combined with Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectricity is a type of material that enables mechanical energy and electrical energy to be interchangeable, which can be divided into positive piezoelectric effect and inverse piezoelectric effect. The positive piezoelectric effect is that the electric dipole moment of material generates changes when the piezoelectric material is subjected to pressure, resulting in electrical energy. Conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect is the process of electrical energy converted into mechanical energy.

  19. Use of intelligent devices in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1981-01-01

    In these lectures we concentrate on two areas for which special devices have been developed: On line data processing, generally to perform event selection and/or to achieve compaction of data before recording. Preparation of experimental apparatus: testing of detectors, optimimization of operating conditions and calibration. Much attention will be given to the event-selection process and the devices used for this purpose. (orig./HSI)

  20. Characterisation of the biofouling community on a floating wave energy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Christopher R; Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Guerin, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Wave energy devices are novel structures in the marine environment and, as such, provide a unique habitat for biofouling organisms. In this study, destructive scrape samples and photoquadrats were used to characterise the temperate epibenthic community present on prototypes of the Pelamis wave energy converter. The biofouling observed was extensive and diverse with 115 taxa recorded including four non-native species. Vertical zonation was identified on the sides of the device, with an algae-dominated shallow subtidal area and a deeper area characterised by a high proportion of suspension-feeding invertebrates. Differences in species composition and biomass were also observed between devices, along the length of the device and between sampling dates. This research provides an insight into the variation of biofouling assemblages on a wave energy device as well as the potential technical and ecological implications associated with biofouling on marine renewable energy structures.

  1. U.S. Navy Surface Ship Fleet: Propulsion Energy Evaluation, and Identification of Cost Effective Energy Enhancement Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cusanelli, Dominic S; Karafiath, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    .... Navy surface ship fleet was prepared. This information was used to identify eleven U.S. Navy surface ship classes as candidates for consideration with regard to retrofit of energy enhancement devices...

  2. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating the Grid Benefits of Connected Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the University of Delaware Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  3. Design and construction of a solar energy tracking device | Ndinechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A solar tracking device using PIC16F873 microcontroller was developed to solve the problem of adjustment of solar panels for optimum solar reception. MPLAB software was used to develop sets of instructions in an assembly language. The choice of PIC16F873 microcontroller stemmed from its flexibility in producing a ...

  4. Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-08-01

    The ocean-energy industry is still in its infancy and device developers have provided their own equipment and procedures for testing. Currently, no testing standards exist for ocean energy devices in the United States. Furthermore, as prototype devices move from the test tank to in-water testing, the logistical challenges and costs grow exponentially. Development of a common instrumentation package that can be moved from device to device is one means of reducing testing costs and providing normalized data to the industry as a whole. As a first step, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has initiated an effort to develop an instrumentation package to provide a tool to allow common measurements across various ocean energy devices. The effort is summarized in this paper. First, we present the current status of ocean energy devices. We then review the experiences of the wind industry in its development of the instrumentation package and discuss how they can be applied in the ocean environment. Next, the challenges that will be addressed in the development of the ocean instrumentation package are discussed. For example, the instrument package must be highly adaptable to fit a large array of devices but still conduct common measurements. Finally, some possible system configurations are outlined followed by input from the industry regarding its measurement needs, lessons learned from prior testing, and other ideas.

  5. Reliability and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines and Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines are in some countries contributing significantly the production of electricity and wave energy devices have the potential to be developed in a similarway. For both offshore wind turbines and wave energy devices reliability is a key issue since costs to operation and maintenance may...... turbines and wave energy devices with special focus on structural components. The reliability assessment needs include the effects of the control system and possible faults due to failure of electrical/mechanical components and e.g. loss of grid connection. The target reliability level for wind turbine...

  6. Application of energy storage devices in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. In Electric Power systems, power quality has been one of the issues of increasing interests. Energy storage does not mean just the energy sources but they also provide the added benefits of improving power quality, dynamic and transient stability and also the reliability of the supply. Some of the major ...

  7. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying (Iris); Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  8. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  9. Smart Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices with Self-Protection and Self-Adaptation Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Yu, Dandan; Wang, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Currently, with booming development and worldwide usage of rechargeable electrochemical energy storage devices, their safety issues, operation stability, service life, and user experience are garnering special attention. Smart and intelligent energy storage devices with self-protection and self-adaptation abilities aiming to address these challenges are being developed with great urgency. In this Progress Report, we highlight recent achievements in the field of smart energy storage systems that could early-detect incoming internal short circuits and self-protect against thermal runaway. Moreover, intelligent devices that are able to take actions and self-adapt in response to external mechanical disruption or deformation, i.e., exhibiting self-healing or shape-memory behaviors, are discussed. Finally, insights into the future development of smart rechargeable energy storage devices are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  11. A comparison of laparoscopic energy devices on charges in thermal power after application to porcine mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Ken; Omura, Nobuo; Haruki, Koichiro; Uno, Yoshiko; Ohkuma, Masahisa; Nakajima, Shintaro; Anan, Tadashi; Kosuge, Makoto; Fujita, Tetsuji; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-02-01

    Advances in energy devices have played a major role in the rapid expansion of laparoscopic surgery. However, complications due to these energy devices are occasionally reported, and if the characteristics of these devices are not well understood, serious complications may occur. This study evaluated various typical energy devices and measured temperature rises in the adjacent tissue and in the devices themselves. We used the following 7 types of energy devices: AutoSonix (AU), SonoSurg (SS), Harmonic Scalpel (HS), LigaSure Atlas (LA), LigaSure Dolphin Tip (LD), monopolar diathermy (Mono), and bipolar scissors (Bi). Laparoscopy was performed under general anesthesia in pigs, and the mesentery was dissected using each energy device. Tissue temperature at a distance of 1 mm from the energy device blade before and after dissection was measured. Temperature of the device blade both before and after dissection, time required for dissection, and interval until the temperature fell to 100°C, 75°C, and 50°C were documented. Temperature of the surrounding tissue using each device rose the most with the Mono (50.5±8.0°C) and the least with the HS in full mode (6.2±0.7°C). Device temperature itself rose the highest with the AU in full mode (318.2±49.6°C), and the least with the Bi (61.9±4.8°C). All ultrasonic coagulation and cutting devices (AU, SS, and HS) had device temperatures increase up to ≥100°C, and even at 8 seconds after completing dissection, temperatures remained at ≥100°C. Because the adjacent tissue temperature peaked with the Mono, cautious use near the intestine and blood vessels is necessary. In addition, the active blades of all ultrasonic coagulation and cutting devices, regardless of model, developed high temperatures exceeding 100°C. Therefore, an adequate cooling period after using these devices is therefore necessary between applications.

  12. Recent advances in energy storage materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles nine comprehensive contributions from the principle of Li-ion batteries, cathode and anode electrode materials to future energy storage systems such as solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries and high capacity redox flow battery.

  13. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  14. Energy storage device based on flywheel, power converters and Simulink real-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kedra, Bartosz; Malkowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This electronic document is a 'live' template and already defines the components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] in its style sheet. Paper presents information on Energy Storage Device based on Flywheel and bi-directional IGBT Power Converters - designed for LINTE∧2 laboratory owned...... are presented. List and description of all measurements is provided. In the last section of the paper results of experiments using Energy Storage Device based on Flywheel and Power Converters performed in laboratory are presented....

  15. Suppressing recombination in polymer photovoltaic devices via energy-level cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Johnson, Kerr; Vaynzof, Yana; Bakulin, Artem A; Chua, Lay-Lay; Ho, Peter K H; Friend, Richard H

    2013-08-14

    An energy cascading structure is designed in a polymer photovoltaic device to suppress recombination and improve quantum yields. By the insertion of a thin polymer interlayer with intermediate energy levels, electrons and holes can effectively shuttle away from each other while being spatially separated from recombination. An increase in open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are observed in modified devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. CMOS-based optical energy harvesting circuit for biomedical and Internet of Things devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattakarn, Wuthibenjaphonchai; Ishizu, Takaaki; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Sawan, Mohamad; Ohta, Jun

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a novel CMOS-based optical energy harvesting technology for implantable and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In the proposed system, a CMOS energy-harvesting circuit accumulates a small amount of photoelectrically converted energy in an external capacitor, and intermittently supplies this power to a target device. Two optical energy-harvesting circuit types were implemented and evaluated. Furthermore, we developed a photoelectrically powered optical identification (ID) circuit that is suitable for IoT technology applications.

  17. ECOPS: Energy-Efficient Collaborative Opportunistic Positioning for Heterogeneous Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Dhondge

    2013-01-01

    and prevalent WiFi, broadcasted from a few other devices in the communication range. The position-broadcasting devices in ECOPS have sufficient battery power and up-to-date location information obtained from accurate but energy-inefficient GPS. A position receiver in ECOPS estimates its location using a combination of methods including received signal strength indicators and 2D trilateration. Our field experiments show that ECOPS significantly reduces the total energy consumption of devices while achieving an acceptable level of location accuracy. ECOPS can be especially useful for unique resource scarce, infrastructureless, and mission critical scenarios such as battlefields, border patrol, mountaineering expeditions, and disaster area assistance.

  18. Analytical model for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiss, S; Goldschmidtboeing, F; M Kroener; Woias, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose analytical expressions for the jump-up and jump-down point of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester. In addition, analytical expressions for the maximum power output at optimal resistive load and the 3 dB-bandwidth are derived. So far, only numerical models have been used to describe the physics of a piezoelectric energy harvester. However, this approach is not suitable to quickly evaluate different geometrical designs or piezoelectric materials in the harvester design process. In addition, the analytical expressions could be used to predict the jump-frequencies of a harvester during operation. In combination with a tuning mechanism, this would allow the design of an efficient control algorithm to ensure that the harvester is always working on the oscillator's high energy attractor. (paper)

  19. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  20. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A rotary multimodal hybrid energy harvesting device powered by human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Miles R.

    This thesis presents a novel hybrid multimodal energy harvesting device consisting of an unbalanced rotary disk that supports two transduction methods, piezoelectric and electromagnetic. The device generates electrical energy from oscillatory motion either orthogonal or parallel to the rotary axis to power electronic devices. Analytical models of the device were developed, from which numerical simulations were performed for several different generator sizes. Two prototypes, 180 mm and 100 mm in diameter, respectively, were fabricated and characterized experimentally with a modal shaker. The 180 mm prototype generated 120 mW from the electromagnetic system at 5 Hz and 0.8g, and 4.23 mW from the piezoelectric system at 20.2 Hz and 0.4g excitation acceleration. Finally, the power generation capabilities of the two prototypes were compared to other similar devices.

  2. MEMS fabricated energy harvesting device with 2D resonant structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Triches, Marco

    This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2...

  3. Hydrodynamic analysis of oscillating water column wave energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Ducasse, Damien; Nielsen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    A 40-chamber I-Beam attenuator-type, oscillating water column, wave energy converter is analyzed numerically based on linearized potential flow theory, and experimentally via model test experiments. The high-order panel method WAMIT by Newman and Lee (WAMIT; a radiation–diffraction panel program...

  4. Demonstrating EnTracked a System for Energy-Efficient Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Godsk, Torben

    An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself. Not only for use on the device but also for remote applications that require tracking of the device. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life...... of the mobile device. To address this challenge we have build a system named EnTracked that, based on the estimation and prediction of system conditions and mobility, schedules position updates to both minimize energy consumption and optimize robustness. In this demonstration we would like to show how...... the system can lower the energy consumption and remain robust as pedestrians targets move around in the city center of Copenhagen....

  5. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  6. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  7. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices formed by a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. A spin coated CYTOP polymer is used both...

  8. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices with a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. CYTOP polymer is used both as an electret material...

  9. Toward Wearable Self-Charging Power Systems: The Integration of Energy-Harvesting and Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiong; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-01-01

    One major challenge for wearable electronics is that the state-of-the-art batteries are inadequate to provide sufficient energy for long-term operations, leading to inconvenient battery replacement or frequent recharging. Other than the pursuit of high energy density of secondary batteries, an alternative approach recently drawing intensive attention from the research community, is to integrate energy-generation and energy-storage devices into self-charging power systems (SCPSs), so that the scavenged energy can be simultaneously stored for sustainable power supply. This paper reviews recent developments in SCPSs with the integration of various energy-harvesting devices (including piezoelectric nanogenerators, triboelectric nanogenerators, solar cells, and thermoelectric nanogenerators) and energy-storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors. SCPSs with multiple energy-harvesting devices are also included. Emphasis is placed on integrated flexible or wearable SCPSs. Remaining challenges and perspectives are also examined to suggest how to bring the appealing SCPSs into practical applications in the near future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mnemonic Device for Relating the Eight Thermodynamic State Variables: The Energy Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, Jeffrey E.; Girard, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    A mnemonic device, the energy pie, is presented that provides relationships between thermodynamic potentials ("U," "H," "G," and "A") and other sets of variables that carry energy units, "TS" and "PV." Methods are also presented in which the differential expressions for the potentials and the corresponding Maxwell relations follow from the energy…

  11. Polymeric compositional materials based on polycarbonate for units of devices for transform solar into thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sytar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern development of the industry is complicated without introduction of energy-saving technologies based on renewable natural energy sources. Solar and wind power plants, heat generators, solar collectors are wide spread in developed countries. One of it is device for transform solar into thermal energy. It is costly devices with low level of reliability and durability. Therefore actual tasks of this work are reduction cost of device for transform solar into thermal energy and increase it level of reliability and durability. These tasks are carried out by the way of substitution the main elements of device for transform solar into thermal energy by development polymeric compositional materials (PCM. As the polymer matrix is selected polycarbonate. This matrix is modified by silicon rubber and filled by graphite. The silicon rubber increase technological effectiveness by procedure of obtaining PCM. Graphite significantly increase tribotechnical properties of PCM in friction units with steel. Developed PCM can be recommended for application in main elements of device for transform solar into thermal energy, that lead to increasing of it level of reliability and durability.

  12. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  13. Study on light and thermal energy of illumination device for plant factory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A.; Moriuchi, K.; Ueda, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of illumination devices on the yield of crops cultivated in a plant factory, it is necessary to measure the actual cultivation environmental factors related to the plant growth and understand the distribution ratio of light and thermal energy to the electrical energy injected into the illumination device. Based on cultivation results, we found that light intensity greatly affected the growth of plant weight. Regarding the selection of illumination device, its spectral components also affected the morphological change. Lighting experiments using a high frequency (Hf) fluorescent lamp and a light emitting diode (LED) bulb were performed. A certain difference was found in the distribution ratio of light energy to electrical energy between Hf and LED. It was showed that by placing the safety equipment or internal circuits outside the cultivated site, the air conditioning load could be reduced.

  14. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material......, commonly referred to as chemical expansion. This article reviews the current knowledge of chemical expansion and aspires to facilitate and promote future research in this field by providing a taxonomy for its sources, along with recent atomistic insights of its origin, aided by recent computational...

  15. Coherent Structure Dynamics and Turbulent Effects of Horizontal Axis Marine Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, D. I.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Ingram, D.

    2016-12-01

    Harnessing the energy available in the oceans constitutes one of the most promising alternatives for generating clean electricity. There are vast amounts of energy present both in waves and tidal currents so it is anticipated that marine energy will have a major role in non-conventional renewable energy generation in the near to mid future. Nevertheless, before marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices can be installed in large numbers a better understanding of the physical, social and environmental implications of their operation is needed. This includes understanding the: hydrodynamic processes, interaction with bathymetry, and the local flow characteristics. This study is focused on the effects horizontal axis MHK devices have on flow turbulence and coherent structures. This is especially relevant considering that sites with favourable conditions for MHK devices are tidal channels where a delicate balance exists between the strong tidal currents and the ecosystems. Understanding how MHK devices influence flow conditions, turbulence and energy flux is essential for predicting and assessing the environmental implications of deploying MHK technologies. We couple a Blade Element Momentum Actuator Disk (BEM-AD) model to a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) flow solver in order to study flow conditions for different configurations of horizontal axis MHK turbines. In this study, we contribute to the understanding of the hydrodynamic behaviour of MHK technologies, and give insights into the effects devices will have on their environment, with emphasis in ambient turbulence and flow characteristics, while keeping in mind that these effects can alter electricity quality and device performance. Work supported by CONICYT grant 80160084, Fondecyt grant 1130940, Chile's Marine Energy Research & Innovation Center (MERIC) CORFO project 14CEI2-28228, and the collaboration between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the University of Edinburgh, UK, partially supported by the RC

  16. Towards Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Storage Devices in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobin; Yu, Wei; Griffith, David; Golmie, Nada; Moulema, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) provides a generic infrastructure for different applications to integrate information communication techniques with physical components to achieve automatic data collection, transmission, exchange, and computation. The smart grid, as one of typical applications supported by IoT, denoted as a re-engineering and a modernization of the traditional power grid, aims to provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution to consumers. How to effectively integrate distributed (renewable) energy resources and storage devices to satisfy the energy service requirements of users, while minimizing the power generation and transmission cost, remains a highly pressing challenge in the smart grid. To address this challenge and assess the effectiveness of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices, in this paper we develop a theoretical framework to model and analyze three types of power grid systems: the power grid with only bulk energy generators, the power grid with distributed energy resources, and the power grid with both distributed energy resources and storage devices. Based on the metrics of the power cumulative cost and the service reliability to users, we formally model and analyze the impact of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices in the power grid. We also use the concept of network calculus, which has been traditionally used for carrying out traffic engineering in computer networks, to derive the bounds of both power supply and user demand to achieve a high service reliability to users. Through an extensive performance evaluation, our data shows that integrating distributed energy resources conjointly with energy storage devices can reduce generation costs, smooth the curve of bulk power generation over time, reduce bulk power generation and power distribution losses, and provide a sustainable service reliability to users in the power grid.

  17. Organic photovoltaic devices with concurrent solar energy harvesting and charge storage capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshi, Arash; Tevi, Tete; Rahimi, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    Due to large variation of the solar energy availability in a day, energy storage is required in many applications when solar cells are used. However, application of external energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, increases the cost of solar energy systems and requires additional charging circuitry. This combination is bulky and relatively expensive, which is not ideal for many applications. In this work, a novel idea is presented for making electrochemical devices with dual properties of solar energy harvesting and internal charge storage. The device is essentially a supercapacitor with a photoactive electrode. Energy harvesting occurs through light absorption at one of the electrodes made of a composite of a conducting polymer (i.e. PEDOT:PSS) and a Porphyrin dye. The energy storage takes place in the both photoactive and counter electrode (CE). We have studied the effect of the CE material on the device characteristics. Using Y-Carbon (a commercial available electrode), an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V was achieved in light across the cell with ~1 mF capacitance. The other two choices for CE were activated carbon and carbon nanotube based electrodes. The cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the Y Carbon electrode was a better match.

  18. Biological Ion Transporters as Gating Devices for Chemomechanical and Chemoelectrical Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new class of engineered devices, fabricated from synthetic materials and protein transporters extracted from cell membranes of plants, that use chemomechanical and chemoelectrical energy conversion processes to perform mechanical and electrical work. The chemomechanical energy conversion concept is implemented in a protein based actuator. The chemical energy is applied as an electrochemical gradient of protons across a membrane assembly formed from phospholip...

  19. Co-Extrusion: Advanced Manufacturing for Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Corie Lynn [PARC, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The development of mass markets for large-format batteries, including electric vehicles (EVs) and grid support, depends on both cost reductions and performance enhancements to improve their economic viability. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) has developed a multi-material, advanced manufacturing process called co-extrusion (CoEx) to remove multiple steps in a conventional battery coating process with the potential to simultaneously increase battery energy and power density. CoEx can revolutionize battery manufacturing across most chemistries, significantly lowering end-product cost and shifting the underlying economics to make EVs and other battery applications a reality. PARC’s scale-up of CoEx for electric vehicle (EV) batteries builds on a solid base of experience in applying CoEx to solar cell manufacturing, deposition of viscous ceramic pastes, and Li-ion battery chemistries. In the solar application, CoEx has been deployed commercially at production scale where multi-channel CoEx printheads are used to print viscous silver gridline pastes at full production speeds (>40 ft/min). This operational scale-up provided invaluable experience with the nuances of speed, yield, and maintenance inherent in taking a new technology to the factory floor. PARC has leveraged this experience, adapting the CoEx process for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing. To date, PARC has worked with Li-ion battery materials and structured cathodes with high-density Li-ion regions and low-density conduction regions, documenting both energy and power performance. Modeling results for a CoEx cathode show a path towards a 10-20% improvement in capacity for an EV pouch cell. Experimentally, we have realized a co-extruded battery structure with a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) cathode at print speeds equivalent to conventional roll coating processes. The heterogeneous CoEx cathode enables improved capacity in thick electrodes at higher C-rates. The proof-of-principle coin cells

  20. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  1. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  2. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  3. Energy harvesting device for power generation onboard gravity-dropped weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Bridge, M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development and construction of an energy harvesting device to provide a safe, reliable source of electrical energy onboard gravity-dropped weapons such as aerial bombs. The generators collect and store mechanical energy as the weapon falls away from the aircraft. Only after the weapon has fallen away from the aircraft is the stored mechanical energy released, generating electricity through a hybrid piezoelectric and electromagnetic generation method. The design, construction, and testing of the generator is discussed at length. Conceptual designs for integrating the described energy harvester alongside current and alternative sources of electrical power are also discussed.

  4. EnTracked: Energy-Efficient Robust Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Godsk, Torben

    2009-01-01

    of the mobile device. Furthermore, tracking has to robustly deliver position updates when faced with changing conditions such as delays due to positioning and communication, and changing positioning accuracy. This work proposes EnTracked --- a system that, based on the estimation and prediction of system...... conditions and mobility, schedules position updates to both minimize energy consumption and optimize robustness. The realized system tracks pedestrian targets equipped with GPS-enabled devices. The system is configurable to realize different trade-offs between energy consumption and robustness. We provide...... extensive experimental results by profiling how devices consume power, by emulation on collected data and by validation in several real-world deployments. Results from this profiling show how a device consumes power while tracking its position. Results from the emulation indicate that the system can...

  5. The applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-shaped energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingxia; Hong, Yang; Wang, Bingjie

    2018-01-01

    As a promising candidate for future demand, fiber-shaped electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have obtained considerable attention from academy to industry. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene, have been widely investigated as electrode materials due to their merits of light weight, flexibility and high capacitance. In this review, recent progress of carbon nanomaterials in flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices has been summarized in accordance with the development of fibrous electrodes, including the diversified electrode preparation, functional and intelligent device structure, and large-scale production of fibrous electrodes or devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21634003, 21604012).

  6. Body-Attachable and Stretchable Multisensors Integrated with Wirelessly Rechargeable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeil; Kim, Doyeon; Lee, Hyunkyu; Jeong, Yu Ra; Lee, Seung-Jung; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Hyoungjun; Lee, Geumbee; Jeon, Sanggeun; Zi, Goangseup; Kim, Jihyun; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-01-27

    A stretchable multisensor system is successfully demonstrated with an integrated energy-storage device, an array of microsupercapacitors that can be repeatedly charged via a wireless radio-frequency power receiver on the same stretchable polymer substrate. The integrated devices are interconnected by a liquid-metal interconnection and operate stably without noticeable performance degradation under strain due to the skin attachment, and a uniaxial strain up to 50%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Research status of wave energy conversion (WEC) device of raft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianguo; Gao, Jingwei; Tao, Liang; Zheng, Peng

    2017-10-01

    This paper has briefly described the concept of wave energy generation and six typical conversion devices. As for raft structure, detailed analysis is provided from its development process to typical devices. Taking the design process and working principle of Plamis as an example, the general principle of raft structure is briefly described. After that, a variety of raft structure models are introduced. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages, and development trend of raft structure are pointed out.

  8. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  9. Energy Saving Through Intelligent Coordination Among Daily Used Fixed and Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rafiullah; Khan, Sarmad Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Network end-user devices such as laptops and desktop PCs are often left powered ON 24/7 while they remain idle most of the time. The main reason behind this is maintaining network connectivity for remote access, VoIP, instant messaging and other Internet-based applications. The Network Connectivity Proxy (NCP) emerged as a quite promising strategy for significantly reducing network energy waste by allowing devices to sleep without losing their presence over Internet. It impersonates presence ...

  10. Intra-building People Localisation Using Personal Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebs Kuzmics

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the conceptual implementation of a system to locate people inside buildings using their personal Bluetooth® low energy device(s in situations of a crisis. Various aspects of BLE technology are covered with regard to their usage for emergency management. Legal, social, ethical and professional issues are also discussed in using this technology, especially in matters of safeguarding information privacy. The plan of the proposed system is then discussed and concluded.

  11. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  12. Chemically Integrated Inorganic-Graphene Two-Dimensional Hybrid Materials for Flexible Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Li, Hongsen; Yu, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    State-of-the-art energy storage devices are capable of delivering reasonably high energy density (lithium ion batteries) or high power density (supercapacitors). There is an increasing need for these power sources with not only superior electrochemical performance, but also exceptional flexibility. Graphene has come on to the scene and advancements are being made in integration of various electrochemically active compounds onto graphene or its derivatives so as to utilize their flexibility. Many innovative synthesis techniques have led to novel graphene-based hybrid two-dimensional nanostructures. Here, the chemically integrated inorganic-graphene hybrid two-dimensional materials and their applications for energy storage devices are examined. First, the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of inorganic-graphene hybrid nanostructures are summarized, and then the most relevant applications of inorganic-graphene hybrid materials in flexible energy storage devices are reviewed. The general design rules of using graphene-based hybrid 2D materials for energy storage devices and their current limitations and future potential to advance energy storage technologies are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-09-05

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  14. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  15. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2013-07-02

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  16. Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rourke, Fergal O.; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Bolton Street, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2010-04-15

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

  17. A Pareto-based multi-objective optimization algorithm to design energy-efficient shading devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshiltseva, Marina; Slanzi, Debora; Poli, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a multi-objective optimization algorithm for shading design. • We combine Harmony search and Pareto-based procedures. • Thermal and daylighting performances of external shading were considered. • We applied the optimization process to a residential social housing in Madrid. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of designing new energy-efficient static daylight devices that will surround the external windows of a residential building in Madrid. Shading devices can in fact largely influence solar gains in a building and improve thermal and lighting comforts by selectively intercepting the solar radiation and by reducing the undesirable glare. A proper shading device can therefore significantly increase the thermal performance of a building by reducing its energy demand in different climate conditions. In order to identify the set of optimal shading devices that allow a low energy consumption of the dwelling while maintaining high levels of thermal and lighting comfort for the inhabitants we derive a multi-objective optimization methodology based on Harmony Search and Pareto front approaches. The results show that the multi-objective approach here proposed is an effective procedure in designing energy efficient shading devices when a large set of conflicting objectives characterizes the performance of the proposed solutions.

  18. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferin, G; Bantignies, C; Khanh, H Le; Flesch, E; Nguyen-Dinh, A

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations. (paper)

  19. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, G.; Bantignies, C.; Le Khanh, H.; Flesch, E.; Nguyen-Dinh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations.

  20. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P.G., E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.i [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A. [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kovacs, A. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, P.O.Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mehta, K. [Arbeiterstrandbad Strasse 72, Vienna, A-1210 (Austria); Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S. [Aerial, Parc d' Innovation Rue Laurent Fries F-67400 Illkirch (France)

    2010-03-11

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  1. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  2. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Lei, A.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The most common piezoelectric energy harvesting devices utilize a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric material....... It provides mechanical support but it also reduces the power output. Our device replaces the support with another layer of the piezoelectric material, and with the absence of an inactive mechanical support all of the stresses induced by the vibrations will be harvested by the active piezoelectric elements....

  3. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. Most piezoelectric energy harvesting devices use a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric...... materials; it provides mechanical support but it also reduces the power output. In our device we replace the support material with another layer of the piezoelectric material. With the absence of an inactive mechanical support all stresses induced by vibrations will be harvested by the active piezoelectric...

  4. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  5. Study on Differentiation Management of Grid Energy Metering Device under High Permeability by Distributed Energy and Smart Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyuan; Huang, Rui; Yang, Maotao; Chen, Hao

    2017-12-01

    At present, the electric energy metering device is classified according to the amount of electric energy and the degree of importance of the measurement object. The measuring device is also selected according to the characteristics of the traditional metering object.With the continuous development of smart grid, the diversification of measurement objects increasingly appear, the traditional measurement object classification has been unable to meet the new measurement object of personalized, differentiated needs.Withal, this paper constructs the subdivision model based on the object feature-system evaluation, classifies according to the characteristics of the measurement object, and carries on the empirical analysis with some kind of measurement object as the research object.The results show that the model works well and can be used to subdivide the metrological objects into different customer groups, which can be reasonably configured and managed for the metering devices. The research of this paper has effectively improved the economy and rationality of the energy metering device management, and improved the working efficiency.

  6. MEMS Based Broadband Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Energy Harvester (PUEH) for Enabling Self-Powered Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiongfeng; Wang, Tao; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic energy transfer is a promising energy harvesting technology candidate for implantable biomedical devices. However, it does not show competitive strength for enabling self-powered implantable biomedical devices due to two issues – large size of bulk piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and output power fluctuation with transferred distance due to standing wave. Here we report a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based broadband piezoelectric ultrasonic energy harvester (PUEH) to enable self-powered implantable biomedical devices. The PUEH is a microfabricated lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm array and has wide operation bandwidth. By adjusting frequency of the input ultrasound wave within the operation bandwidth, standing wave effect can be minimized for any given distances. For example, at 1 cm distance, power density can be increased from 0.59 μW/cm2 to 3.75 μW/cm2 at input ultrasound intensity of 1 mW/cm2 when frequency changes from 250 to 240 kHz. Due to the difference of human body and manual surgical process, distance fluctuation for implantable biomedical devices is unavoidable and it strongly affects the coupling efficiency. This issue can be overcome by performing frequency adjustment of the PUEH. The proposed PUEH shows great potential to be integrated on an implanted biomedical device chip as power source for various applications. PMID:27112530

  7. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds. PMID:23112659

  8. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT, energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs and soft real-time tasks (SRTs. The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds.

  9. Time–energy high-dimensional one-side device-independent quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Hai-Ze; Bao Wan-Su; Wang Yang; Chen Rui-Ke; Ma Hong-Xin; Zhou Chun; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Compared with full device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), one-side device-independent QKD (1sDI-QKD) needs fewer requirements, which is much easier to meet. In this paper, by applying recently developed novel time–energy entropic uncertainty relations, we present a time–energy high-dimensional one-side device-independent quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) and provide the security proof against coherent attacks. Besides, we connect the security with the quantum steering. By numerical simulation, we obtain the secret key rate for Alice’s different detection efficiencies. The results show that our protocol can performance much better than the original 1sDI-QKD. Furthermore, we clarify the relation among the secret key rate, Alice’s detection efficiency, and the dispersion coefficient. Finally, we simply analyze its performance in the optical fiber channel. (paper)

  10. Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Paul A; Robinson, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    The increasing international growth in the development of marine and freshwater wave and tidal energy harvesting systems has been followed by a growing requirement to understand any associated underwater impact. Radiated noise generated during operation is dependent on the device's physical properties, the sound-propagation environment, and the device's operational state. Physical properties may include size, distribution in the water column, and mechanics/hydrodynamics. The sound-propagation environment may be influenced by water depth, bathymetry, sediment type, and water column acoustic properties, and operational state may be influenced by tidal cycle and wave height among others This paper discusses some of the challenges for measurement of noise characteristics from these devices as well as a case study of the measurement of radiated noise from a full-scale wave energy converter.

  11. Comparative study of passive and semi-active energy dissipation devices intended for overhead cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihot, P.; Revaud, D.

    1996-04-01

    This paper deals with the results of a bibliographic survey of energy dissipation devices which could be adapted for overhead cranes. The principle of passive devices using friction, yielding steel systems of viscous and viscoelastic systems are remembered. An active control system, which needs a minimum of external control energy is also presented. The application to overhead cranes which have a strong non linear behaviour under strong seismic motion (sliding between rails and wheels, local yielding and damage) is further discussed. The first results of a numerical study in progress are likewise purposed. The criterion of selection of the devices turn on the performance, the robustness and the reliability. The behaviour in the presence of non linearities, the sensitivity to the variations of the vibratory characteristics, and lastly the sensitivity to the response delay of the active controller are taken into account. (authors). 14 refs., 4 figs

  12. A new permanent magnetic friction damper device for passive energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Wang, Wei; Huang, Zuojian

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a new permanent magnetic friction damper (PMFD) device designed to protect structures during earthquakes. The device is based on the concept that when two permanent magnetic strips are osculated, magnetic attraction is produced and the magnitude can be adjusted and predicted by changing the area of the contact surface of the strips. Thus, the controlling force of the PMFD device varies continuously with the response of the structure and thereby overcomes the drawbacks of conventional friction dampers, the force models for which are invariable. We performed shaking table tests and numerical studies for a five-story steel frame structure fitted with PMFD devices; the results demonstrate that the new device effectively reduces the seismic response of a structure due to its excellent energy dissipation capacity. Moreover, the controlling force supplied by the new PMFD device can be adaptively adjusted according to the magnitude of the excitations. Therefore, the new PMFD device presents a viable alternative to conventional friction-based earthquake-resistant designs both for new construction and for upgrading existing structures. (paper)

  13. Bioinspired Graphene-Based Nanocomposites and Their Application in Flexible Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Peng, Jingsong; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-09-01

    Graphene is the strongest and stiffest material ever identified and the best electrical conductor known to date, making it an ideal candidate for constructing nanocomposites used in flexible energy devices. However, it remains a great challenge to assemble graphene nanosheets into macro-sized high-performance nanocomposites in practical applications of flexible energy devices using traditional approaches. Nacre, the gold standard for biomimicry, provides an excellent example and guideline for assembling two-dimensional nanosheets into high-performance nanocomposites. This review summarizes recent research on the bioinspired graphene-based nanocomposites (BGBNs), and discusses different bioinspired assembly strategies for constructing integrated high-strength and -toughness graphene-based nanocomposites through various synergistic effects. Fundamental properties of graphene-based nanocomposites, such as strength, toughness, and electrical conductivities, are highlighted. Applications of the BGBNs in flexible energy devices, as well as potential challenges, are addressed. Inspired from the past work done by the community a roadmap for the future of the BGBNs in flexible energy device applications is depicted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reactive ion etching of polymer materials for an energy harvesting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther; Skands, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated deep reactive ion etching (RIE) of two MEMS compatible polymer materials CYTOP and TOPAS, which may be useful for energy harvesting devices. The CYTOP polymer was patterned and used as the electret for the following corona charging while the TOPAS polymer...

  15. Device with foil corrector for electron optical aberrations at low energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Van Aken, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    An electron optical device for, in use, creating negative spherical and chromatic aberration and reducing the energy spread in an electron beam travelling on an optical axis, including: at least one conducting plate substantially perpendicular to the optical axis with a first aperture having a first

  16. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN ENERGY SAVING DEVICE PADA PROPELLER B4 55 DENGAN METODE CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Trimulyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tingginya harga bahan bakar semakin mendorong pelaku industri khususnya pemilik kapal melakukan penghematan konsumsi bahan bakar dan cara yang cukup efektif untuk mengurangi konsumsi bahan bakar tersebut adalah dengan menambah instalasi alat yang disebut Energy Saving Device (ESD pada propeller dengan tujuan meningkatkan efisiensi propulsi.   Beberapa desain  ESD propeller yang telah dikembangkan yakni Ducted Propellers (Kort Nozzel propeller, dan Propeller Boss Cap Fins (PBCF. Perbedaan jenis Energy Saving Device (ESD mengindikasikan perubahan gaya torque dan thrust yang berbeda sehingga penulis disini ingin menganalisa pengaruh instalasi Energy Saving Device (ESD  pada propeller terhadap torque dan thrust yang dihasilkan sehingga dapat diketahui jenis ESD dengan performa paling optimal dengan bantuan paket program CAD (Computer Aided Design serta CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics. Hasil analisa dengan menggunakan RANS software CFD menunjukkan akibat penambahan instalasi Energy Saving Device (ESD  pada propeller, terjadi perubahan bentuk aliran fluida, yang berpengaruh pula terhadap nilai thrust dan torque yang dihasilkan. Gaya thrust yang terjadi pada pada PBCF Propeller adalah sebesar 8.70E+05 N, dengan Torque 7.18E+05, sedangkan thrust pada Nozzle Propeller adalah sebesar 1.18E+06 dengan Torque 9.86E+05

  17. Short-Range Cooperation of Mobile Devices for Energy-Efficient Vertical Handovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Foukas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multiple collocated wireless networks using heterogeneous technologies and the multiaccess support of contemporary mobile devices have allowed wireless connectivity optimization, enabled through vertical handover (VHO operations. However, this comes at high energy consumption on the mobile device due to the inherently expensive nature of some of the involved operations. This work proposes exploiting short-range cooperation among collocated mobile devices to improve the energy efficiency of vertical handover operations. The proactive exchange of handover-related information through low-energy short-range communication technologies, like Bluetooth, can help in eliminating expensive signaling steps when the need for a VHO arises. A model is developed for capturing the mean energy expenditure of such an optimized VHO scheme in terms of relevant factors by means of closed-form expressions. The descriptive power of the model is demonstrated by investigating various typical usage scenarios and is validated through simulations. It is shown that the proposed scheme has superior performance in several realistic usage scenarios considering important relevant factors, including network availability, the local density of mobile devices, and the range of the cooperation technology. Finally, the paper explores cost/benefit trade-offs associated with the short-range cooperation protocol. It is demonstrated that the protocol may be parametrized so that the trade-off becomes nearly optimized and the cost is maintained affordable for a wide range of operational scenarios.

  18. Nanocellulose-enabled electronics, energy harvesting devices, smart materials and sensors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Aleksey Yermakov; Chiu Tai Law; Rani Elhajjar

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials have a number of interesting and unique properties that make them well-suited for use in electronics applications such as energy harvesting devices, actuators and sensors. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have good mechanical properties, high transparency, and low coefficient of thermal expansion, among other properties that facilitate...

  19. Study on the characteristic of energy response of large sampling device to ultra-high energy laser diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinrong; Li, Chaoming; Wu, Jianhong

    2009-07-01

    In terminal optical system of the ICF (inertial confinement fusion) , the large caliber (310mm*310mm) beam sampling grating (BSG) is used to confirm the energy of the main laser by measuring the -1st transmission diffractive light intensity of the main laser beam.The characteristics of BSG's energy response directly affects the measurement accuracy. The characteristic of BSG's energy response has been studied in this paper based on the actual intensity distribution of the ultra-high energy laser beam and the spatial distribution model of diffractive efficiency of BSG. BSG's energy response affected by its uniformity of the diffractive efficiency has been analysised, too. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of diffractive efficiency of BSG is directly related to the energe response characteristics and the uniformity of BSG's diffractive efficiency has an impact on the accuracy of the sampling of energy.This research provides a theoretical basis for evaluating the high-energy sampling device's energy response characteristic in ultra-high energy diagnosis. The technical indicator with the uniformity of BSG's diffractive efficiency has been attained and these results are use for the fabrication of the beam sampling gratings in practice.

  20. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  1. On the Energy Conversion Efficiency of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Eun [Catholic University of Daegu, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To properly design and assess a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester, it is necessary to consider the application of an efficiency measure of energy conversion. The energy conversion efficiency is defined in this work as the ratio of the electrical output power to the mechanical input power for a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with an impedance-matched load resistor. While previous research works employed the electrical output power for approximate impedance-matched load resistance, this work derives an efficiency measure considering optimally matched resistance. The modified efficiency measure is validated by comparing it with finite element analysis results for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with three different values of the electro-mechanical coupling coefficient. New findings on the characteristics of energy conversion and conversion efficiency are also provided for the two different impedance matching methods.

  2. A piezoelectric fibre composite based energy harvesting device for potential wearable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, L M; Luo, J K; Siores, E; Patel, I; Dodds, D

    2008-01-01

    Rapid technological advances in nanotechnology, microelectronic sensors and systems are becoming increasingly miniaturized to the point where embedded wearable applications are beginning to emerge. A restriction to the widespread application of these microsystems is the power supply of relatively sizable dimensions, weight, and limited lifespan. Emerging micropower sources exploit self-powered generators utilizing the intrinsic energy conversion characteristics of smart materials. 'Energy harvesting' describes the process by which energy is extracted from the environment, converted and stored. Piezoelectric materials have been used to convert mechanical into electrical energy through their inherent piezoelectric effect. This paper focuses on the development of a micropower generator using microcomposite based piezoelectric materials for energy reclamation in glove structures. Devices consist of piezoelectric fibres, 90–250 µm in diameter, aligned in a unidirectional manner and incorporated into a composite structure. The fibres are laid within a single laminate structure with copper interdigitated electrodes assembled on both sides, forming a thin film device. Performances of devices with different fibre diameters and material thicknesses are investigated. Experiments are outlined that detail the performance characteristics of such piezoelectric fibre laminates. Results presented show voltage outputs up to 6 V which is considered enough for potential applications in powering wearable microsystems

  3. Seismic Performance of low to medium rise reinforces concrete building using passive energy dissipation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Qazi, A.U.; Rasool, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major concerns in structural engineering is the development of new design concepts to improve structural performance and safety from the damaging effects of destructive earthquakes and winds. With the intent to achieve cost-effective seismic-resistant constructions the structures must be constructed to dissipate a large amount of seismic energy. Supplemental damping strategies are useful for improving the seismic response of structures to natural and manmade hazards. Passive energy dissipation devices, when integrated into a structure, dissipate a part of the input energy, thereby reducing energy dissipation requirement on primary structural members and reducing probable structural damage. The purpose of this research is to study the performance of building structure by using passive energy dissipation devices. Different types of devices used in this study are hysteretic dampers, friction dampers viscous and visco-elastic dampers. The finite element modeling technique is used to observe the behavior of structure with dampers. Three prototype concrete buildings (3, 5 and 10 Story) with same configuration are analyzed with damper using time history analysis. The buildings are analyzed with different types of dampers and by using different variation of their properties along the height of the building and the responses of buildings are observed in terms of, displacements, base shear and floor accelerations. It is found that the viscous and visco-elastic dampers are more effective for 3 and 5 storey buildings while friction and hysteresis dampers are effective for 10 storeys. (author)

  4. Study on film resistivity of Energy Conversion Components for MEMS Initiating Explosive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yulong; Chu, Enyi; Yin, Ming; Li, Hui; Wang, Kexuan

    2018-03-01

    Resistivity of Plane-film Energy Conversion Components is a key parameter to influence its resistance and explosive performance, and also it has important relations with the preparation of thin film technology, scale, structure and etc. In order to improve the design of Energy Conversion Components for MEMS Initiating Explosive Device, and reduce the design deviation of Energy Conversion Components in microscale, guarantee the design resistance and ignition performance of MEMS Initiating Explosive Device, this paper theoretically analyzed the influence factors of film resistivity in microscale, through the preparation of Al film and Ni-Cr film at different thickness with micro/nano, then obtain the film resistivity parameter of the typical metal under different thickness, and reveals the effect rule of the scale to the resistivity in microscale, at the same time we obtain the corresponding inflection point data.

  5. Analysis of Piezoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting Devices under High-g Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongna; Choe, Song-Yul; Kim, Dong-Joo

    2007-10-01

    We analyzed the miniaturized energy harvesting devices (each volume within 0.3 cm3) fabricated by using three types of piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramic, macro fiber composite (MFC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer to investigate the capability of converting mechanical vibration into electricity under larger vibration amplitudes or accelerations conditions (≥ 1g, gravitational acceleration). All prototypes based on a bimorph cantilever structure with a proof mass were aimed to operate at a vibration frequency of 100 Hz. PZT-based device was optimized and fabricated by considering the resonant frequency, the output power density, and the maximum operating acceleration or safety factor. PVDF- and MFC-prototypes were designed to have same resonant frequency as well as same volume of the piezoelectric materials as the PZT prototype. All three devices were measured to determine if they could generate enough power density to provide electric energy to power a wireless sensor or a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device without device failure.

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on new solid state devices for high energy physics. [LBL, October 28-30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This paper contains articles on semiconductor devices used in the detection of high energy particles. Some articles reported: Position sensitive semiconductor devices; Scintillation techniques and optical devices; Radiation damage to detectors; VLSI for physics; and experience with Si detectors in NA32. (LSP)

  7. Fabrication of Flexible, Fully Organic, Degradable Energy Storage Devices Using Silk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Ramendra K; Kundu, Subhas C; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2018-03-21

    Flexible and thin-film devices are of great interest in epidermal and implantable bioelectronics. The integration of energy storage and delivery devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) with properties such as flexibility, miniaturization, biocompatibility, and degradability are sought for such systems. Reducing e-waste and using sustainable materials and processes are additional desirable qualities. Herein, a silk protein-based biocompatible and degradable thin-film microSC (μSC) is reported. A protein carrier with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate and reduced graphene oxide dopant is used as a photopatternable biocomposite ink. Active electrodes are fabricated using photolithography under benign conditions, using only water as the solvent. These electrodes are printed on flexible protein sheets to form degradable, organic devices with a benign agarose-NaCl gel electrolyte. High capacitance, power density, cycling stability over 500 cycles, and the ability to power a light-emitting diode are shown. The device is flexible, can sustain cyclic mechanical stresses over 450 cycles, and retain capacitive properties over several days in liquid. Significantly, the μSCs are cytocompatible and completely degraded over the period of ∼1 month. By precise control of the device configuration, these silk protein-based, all-polymer organic devices can be designed to be tunably transient and provide viable alternatives for powering flexible and implantable bioelectronics.

  8. Pilot Evaluation of Energy Savings from Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses instantaneous feedback on household electrical demand has shown promise to reduce energy consumption. This report reviews past research and describes a two year pilot evaluation of a low cost residential energy feedback system installed in twenty case study homes in FL.

  9. An electret-based energy harvesting device with a wafer-level fabrication process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a MEMS energy harvesting device which is able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. A CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. The device...... is also discussed. With a final chip size of about 1 cm2, a power output of 32.5 nW is successfully harvested with an external load of 17 MΩ, when a harmonic vibration source with an RMS acceleration amplitude of 0.03 g (∼0.3 m s−2) and a resonant frequency of 179 Hz is applied. These results can...

  10. Advances in Microbial Biofilm Prevention on Indwelling Medical Devices with Emphasis on Usage of Acoustic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Lavie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives.

  11. Advances in Microbial Biofilm Prevention on Indwelling Medical Devices with Emphasis on Usage of Acoustic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Naama; Mandel, Mathilda; Hazan, Zadik; Lavie, Gad

    2009-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives. PMID:22574031

  12. On Improving the Energy Efficiency and Robustness of Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself and support remote position tracking. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life of the mobile device. Furthermore, tracking has to robustly deliver...... into sensor management strategies and position update protocols and combine the sensor management strategy of EnTracked with position update protocols, which enables the system to further reduce the power consumption with up to 268 mW extending the battery life with up to 36\\%. As our evaluation identify...

  13. Determination of charge transport activation energy and injection barrier in organic semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züfle, S.; Altazin, S.; Hofmann, A.; Jäger, L.; Neukom, M. T.; Brütting, W.; Ruhstaller, B.

    2017-09-01

    Charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor devices is thermally activated with characteristic activation energies in the range of 0.2-0.6 eV, leading to strongly temperature-dependent behaviour. For designing efficient organic semiconductor materials and devices, it is therefore indispensable to understand the origin of these activation energies. We propose that in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing a polar electron transport layer, as well as in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices, the hole injection barrier Einj and the hole mobility activation energy Eμ can be decoupled from each other if temperature-dependent capacitance-frequency (C-f-T) and MIS-CELIV (charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage) experiments are combined. While the C-f-T signal contains information of both injection and transport, the CELIV current is expected to be insensitive to the electrode injection properties. We employ numerical drift-diffusion simulations to investigate the accuracy of this analytical parameter extraction approach and to develop criteria for its validity. We show that the implicit assumption of constant charge density and field profiles leads to systematic errors in determining the activation energies. Thus, one should be aware of the intrinsic limitations of the analytical Arrhenius fit, and for more accurate parameter determination a full drift-diffusion modelling is advised. Applying the analytical method to a standard bilayer OLED, we find that the total activation energy of 0.5 eV for the hole current can be split into contributions of ≈0.25 eV each for injection barrier and mobility. Finally, we also discuss the broader applicability of this method for other device stacks and material combinations.

  14. Design of high efficiency and energy saving aeration device for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sibo

    2017-03-01

    Energy efficient aeration device for aquaculture, in line with "by more than a generation, dynamic aeration" train of thought for technical design and improvement. Removable aeration terminal as the core, multi-level water to improve the method, the mobile fading pore aeration, intelligent mobile and open and close as the main function, aimed at solving the existing pond aeration efficiency, low energy consumption is high, the function of a single problem. From energy saving, efficiency, biological bacteria on the three directions, the aquaculture industry of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Device of the main advantages are: 1, original mobile fading aerator on the one hand, to expand the scope of work, playing a micro porous aeration of dissolved oxygen with high efficiency and to achieve "by more than a generation", on the other hand, through the sports equipment, stir the mixture of water, the water surface of photosynthesis of plants rich in dissolved oxygen input parts of the tank, compared to the stillness of the aerator can be more fully dissolved oxygen.2, through the opening of the pressure sensor indirect control device, can make the equipment timely and stop operation, convenient in use at the same time avoid the waste of energy.3, the biofilm suspension in aeration terminal, can be accomplished by nitration of microbial multi-level water improvement, still can make biofilm increase rate of netting in the movement process, the biological and mechanical aerobic promote each other, improve the efficiency of both. In addition, the device has small power consumption, low cost of characteristics. And have a certain degree of technical barriers, have their own intellectual property rights, and high degree of product market demand, easily accepted by customers, has a very high popularization value.

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Nanostructured Materials for Energy Storage Devices and Flexible Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning

    Nanomaterials have shown increasing applications in the design and fabrication of functional devices such as energy storage devices and sensor devices. A key challenge is the ability to harness the nanostructures in terms of size, shape, composition and structure so that the unique nanoscale functional properties can be exploited. This dissertation describes our findings in design, synthesis, and characterization of nanoparticles towards applications in two important fronts. The first involves the investigation of nanoalloy catalysts and functional nanoparticles for energy storage devices, including Li-air and Li-ion batteries, aiming at increasing the capacity and cycle performance. Part of this effort focuses on design of bifunctional nanocatalysts through alloying noble metal with non-noble transition metal to improve the ORR and OER activity of Li-air batteries. By manipulating the composition and alloying structure of the catalysts, synergetic effect has been demonstrated, which is substantiated by both experimental results and theoretical calculation for the charge/discharge process. The other part of the effort focuses on modification of Si nanoparticles towards high-capacity anode materials. The modification involved dopant elements, carbon coating, and graphene composite formation to manipulate the ability of the nanoparticles in accommodating the volume expansion. The second part focuses on the design, preparation and characterization of metal nanoparticles and nanocomposite materials for the application in flexible sensing devices. The investigation focuses on fabrication of a novel class of nanoparticle-nanofibrous membranes consisting of gold nanoparticles embedded in a multi-layered fibrous membrane as a tunable interfacial scaffold for flexible sweat sensors. Sensing responses to different ionic species in aqueous solutions and relative humidity changes in the environment were demonstrated, showing promising potential as flexible sensing devices for

  16. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, Luke A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  17. Control of postoperative pain with a wearable continuously operating pulsed radiofrequency energy device: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawe, Ian M; Lowenstein, Adam; Barcelo, C Raul; Genecov, David G

    2012-04-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency energy (PRFE) has long been reported to have a therapeutic effect on postoperative pain. In this study, a portable, wearable, low-energy-emitting PRFE therapy device was used to determine the control of postoperative pain after breast augmentation surgery. The study enrolled 18 healthy women who underwent breast augmentation purely for aesthetic considerations. Postoperative pain after surgery was assessed with a 0- to 10-point visual analog scale (VAS). Baseline pain scores were taken at completion of the operation, and the patients were randomly assigned coded PRFE devices that were either active or placebo devices. For 7 days, VAS scores were recorded twice daily (a.m. and p.m.). Medication use also was logged for 7 days. The PRFE devices were left in place and in continuous operation for the 7 days of the study. All the patients tolerated the PRFE therapy well, and no side effects were reported. The VAS scores for the active group were significantly lower on postoperative day 1. By day 7, the baseline VAS remaining in the active group was 7.9% versus 38% in the placebo group. Together with lower VAS scores, narcotic pain medication use was lower in the patient group that received PRFE therapy. Postoperative pain is significantly lower with PRFE therapy. According to the findings, PRFE therapy in this form is an excellent, safe, drug-free method of postoperative pain control.

  18. Home hair removal in all skin types with a combined radiofrequency and optical energy source device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Jerome M; Zelickson, Brian; Gold, Michael H; Friedman, David; Kutscher, Tuvia D; Afsahi, Vince

    2014-02-01

    Home hair removal devices are available for skin types I to IV. Side effects may limit hair removal in darker-pigmented individuals. To evaluate a home hair removal device using combined radiofrequency (RF) and intense pulsed light (IPL) energy for effectiveness and safety with all skin types (I-VI). Two study designs: effectiveness (treating 94 bilateral patient areas weekly seven times, with one side then receiving three additional treatments at 4-week intervals) and safety (37 patient areas treated every 2-4 days for three sessions). Hairs were counted 3 months after treatment for the first design and 2 months after for the second. In the first study design, 55% hair count reduction was achieved1 month after seven treatments to all sites. The side with no further sessions had 43% hair reduction and the side receiving ongoing treatment had 58% reduction after two further treatments. Side effects were transient and minor. In the second study, with 46% of the patients having skin types V/VI, 2 months after the procedure there was 44% hair reduction. There were no adverse effects reported. For the first time, a home hair removal device has been shown to be effective and safe in all skin types using a low-energy RF-IPL device. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bio-nanotextured high aspect ratio micropillar arrays for high surface area energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents fabrication and characterization of bio-nanotextured hierarchical nickel oxide (NiO) supercapacitor electrodes. The hierarchical electrode structure is created through self-assembly of Tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) on high aspect-ratio micropillar arrays. Enhanced assembly of the bio-nanoparticles was achieved by increasing TMV solution accessibility into the deep microcavities of the pillar arrays. Electrochemical characterization of the hierarchical NiO supercapacitor electrodes revealed a 25-fold increase in charge capacity compared to a planar NiO, and demonstrated excellent cycle stability over 1500 charge/discharge cycles at 2 mA/cm2. This study leverages the unique bio-nanoscaffolds for small scale energy storage devices through further optimization of the hierarchical structures and wetting techniques for significant improvements in micro/nano scale energy storage devices.

  20. Guideline Implementation: Energy-Generating Devices, Part 2-Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Byron L

    2017-04-01

    Lasers have been used in the OR for many years and are essential tools in many different types of procedures. However, laser beams that come into contact with unintended targets directly or via reflection can cause injury to patients or personnel or pose other hazards, such as fires. The new AORN "Guideline for safe use of energy-generating devices" provides guidance on the use of all energy-generating devices in the OR. This article focuses on key points of the guideline that address the safe use of lasers. These include the components of the laser safety program, the responsibilities of the personnel in roles specific to use of a laser, laser safety measures, and documentation of laser use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance evaluation of a thermoelectric energy harvesting device using various phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elefsiniotis, A; Becker, T; Kiziroglou, M E; Wright, S W; Toh, T T; Mitcheson, P D; Yeatman, E M; Schmid, U

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of a group of organic and inorganic phase change materials for a heat storage thermoelectric energy harvesting device. The device consists of thermoelectric generators and a closed container filled with a phase change material. One side of the generators is mounted on the aircraft fuselage and the other to the thermal mass. The group of inorganic and organic phase change materials was tested across two temperature ranges. These ranges are defined as ''positive'' and ''negative'', with the former being a sweep from +35°C to −5°C and the latter being a sweep from +5°C to −35°C. The performance in terms of electrical energy output and power produced is examined in detail for each group of materials

  2. Mixtures of glyme and aprotic-protic ionic liquids as electrolytes for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, T.; Huang, P.; Goktas, M.; Adelhelm, P.; Balducci, A.

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proven to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In the last years, due to deficiency in storage of lithium on earth, innovative systems, such as sodium-based devices, attracted considerable attention. IL-based electrolytes have been proposed also as electrolytes for these devices. Nevertheless, in the case of these systems, the advantages and limits of IL-based electrolytes need to be further investigated. In this work we report an investigation about the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether diglyme (2G), which is presently considered as one of the most interesting solvents for sodium-based devices, and the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) and 1-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PyrH4TFSI). The conductivities, viscosities, and densities of several mixtures of 2G and these ILs have been investigated. Furthermore, their impact on the electrochemical behaviour of activated carbon composite electrodes has been considered. The results of this investigation indicate that these mixtures are promising electrolytes for the realization of advanced sodium-based devices.

  3. Research on Power Output Characteristics of Magnetic Core in Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ping GUO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic core is the dominant factor in the performance of current transformer energy harvesting devices. The power output model of the magnetic core is established and verified through experiments. According to the actual application requirements, the concept of power density is proposed. The relationships of power density to air gap, material and dimension of the magnetic core are analyzed and verified through experiments.

  4. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  5. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  6. Compact toroidal energy storage device with relativistically densified electrons through the use of travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new concept for a small compact multimegajoule energy storage device utilizing relativistically densified electron beam circulating in a torus is presented. The electron cloud is produced through inductive charge injection by a travelling magnetic wave circulating the torus. Parameters are given for two representative toroidal energy storage devices, consisting of 1 m and 32 m in radius respectively, which could store more than 4 x 10 17 electrons and 30' MJ in energy. The concept utilizes the idea that large electric and magnetic fields can be produced by a partially space-charge neutralized intense relativistic electron beam which could become many orders of magnitude greater than the externally applied field confining the beam. In the present approach, the electron cloud densification can be achieved gradually by permitting multiple traversals of the magnetic wave around the torus. The magnetic mirror force acts on the orbital magnetic electron dipole moment and completely penetrates the entire electron cloud. As the electrons gain relativistic energies, the beam can be continuously densified at the front of the travelling wave, where the magnetic field is rising with time. The use of travelling magnetic wave to accelerate an electron cloud and the use of large electric field at the thusly accelerated cloud form the basis for a high beam intensity and hence high energy storage. Technical considerations and several potential applications, which include the driving of a powerful gyrotron, are discussed

  7. Experimental Results on a Wireless Wattmeter Device for the Integration in Home Energy Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a home area network (HAN-based domestic load energy consumption monitoring prototype device as part of an advanced metering system (AMS. This device can be placed on individual loads or configured to measure several loads as a whole. The wireless communication infrastructure is supported on IEEE 805.12.04 radios that run a ZigBee stack. Data acquisition concerning load energy transit is processed in real time and the main electrical parameters are then transmitted through a RF link to a wireless terminal unit, which works as a data logger and as a human-machine interface. Voltage and current sensing are implemented using Hall effect principle-based transducers, while C code is developed on two 16/32-bit microcontroller units (MCUs. The main features and design options are then thoroughly discussed. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed metering system measures the reactive energy component through the Hilbert transform for low cost measuring device systems.

  8. Nanostructure enhanced near-field radiative heat transfer and designs for energy conversion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingnan; Lin, Chungwei; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2017-09-01

    Near-field radiative heat transfer can exceed the blackbody limit, and this property has been explored toward energy transfer and conversion applications, such as thermophtovoltaic (TPV) devices, radiative cooling devices, and thermoradiative (TR) devices. The coupling of resonant modes between two surfaces is important in near- field heat transfer and near-field TPV and TR systems. It was shown that the coupling of resonant modes enhances the transmissivity between two coupled objects, which further determines the radiative heat transfer and energy conversion. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are surface resonances existing on metal surfaces, are commonly used for such systems. While the frequency of SPP resonance is fixed for a planar emitter, a nanostructured emitter supports additional resonances such as SPP or cavity modes with lower frequencies that are closer to the bandgap energy of a typical PV cell. We show that the nanostructured designs significantly improves the near-field radiative power transfer, and electric power output for a TR system.

  9. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, Anton

    2014-10-20

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  10. Magnetic materials and devices for the 21st century: stronger, lighter, and more energy efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfleisch, Oliver; Willard, Matthew A; Brück, Ekkes; Chen, Christina H; Sankar, S G; Liu, J Ping

    2011-02-15

    A new energy paradigm, consisting of greater reliance on renewable energy sources and increased concern for energy efficiency in the total energy lifecycle, has accelerated research into energy-related technologies. Due to their ubiquity, magnetic materials play an important role in improving the efficiency and performance of devices in electric power generation, conditioning, conversion, transportation, and other energy-use sectors of the economy. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art hard and soft magnets and magnetocaloric materials, with an emphasis on their optimization for energy applications. Specifically, the impact of hard magnets on electric motor and transportation technologies, of soft magnetic materials on electricity generation and conversion technologies, and of magnetocaloric materials for refrigeration technologies, are discussed. The synthesis, characterization, and property evaluation of the materials, with an emphasis on structure-property relationships, are discussed in the context of their respective markets, as well as their potential impact on energy efficiency. Finally, considering future bottlenecks in raw materials, options for the recycling of rare-earth intermetallics for hard magnets will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Confinement characteristics of high-energy ions produced by ICRF heating in the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, R; Saito, K; Torii, Y; Mutoh, T; Seki, T; Watari, T; Osakabe, M; Murakami, S; Sasao, M; Watanabe, T; Yamamoto, T; Notake, T; Takeuchi, N; Saida, T; Shimpo, F; Nomura, G; Yokota, M; Kato, A; Zao, Y; Okada, H; Isobe, M; Ozaki, T; Narihara, K; Nagayama, Y; Inagaki, S; Morita, S; Krasilnikov, A V; Idei, H; Kubo, S; Ohkubo, K; Sato, M; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Ikeda, K; Nagaoka, K; Oka, Y; Takeiri, Y; Tsumori, K; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Funaba, H; Goto, M; Ida, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Muto, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Ohdachi, S; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K Y; Yamada, I; Yamamoto, S; Yoshinuma, M; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K-Y; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Komori, A; Ohyabu, N; Yamada, H; Yamazaki, K; Sudo, S; Matsuoka, K; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of high-energy ions accelerated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) electric field in the large helical device (LHD) is discussed. A better confinement performance of high-energy ions in the inward-shifted magnetic axis configuration was experimentally verified by measuring their energy spectrum and comparing it with the effective temperature determined by an electron slowing down process. In the standard magnetic axis configuration a saturation of the measured tail temperature was observed as the effective temperature was increased. The ratio between these two quantities is a measure of the quality of transfer efficiency from high-energy ions to a bulk plasma; when this efficiency was compared with Monte Carlo simulations the results agreed fairly well. The ratio of the stored energy of the high-energy ions to that of the bulk plasma was measured using an ICRF heating power modulation method; it was deduced from phase differences between total and bulk plasma stored energies and the modulated ICRF heating power. The measured high energy fraction agreed with that calculated using the injected ICRF heating power, the transfer efficiency determined in the experiment and the confinement scaling of the LHD plasma

  12. A Floating Ocean Energy Conversion Device and Numerical Study on Buoy Shape and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyin Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wave and current energy can be harnessed in the East China Sea and South China Sea; however, both areas are subject to high frequencies of typhoon events. To improve the safety of the ocean energy conversion device, a Floating Ocean Energy Conversion Device (FOECD with a single mooring system is proposed, which can be towed to avoid severe ocean conditions or for regular maintenance. In this paper, the structure of the FOECD is introduced, and it includes a catamaran platform, an oscillating buoy part, a current turbine blade, hydraulic energy storage and an electrical generation part. The numerical study models the large catamaran platform as a single, large buoy, while the four floating buoys were modeled simply as small buoys. Theoretical models on wave energy power capture and efficiency were established. To improve the suitability of the buoy for use in the FOECD and its power harvesting capability, a numerical simulation of the four buoy geometries was undertaken. The shape profiles examined in this paper are cylindrical, turbinate (V-shaped and U-shaped cone with cylinder, and combined cylinder-hemisphere buoys. Simulation results reveal that the suitability of a turbinate buoy is the best of the four types. Further simulation models were carried out by adjusting the tip radius of the turbinate buoy. Three performance criteria including suitability, power harvesting capability and energy capture efficiency were analyzed. It reveals that the turbinate buoy has almost the same power harvesting capabilities and energy capture efficiency, while its suitability is far better than that of a cylindrical buoy.

  13. Optimized Planning of Power Source Capacity in Microgrid, Considering Combinations of Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since renewable energy resource is universally accepted as a promising method to solve the global energy problem, optimal planning and utilization of various distributed generators (DG and energy storage (ES devices deserve special concern. ES devices possess various characteristics in power density, energy density, response speed (switching speed and lifetime. Besides, as different load types have various requirements on power supply reliability according to their importance, coordinated planning with consideration of reasonable matching between power source and load can efficiently improve power supply reliability and economic efficiency via a customized power supply and compensation strategy. This paper focuses on optimization of power source capacity in microgrid and a coordinated planning strategy is proposed with integrated consideration of characteristics of DG, ES and load. An index named additional compensation ratio (ACR for balancing economic efficiency and reliability is proposed and considered in the strategy. The objective function which aims to minimize life cycle cost (LCC is established considering economic efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation. The proposed planning strategy and optimizing model is calculated and verified through case study of an autonomy microgrid.

  14. Micro-scale piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting: From fixed-frequency to adaptable-frequency devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay Margaret

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to transform engineering infrastructure, manufacturing, and building controls by allowing condition monitoring, asset tracking, demand response, and other intelligent feedback systems. A wireless sensor node consists of a power supply, sensor(s), power conditioning circuitry, radio transmitter and/or receiver, and a micro controller. Such sensor nodes are used for collecting and communicating data regarding the state of a machine, system, or process. The increasing demand for better ways to power wireless devices and increase operation time on a single battery charge drives an interest in energy harvesting research. Today, wireless sensor nodes are typically powered by a standard single-charge battery, which becomes depleted within a relatively short timeframe depending on the application. This introduces tremendous labor costs associated with battery replacement, especially when there are thousands of nodes in a network, the nodes are remotely located, or widely-distributed. Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting presents a potential solution to the problems associated with too-short battery life and high maintenance requirements, especially in industrial environments where vibrations are ubiquitous. Energy harvester designs typically use the harvester to trickle charge a rechargeable energy storage device rather than directly powering the electronics with the harvested energy. This allows a buffer between the energy harvester supply and the load where energy can be stored in a "tank". Therefore, the harvester does not need to produce the full required power at every instant to successfully power the node. In general, there are tens of microwatts of power available to be harvested from ambient vibrations using micro scale devices and tens of milliwatts available from ambient vibrations using meso scale devices. Given that the power requirements of wireless sensor nodes range from several microwatts to about one

  15. Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of a PEDOT:PSS-Based Textile Energy Storage Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokceoren, Argun Talat; Odhiambo, Sheilla Atieno; De Mey, Gilbert; Hertleer, Carla; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2017-01-01

    A textile-based energy storage device with electroactive PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) polymer functioning as a solid-state polyelectrolyte has been developed. The device was fabricated on textile fabric with two plies of stainless-steel electroconductive yarn as the electrodes. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis were used to investigate ionic and electronic activities in the bulk of PEDOT:PSS and at its interfaces with stainless steel yarn electrodes. The complex behavior of ionic and electronic origins was observed in the interfacial region between the conductive polymer and the electrodes. The migration and diffusion of the ions involved were confirmed by the presence of the Warburg element with a phase shift of 45° (n = 0.5). Two different equivalent circuit models were found by simulating the model with the experimental results: (QR)(QR)(QR) for uncharged and (QR)(QR)(Q(RW)) for charged samples. The analyses also showed that the further the distance between electrodes, the lower the capacitance of the cell. The distribution of polymer on the cell surface also played important role to change the capacitance of the device. The results of this work may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and how to improve the performance of the device. PMID:29283427

  16. Electrochemical Impedance Analysis of a PEDOT:PSS-Based Textile Energy Storage Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nuramdhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A textile-based energy storage device with electroactive PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly(4-styrenesulfonate polymer functioning as a solid-state polyelectrolyte has been developed. The device was fabricated on textile fabric with two plies of stainless-steel electroconductive yarn as the electrodes. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis were used to investigate ionic and electronic activities in the bulk of PEDOT:PSS and at its interfaces with stainless steel yarn electrodes. The complex behavior of ionic and electronic origins was observed in the interfacial region between the conductive polymer and the electrodes. The migration and diffusion of the ions involved were confirmed by the presence of the Warburg element with a phase shift of 45° (n = 0.5. Two different equivalent circuit models were found by simulating the model with the experimental results: (QR(QR(QR for uncharged and (QR(QR(Q(RW for charged samples. The analyses also showed that the further the distance between electrodes, the lower the capacitance of the cell. The distribution of polymer on the cell surface also played important role to change the capacitance of the device. The results of this work may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and how to improve the performance of the device.

  17. Study of the effect of heavy ion energy on the sensitivity of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the sensitivity of advanced electronic devices in radiative environments. The work deals with the detailed modeling of the deposited energy induced by heavy-ion in matter, and the influence of taking it into account in the tools simulating the response of irradiated devices. To do so, a simulation chain was developed, combining different calculation codes at various scales. In a first step, the particle-matter interaction code Geant4 is used to model the heavy ion track. These tracks are then implemented in a TCAD simulator, in order to study the response of elementary transistors to these detailed energy deposits. This step is completed with experimental measurements. Finally, the study is extended to the circuit level, by interfacing the heavy ion tracks with a SEE prediction tool. These different steps evidence the need for taking into account the radial extension of the ion track to all simulation levels, to adequately model the response of advanced devices under heavy ion irradiations. (author) [fr

  18. Intragastric device for weight loss. Effect on energy intake in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrans, D; Taylor, T V; Holt, S

    1991-07-01

    It remains unclear whether or not intragastric devices promote weight loss. To elucidate if an intragastric balloon reduces energy intake by a placebo effect of inducing satiety, five free-feeding dogs had balloons inserted via a gastric cannula. Meal intake was assessed with the balloons inflated to 200 and 500 ml with saline and compared with intake during a control period when the animals maintained stable weight. Average energy intake during the control period was 0.3 MJ/kg/day. Inflation to 200 ml had no significant effect on intake (0.31 MJ/kg/day), whereas inflation to 500 ml significantly reduced energy intake to 0.14 MJ/kg/day (P less than 0.0001). An intragastric balloon does create aversion to feeding, presumably by producing satiety, but the effect is volume dependent.

  19. Design and Experimental Characterization of a Vibration Energy Harvesting Device for Rotational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutao Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vibration based electromagnetic power generator to transfer energy from stationary to rotating equipment, which can be a new attempt to substitute slip ring in rotational systems. The natural frequencies and modes are simulated in order to have a maximum and steady power output from the device. Parameters such as piezoelectric disk location and relative motion direction of the magnet are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. The results show that the position that is close to the fixed end of the cantilever and the relative motion along the long side gives higher power output. Moreover, the capability of the energy harvester to extract power from lower energy environment is experimentally validated. The voltage and power output are measured at different excitation frequencies.

  20. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  1. Maximal light-energy transfer through a dielectric/metal-layered electrode on a photoactive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Q-Han

    2014-01-27

    We report the fabrication of an optimized low reflective dielectric/metal-layered electrode that provides significant electrical conductivity and light transparency in the near-infrared wavelength regime. By making the metal film thickness thick enough and choosing a proper dielectric layer with a certain thickness, we show that our suggested electrode significantly reduces the light reflection while preserving high electrical conductivity. We demonstrate our optimized electrodes present a highly conductive surface with a sheet resistance of 5.2 Ω/sq and a high light transmittance of near 85% in the near-infrared regime. We also apply our optimized electrode to thin-film organic photovoltaic devices and show the electrode helps in absorbing light energy inside an active layer. We believe that this simple but powerful layered electrode will pave the way for designing transparent electrodes on photoactive devices.

  2. Energy Renovation of Buildings Utilizing the U-value Meter, a New Heat Loss Measuring Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Schiøtt Sørensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device with the ability to measure heat loss from building facades is proposed. Yet to be commercially developed, the U-value Meter can be used as stand-alone apparatus, or in combination with thermographic-equipment. The U-value meter complements thermographs, which only reproduce surface temperature and not the heat loss distribution. There is need for a device that measures the heat loss in a quantitative manner. Convective as well as radiative heat losses are captured and measured with a five-layer thermal system. Heat losses are measured in the SI-unit W/m2K. The aim is to achieve more cost-effective building renovation, and provide a means to check the fulfillment of Building Regulation requirements with respect to stated U-values (heat transmission coefficients. In this way it should be possible to greatly reduce energy consumption of buildings.

  3. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Emerging materials and devices in spintronic integrated circuits for energy-smart mobile computing and connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.H.; Lee, K.

    2013-01-01

    A spintronic integrated circuit (IC) is made of a combination of a semiconductor IC and a dense array of nanometer-scale magnetic tunnel junctions. This emerging field is of growing scientific and engineering interest, owing to its potential to bring disruptive device innovation to the world of electronics. This technology is currently being pursued not only for scalable non-volatile spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory, but also for various forms of non-volatile logic (Spin-Logic). This paper reviews recent advances in spintronic IC. Key discoveries and breakthroughs in materials and devices are highlighted in light of the broader perspective of their application in low-energy mobile computing and connectivity systems, which have emerged as leading drivers for the prevailing electronics ecosystem

  5. Nanotechnology Based Green Energy Conversion Devices with Multifunctional Materials at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuzheng; Afzal, Muhammad; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Jun; Xia, Chen

    2017-07-10

    Nanocomposites (integrating the nano and composite technologies) for advanced fuel cells (NANOCOFC) demonstrate the great potential to reduce the operational temperature of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) significantly in the low temperature (LT) range 300-600ºC. NANOCOFC has offered the development of multi-functional materials composed of semiconductor and ionic materials to meet the requirements of low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) and green energy conversion devices with their unique mechanisms. This work reviews the recent developments relevant to the devices and the patents in LTSOFCs from nanotechnology perspectives that reports advances including fabrication methods, material compositions, characterization techniques and cell performances. Finally, the future scope of LTSOFC with nanotechnology and the practical applications are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Organic light-emitting devices integrated with solar cells: High contrast and energy recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Jen; Cho, Ting-Yi; Lin, Chun-Liang; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2007-04-01

    In this letter, the authors report that by integrating organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with solar cells, luminous ambient-light reflection as low as 1.4% (even superior to that achieved with polarizers) can be achieved without compromising the electroluminescence efficiency for high-contrast display applications. Furthermore, in such a configuration, the photon energies of the incident ambient light and the portion of OLED emission not getting outside of the device can be recycled into useful electrical power via the photovoltaic action, instead of being totally wasted as in other reported contrast-enhancement techniques. These features, the authors believe, shall make this technique attractive for high-contrast display applications and portable/mobile electronics that are highly power aware.

  7. Performance analysis of experimental device of travelling wave direct energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M. [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)]. E-mail: misikawa@kz.tsukuba.ac.jp; Horita, K. [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Yasaka, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 625-8511 (Japan); Takeno, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 625-8511 (Japan); Tomita, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Numerical analyses with the one-dimensional approximation have been carried out for a small-scale experimental device of TWDEC. The following results have been obtained. Numerical results agree well with experimental results on the conversion efficiency and the energy distribution when the phase difference between voltages of the modulator and the decelerator is the same as the experiment. It has been found that the phase difference should be determined properly in order to obtain a high efficiency. The position of electrodes in the decelerator has been optimized to obtain higher efficiency. The optimization is carried out for ions to move with the travelling electric field. It has been shown that the optimization can make the efficiency more than 58% when the number of electrodes is 16 even with the present small device.

  8. Mudflows: Assessment of Energy Dissipation on an Experimental Bottom Grid Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Paola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Grid devices with a terminal wall barrier have been widely used for dissipation of energy load of water piped from the outfall works of artificial reservoirs. The satisfactory results obtained have led to the commitment to usage of such devices, with good results even in the case of mudflows for which design criteria were suggested. In this study, the experimental results of an evaluation of pressure on a vertical terminal wall are shown with the evaluation of the overall hydrodynamic thrust. The correct evaluation of the dynamic impact of a mudflow front against a structure is an important task in its design procedure. The hydrodynamic drive calculated from the tests with corresponding theoretical model values derived has shown a good matching. According to the test and speed range detected, the maximum dissipation rate due to the wall was about 35% of the available total load.

  9. The Application of Graphene and Its Derivatives to Energy Conversion, Storage, and Environmental and Biosensing Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Tahir, Asif; Ullah, Habib; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Asri Mat Teridi, Mohd; Devadoss, Anitha; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2016-06-01

    Graphene (GR) and its derivatives are promising materials on the horizon of nanotechnology and material science and have attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. The unique atom-thick 2D structure with sp(2) hybridization and large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, superior electron mobility, and chemical stability have made GR and its derivatives extremely attractive components for composite materials for solar energy conversion, energy storage, environmental purification, and biosensor applications. This review gives a brief introduction of GR's unique structure, band structure engineering, physical and chemical properties, and recent energy-related progress of GR-based materials in the fields of energy conversion (e.g., photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical water splitting, CO2 reduction, dye-sensitized and organic solar cells, and photosensitizers in photovoltaic devices) and energy storage (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors). The vast coverage of advancements in environmental applications of GR-based materials for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, gas sensing, and removal of heavy-metal ions is presented. Additionally, the use of graphene composites in the biosensing field is discussed. We conclude the review with remarks on the challenges, prospects, and further development of GR-based materials in the exciting fields of energy, environment, and bioscience. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Improving the network infeed accuracy of non-dispatchable generators with energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, Gaudenz; Korpaas, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The power output of generators based on renewable energy sources is often difficult to predict due to the non-deterministic behaviour of the energy source. Particularly in the case of wind turbines this leads to unpredicted line loading and requires balancing energy, at relatively high costs, depending on market structures. Consequently, the income from the production from such non-dispatchable generators can be significantly reduced by the penalty costs incurred. This paper investigates the potential of operating an energy storage device in parallel with the non-dispatchable generator in order to compensate the inaccuracies of the forecasted infeed and to avoid infeed deviations. A time series based simulation methodology is discussed, suitable for any type of non-dispatchable generator. The methodology contains a procedure for simulating different forecast errors, applying an exponentially weighted moving average approach. Analysis procedures and system performance indices are introduced for the evaluation of the configuration's performance. The applicability is shown in two case studies, using measurement data from a wind turbine and from a photovoltaic system. Both case studies show that the suggested configuration considerably improves the reliability or dependability of the network infeed, in turn reducing the demand for balancing energy and back-up generation. The relation between forecast error magnitude and required energy capacity is identified and the coherence of the time series analysis is discussed. (author)

  11. Rural and Renewable Energy Project: Renewable and Alternative Energy Devices and Viable Alternatives to Fuelwood and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The need for conservation of the nation's trees and other forestry resources so as to make the Government's reafforestation, soil erosion and desertification control programs successful, is a matter that requires serious attention. This is because the bulk of the people of this country, who are in the rural areas, depend massively on fuelwood as their source of energy for cooking. For a large percentage of the urban dwellers, the situation is not much different since the recent increases in the prices of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas has forced many to opt for fuelwood for cooking. Viable renewable and alternative energy systems like solar cookers, biogas plants, improved wood burning stoves, briquetted biomass and smokeless coal briquettes and stoves are essential for the provision of alternative cooking fuels and methodologies. Furthermore, the inefficient open-to-sun drying method is prevalent, while the rural areas are particularly starved of petroleum products and grid electricity. Modern solar dryers, solar-PV, wind and hydropower can be used to meet some of the energy needs of the rural population. This paper discusses these renewable and alternative devices and how they can be integrated into the Nigerian rural energy system. (author)

  12. THE 3 - IN - 1 SKYLIGHT SHADING DEVICE FOR SURABAYA INDONESIA: AN ENERGY SAVING AND CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Santoso Mintorogo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of energy saving strategies and proper use of skylight modules in architectural buildings in the tropical climate, this paper will give evidence of how appropriate use of skylight modules installed on buildings in the tropical zone compared to the ones in the subtropical climate. In the tropical humid climate, Indonesia has received huge amount of global direct and diffuse radiations on horizontal roofs throughout the year, approximately 575 watts per square meter of radiation will impact on flat roofs or skylights on a sunny day in Surabaya city. Moreover, the hot season is longer, from mid May to mid December, than the wet season. Most of the commercial and institution buildings are equipped with Western skylight styles in Surabaya without any modifications. The three-in-one skylight device is the system that will control daylight, shade direct solar heat radiation, and collect solar hot water at the same time. The concept of the three-in-one shading device has three goals: first of all, it is to shade horizontal or tiled skylight on roof providing shading devices. Secondly, the series of circular cube as shading device will bounce and scatter the direct sunlight into the space below enhancing daylight patterns. Finally, while shading and bouncing direct sunlight, those series of circular shading water pipes would also collect the solar heat radiation getting hot water. Each system works nicely to block, to scatter, and to obtain the solar heat radiation for energy saving in green architecture and clean environmental living zones.

  13. Enhanced piezoelectricity and stretchability in energy harvesting devices fabricated from buckled PZT ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Thanh D; Lisko, Bozhena; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C

    2011-03-09

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto soft, biocompatible substrates could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Of particular interest are devices which can conform to irregular, curved surfaces, and operate in vital environments that may involve both flexing and stretching modes. Previous studies have shown significant advances in the integration of highly efficient piezoelectric nanocrystals on flexible and bendable substrates. Yet, such inorganic nanomaterials are mechanically incompatible with the extreme elasticity of elastomeric substrates. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these limitations, by generating wavy piezoelectric ribbons on silicone rubber. Our results show that the amplitudes in the waves accommodate order-of-magnitude increases in maximum tensile strain without fracture. Further, local probing of the buckled ribbons reveals an enhancement in the piezoelectric effect of up to 70%, thus representing the highest reported piezoelectric response on a stretchable medium. These results allow for the integration of energy conversion devices which operate in stretching mode via reversible deformations in the wavy/buckled ribbons.

  14. Energy Saving Performance Analysis of An Inverter-based Regenerative Power Re-utilization Device for Urban Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Zhiling; Hu, Leilei

    2018-04-01

    The inverter-based regenerative braking power utilization devices can re-utilize the regenerative energy, thus reduce the energy consumption of urban rail transit. In this paper the power absorption principle of the inverter-based device is introduced, then the key influencing factors of energy saving performance are analyzed based on the absorption model. The field operation data verified that the control DC voltage plays an important role and lower control DC voltage yields more energy saving. Also, the one year energy saving performance data of an inverter-based re-utilization device located in NanJing S8 line is provided, and more than 1.2 million kWh energy is recovered in the one year operation.

  15. Ionic liquids, method for the production thereof, and use of same as electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Irene de; Herradón García, Bernardo; Mann, Enrique; Morales, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to ionic liquids of general formula (I), to the synthesis thereof, and to the use of said ionic liquids as electrolytes in electrochemical electrical energy storage devices.

  16. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  17. Physical multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage from theory to engineering to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Alejandro A; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the use of innovative physical multiscale modeling methods to deeply understand the electrochemical mechanisms and numerically simulate the structure and properties of electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion.

  18. Gamma non-ionizing energy loss: Comparison with the damage factor in silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allam, E.; Inguimbert, C.; Meulenberg, A.; Jorio, A.; Zorkani, I.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) has been demonstrated to be a successful approach to describe the displacement damage effects in silicon materials and devices. However, some discrepancies exist in the literature between experimental damage factors and theoretical NIELs. 60Co gamma rays having a low NIEL are an interesting particle source that can be used to validate the NIEL scaling approach. This paper presents different 60Co gamma ray NIEL values for silicon targets. They are compared with the radiation-induced increase in the thermal generation rate of carriers per unit fluence. The differences between the different models, including one using molecular dynamics, are discussed.

  19. Pushover analysis method for asymmetric structure with passive energy dissipation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Hong-nan

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a simplified method to calculate pushover curves for an asymmetric structure with displacement-dependent passive energy dissipation devices (DDPEDDs). The deformations of a symmetric structure are analyzed in translation and torsion, respectively. These results are then combined in order to calculate the pushover curve for an asymmetric structure with DDPEDDs. The numerical results obtained by using the simplified analytical method are then compared to those obtained from the analysis of the models using the software SAP2000. The results show that the simplified analytical method can be an effective tool for engineering analysis of an asymmetric structure.

  20. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei

    2015-11-12

    Electrodeposition and energy storage devices utilizing an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and anode surface. For electrodeposition of a first metal (M1) on a substrate or anode from one or more cations of M1 in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second metal (M2), wherein cations of M2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the cations of M1.

  1. Energy system for the generation of divertor magnetic fields in the PDX fusion research device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitzin, N.M.

    1976-05-01

    One of the major problems encountered in the development of Tokamak type fusion reactors is the presence of impurities in the plasma. The PDX device is designed to study the operation of poloidal magnetic field divertors and consequent magnetic limiters for controlling and reducing the amount of impurities. A system of coils placed at specific locations produces a required field configuration for the poloidal divertor. This paper describes the system of energy supplies required and the interrelations of field coil currents during plasma current initiation, growth and steady state

  2. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH.sub.4 anion.

  3. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  4. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel industry demonstration program. Task III. GTE high temperature recuperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, F.C.; Hoffman, A.O.; Lownie, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The Office of Industrial Programs of the Department of Energy has undertaken a program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing various energy-conserving devices and equipment. This report presents results on one of those systems, a high-temperature ceramic recuperator designed and manufactured by Sylvania Chemical and Metallurgical Division, GTE Products Corporation of Towanda, Pennsylvania. The ceramic cross-flow recuperator unit recovers waste heat from the hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature burners of various manufacture. Of the 38 host site installations included in the program, sufficient operating data were obtained from 28 sites to evaluate the benefits in terms of energy and economic savings that can be achieved. Performance and cost data are analyzed and presented for those 28 installations, which covered a variety of applications, sizes, and industry types. Except for 5 sites where unusual operating or data-collection problems were encountered, the improvements in performance of the recuperated furnaces equalled or exceeded estimates; the average of the total fuel savings for these 23 sites was 44.0 percent, some portion of which resulted from furnace improvements other than recuperation. Payback times were calculated for both total costs and for recuperator-related costs, using a cumulative annual after-tax cash flow method which includes tax investment credits, estimates of general and fuel-price inflation, and maintenance costs.

  5. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  6. Energy taxes as a signaling device: An empirical analysis of consumer preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalwash, Tarek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand in Sweden. The main objective is to empirically examine the differences in consumer reaction to the introduction of, or the change, in environmental taxes. Main focus is on environmental taxes as a signaling device. The hypothesis is that the introduction of an environmental tax provides new information about the properties of the directly taxed goods. This in turn may affect consumer preferences for these goods, hence altering the consumption choice. The result from the econometric analysis shows that all goods have negative own-price elasticities, and positive income elasticities. Concerning the signalling effect of environmental taxes the results are somewhat ambiguous. The tax elasticity for energy goods used for heating seems to be significantly higher than the traditional price elasticity, whereas the opposite seems to be the case for energy goods used for transportation

  7. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, G.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, the Meso-optical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation fo straight line particle tracks in nuclear research emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectivity viewing 'eye'. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as its main unit is given. This system can be used for a fast search for particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from particle accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performance of this system is described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms per image. As all operations in the MFTM proceed without any depth scanning, this new evaluation system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope. (orig.)

  8. Energy Taxes as a Signaling Device: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalwash, Tarek

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand in Sweden. The main objective is to empirically examine the differences in consumer reaction to the introduction of, or the change, in environmental taxes. Main focus is on environmental taxes as a signaling device. The hypothesis is that the introduction of an environmental tax provides new information about the properties of the directly taxed goods. This in turn may affect consumer preferences for these goods, hence altering the consumption choice. The result from the econometric analysis shows that all goods have negative own-price elasticities, and positive income elasticities. Concerning the signalling effect of environmental taxes the results are somewhat ambiguous. The tax elasticity for energy goods used for heating seems to be significantly higher than the traditional price elasticity, whereas the opposite seems to be the case for energy goods used for transportation

  9. Semiconductor devices as track detectors in high energy colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, T

    1980-01-01

    In considering the design of experiments for high energy colliding beam facilities one quickly sees the need for better detectors. The full exploitation of machines like ISABELLE will call for detector capabilities beyond what can be expected from refinements of the conventional approaches to particle detection in high energy physics experiments. Over the past year or so there has been a general realization that semiconductor device technology offers the possibility of position sensing detectors having resolution elements with dimensions of the order of 10 microns or smaller. Such a detector could offer enormous advantages in the design of experiments, and the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the possibilities and some of the problems.

  10. Study of a charge-coupled device for high-energy-particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.H.

    1983-05-01

    This presentation is based on measurements made to evaluate the application of charge-coupled devices as detectors of high-energy particles. The experiment was performed with a Fairchild Linear 256-Cell CCD111 array (size 8μm x 17 μm/cell), utilizing a light source instead of a particle beam. It was observed that the minimum detectable signal was limited to approx. 488 electrons at -50 0 C, where the readout and exposure times were about 260 ms and 400 ms respectively. The transfer inefficiency of the CCD111 was determined to be approx. 10 -4 . It has been concluded that at a lower temperature (approx. -100 0 C) or with faster readout (approx. 10 ms), the CCD111 would be able to detect the total deposited energy of minimum-ionizing charged particles

  11. Mesooptical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation of straight-line particle tracks in nuclear emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectively viewing eye. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as the main unit is given. This system can be used for fast search particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performances of this system are described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms. As all operations in the MFTM go without any depth scanning this new system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope

  12. Semiconductor devices as track detectors in high energy colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.

    1980-01-01

    In considering the design of experiments for high energy colliding beam facilities one quickly sees the need for better detectors. The full exploitation of machines like ISABELLE will call for detector capabilities beyond what can be expected from refinements of the conventional approaches to particle detection in high energy physics experiments. Over the past year or so there has been a general realization that semiconductor device technology offers the possibility of position sensing detectors having resolution elements with dimensions of the order of 10 microns or smaller. Such a detector could offer enormous advantages in the design of experiments, and the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the possibilities and some of the problems

  13. Experimental verification and optimization of a linear electromagnetic energy harvesting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Christopher; Lee, Soobum

    2017-04-01

    Implementation of energy harvesting technology can provide a sustainable, remote power source for soldiers by reducing the battery weight and allowing them to stay in the field for longer periods of time. Among multiple energy conversion principles, electromagnetic induction can scavenge energy from wasted kinematic and vibration energy found from human motion. Hip displacement during human gait acts as a base excitation for an energy harvesting backpack system. The placement of a permanent magnet in this vibration environment results in relative motion of the magnet to the coil of copper wire, which induces an electric current. This current can be saved to a battery or capacitor bank installed on the backpack to be used to power electronic devices. The purpose of this research is to construct a reliable simulation model for an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester and use it for a multi-variable optimization algorithm to identify an optimal coil and magnet layout for highest power output. Key components of the coupled equations of motion such as the magnetic flux density and coil inductance are obtained using ANSYS multi-physics software or by measuring them. These components are fed into a harvester simulation model (e.g. coupled field equations of motion for the backpack harvester) that generates the electrical power output. The developed simulation model is verified with a case study including an experimental test. Then the optimal design parameters in the simulation model (e.g., magnet layout, coil width, outer coil diameter, external load resistance) are identified for maximum power. Results from this study will pave the way for a more efficient energy harvesting backpack while providing better insight into the efficiency of magnet and coil layout for electromagnetic applications.

  14. Highly Concentrated, Ultrathin Nickel Hydroxide Nanosheet Ink for Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peipei; Chen, Rong; Hua, Li; Li, Li; Chen, Ruyi; Gong, Yujiao; Yu, Chenyang; Zhou, Jinyuan; Liu, Bin; Sun, Gengzhi; Huang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Solution-based techniques are considered as a promising strategy for scalable fabrication of flexible electronics owing to their low-cost and high processing speed. The key to the success of these techniques is dominated by the ink formulation of active nanomaterials. This work successfully prepares a highly concentrated two dimensional (2D) crystal ink comprised of ultrathin nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) nanosheets with an average lateral size of 34 nm. The maximum concentration of Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets in water without adding any additives reaches as high as 50 mg mL -1 , which can be printed on arbitrary substrates to form Ni(OH) 2 thin films. As a proof-of-concept application, Ni(OH) 2 nanosheet ink is coated on commercialized carbon fiber yarns to fabricate wearable energy storage devices. The thus-fabricated hybrid supercapacitors exhibit excellent flexibility with a capacitance retention of 96% after 5000 bending-unbending cycles, and good weavability with a high volumetric capacitance of 36.3 F cm -3 at a current density of 0.4 A cm -3 , and an energy density of 11.3 mWh cm -3 at a power density of 0.3 W cm -3 . As a demonstration of practical application, a red light emitting diode can be lighted up by three hybrid devices connected in series. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, C.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba); Escriva, A.; Perez-Navarro, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C.P. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rosales, J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Utilization of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for Hydrogen production. > Evaluation of the potential use of gas-cooled ADS for a sustainable use of Uranium resources by transmutation of nuclear wastes, electricity and Hydrogen production. > Application of the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical process to subcritical systems. > Application of CINDER90 to calculate burn-up in subcritical systems. - Abstract: The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel flexibility opening the possibility to reduce the nuclear stockpile producing energy from actual LWR irradiated fuel with an efficiency of 45-46%, either in the form of Hydrogen, electricity, or both.

  16. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abanades, A.; Garcia, C.; Garcia, L.; Escriva, A.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Utilization of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for Hydrogen production. → Evaluation of the potential use of gas-cooled ADS for a sustainable use of Uranium resources by transmutation of nuclear wastes, electricity and Hydrogen production. → Application of the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical process to subcritical systems. → Application of CINDER90 to calculate burn-up in subcritical systems. - Abstract: The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel flexibility opening the possibility to reduce the nuclear stockpile producing energy from actual LWR irradiated fuel with an efficiency of 45-46%, either in the form of Hydrogen, electricity, or both.

  17. Thin Film Energy Storage Device with Spray‐Coated Sliver Paste Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Man Yoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the fabrication of a thin film energy storage device on a flexible polymer substrate specifically by replacing most commonly used metal foil current collectors with coated current collectors. Mass‐manufacturable spray‐coating technology enables the fabrication of two different half‐cell electric double layer capacitors (EDLC with a spray‐coated silver paste current collector and a Ni foil current collector. The larger specific capacitances of the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated silver current collector are obtained as 103.86 F/g and 76.8 F/g for scan rates of 10 mV/s and 500 mV/s, respectively. Further, even though the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated current collector is heavier than that with the Ni foil current collector, smaller Warburg impedance and contact resistance are characterized from Nyquist plots. For the applied voltages ranging from −0.5 V to 0.5 V, the spray‐coated thin film energy storage device exhibits a better performance.

  18. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCombes, T; Johnstone, C.; Holmes, B.

    At present no common practices are adopted to assess the performance and operational characteristics of conceptual and small prototype wave and tidal energy devices when tested within controlled laboratory environments. Information acquired from this early stage assessment may be used to secure...... development funding or promote a specific wave or tidal energy device. Since no standards exist, the data produced may be misinterpreted or inaccurately presented, which in turn may lead to failure to live up to performance expectations, as devices scale up in size. This report aims to identify limitations...... of current practices adopted for tank testing of small prototype devices and the development of new methods enabling device performance assessment and benchmarking. The contents of this report will be tightly integrated with the remaining deliverables of WP 3, specifically Deliverable 3.4.a...

  19. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCombes, T; Johnstone, C.; Holmes, B.

    At present no common practices are adopted to assess the performance and operational characteristics of conceptual and small prototype wave and tidal energy devices when tested within controlled laboratory environments. Information acquired from this early stage assessment may be used to secure...... development funding or promote a specific wave or tidal energy device. Since no standards exist, the data produced may be misinterpreted or inaccurately presented, which in turn may lead to failure to live up to performance expectations, as devices scale up in size. This report builds on Deliverable 3.3 which...... identified limitations of current practices adopted for tank testing of small prototype devices. The recommendations contained herein constitute minimum set of best practices for device testing and benchmarking. The protocol contains explicit Design of Experiment and Uncertainty Analysis techniques...

  20. Spatial and temporal benthic species assemblage responses with a deployed marine tidal energy device: a small scaled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Melanie; Orme, C David L

    2014-08-01

    The addition of man-made structures to the marine environment is known to increase the physical complexity of the seafloor, which can influence benthic species community patterns and habitat structure. However, knowledge of how deployed tidal energy device structures influence benthic communities is currently lacking. Here we examined species biodiversity, composition and habitat type surrounding a tidal energy device within the European Marine Energy Centre test site, Orkney. Commercial fishing and towed video camera techniques were used over three temporal periods, from 2009 to 2010. Our results showed increased species biodiversity and compositional differences within the device site, compared to a control site. Both sites largely comprised of crustacean species, omnivore or predatory feeding regimes and marine tide-swept EUNIS habitat types, which varied over the time. We conclude that the device could act as a localised artificial reef structure, but that further in-depth investigations are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin.

  2. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2003-01-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin

  3. Stability Analysis of DC Distribution Systems with Droop-Based Charge Sharing on Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina I. Makrygiorgou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC distribution systems and DC microgrids are becoming a reliable and efficient alternative energy system, compatible with the DC nature of most of the distributed energy resources (DERs, storage devices and loads. The challenging problem of redesigning an autonomous DC-grid system in view of using energy storage devices to balance the power produced and absorbed, by applying simple decentralized controllers on the electronic power interfaces, is investigated in this paper. To this end, a complete nonlinear DC-grid model has been deployed that includes different DC-DERs, two controlled parallel battery branches, and different varying DC loads. Since many loads in modern distribution systems are connected through power converters, both constant power loads and simple resistive loads are considered in parallel. Within this system, suitable cascaded controllers on the DC/DC power converter interfaces to the battery branches are proposed, in a manner that ensures stability and charge sharing between the two branches at the desired ratio. To achieve this task, inner-loop current controllers are combined with outer-loop voltage, droop-based controllers. The proportional-integral (PI inner-loop current controllers include damping terms and are fully independent from the system parameters. The controller scheme is incorporated into the system model and a globally valid nonlinear stability analysis is conducted; this differs from small-signal linear methods that are valid only for specific systems, usually via eigenvalue investigations. In the present study, under the virtual cost of applying advanced Lyapunov techniques on the entire nonlinear system, a rigorous analysis is formulated to prove stability and convergence to the desired operation, regardless of the particular system characteristics. The theoretical results are evaluated by detailed simulations, with the system performance being very satisfactory.

  4. Effects of Incomplete Ionization on Ga2O3 Power Device: Unintentional Donor with Energy 110 meV (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0367 EFFECTS OF INCOMPLETE IONIZATION ON Β-Ga2O3 POWER DEVICE: UNINTENTIONAL DONOR WITH ENERGY 110 meV (PREPRINT...EFFECTS OF INCOMPLETE IONIZATION ON Β-Ga2O3 POWER DEVICE: UNINTENTIONAL DONOR WITH ENERGY 110 meV (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-11-D-5801...found to have a donor energy of 110 meV. The existence of the unintentional donor is confirmed by temperature dependent admittance spectroscopy

  5. Non-aqueous energy storage devices using graphene nanosheets synthesized by green route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattakumar Mhamane

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the use of triethylene glycol reduced graphene oxide (TRGO as an electrode material for non-aqueous energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries. TRGO based non–aqueous symmetric supercapacitor is constructed and shown to deliver maximum energy and power densities of 60.4 Wh kg–1 and 0.15 kW kg–1, respectively. More importantly, symmetric supercapacitor shows an extraordinary cycleability (5000 cycles with over 80% of capacitance retention. In addition, Li-storage properties of TRGO are also evaluated in half-cell configuration (Li/TRGO and shown to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼705 mAh g–1 with good cycleability at constant current density of 37 mA g–1. This result clearly suggests that green-synthesized graphene can be effectively used as a prospective electrode material for non-aqueous energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  6. Energy-cascade organic photovoltaic devices incorporating a host-guest architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S Matthew; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-02-04

    In planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs), broad spectral coverage can be realized by incorporating multiple molecular absorbers in an energy-cascade architecture. Here, this approach is combined with a host-guest donor layer architecture previously shown to optimize exciton transport for the fluorescent organic semiconductor boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc) when diluted in an optically transparent host. In order to maximize the absorption efficiency, energy-cascade OPVs that utilize both photoactive host and guest donor materials are examined using the pairing of SubPc and boron subnaphthalocyanine chloride (SubNc), respectively. In a planar heterojunction architecture, excitons generated on the SubPc host rapidly energy transfer to the SubNc guest, where they may migrate toward the dissociating, donor-acceptor interface. Overall, the incorporation of a photoactive host leads to a 13% enhancement in the short-circuit current density and a 20% enhancement in the power conversion efficiency relative to an optimized host-guest OPV combining SubNc with a nonabsorbing host. This work underscores the potential for further design refinements in planar heterojunction OPVs and demonstrates progress toward the effective separation of functionality between constituent OPV materials.

  7. Application of Ionic Liquids to Energy Storage and Conversion Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masayoshi; Thomas, Morgan L; Zhang, Shiguo; Ueno, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Dokko, Kaoru

    2017-05-24

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions and can be further defined as molten salts having melting points lower than 100 °C. One of the most important research areas for IL utilization is undoubtedly their energy application, especially for energy storage and conversion materials and devices, because there is a continuously increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. In this article, various application of ILs are reviewed by focusing on their use as electrolyte materials for Li/Na ion batteries, Li-sulfur batteries, Li-oxygen batteries, and nonhumidified fuel cells and as carbon precursors for electrode catalysts of fuel cells and electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors. Due to their characteristic properties such as nonvolatility, high thermal stability, and high ionic conductivity, ILs appear to meet the rigorous demands/criteria of these various applications. However, for further development, specific applications for which these characteristic properties become unique (i.e., not easily achieved by other materials) must be explored. Thus, through strong demands for research and consideration of ILs unique properties, we will be able to identify indispensable applications for ILs.

  8. Design and implementation of a device for measuring radiation energy of an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, Heythem; Selmi, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Our work is part of a graduation project at the School of Technology and Computing, to obtain a master's degree in electrical engineering specialty industrial computer. Throughout the four-month internship at the National Center for Nuclear Science and Technology (CNSTN), we have learned to practice the knowledge acquired during the formative years and to manage our working time. Our job was to design and implementation of a device for measuring the energy of radiation. Our project meets the needs of users in the radio treatment Unit, which amount to automate measurement of radiation energy from the electron accelerator. This project has been beneficial on several levels: it was an opportunity to achieve better control of printed circuits, especially when they are dual layer and learning a new programming language that is actually BASIC. In human terms, this work has given us the opportunity to learn to manage our time, and learn teamwork. However, we are convinced that this project can be enhanced on various levels. It can be considered as a starting point of a contribution to the real-time measurement of the energy of radiation.

  9. Joint Optimized CPU and Networking Control Scheme for Improved Energy Efficiency in Video Streaming on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming service is one of the most popular applications for mobile users. However, mobile video streaming services consume a lot of energy, resulting in a reduced battery life. This is a critical problem that results in a degraded user’s quality of experience (QoE. Therefore, in this paper, a joint optimization scheme that controls both the central processing unit (CPU and wireless networking of the video streaming process for improved energy efficiency on mobile devices is proposed. For this purpose, the energy consumption of the network interface and CPU is analyzed, and based on the energy consumption profile a joint optimization problem is formulated to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device. The proposed algorithm adaptively adjusts the number of chunks to be downloaded and decoded in each packet. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the energy efficiency when compared with the existing algorithms.

  10. The differences in histological changes among pulmonary vessels divided with an energy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiya, Tomoharu; Mimae, Takahiro; Tsubokawa, Norifumi; Sasada, Shinsuke; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Kushitani, Kei; Takeshima, Yukio; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2018-03-16

    Histological changes after division of the pulmonary artery (PA) and the pulmonary vein (PV) using a vessel-sealing device are not fully understood. The goal of the present study was to clarify histologically and immunohistochemically how division with the device affects the wall layers of the pulmonary vasculature. This prospective cohort study analysed outcomes of 20 patients who underwent anatomical lung resection. After a single proximal ligation, the PA and the PV (diameter 2-7 mm) were divided using a LigaSure Blunt Tip (LSB). Histological findings and thermal damage were evaluated in vascular specimens from resected lungs. The PA has a well-developed media with rich elastic fibres and a thin adventitia, whereas the PV has a thinner media and a thicker adventitia with abundant collagen fibres. Vascular division of the PAs and PVs appeared complete to the naked eye. However, in all divided PAs, the area adjacent to the sealed zone comprised only adventitia and thin disrupted media. Additionally, thermal energy generated by the LSB resulted in a wide area of thermal necrosis over the histologically fragile region in all cases. Conversely, the wall layers of all divided PVs were completely fused without disruption. Thermal spread and disruption did not significantly differ between small (2-4 mm) and large (5-7 mm) PAs [187 (150-253) vs 236 (190-275) μm, P = 0.22; 180 (138-200) vs 210 (161-305) μm, P = 0.22]. Histological changes differed significantly between the pulmonary vessels after division using the LSB. Surgeons should consider that dividing the pulmonary vessels with a vessel-sealing device might have more histological impact on the layers of the wall of the PA than on those of the PV, although it remains unclear whether these findings constitute a clinical risk.

  11. Processing of Silver-Implanted Aluminum Nitride for Energy Harvesting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Fatima Sierre

    One of the more attractive sources of green energy has roots in the popular recycling theme of other green technologies, now known by the term "energy scavenging." In its most promising conformation, energy scavenging converts cyclic mechanical vibrations in the environment or random mechanical pressure pulses, caused by sources ranging from operating machinery to human footfalls, into electrical energy via piezoelectric transducers. While commercial piezoelectrics have evolved to favor lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for its combination of superior properties, the presence of lead in these ceramic compounds raises resistance to their application in anything "green" due to potential health implications during their manufacturing, recycling, or in-service application, if leaching occurs. Therefore in this study we have pursued the application of aluminum nitride (AlN) as a non-toxic alternative to PZT, seeking processing pathways to augment the modest piezoelectric performance of AlN and exploit its compatibility with complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing. Such piezoelectric transducers have been categorized as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which despite more than a decade of research in this field, is plagued by delamination at the electrode/piezoelectric interface. Consequently the electric field essential to generate and sustain the piezoelectric response of these devices is lost, resulting in device failure. Working on the hypothesis that buried conducting layers can both mitigate the delamination problem and generate sufficient electric field to engage the operation of resonator devices, we have undertaken a study of silver ion implantation to experimentally assess its feasibility. As with most ion implantation procedures employed in semiconductor fabrication, the implanted sample is subjected to a thermal treatment, encouraging diffusion-assisted precipitation of the implanted species at high enough concentrations. The objective

  12. Characterization of miniature automatic energy transport devices based on the thermomagnetic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, W.; Xuan, Y.; Li, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The synergetic effect of an external magnetic field and the temperature gradient in the fluid constitutes a magnetocaloric pump. The miniature automatic energy transport device (AETD) is developed by using a temperature sensitive magnetic fluid as a coolant, in which the magnetic force resulting from the integrated effect of the external magnetic field and the fluid temperature variation drives the fluid in a loop. The flow and heat transport features of the AETD are experimentally examined in order to get insight into the mechanism and controlling approaches for such an automatic operation device. The micro-scale particle image velocimetry (μPIV) technique is used to visualize the flow field of the magnetic fluid in the loop. Three types of AETD systems are established to study the effect of the loop structure and components on the AETD performance. By means of experimental data about the magnetic field, flow velocity and fluid temperature along the loop, the constitutive thermal, magnetic and fluid dynamic relationships of the AETD are discussed

  13. Nanoscale Materials, Devices, and Systems for Chem.-Bio Sensors, Photonics, and Energy Generation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseashta, A.

    A comprehensive overview of ongoing research efforts and future scientific directions in nanotechnology to develop materials, devices, and systems for potential use in environmental pollution monitoring and mitigation; energy generation and storage; and chemical-biological-radiological-nuclear sensing is presented. Applications of nanomaterials in development of biodegradable, high performance yet light weight and eco-friendly materials are presented to minimize power consumption, green-house gas emissions, and land-fill volume. Societal implications and concerns associated with nanotechnology are addressed by studying fate and transport and development of guidelines for a risk-assessment model. A roadmap of the future of nanomaterials, in-terms of complexity, nexus of disciplines, and emerging green nanotechnologies is presented.

  14. Freestanding, heat resistant microporous film for use in energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Cherukupalli, Srinivas; Waterhouse, Robert R.

    2018-02-20

    Preferred embodiments of a freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film (10) constructed for use in an energy storage device (70, 100) implements one or more of the following approaches to exhibit excellent high temperature mechanical and dimensional stability: incorporation into a porous polyolefin film of sufficiently high loading levels of inorganic or ceramic filler material (16) to maintain porosity (18) and achieve low thermal shrinkage; use of crosslinkable polyethylene to contribute to crosslinking the polymer matrix (14) in a highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film; and heat treating or annealing of biaxially oriented, highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film above the melting point temperature of the polymer matrix to reduce residual stress while maintaining high porosity. The freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film embodiments exhibit extremely low resistance, as evidenced by MacMullin numbers of less than 4.5.

  15. Hierarchical and hybrid energy storage devices in data centers: Architecture, control and provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuankun; Bogdan, Paul; Tang, Jian; Wang, Yanzhi; Lin, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a new approach has been introduced that leverages and over-provisions energy storage devices (ESDs) in data centers for performing power capping and facilitating capex/opex reductions, without performance overhead. To fully realize the potential benefits of the hierarchical ESD structure, we propose a comprehensive design, control, and provisioning framework including (i) designing power delivery architecture supporting hierarchical ESD structure and hybrid ESDs for some levels, as well as (ii) control and provisioning of the hierarchical ESD structure including run-time ESD charging/discharging control and design-time determination of ESD types, homogeneous/hybrid options, ESD provisioning at each level. Experiments have been conducted using real Google data center workloads based on realistic data center specifications. PMID:29351553

  16. Hierarchical and hybrid energy storage devices in data centers: Architecture, control and provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengshu; Xue, Yuankun; Bogdan, Paul; Tang, Jian; Wang, Yanzhi; Lin, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a new approach has been introduced that leverages and over-provisions energy storage devices (ESDs) in data centers for performing power capping and facilitating capex/opex reductions, without performance overhead. To fully realize the potential benefits of the hierarchical ESD structure, we propose a comprehensive design, control, and provisioning framework including (i) designing power delivery architecture supporting hierarchical ESD structure and hybrid ESDs for some levels, as well as (ii) control and provisioning of the hierarchical ESD structure including run-time ESD charging/discharging control and design-time determination of ESD types, homogeneous/hybrid options, ESD provisioning at each level. Experiments have been conducted using real Google data center workloads based on realistic data center specifications.

  17. Advances in thermal-hydraulic studies of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Laura Garcia, E-mail: laura.gf@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). Technology Department; Hernandez, Carlos Garcia; Mazaira, Leorlen Rojas, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: irojas@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences (INSTEC), Habana (Cuba); Castells, Facundo Alberto Escriva, E-mail: aescriva@iqn.upv.es [University of Valencia (UV), Valencia (Spain). Energetic Engineering Institute; Lira, Carlos Brayner de Olivera, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (BRazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste trans- mutation and for obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In previous work, the TADSEA's nuclear core was considered as a porous medium performed with a CFD code and thermal-hydraulic studies of the nuclear core were presented. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant was analyzed for three core states during normal operation. The heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements was also studied. Three critical fuel elements groups were defined regarding their position inside the core. Results were compared with a realistic CFD model of the critical fuel elements groups. During the steady state, no critical elements reached the limit temperature of this type of fuel. (author)

  18. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Functional Oxide Nanomaterials Used in Energy Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yu

    as materials are continuously produced, and the technology can be scaled-up to an industrial-relevant production capacity. The thesis starts with investigating the most appropriate mixer design for a novel two-stage reactor by computational fluid dynamics modelling. On basis of the modelling results, a two......Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) was used to prepare functional oxide nanoparticles. Materials synthesized include NiO, Y-doped ZrO2, Gd-doped CeO2, LaCrO3 and Ni-substituted CoFe2O4. These types of oxides can be applied in several energy conversion devices, e.g. as active materials......, dense continuous layers (

  19. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  20. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  1. Advanced Energy Storage Devices: Basic Principles, Analytical Methods, and Rational Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Xu, Chaohe; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Tremendous efforts have been dedicated into the development of high-performance energy storage devices with nanoscale design and hybrid approaches. The boundary between the electrochemical capacitors and batteries becomes less distinctive. The same material may display capacitive or battery-like behavior depending on the electrode design and the charge storage guest ions. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms and the electrochemical processes occurring upon charge storage may be confusing for researchers who are new to the field as well as some of the chemists and material scientists already in the field. This review provides fundamentals of the similarities and differences between electrochemical capacitors and batteries from kinetic and material point of view. Basic techniques and analysis methods to distinguish the capacitive and battery-like behavior are discussed. Furthermore, guidelines for material selection, the state-of-the-art materials, and the electrode design rules to advanced electrode are proposed.

  2. Dynamic Characteristics of Magnetic Coupling in Horizontal Axis Wave Energy Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To solve the dynamic response problems of magnetic coupling in the horizontal axis wave energy device, this has researched the dynamic characteristicsof magnetic coupling. The fitting formula about torque and angle of the magnetic coupling is obtained through experiments. The mathematical models of the magnetic coupling torque transmission are established. The steady state error of the magnetic coupling and the transfer function of the output angle are obtained. The analytical solution of the step response of the output angle in time domain is derived. The influence of the torsional rigidity, the damping coefficient and the driven rotor’s rotational inertia on dynamic characteristics of the magnetic coupling isanalyzed. According to the analysis results, the design rules of magnetic coupling are proposed.

  3. Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Sousa, João; Marques, Ana; Tavares, Célia; Giestas, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture

  4. Harvesting energy an sustainable power source, replace batteries for powering WSN and devices on the IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Latinovic, T.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2017-05-01

    Harvesting energy from nonconventional sources in the environment has received increased attention over the past decade from researchers who study these alternative energy sources for low power applications. Although that energy harvested is small and in the order of milliwatt, it can provide enough power for wireless sensors and other low-power applications. In the environment there is a lot of wasted energy that can be converted into electricity to power the various circuits and represents a potentially cheap source of power. Energy harvesting is important because it offers an alternative power supply for electronic devices where is does not exist conventional energy sources. This technology applied in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and devices on the IoT, will eliminate the need for network-based energy and conventional batteries, will minimize maintenance costs, eliminate cables and batteries and is ecological. It has the same advantage in applications from remote locations, underwater, and other hard to reach places where conventional batteries and energy are not suitable. Energy harvesting will promote environmentally friendly technologies that will save energy, will reduce CO2 emissions, which makes this technology indispensable for achieving next-generation smart cities and sustainable society. In response to the challenges of energy, in this article we remind the basics of harvesting energy and we discuss the various applications of this technology where traditional batteries cannot be used.

  5. Energy Conservation in Mobile Devices and Applications: A Case for Context Parsing, Processing and Distribution in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Liaquat Kiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context information consumed and produced by the applications on mobile devices needs to be represented, disseminated, processed and consumed by numerous components in a context-aware system. Significant amounts of context consumption, production and processing takes place on mobile devices and there is limited or no support for collaborative modelling, persistence and processing between device-Cloud ecosystems. In this paper we propose an environment for context processing in a Cloud-based distributed infrastructure that offloads complex context processing from the applications on mobile devices. An experimental analysis of complexity based context-processing categories has been carried out to establish the processing-load boundary. The results demonstrate that the proposed collaborative infrastructure provides significant performance and energy conservation benefits for mobile devices and applications.

  6. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO 3 ·H 2 O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm 2 C -1 ). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm 2 ) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  7. SmartFix: Indoor Locating Optimization Algorithm for Energy-Constrained Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization technology based on Wi-Fi has long been a hot research topic in the past decade. Despite numerous solutions, new challenges have arisen along with the trend of smart home and wearable computing. For example, power efficiency needs to be significantly improved for resource-constrained wearable devices, such as smart watch and wristband. For a Wi-Fi-based locating system, most of the energy consumption can be attributed to real-time radio scan; however, simply reducing radio data collection will cause a serious loss of locating accuracy because of unstable Wi-Fi signals. In this paper, we present SmartFix, an optimization algorithm for indoor locating based on Wi-Fi RSS. SmartFix utilizes user motion features, extracts characteristic value from history trajectory, and corrects deviation caused by unstable Wi-Fi signals. We implemented a prototype of SmartFix both on Moto 360 2nd-generation Smartwatch and on HTC One Smartphone. We conducted experiments both in a large open area and in an office hall. Experiment results demonstrate that average locating error is less than 2 meters for more than 80% cases, and energy consumption is only 30% of Wi-Fi fingerprinting method under the same experiment circumstances.

  8. Investigation on the actual energy consumption by office automation devices used in offices; Office ni okeru OA kiki no energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    With an objective to further improve efficiency of power demand by office automation devices and suppress increase in the power demand, investigations were carried out on the actual power consumption by office automation devices, and discussions were given on energy saving effects in the office automation devices. In the investigations, measurements were conducted for small offices as the subject thereof with regard to electric power consumed by such presentation tools and their peripheral devices as personal computers, word processors, copying machines, facsimile machines, electronic whiteboards and overhead projectors. Power consumption particularly in a standby condition was also investigated. As a result of the investigations, the following characteristics were revealed: the number of office automation devices used to deal with the Energy Star is increasing rapidly; power consumption believed to have been reduced by the Energy Star transferring to lower power consumption is estimated to be 3% in average for personal computers, 26% for copying machines, and 68% for facsimile machines; and while facsimile machines are left in operating condition for 24 hours, their operation rate at night is very low, wherein there is a large room for saving energy in this time band. 65 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. EquiMar : Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in Terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Pecher, Arthur; Margheritini, Lucia

    The Sea Trial Manual (D4.1) describes the type of operations required to advance an ocean energy conversion device (wave and tide) from an intermediate scaled sub-systems proving machine (circa 1:4) to a full size solo prototype pre-production unit and on towards a pre-commercial device ready for...... of marine energy converters, according to Annex 1 – Description of Work of the EquiMar project, where task 4.2 is defined. Some slight modifications have been made to the original structure due to re-adjustments in accordance with the on-going research....

  10. Single wearable sensing energy device based on photoelectric biofuel cells for simultaneous analysis of perspiration and illuminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Zhai, Junfeng; Xia, Yong; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-08-24

    Wearable electronics are essential for the construction of epidermal energy supply and portable healthcare devices. Herein, a self-powered wearable electronic device based on a photoelectric biofuel cell has been introduced for the first time to simultaneously detect the perspiration lactate and monitor the ambient illuminance depending on independent parameters. The functions of harvesting energy, detection of body function and monitoring of ambient have been merged into a single wireless sensor. This novel design may provide a wide range of smart and exciting wearable electronics.

  11. Predicting physical activity energy expenditure in wheelchair users with a multisensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, T E; Walhin, J P; Thompson, D; Bilzon, J L J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the error in predicting physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), using a multisensor device in wheelchair users, and to examine the efficacy of using an individual heart rate calibration (IC) method. 15 manual wheelchair users (36±10 years, 72±11 kg) completed 10 activities: resting, folding clothes, wheelchair propulsion on a 1% gradient (3456 and 7 km/h) and propulsion at 4 km/h (with an additional 8% of body mass, 2% and 3% gradient) on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. Criterion PAEE was measured using a computerised indirect calorimetry system. Participants wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart). They also performed an incremental arm crank ergometry test to exhaustion which permitted retrospective individual calibration of the Actiheart for the activity protocol. Linear regression analysis was conducted between criterion (indirect calorimetry) and estimated PAEE from the Actiheart using the manufacturer's proprietary algorithms (group calibration, GC) or IC. Bland-Altman plots were used and mean absolute error was calculated to assess the agreement between criterion values and estimated PAEE. Predicted PAEE was significantly (p<0.01) correlated with criterion PAEE (GC, r=0.76 and IC, r=0.95). The absolute bias ±95% limits of agreement were 0.51±3.75 and -0.22±0.96 kcal/min for GC and IC, respectively. Mean absolute errors across the activity protocol were 51.4±38.9% using GC and 16.8±15.8% using IC. PAEE can be accurately and precisely estimated using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor device, with integration of an IC. Interindividual variance in cardiovascular function and response to exercise is high in this population. Therefore, in manual wheelchair users, we advocate the use of an IC when using the Actiheart to predict PAEE.

  12. Theoretical basis, application, reliability, and sample size estimates of a Meridian Energy Analysis Device for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yen Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is currently a popular tool in the scientific research of meridian electrophysiology. In this field, it is generally believed that measuring the electrical conductivity of meridians provides information about the balance of bioenergy or Qi-blood in the body. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed database based on some original articles from 1956 to 2014 and the authoŕs clinical experience. In this short communication, we provide clinical examples of Meridian Energy Analysis Device application, especially in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, discuss the reliability of the measurements, and put the values obtained into context by considering items of considerable variability and by estimating sample size. CONCLUSION: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is making a valuable contribution to the diagnosis of Qi-blood dysfunction. It can be assessed from short-term and long-term meridian bioenergy recordings. It is one of the few methods that allow outpatient traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis, monitoring the progress, therapeutic effect and evaluation of patient prognosis. The holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and new trends in modern medicine toward the use of objective instruments require in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of meridian energy, and the Meridian Energy Analysis Device can feasibly be used for understanding and interpreting traditional Chinese medicine theory, especially in view of its expansion in Western countries.

  13. Electrochemical investigations of advanced materials for microelectronic and energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Pubudu Chaminda

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study a selected set of advanced materials for applications in microelectronics and energy storage devices. The primary motivation of this study has been to explore the capabilities of certain modern electrochemical techniques in a number of emerging areas of material processing and characterization. The work includes both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, with applications in two rather general areas of technology, namely microelectronics and energy storage. The sub-systems selected for investigation are: (i) Electrochemical mechanical and chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP and CMP, respectively), (ii) Carbon nanotubes in combination with room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), and (iii) Cathode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries. The first group of systems represents an important building block in the fabrication of microelectronic devices. The second and third groups of systems are relevant for new energy storage technologies, and have generated immense interests in recent years. A common feature of these different systems is that they all are associated with complex surface reactions that dictate the performance of the devices based on them. Fundamental understanding of these reactions is crucial to further development and expansion of their associated technologies. It is the complex mechanistic details of these surface reactions that we address using a judicious combination of a number of state of the art electrochemical techniques. The main electrochemical techniques used in this work include: (i) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV, a special case of CV); (ii) Galvanostatic (or current-controlled) measurements; (iii) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), based on two different methodologies, namely, Fourier transform EIS (FT-EIS, capable of studying fast reaction kinetics in a time-resolved mode), and EIS using frequency response

  14. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology-a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  15. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology--a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  16. A useful device for scanning the beam energy of a Van de Graaff accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, J.-H.; Richter, F.-W.

    1990-05-01

    A useful device is presented, which allows a stepwise change of the terminal voltage of a Van de Graaff generator automatically. Resonant helium-scattering on 16O is used to demonstrate the applicability of the scanning device.

  17. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: EMP injection damage effects of a bipolar transistor and its relationship between the injecting voltage and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Bing, Zhang; Xiao, Hong

    2010-04-01

    The response of a bipolar transistor (BJT) under a square-wave electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with different injecting voltages is investigated. Adopting the curve fitting method, the relationship between the burnout time, the damage energy and the injecting voltage is obtained. Research shows that the damage energy is not a constant value, but changes with the injecting voltage level. By use of the device simulator Medici, the internal behavior of the burned device is analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the variation of the damage energy with injecting voltage is caused by the distribution change of hot spot position under different injection levels. Therefore, the traditional way to evaluate the trade-off between the burnout time and the injecting voltage is not comprehensive due to the variation of the damage energy.

  18. Control-Informed Geometric Optimization of Wave Energy Converters: The Impact of Device Motion and Force Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Garcia-Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy cost for producing electricity via wave energy converters (WECs is still not competitive with other renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. It is well known that energy maximising control plays an important role to improve the performance of WECs, allowing the energy conversion to be performed as economically as possible. The control strategies are usually subsequently employed on a device that was designed and optimized in the absence of control for the prevailing sea conditions in a particular location. If an optimal unconstrained control strategy, such as pseudo-spectral optimal control (PSOC, is adopted, an overall optimized system can be obtained no matter whether the control design is incorporated at the geometry optimization stage or not. Nonetheless, strategies, such as latching control (LC, must be incorporated at the optimization design stage of the WEC geometry if an overall optimized system is to be realised. In this paper, the impact of device motion and force constraints in the design of control-informed optimized WEC geometries is addressed. The aim is to verify to what extent the constraints modify the connection between the control and the optimal device design. Intuitively, one might expect that if the constraints are very tight, the optimal device shape is the same regardless of incorporating or not the constrained control at the geometry optimization stage. However, this paper tests the hypothesis that the imposition of constraints will limit the control influence on the optimal device shape. PSOC, LC and passive control (PC are considered in this study. In addition, constrained versions of LC and PC are presented.

  19. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of Electrochemical Processes in Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmand, Maryam [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-19

    The development of better energy conversion and storage devices, such as fuel cells and batteries, is crucial for reduction of our global carbon footprint and improving the quality of the air we breathe. However, both of these technologies face important challenges. The development of lower cost and better electrode materials, which are more durable and allow more control over the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface, is perhaps most important for meeting these challenges. Hence, full characterization of the electrochemical processes that occur at the electrodes is vital for intelligent design of more energy efficient electrodes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a short-range order, element specific technique that can be utilized to probe the processes occurring at operating electrode surfaces, as well for studying the amorphous materials and nano-particles making up the electrodes. It has been increasingly used in recent years to study fuel cell catalysts through application of the and #916; and mgr; XANES technique, in combination with the more traditional X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques. The and #916; and mgr; XANES data analysis technique, previously developed and applied to heterogeneous catalysts and fuel cell electrocatalysts by the GWU group, was extended in this work to provide for the first time space resolved adsorbate coverages on both electrodes of a direct methanol fuel cell. Even more importantly, the and #916; and mgr; technique was applied for the first time to battery relevant materials, where bulk properties such as the oxidation state and local geometry of a cathode are followed.

  20. Quantifying the uncertainty of wave energy conversion device cost for policy appraisal: An Irish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Niall; Donoghue, Cathal O’; Morrissey, Karyn

    2015-01-01

    Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices are at a pre-commercial stage of development with feasibility studies sensitive to uncertainties surrounding assumed input costs. This may affect decision making. This paper analyses the impact these uncertainties may have on investor, developer and policymaker decisions using an Irish case study. Calibrated to data present in the literature, a probabilistic methodology is shown to be an effective means to carry this out. Value at Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) metrics are used to quantify the certainty of achieving a given cost or return on investment. We analyse the certainty of financial return provided by the proposed Irish Feed-in Tariff (FiT) policy. The influence of cost reduction through bulk discount is also discussed, with cost reduction targets for developers identified. Uncertainty is found to have a greater impact on the profitability of smaller installations and those subject to lower rates of cost reduction. This paper emphasises that a premium is required to account for cost uncertainty when setting FiT rates. By quantifying uncertainty, a means to specify an efficient premium is presented. - Highlights: • Probabilistic model quantifies uncertainty for wave energy feasibility analyses. • Methodology presented and applied to an Irish case study. • A feed-in tariff premium of 3–4 c/kWh required to account for cost uncertainty. • Sensitivity of uncertainty and cost to rates of technological change analysed. • Use of probabilistic model for investors and developers also demonstrated

  1. Comparison of a Handheld Indirect Calorimetry Device and Predictive Energy Equations Among Individuals on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Ellis A; Marcus, Andrea; Byham-Gray, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Practical methods for determining resting energy expenditure (REE) among individuals on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are needed because of the limitations of indirect calorimetry. Two disease-specific predictive energy equations (PEEs) have been developed for this metabolically complex population. The aim of this study was to compare estimated REE (eREE) by PEEs to measured REE (mREE) with a handheld indirect calorimetry device (HICD). A prospective pilot study of adults on MHD (N = 40) was conducted at 2 dialysis clinics in Houston and Texas City, Texas. mREE by an HICD was compared with eREE determined by 6 PEEs using Bland-Altman analysis with a band of acceptable agreement of ±10% of the group mean mREE. Paired t-test and the intraclass correlation coefficient were also used to compare the alternate methods of measuring REE. A priori alpha was set at P Maintenance Hemodialysis Equation-Creatinine version (MHCD-CR) was the most accurate PEE with 52.5% of values within the band of acceptable agreement, followed by the Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation and the Vilar et al. Equation at 45.0% and 42.5%, respectively. When compared with mREE by the HICD, the MHDE-CR was more accurate and precise than other PEEs evaluated; however, this must be interpreted with caution as mREE was consistently lower than eREE from all PEEs. Further research is needed to validate the MHDE-CR and other practical methods for determining REE among individuals on MHD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an energy conversion device with an updated numerical model obtained through inverse identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jonathan; Malloy, Adam C.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Lamperth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conjugate heat transfer analysis of an electric machine. • Inverse identification method for estimating the model parameters. • Experimentally determined thermal properties and electromagnetic losses. • Coupling of inverse identification method with a numerical model. • Improved modeling accuracy through introduction of interface material. - Abstract: Energy conversion devices undergo thermal loading during their operation as a result of inefficiencies in the energy conversion process. This will eventually lead to degradation and possible failure of the device if the heat generated is not properly managed. The ability to accurately predict the thermal behavior of such a device during the initial developmental stage is an important requirement. However, accurate predictions of critical temperature is challenging due to the variation of heat transfer parameters from one device to another. The ability to determine the model parameters is key to accurately representing the heat transfer in such a device. This paper presents the use of an inverse identification technique to estimate the model parameters of an energy conversion device designed for vehicular applications. To simulate the imperfect contact and the presence of insulating materials in the permanent magnet electric machine, thin material are introduced at the component interface of the numerical model. The proposed inverse identification method is used to estimate the equivalent thermal conductance of the thin material. In addition, the electromagnetic losses generated in the permanent magnet is also derived indirectly from the temperature measurement using the same method. With the thermal properties and input parameters of the numerical model obtained from the inverse identification method, the critical temperature of the device can be predicted more accurately. The deviation between the maximum measured and predicted winding temperature is less than 2.4%

  3. Static and Dynamic Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, V.

    2011-01-01

    The distributed energy resources (DER) contains several technologies, such as diesel engines, small wind turbines, photovoltaic inverters, etc. The control of DER components with storage devices and (controllable) loads, such as batteries, capacitors, dump loads, are central to the concept of the...

  4. NREL Topic 1 Final Report: Cohesive Application of Standards-Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgins, Andrew P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, Bethany F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2018-02-21

    This document is the final report of a two-year development, test, and demonstration project entitled 'Cohesive Application of Standards-Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies.' The project was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Integrated Network Test-bed for Energy Grid Research and Technology (INTEGRATE) initiative. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a team of partners were selected by NREL to carry out a project to develop and test how smart, connected consumer devices can act to enable the use of more clean energy technologies on the electric power grid. The project team includes a set of leading companies that produce key products in relation to achieving this vision: thermostats, water heaters, pool pumps, solar inverters, electric vehicle supply equipment, and battery storage systems. A key requirement of the project was open access at the device level - a feature seen as foundational to achieving a future of widespread distributed generation and storage. The internal intelligence, standard functionality and communication interfaces utilized in this project result in the ability to integrate devices at any level, to work collectively at the level of the home/business, microgrid, community, distribution circuit or other. Collectively, the set of products serve as a platform on which a wide range of control strategies may be developed and deployed.

  5. Device for the collimation of a high-energy beam, in particular a X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyser, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    The design of apertures made of radiation-absorbing material intended for limiting an aperture for a radiation beam of high energy, in particular an X-ray beam is claimed. The apertures are shaped as trapezoids, are held movably, and are adjustable by means of a control device. (UWI) [de

  6. Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch; William H. Morrison

    2012-04-01

    Harmonic compensated synchronous detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from the HCSD technique were very similar to the changes observed from standardized impedance spectroscopy methods. Results from these studies, therefore, indicate that HCSD is a viable, rapid alternative approach to acquiring impedance spectra.

  7. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de, E-mail: abol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com, E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  8. Chalcogenide glasses for device application modified by high-energy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Chalcogenide glasses (ChG) or chemical compounds of chalcogen atoms (S, Se or Te, but not O) with some elements from IV-th and V-th groups of the Periodic Table (typically As, Ge, Sb, Bi, etc. ) obtained by melt quenching, are a perspective for application in modern optoelectronics, photonics, telecommunications, acoustic-optics, xerography, lithography, etc. This uniqueness is due to extremely high sensitivity of ChG to external influences, associated, presumably, with high steric flexibility proper to glassy-like network with low average atomic coordination (chalcogen atoms are typically two-fold coordinated in a glassy-like network), relatively large internal free volume and specific lp-character of electronic states localized at a valence-band top. However, at present, the further possibilities for conventional chemical/technological methods to prepare ChG are fully exhausted. One of the steps to resolve this problem is post-technological modification of ChG using possibilities of high-energy irradiation. This work is focused on new advanced radiation-modified ChG for device application in optoelectronics. The attractive practical use of these non-crystalline materials is tightly connected with radiation-induced defect formation processes. For the first time, we consider the possibilities of Raman scattering along with X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to characterize microstructural mechanisms of radiation-induced effects in ChG. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of a spectral subtraction strategy to suppress reverberant energy in cochlear implant devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Runge, Christina; Tahmina, Qudsia; Hu, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The smearing effects of room reverberation can significantly impair the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to understand speech. To ameliorate the effects of reverberation, current dereverberation algorithms focus on recovering the direct sound from the reverberated signal by inverse filtering the reverberation process. This contribution describes and evaluates a spectral subtraction (SS) strategy capable of suppressing late reflections. Late reflections are the most detrimental to speech intelligibility by CI listeners as reverberation increases. By tackling only the late part of reflections, it is shown that users of CI devices can benefit from the proposed strategy even in highly reverberant rooms. The proposed strategy is also compared against an ideal reverberant (binary) masking approach. Speech intelligibility results indicate that the proposed SS solution is able to suppress additive reverberant energy to a degree comparable to that achieved by an ideal binary mask. The added advantage is that the SS strategy proposed in this work can allow for a potentially real-time implementation in clinical CI processors.

  10. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  11. Smart nanopaper based on cellulose nanofibers with hybrid PEDOT:PSS/polypyrrole for energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Makara; Pèlach, M Àngels; Pellicer, Neus; Tarrés, Joaquim A; Bun, Kim Ngun; Vilaseca, Fabiola

    2017-06-01

    In the current work, flexible, lightweight, and strong conductive nanopapers based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and/or polypyrrole (PPy) were prepared by following a mixing and in situ chemical polymerization method. A successful homogeneous coating of PEDOT:PSS on cellulose nanofibers occurred by means hydrogen-bonding interactions between the hydroxyl functionalized CNF and the electronically charged PEDOT:PSS, as shown by FTIR spectra. The electrical conductivity and the specific capacitance of CNF-PEDOT:PSS nanopapers were 2.58Scm -1 and 6.21Fg -1 , respectively. Further coating of PPy produced a substantial improvement on the electrical conductivity (10.55Scm -1 ) and the specific capacitance (315.5Fg -1 ) of the resulting CNF-PEDOT:PSS-PPy nanopaper. A synergistic phenomenon between both conductive polymers supported the high electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of the ternary formulation. Moreover, CNF-PEDOT:PSS-PPy nanopaper showed higher mechanical properties and it was more flexible than the nanopaper containing only polypyrrole conducting polymer (CNF-PPy). It is concluded that the good mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the ternary formulation can apply for smart nanopaper in flexible electronics and energy storage devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vibration properties of a rotating piezoelectric energy harvesting device that experiences gyroscopic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haohui; Chai, Tan; Cooley, Christopher G.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the vibration of a rotating piezoelectric device that consists of a proof mass that is supported by elastic structures with piezoelectric layers. Vibration of the proof mass causes deformation in the piezoelectric structures and voltages to power the electrical loads. The coupled electromechanical equations of motion are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff's circuit laws. The free vibration behavior is investigated for devices with identical (tuned) and nonidentical (mistuned) piezoelectric support structures and electrical loads. These devices have complex-valued, speed-dependent eigenvalues and eigenvectors as a result of gyroscopic effects caused by their constant rotation. The characteristics of the complex-valued eigensolutions are related to physical behavior of the device's vibration. The free vibration behaviors differ significantly for tuned and mistuned devices. Due to gyroscopic effects, the proof mass in the tuned device vibrates in either forward or backward decaying circular orbits in single-mode free response. This is proven analytically for all tuned devices, regardless of the device's specific parameters or operating speed. For mistuned devices, the proof mass has decaying elliptical forward and backward orbits. The eigenvalues are shown to be sensitive to changes in the electrical load resistances. Closed-form solutions for the eigenvalues are derived for open and close circuits. At high rotation speeds these devices experience critical speeds and instability.

  13. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  14. Development and Successful Application of a Tree Movement Energy Harvesting Device, to Power a Wireless Sensor Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Scott; Knight, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly more common as a means to sense, measure, record and transmit data for scientific and engineering evaluation, remotely and autonomously. Usually, remotely located sensor nodes are powered by batteries which are recharged by solar or wind energy harvesters. Sometimes nodes are located in areas where these forms of energy harvesting are not possible due to local conditions, such as under the canopy of a forest. This article outlines the design and testing of a device capable of harvesting energy from tree movement, and shows the device powering a wireless sensor node continuously. The device uses the force and displacement of the movement of a tree trunk (of a 6 m tall tree) to drive an electromagnetic generator that recharges a nickel metal hydride battery. The battery stores the energy from which a ∼0.5 mW wireless sensor node is powered continuously. This demonstrated method of energy harvesting may allow the placement and powering of nodes in locations previously not possible.

  15. Development and Successful Application of a Tree Movement Energy Harvesting Device, to Power a Wireless Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knight

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly more common as a means to sense, measure, record and transmit data for scientific and engineering evaluation, remotely and autonomously. Usually, remotely located sensor nodes are powered by batteries which are recharged by solar or wind energy harvesters. Sometimes nodes are located in areas where these forms of energy harvesting are not possible due to local conditions, such as under the canopy of a forest. This article outlines the design and testing of a device capable of harvesting energy from tree movement, and shows the device powering a wireless sensor node continuously. The device uses the force and displacement of the movement of a tree trunk (of a 6 m tall tree to drive an electromagnetic generator that recharges a nickel metal hydride battery. The battery stores the energy from which a ~0.5 mW wireless sensor node is powered continuously. This demonstrated method of energy harvesting may allow the placement and powering of nodes in locations previously not possible.

  16. FDA MAUDE data on complications with lasers, light sources, and energy-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, Anne Marie; Avram, Mathew M

    2015-02-01

    It is essential for physicians to be fully informed regarding adverse events and malfunctions associated with medical devices that occur in routine practice. There is limited information on this important issue in the medical literature, and it is mostly based on initial studies and case reports. More advanced knowledge regarding device adverse events is necessary to guide physicians towards providing safe treatments. The FDA requires that manufacturers and device users submit medical device reports (MDRs) for suspected injuries from device use or malfunction. The database of MDRs, entitled Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) enables the FDA to monitor device performance and identify potential safety issues. We employed the following search strategy to identify reported adverse events. We searched the MAUDE electronic database on the FDA website in December 2013: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfmaude/search.cfm We collected all reported cases between 1991 and December 2013. The search terms utilized included a comprehensive list of device manufacturers, specific product names, and the wavelengths/technology of the devices used in the field of dermatology. Our search yielded 1257 MDRs. Forty-five MDRs were excluded due to insufficient data. The data is broken down into the adverse events observed, such as, but not limited to: blistering, burns, scarring, dyschromia, fat loss, and nerve palsy. The MDRs describe the adverse event and attempt to determine if it was related to device malfunction versus operator error. Radiofrequency devices, diode lasers, and intense pulsed light devices were the most commonly reported devices related to injuries. 1257 MDRs, from a myriad of devices used in dermatology, have been reported to the FDA as of December 2013. Despite the underreporting of adverse events, the MAUDE database is an untapped resource of post-market surveillance of medical devices. The database can offer additional

  17. Water-based synthesis of hydrophobic ionic liquids for high-energy electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanino, Maria; Alessandrini, Fabrizio; Passerini, Stefano; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water-based synthesis of ionic liquids with high yield. ► Full recycling of reagents. ► High purity pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with exceptional electrochemical stability window. ► Lithium plating from pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. -- Abstract: In this work is described an innovative synthesis route for hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) composed of N-methyl-N-alkylpyrrolidinium (or piperidinium) or imidazolium or tetralkylammonium cations and (perfluoroalkylsulfonyl)imide, ((C n F 2n+1 SO 2 )(C m F 2m+1 SO 2 )N − ), anions. This synthesis does not require the use of any environmental unfriendly solvent such as acetone, acetonitrile or halogen-containing compounds, which is not welcome in industrial applications. Only water is used as the process solvent throughout the entire process. In addition, the commonly used iodine-containing reagents were replaced by the cheaper, more chemically stable and less toxic bromine-containing compounds. A particular care was devoted to the development of the purification route, which is especially important for ILs to be used in high-energy electrochemical devices such as high voltage supercapacitors and lithium batteries. The effect of the reaction temperature, the time and the stoichiometry in the various steps of the synthesis have been investigated in detail. This novel procedure allowed obtaining ultrapure (>99.9 wt.%), clear, colourless, inodorous ILs with an overall yield above 92 wt.% and moisture content below 1 ppm. NMR measurements were run to confirm the chemical structure whereas elemental analysis and electrochemical tests were performed to check the purity of the synthesized ILs

  18. Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulavi, Tejas

    A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by

  19. Estimating energy loss due to vortex shedding and pneumatic efficiency of an oscillating water column device: experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Xu, C.

    2014-12-01

    In laboratory tests of oscillating-water-column (OWC) devices for extracting wave energy from ocean waves, an orifice is often used as the power-takeoff mechanism. Calculations of the energy loss due to vortex shedding and the pneumatic extraction efficiency of the OWC chamber are two challenging issues. Direct measurement of the energy loss due to vortex shedding is difficult. The pneumatic extraction efficiency is often calculated by using a one-point measurement method, in which one pressure senor is used to measure the air pressure variation and one wave gauge is used to measure the instantaneous surface displacement inside the OWC chamber. This method is simple, but a systematic error may be introduced, especially for shorter waves. Based on our recent laboratory and theoretical studies of a pile-supported OWC device, we present a method for estimating the energy loss due to vortex shedding and improving the accuracy in the calculation of pneumatic extraction efficiency using one-point method. The method in this study is designed for an OWC device whose chamber has a circular cross section, but can be extended to other cases where development of an analytical theory is possible.

  20. Optimization Design of an Inductive Energy Harvesting Device for Wireless Power Supply System Overhead High-Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Overhead high voltage power line (HVPL online monitoring equipment is playing an increasingly important role in smart grids, but the power supply is an obstacle to such systems’ stable and safe operation, so in this work a hybrid wireless power supply system, integrated with inductive energy harvesting and wireless power transmitting, is proposed. The energy harvesting device extracts energy from the HVPL and transfers that from the power line to monitoring equipment on transmission towers by transmitting and receiving coils, which are in a magnetically coupled resonant configuration. In this paper, the optimization design of online energy harvesting devices is analyzed emphatically by taking both HVPL insulation distance and wireless power supply efficiency into account. It is found that essential parameters contributing to more extracted energy include large core inner radius, core radial thickness, core height and small core gap within the threshold constraints. In addition, there is an optimal secondary coil turn that can maximize extracted energy when other parameters remain fixed. A simple and flexible control strategy is then introduced to limit power fluctuations caused by current variations. The optimization methods are finally verified experimentally.

  1. Device and method for luminescence enhancement by resonant energy transfer from an absorptive thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselrod, Gleb M.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Tischler, Jonathan R.; Tisdale, William A.; Walker, Brian J.

    2017-12-12

    Disclosed are a device and a method for the design and fabrication of the device for enhancing the brightness of luminescent molecules, nanostructures, and thin films. The device includes a mirror, a dielectric medium or spacer, an absorptive layer, and a luminescent layer. The absorptive layer is a continuous thin film of a strongly absorbing organic or inorganic material. The luminescent layer may be a continuous luminescent thin film or an arrangement of isolated luminescent species, e.g., organic or metal-organic dye molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, or other semiconductor nanostructures, supported on top of the absorptive layer.

  2. Low-energy Resistive Random Access Memory Devices with No Need for a Compliance Current

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zedong; Yu, Lina; Wu, Yong; Dong, Chang; Deng, Ning; Xu, Xiaoguang; Miao, J.; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A novel resistive random access memory device is designed with SrTiO3/ La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO)/MgAl2O4 (MAO)/Cu structure, in which metallic epitaxial LSMO is employed as the bottom electrode rather than traditional metal materials. In this device, the critical external compliance current is no longer necessary due to the high self-resistance of LSMO. The LMSO bottom electrode can act as a series resistor to offer a compliance current during the set process. Besides, the device also has excelle...

  3. Energy expenditure prediction via a footwear-based physical activity monitor: Accuracy and comparison to other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannecker, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    Accurately estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring or altering energy balance and quantifying levels of physical activity. The use of accelerometers to monitor physical activity and estimate physical activity EE is common in both research and consumer settings. Recent advances in physical activity monitors include the ability to identify specific activities (e.g. stand vs. walk) which has resulted in improved EE estimation accuracy. Recently, a multi-sensor footwear-based physical activity monitor that is capable of achieving 98% activity identification accuracy has been developed. However, no study has compared the EE estimation accuracy for this monitor and compared this accuracy to other similar devices. Purpose . To determine the accuracy of physical activity EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor that uses an embedded accelerometer and insole pressure sensors and to compare this accuracy against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Methods. Nineteen adults (10 male, 9 female), mass: 75.14 (17.1) kg, BMI: 25.07(4.6) kg/m2 (mean (SD)), completed a four hour stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor, as well as three physical activity monitoring devices used in research: hip-mounted Actical and Actigraph accelerometers and a multi-accelerometer IDEEA device with sensors secured to the limb and chest. In addition, participants wore two consumer devices: Philips DirectLife and Fitbit. Each individual performed a series of randomly assigned and ordered postures/activities including lying, sitting (quietly and using a computer), standing, walking, stepping, cycling, sweeping, as well as a period of self-selected activities. We developed branched (i.e. activity specific) linear regression models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Results. The shoe

  4. Development of energy-saving devices for a full slow-speed ship through improving propulsion performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy-saving devices for 317 K VLCC have been developed from a propulsion standpoint. Two ESD candidates were designed via computational tools. The first device WAFon composes of flow-control fins adapted for the ship wake to reduce the loss of rotational energy. The other is WAFon-D, which is a WAFon with a duct to obtain additional thrust and to distribute the inflow velocity on the propeller plane uniform. After selecting the candidates from the computed results, the speed performances were validated with model-tests. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the ESDs may be found in improved hull and propulsive efficiencies through increased wake fraction.

  5. Energy minimization of mobile video devices with a hardware H.264/AVC encoder based on energy-rate-distortion optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghun; Lee, Jungeon; Jung, Jongpil; Lee, Chul-Hee; Kyung, Chong-Min

    2014-09-01

    In mobile video systems powered by battery, reducing the encoder's compression energy consumption is critical to prolong its lifetime. Previous Energy-rate-distortion (E-R-D) optimization methods based on a software codec is not suitable for practical mobile camera systems because the energy consumption is too large and encoding rate is too low. In this paper, we propose an E-R-D model for the hardware codec based on the gate-level simulation framework to measure the switching activity and the energy consumption. From the proposed E-R-D model, an energy minimizing algorithm for mobile video camera sensor have been developed with the GOP (Group of Pictures) size and QP(Quantization Parameter) as run-time control variables. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides up to 31.76% of energy consumption saving while satisfying the rate and distortion constraints.

  6. Energy Analysis of Multi-Function Devices in an Office Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of an effort to monitor electricity usage by plug loads in a new high performance office building, plug load management devices were deployed to enable data...

  7. Low-energy Resistive Random Access Memory Devices with No Need for a Compliance Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zedong; Yu, Lina; Wu, Yong; Dong, Chang; Deng, Ning; Xu, Xiaoguang; Miao, J.; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A novel resistive random access memory device is designed with SrTiO3/ La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO)/MgAl2O4 (MAO)/Cu structure, in which metallic epitaxial LSMO is employed as the bottom electrode rather than traditional metal materials. In this device, the critical external compliance current is no longer necessary due to the high self-resistance of LSMO. The LMSO bottom electrode can act as a series resistor to offer a compliance current during the set process. Besides, the device also has excellent switching features which are originated in the formation of Cu filaments under external voltage. Therefore it provides the possibility of reducing power consumption and accelerating the commercialization of resistive switching devices. PMID:25982101

  8. Symposium N: Materials and Devices for Thermal-to-Electric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    for standard device technology. Also a first assessment based on the current commodity prices of elements of some important thermoelectric compounds...Younes. James Christofferson, Kerry Maize and Ali Shakouri; Electrical Engineering, UCSC, Santa Cruz, California. We use Thermoreflectance Thermal

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding

    OpenAIRE

    Leijonmarck, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis, three innovative electrochemical devices have been studied. A part of the work is devoted to an already existing device, laminates which are debonded by the application of a voltage. This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications, including adhesive joints in vehicles to both reduce the total weight and to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Although already a functioning dev...

  10. Treatment of keloid scars using light-, laser- and energy-based devices: a contemporary review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, E; Ali, F R; Al-Niaimi, F

    2017-12-01

    Keloid scars are common and have a predilection for young, ethnic skin often with a family history. Keloids can be painful and pruritic and cause significant emotional distress when particularly visible or prominent. In this article, we review the evidence underlying the use of laser- and energy-based devices for treatment of keloid scars, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with other therapies such as corticosteroids, surgery and silicone gel in the treatment of keloid scars.

  11. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been cond...

  12. Human body heat for powering wearable devices: From thermal energy to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielen, Moritz; Sigrist, Lukas; Magno, Michele; Hierold, Christofer; Benini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A complete system optimization for wearable thermal harvesting from body heat to the application is proposed. • State-of-the-art thermal harvesters and DC-DC converters are compared and classified. • Extensive simulation and experiments are carried out to characterize the harvesting performance. • A case study demonstrates the feasibility to supply a multi-sensor wearables only from body heat. - Abstract: Energy harvesting is the key technology to enable self-sustained wearable devices for the Internet of Things and medical applications. Among various types of harvesting sources such as light, vibration and radio frequency, thermoelectric generators (TEG) are a promising option due to their independence of light conditions or the activity of the wearer. This work investigates scavenging of human body heat and the optimization of the power conversion efficiency from body core to the application. We focus on the critical interaction between thermal harvester and power conditioning circuitry and compare two approaches: (1) a high output voltage, low thermal resistance μTEG combined with a high efficiency actively controlled single inductor DC-DC converter, and (2) a high thermal resistance, low electric resistance mTEG in combination with a low-input voltage coupled inductors based DC-DC converter. The mTEG approach delivers up to 65% higher output power per area in a lab setup and 1–15% in a real-world experiment on the human body depending on physical activity and environmental conditions. Using off-the-shelf and low-cost components, we achieve an average power of 260 μW (μTEG) to 280 μW (mTEG) and power densities of 13 μW cm −2 (μTEG) to 14 μW cm −2 (mTEG) for systems worn on the human wrist. With the small and lightweight harvesters optimized for wearability, 16% (mTEG) to 24% (μTEG) of the theoretical maximum efficiency is achieved in a worst-case scenario. This efficiency highly depends on the application specific conditions

  13. Bluetooth 5 Energy Management through a Fuzzy-PSO Solution for Mobile Devices of Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a fundamental requirement for a wireless protocol to be suitable for use within the Internet of Things. New technologies are emerging aiming at an energy-efficient communication. Among them, Bluetooth Low Energy is an appealing solution. Recently, the specifications of Bluetooth 5 have been presented with the purpose to offer significant enhancements compared to the earlier versions of the protocol. Bluetooth 5 comes with new communication modes that differ in range, speed, and energy consumption. This paper proposes a fuzzy-based solution to cope with the selection of the communication mode, among those introduced with Bluetooth 5, that allows the best energy efficiency. This communication mode, used by mobile devices, is dynamically regulated by varying the transmission power, returned as the output of a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is presented to achieve the optimal parameters of the proposed FLC, i.e., optimizing the triangular membership functions, by varying their range, to reach the best results concerning the battery life of mobile devices. The proposed FLC is based on triangular membership functions because they represent a good trade-off between computation cost and efficiency. The paper presents a detailed description of the FLC design, a logical analysis of the PSO algorithm for the derivation of best performance conditions values, and experimental assessments, obtained through testbed scenarios.

  14. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  15. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  16. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    for heating up, and cooling down our houses. There is a huge energy saving potential on this area reducing both the World climate problems and economy challenges as well. Heating of buildings in Denmark counts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consume. Of this reason a reduction of heat...... to ACMV in the "warm countries" contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for energy renovation, it is important to have measures of the heat losses on a building façade, for optimizing the energy renovation. This paper will present......There exist two ordinary ways to obtain global energy efficiency. One way is to make improvements on the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consume of energy in the society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consume of energy...

  17. Monte Carlo Evaluation of Tritium Beta Spectrum Energy Deposition in Gallium Nitride (GaN) Direct Energy Conversion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...sample GaN p-i-n device was fabricated by metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition ( MOCVD ) at the State University of New York (SUNY). The sample

  18. Li4 Ti5 O12 Anode: Structural Design from Material to Electrode and the Construction of Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijie; Li, Honsen; Wu, Langyuan; Lu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2018-03-01

    Spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , known as a zero-strain material, is capable to be a competent anode material for promising applications in state-of-art electrochemical energy storage devices (EESDs). Compared with commercial graphite, spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 offers a high operating potential of ∼1.55 V vs Li/Li + , negligible volume expansion during Li + intercalation process and excellent thermal stability, leading to high safety and favorable cyclability. Despite the merits of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 been presented, there still remains the issue of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 suffering from poor electronic conductivity, manifesting disadvantageous rate performance. Typically, a material modification process of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 will be proposed to overcome such an issue. However, the previous reports have made few investigations and achievements to analyze the subsequent processes after a material modification process. In this review, we attempt to put considerable interest in complete device design and assembly process with its material structure design (or modification process), electrode structure design and device construction design. Moreover, we have systematically concluded a series of representative design schemes, which can be divided into three major categories involving: (1) nanostructures design, conductive material coating process and doping process on material level; (2) self-supporting or flexible electrode structure design on electrode level; (3) rational assembling of lithium ion full cell or lithium ion capacitor on device level. We believe that these rational designs can give an advanced performance for Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -based energy storage device and deliver a deep inspiration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Metal ferrite spinel energy storage devices and methods for making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Alan W.; Perkins, Christopher; Scheffe, Jonathan; George, Steven M.; Lichty, Paul

    2013-03-19

    1-100 nm metal ferrite spinel coatings are provided on substrates, preferably by using an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings are able to store energy such as solar energy, and to release that stored energy, via a redox reaction. The coating is first thermally or chemically reduced. The reduced coating is then oxidized in a second step to release energy and/or hydrogen, carbon monoxide or other reduced species.

  20. A design handbook for phase change thermal control and energy storage devices. [selected paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R.; Griggs, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Comprehensive survey is given of the thermal aspects of phase change material devices. Fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer within the phase change device are discussed. Performance in zero-g and one-g fields are examined as it relates to such a device. Computer models for phase change materials, with metal fillers, undergoing conductive and convective processes are detailed. Using these models, extensive parametric data are presented for a hypothetical configuration with a rectangular phase change housing, using straight fins as the filler, and paraffin as the phase change material. These data are generated over a range of realistic sizes, material properties, and thermal boundary conditions. A number of illustrative examples are given to demonstrate use of the parametric data. Also, a complete listing of phase change material property data are reproduced herein as an aid to the reader.

  1. Experimental study on using electromagnetic devices on bridge stay cables for simultaneous energy harvesting and vibration damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenai; Zhu, Songye; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-06-01

    Flexible bridge stay cables are often vulnerable to problematic vibrations under dynamic excitations. However, from an energy perspective, such excessive vibrations denote a green and sustainable energy source to some electronic devices (such as semi-active dampers or wireless sensors) installed on the same cables. This paper presents an experimental study on a novel dual-function system called electromagnetic damper cum energy harvester (EMDEH). The proposed EMDEH, consisting of an electromagnetic device connected to an energy-harvesting circuit (EHC), simultaneously harvests cable vibration energy and provides sufficient damping to the cables. A fixed-duty-cycle buck-boost converter is employed as the EHC, which emulates a resistive load and provides approximately optimal damping and optimal energy harvesting efficiency when operating in discontinuous conduction mode. A 5.85 m long scaled stay cable installed with a prototype EMDEH is tested in the laboratory under a series of harmonic and random excitations. The EMDEH can achieve a control performance comparable to passive viscous dampers. An average electrical power of 31.6 and 21.51 mW is harvested under harmonic and random vibrations, respectively, corresponding to the efficiency of 16.9% and 13.8%, respectively. Moreover, this experimental study proves that optimal damping and energy harvesting can be achieved simultaneously, which answers a pending question regarding such a dual-objective optimization problem. Self-powered semi-active control systems or wireless sensor networks may be developed for bridge stay cables in the future based on the proposed concept in this study.

  2. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.

    2015-02-13

    Physical phenomena such as energy quantization have to-date been overlooked in solution-processed inorganic semiconducting layers, owing to heterogeneity in layer thickness uniformity unlike some of their vacuum-deposited counterparts. Recent reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization in inorganic semiconductor layers with appreciable surface roughness, as compared to the mean layer thickness, and present experimental evidence of the existence of quantized energy states in spin-cast layers of zinc oxide (ZnO). As-grown ZnO layers are found to be remarkably continuous and uniform with controllable thicknesses in the range 2-24 nm and exhibit a characteristic widening of the energy bandgap with reducing thickness in agreement with theoretical predictions. Using sequentially spin-cast layers of ZnO as the bulk semiconductor and quantum well materials, and gallium oxide or organic self-assembled monolayers as the barrier materials, two terminal electronic devices are demonstrated, the current-voltage characteristics of which resemble closely those of double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes. As-fabricated all-oxide/hybrid devices exhibit a characteristic negative-differential conductance region with peak-to-valley ratios in the range 2-7.

  3. Home energy management (HEM database: A list with coded attributes of 308 devices commercially available in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pritoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers worldwide are currently discussing whether to include home energy management (HEM products in their portfolio of technologies to reduce carbon emissions and improve grid reliability. However, very little data is available about these products. Here we present the results of an extensive review including 308 HEM products available on the US market in 2015–2016. We gathered these data from publicly available sources such as vendor websites, online marketplaces and other vendor documents. A coding guide was developed iteratively during the data collection and utilized to classify the devices. Each product was coded based on 96 distinct attributes, grouped into 11 categories: Identifying information, Product components, Hardware, Communication, Software, Information - feedback, Information - feedforward, Control, Utility interaction, Additional benefits and Usability. The codes describe product features and functionalities, user interaction and interoperability with other devices. A mix of binary attributes and more descriptive codes allow to sort and group data without losing important qualitative information. The information is stored in a large spreadsheet included with this article, along with an explanatory coding guide. This dataset is analyzed and described in a research article entitled “Categories and functionality of smart home technology for energy management” (Ford et al., 2017 [1]. Keywords: Home energy management, Energy efficiency, Smart home, Home automation, Internet of things

  4. 4D nano-tomography of electrochemical energy devices using lab-based X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, T. M. M.; Finegan, D. P.; Tjaden, B.; Lu, X.; Iacoviello, F.; Millichamp, J.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2018-05-01

    Electrochemical energy devices offer a variety of alternate means for low-carbon, multi-scale energy conversion and storage. Reactions in these devices are supported by electrodes with characteristically complex microstructures. To meet the increasing capacity and lifetime demands across a range of applications, it is essential to understand microstructural evolutions at a cell and electrode level which are thought to be critical aspects influencing material and device lifetime and performance. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a highly employed method for non-destructive characterisation of such microstructures with high spatial resolution. However, sub-micron resolutions present significant challenges for sample preparation and handling particularly in 4D studies, (three spatial dimensions plus time). Here, microstructural information is collected from the same region of interest within two electrode materials: a solid oxide fuel cell and the positive electrode from a lithium-ion battery. Using a lab-based X-ray instrument, tomograms with sub-micron resolutions were obtained between thermal cycling. The intricate microstructural evolutions captured within these two materials provide model examples of 4D X-ray nano-CT capabilities in tracking challenging degradation mechanisms. This technique is valuable in the advancement of electrochemical research as well as broader applications for materials characterisation.

  5. Conception and design criteria of a novel silicon device for the measurement of position and energy of x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castoldi, A. [Univ. degli Studi, Milano (Italy). Dept. di Fisica; Guazzoni, C.; Longoni, A.; Gatti, E. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Elettronica; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Strueder, L. [Max-Planck-Inst. Halbleiterlabor, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper the authors present the working principle and the design criteria of the Controlled-Drift Detector, a novel device suitable for the simultaneous measurement of energy and two-dimensional position of X-rays. In the Controlled-Drift Detector the pixel structure typical of a charge-coupled device and the fast readout typical of a silicon drift detector are joined. When the radiation is to be detected, suitable potential barriers are generated to prevent the drift of the signal electrons that are confined within a matrix of integration wells. The potential barrier which prevents the drift is selectively removable to allow the fast transport of the confined signal electrons to the readout electrodes by means of a static drift field. In principle such a device can achieve excellent energy resolution and readout times of some tens of microseconds. Three different confining mechanisms that allow control of the drift of the stored electrons are studied, and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. First prototypes of the Controlled-Drift Detector are currently in production.

  6. Two-channel recoder for magnetometer with energy-independent mass memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzinin, V.N.; Selivanov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a two-channel digit-to-analog recorder designed for converting the sequence of pulses from proton magnetometer (MMH-203) outlet; the device enables processing of the pulses and their recording in RAM and on the tape of the analog recorder. The availability of nonvolotile RAM allows to transmit digit information to a computer (BK-0010) for its further processing

  7. Molecular monolayers for electrical passivation and functionalization of silicon-based solar energy devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J.; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based

  8. High Energy X-Ray System Specification for the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the NNSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This specification establishes requirements for an X-Ray System to be used at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) to support radiography of experimental assemblies for Laboratory (LANL, LLNL, SNL) programs conducting work at the NNSS.

  9. Evaluation of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Devices in Energy Cascade Systems under the Restriction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is necessary to introduce energy cascade systems into the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the refrigerating and air conditioning devices in cases of introducing both energy cascade systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. The authors have developed an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions results in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature one is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustor waste heat can reduce electric power for the turbo refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator.

  10. Selection of refractory materials for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Polkowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Natalia; Nowak, Rafał; Kudyba, Artur; Bruzda, Grzegorz; Polkowska, Adelajda; Homa, Marta; Turalska, Patrycja

    2017-01-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) has been widely recognized as one of the most productive source of green energy. However, one of the main challenge that has to be faced in order to move forward efficiency of the CSP systems is a problem of their performance during sunless periods. Regarding recent economical and ecological issues of modern societies, it is a matter of crucial importance to establish reliable methods for storing the solar energy. In this field, latent heat thermal energy sto...

  11. High-energy green supercapacitor driven by ionic liquid electrolytes as an ultra-high stable next-generation energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Ponraj, Rubha; Thangavel, Vigneysh; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2018-04-01

    Development of supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle life using sustainable materials for next-generation applications is of paramount importance. The ongoing challenge is to elevate the energy density of supercapacitors on par with batteries, while upholding the power and cyclability. In addition, attaining such superior performance with green and sustainable bio-mass derived compounds is very crucial to address the rising environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate the use of watermelon rind, a bio-waste from watermelons, towards high energy, and ultra-stable high temperature green supercapacitors with a high-voltage ionic liquid electrolyte. Supercapacitors assembled with ultra-high surface area, hierarchically porous carbon exhibits a remarkable performance both at room temperature and at high temperature (60 °C) with maximum energy densities of ∼174 Wh kg-1 (25 °C), and 177 Wh kg-1 (60 °C) - based on active mass of both electrodes. Furthermore, an ultra-high specific power of ∼20 kW kg-1 along with an ultra-stable cycling performance with 90% retention over 150,000 cycles has been achieved even at 60 °C, outperforming supercapacitors assembled with other carbon based materials. These results demonstrate the potential to develop high-performing, green energy storage devices using eco-friendly materials for next generation electric vehicles and other advanced energy storage systems.

  12. Optimal derating strategy for power electronics converter for maximum wind energy production with lifetime information of power devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important causes of failure in wind power systems is due to the failures of the power converter and due to one of its most critical components, the power semiconductor devices. This paper proposes a novel derating strategy for the wind turbine system based on the reliability...... performance of the converter and the total energy production throughout its entire lifetime. An advanced reliability design tool is first established and demonstrated, in which the wind power system together with the thermal cycling of the power semiconductor devices are modeled and characterized under...... a typical wind turbine system mission profile. Based on the reliability design tools, the expected lifetime of the converter for a given mission profile can be quantified under different output power levels, and an optimization algorithm can be applied to extract the starting point and the amount...

  13. Clinical implementation of a low energy x-ray therapy device in the treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, A.; University of Western Australia, WA; Joseph, D.; Lanzon, P.; Caswell, N.; Ebert, M.; University of Western Asutralia, WA

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A low energy device producing x-rays of maximum operating potential of 50kV is used to treat primary breast tumours intraoperatively. In pathologically favourable cases, the treatment replaces conventional external beam irradiation. For patients at greater risk of local recurrence, the treatment replaces conventional 'boost' therapy. The dosimetry of the device will be described in a companion paper. QA tests prior to irradiation include: output calibration/verification; isotropy verification and external radiation monitor (the secondary beam termination device) functionality. The internal radiation monitor count (similar to setting monitor units on a linac) for a prescribed dose is calculated from tables of measured depth dose and applicator factors. The spherical applicator which best suits the size of the excised tumour is lightly sutured into position maintaining as much distance between the skin surface as possible to minimise skin erythema. Radiation protection is achieved with the use of portable lead shields and tungsten impregnated silicon drapes. Patients entered into a TROG randomised clinical trial comparing intraoperative with conventional postoperative radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery for women with early stage breast cancer will be studied in collaboration with the CRC/University College London, Cancer Trials Centre (UK) to record the effects of local tumour control, cosmesis, patient satisfaction and health economics. QA tests take approximately 15 minutes to perform and a treatment prescription of 5Gy at 1cm depth with a 5cm applicator would take approximately 30 minutes. A low energy x-ray device may be used intraoperatively in selected cases to replace conventional radiotherapy minimising the inconvenience for patients and reducing waiting lists on treatment machines. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  14. A Next-Generation Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline for In Situ Studies of Energy Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Jörg; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Preissner, Curt; Roehrig, Chris; Rose, Volker; Shu, Deming; Vine, David; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is developing a suite of new X-ray beamlines to study materials and devices across many length scales and under real conditions. One of the flagship beamlines of the APS upgrade is the In Situ Nanoprobe (ISN) beamline, which will provide in situ and operando characterization of advanced energy materials and devices under varying temperatures, gas ambients, and applied fields, at previously unavailable spatial resolution and throughput. Examples of materials systems include inorganic and organic photovoltaic systems, advanced battery systems, fuel cell components, nanoelectronic devices, advanced building materials and other scientifically and technologically relevant systems. To characterize these systems at very high spatial resolution and trace sensitivity, the ISN will use both nanofocusing mirrors and diffractive optics to achieve spots sizes as small as 20 nm. Nanofocusing mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry will provide several orders of magnitude increase in photon flux at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Diffractive optics such as zone plates and/or multilayer Laue lenses will provide a highest spatial resolution of 20 nm. Coherent diffraction methods will be used to study even small specimen features with sub-10 nm relevant length scale. A high-throughput data acquisition system will be employed to significantly increase operations efficiency and usability of the instrument. The ISN will provide full spectroscopy capabilities to study the chemical state of most materials in the periodic table, and enable X-ray fluorescence tomography. In situ electrical characterization will enable operando studies of energy and electronic devices such as photovoltaic systems and batteries. We describe the optical concept for the ISN beamline, the technical design, and the approach for enabling a broad variety of in situ studies. We furthermore discuss the application of hard X-ray microscopy to study defects in multi-crystalline solar cells, one

  15. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper.

  16. The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper.

  17. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  18. Methods and devices for small specimen testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitsukawa, Shiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Umino, Akira; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1993-01-01

    Devices for a punch test on annular notched specimens, small punch (SP) tests, and miniaturized tension tests in hot cells were developed. A micro-manipulator to handle small specimens and an electro-discharge machine (EDM) to extract miniaturized tension specimens and annular notched specimens from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks were also fabricated. These devices were designed and made for remote operation in hot cells. Preliminary tests to evaluate the applicability of test methods were carried out. Correlation between SP test results and tensile properties was not strong. Miniaturized tensile results were reasonably similar to the results with larger specimens. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) by the punch test on annular notched specimens was higher than that obtained from the SP test. However, materials dependence of the DBTT was different from that measured by standard Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests. This may be due to a specimen size effect

  19. Energy Taxes as a Signaling Device: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalwash, Tarek

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand in Sweden. The main objective is to empirically examine the differences in consumer reaction to the introduction of, or the change, in environmental taxes. Main focus is on environmental taxes as a signaling device. The hypothesis is that the introduction of an environmental tax provides new information about the properties of the directly taxed goods. This in turn may affect consumer preferences for these goods, hence alt...

  20. Forced intrusion of water and aqueous solutions in microporous materials: from fundamental thermodynamics to energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H

    2017-12-07

    We review the high pressure forced intrusion studies of water in hydrophobic microporous materials such as zeolites and MOFs, a field of research that has emerged some 15 years ago and is now very active. Many of these studies are aimed at investigating the possibility of using these systems as energy storage devices. A series of all-silica zeolites (zeosil) frameworks were found suitable for reversible energy storage because of their stability with respect to hydrolysis after several water intrusion-extrusion cycles. Several microporous hydrophobic zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) also happen to be quite stable and resistant towards hydrolysis and thus seem very promising for energy storage applications. Replacing pure water by electrolyte aqueous solutions enables to increase the stored energy by a factor close to 3, on account of the high pressure shift of the intrusion transition. In addition to the fact that aqueous solutions and microporous silica materials are environmental friendly, these systems are thus becoming increasingly interesting for the design of new energy storage devices. This review also addresses the theoretical approaches and molecular simulations performed in order to better understand the experimental behavior of nano-confined water. Molecular simulation studies showed that water condensation takes place through a genuine first-order phase transition, provided that the interconnected pores structure is 3-dimensional and sufficiently open. In an extreme confinement situations such as in ferrierite zeosil, condensation seem to take place through a continuous supercritical crossing from a diluted to a dense fluid, on account of the fact that the first-order transition line is shifted to higher pressure, and the confined water critical point is correlatively shifted to lower temperature. These molecular simulation studies suggest that the most important features of the intrusion/extrusion process can be understood in terms of equilibrium

  1. Evaluating Effects of Marine Energy Devices on the Marine Environment - A Risk-Based and In-Water Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker-Klimes, G.; Copping, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    The portfolio of emerging renewables includes generating power from offshore winds, tides, waves, and ocean currents, as well as seawater temperature and salinity differentials. These new systems are collectively known as marine renewable energy (MRE). MRE development worldwide is in the early stages of design, deployment, and commercialization. A major barrier to bringing these systems into commercial use is the need to overcome uncertainties in environmental effects that slow siting and permitting of devices. Using a risk-based approach, this paper will discuss pathways for evaluating potential effects of tidal turbines and wave energy converters (WECs) on marine animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes. Using basic biological principles and knowledge of specific MRE technologies, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System has been used to narrow pertinent risks from devices, enabling laboratory and field studies to focus on the most important interactions. These interactions, include: potential collisions and behavioral disturbances of marine mammals, fish and other organisms; effects of underwater sound on animal communication and navigation; changes in sediment transport, benthic habitats, and water quality constituents; and effects of electromagnetic fields on animals. It is then necessary to apply these findings to the projects themselves. Another uncertainty is how to measure these key interactions in high-energy locations where MRE deployment is desirable. Consequently, new systems are being developed: instrumentation, innovative platforms for deployment, and new management strategies for collecting and analyzing very large data streams. Inherent in this development pathway is the need to test, deploy, and calibrate these monitoring systems. The Triton initiative is designed to enable this development, and has initiated testing of devices in Washington State to move the MRE industry forward while protecting marine animals, habitats and processes.

  2. Spray-painted binder-free SnSe electrodes for high-performance energy-storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Liu, Bin; Xiang, Qingyi; Wang, Qiufan; Hou, Xiaojuan; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    SnSe nanocrystal electrodes on three-dimensional (3D) carbon fabric and Au-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wafer have been prepared by a simple spray-painting process and were further investigated as binder-free active-electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitors. The as-painted SnSe nanocrystals/carbon fabric electrodes exhibit an outstanding capacity of 676 mAh g(-1) after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) and a considerable high-rate capability in lithium storage because of the excellent ion transport from the electrolyte to the active materials and the efficient charge transport between current collector and electrode materials. The binder-free electrodes also provide a larger electrochemical active surface compared with electrodes containing binders, which leads to the enhanced capacities of energy-storage devices. A flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitor based on the SnSe nanocrystals on Au-coated PET wafers shows high capacitance reversibility with little performance degradation at different current densities after 2200 charge-discharge cycles and even when bent. This allows for many potential applications in facile, cost-effective, spray-paintable, and flexible energy-storage devices. The results indicate that the fabrication of binder-free electrodes by a spray painting process is an interesting direction for the preparation of high-performance energy-storage devices. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two-stage model for optimal planning and operation of a distribution network. Optimal siting and sizing of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as electrical energy storage (EES) systems are considered in the proposed hybrid energy system. In this context, the planning...... data of a real grid. The objective function of this problem consists of total investment cost and total operating costs of installed assets. The proposed scheme is implemented on a distribution test system and the obtained results demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of this model in dealing...

  4. Resonance Energy Transfer in Hybrid Devices in the Presence of a Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii; Huck, Alexander; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2014-01-01

    We have studied room-temperature, nonradiative resonant energy transfer from InGaN/GaN quantum wells to CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals separated by aluminum oxide layers of different thicknesses. Nonradiative energy transfer from the quantum wells to the nanocrystals at separation distances of up...... to approximately 10 nm was observed. By comparing the carrier dynamics of the quantum wells and the nanocrystals, we found that nonradiative recombination via surface states, generated during dry etching of the wafer, counteracts the nonradiative energy-transfer process to the nanocrystals and therefore decreases...

  5. Toward Wearable Energy Storage Devices: Paper-Based Biofuel Cells based on a Screen-Printing Array Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitanda, Isao; Momiyama, Misaki; Watanabe, Naoto; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tsujimura, Seiya; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    A novel paper-based biofuel cell with a series/parallel array structure has been fabricated, in which the cell voltage and output power can easily be adjusted as required by printing. The output of the fabricated 4-series/4-parallel biofuel cell reached 0.97±0.02 mW at 1.4 V, which is the highest output power reported to date for a paper-based biofuel cell. This work contributes to the development of flexible, wearable energy storage device.

  6. Atmospheric and milling-device effects on the activation energy for crystallization of a partially amorphized Ni-Mo alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Torre, S.D. de la; Gaona-Tiburcio, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Chihuahua (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Mexico (Mexico); Guerrero-Paz, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales y Metalurgia, Univ. Autonoma del Estadode Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Mo system processed through mechanical alloying (MA) technique has been widely investigated. For the composition Mo-47 at % Ni partially amorphous phase was obtained after 36 h milling time. Fe contamination was detected in the samples milled in a stainless steel container. Longer milling times have an important effect in the crystallization temperature. The peak temperature was shifted to lower temperatures as increases the milling time. Milling device, milling container, Fe and oxygen have an important effect in the rate of amorphization and in the activation energy (Q) for crystallization. Q values for samples milled under air atmosphere are lower than those observed in samples milled in argon atmosphere. (orig.)

  7. The effect of fluid viscosity on the hemodynamic energy changes during operation of the pulsatile ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Son, Kuk Hui; Lee, Jung Joo; Choi, Jaesoon; Song, Seung Joon; Jung, Jae Seung; Lee, Sung Ho; Son, Ho Sung; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    Blood viscosity during operation of ventricular assist device (VAD) can be changed by various conditions such as anemia. It is known generally that the blood viscosity can affect vascular resistance and lead to change of blood flow. In this study, the effect of fluid viscosity variation on hemodynamic energy was evaluated with a pulsatile blood pump in a mock system. Six solutions were used for experiments, which were composed of water and glycerin and had different viscosities of 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 cP. The hemodynamic energy at the outlet cannula was measured. Experimental results showed that mean pressure was increased in accordance with the viscosity increase. When the viscosity increased, the mean pressure was also increased. However, the flow was decreased according to the viscosity increase. Energy equivalent pressure value was increased according to the viscosity-induced pressure rise; however, surplus hemodynamic energy value did not show any apparent changing trend. The hemodynamic energy made by the pulsatile VAD was affected by the viscosity of the circulating fluid. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Open Source IoT Meter Devices for Smart and Energy-Efficient School Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pocero, Lidia; Amaxilatis, Dimitrios; Mylonas, Georgios; Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    One oft-cited strategy towards sustainability is improving energy efficiency inside public buildings. In this context, the educational buildings sector presents a very interesting and important case for the monitoring and management of buildings, since it addresses both energy and educational issues. In this work, we present and discuss the hardware IoT infrastructure substrate that provides real-time monitoring in multiple school buildings. We believe that such a system needs to follow an op...

  9. Energy harvesting with self-sufficient frequency-tunable piezoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, Christoph

    2011-07-01

    In this dissertation, a piezoelectric energy harvester is presented, which is able to extract electric energy from weak ambient vibrations. This can be useful e.g. to run a wireless sensor node in order to make such a sensor independent of batteries. Without the requirement of batteries, the maintenance costs of large sensor networks could be lowered and the environmental pollution due to batteries can be reduced. Mechanical vibrations represent one out of different ambient energy sources for energy harvesting. To exploit vibrations with small amplitudes, it is essential to use the resonance amplification of a harmonic oscillator with a high quality factor. The mechanical energy of such a resonant oscillator can then be transformed into electrical energy. The advantage of the resonance amplification is however lost if this natural frequency does not match exactly the frequency of the ambient vibration. This constraint represents one of the most serious obstacles in vibration energy harvesting applications. What makes the generator presented in this work special is its ability to dynamically readjust its natural frequency in an energy-autonomous way. With this feature, it can prevent frequency mismatches and can therefore generate electrical power in an efficient way, even in environments which provide vibrations with non-constant frequencies. This can be the case e.g. on machines that contain rotors with a variable number of revolutions per minute. An example for such an environment is an automobile, where the generated vibrations are usually correlated to the cruising speed. Adaptive systems are however not only useful to face variable vibration frequencies. Many environments offer constant but very specific vibration frequencies. Adaptive energy harvesters allow vibrations with individual properties to be exploited without expensive customized solutions. Due to their adaptability, such generators can be driven within a certain frequency range, which allows to

  10. Hierarchically structured carbonaceous foams generation and their use as electrochemical energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Nicolas [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France); Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Prabaharan, Savari R.S.; Morcrette, Mathieu [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Amiens (France); Pecastaing, Gilles [Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymeres Organiques, Pessac (France); Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Herve [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires, Talence (France); Backov, Renal [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France)

    2010-07-01

    Hierarchically structured carbonaceous foams with a high control over macro-meso-microporous structures have been synthesized, using silica as inorganic exotemplate and phenolic resin as carbon precursor. These monolithic foams have been thoroughly characterized over all length scales. The applications of this new series of macrocellular carbonaceous monoliths as negative electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries devices (stable capacity of 200 mAh.g{sup -1}, during 50 cycles) and electrochemical capacitors (specific capacitance of 30 F.g{sup -1} at a scan rate of 10 mV.s{sup -1}) have been checked and will be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Bottom-up synthesis of graphene/polyaniline nanocomposites for flexible and transparent energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Victor H. R.; Oliveira, Marcela M.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G.

    2017-04-01

    An innovative, single-pot synthesis for chemically producing graphene/polyaniline nanocomposites is presented. The method, which is based on chemical reactions at liquid-liquid interfaces, begins with benzene and aniline and ultimately yields nanocomposites as thin films of polyaniline mixed with graphene. These films self-assembled at the water-benzene interface are easily transferable to any kind of ordinary substrates, plastics included. Nanocomposites prepared with different polymer/graphene ratios show differentiated structures and morphologies, resulting in excellent pseudocapacitive behaviors (specific capacitance of 267.2 F cm-3). The construction of all-solid, transparent, and flexible supercapacitor device from this nanocomposite is also presented.

  12. Solar Irradiance Measurements Using Smart Devices: A Cost-Effective Technique for Estimation of Solar Irradiance for Sustainable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al-Taani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiance measurement is a key component in estimating solar irradiation, which is necessary and essential to design sustainable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV systems. The measurement is typically done with sophisticated devices designed for this purpose. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup to estimate the solar irradiance in a certain location. The setup is accessible, easy to use and cost-effective. The method we propose does not have the accuracy of an irradiance meter of high precision but has the advantage of being readily accessible on any smartphone. It could serve as a quick tool to estimate irradiance measurements in the preliminary stages of PV systems design. Furthermore, it could act as a cost-effective educational tool in sustainable energy courses where understanding solar radiation variations is an important aspect.

  13. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  14. A comparison study on energy savings and fungus growth control using heat recovery devices in a modern tropical operating theatre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Y.H.; Ng, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper can be used as a comprehensive guide for building services engineers. → Energy is wasted in overcooling and reheating processes in the reheat system. → The recovery wheel integrated system is a good choice for heat recovery purpose. → The heat pipe heat exchanger system is the best choice for energy saving purpose. -- Abstract: Fungus growth has always been a problem in hot and humid areas. This particular problem is crucial for operating theatre as it could affect the success rate of operations. Many postoperative fungus infection cases had occurred in the past, and it is generally agreed that air-conditioning system play a very important role in resolving the fungus growth problem. Besides air quality, the energy consumption level of air-conditioning system is also very important. In this study, the operating theatre 3 in Putrajaya Hospital, Malaysia was chosen as the research subject. The air-conditioning system for OT3 was redesigned with the energy recovery wheel, desiccant dehumidifier and heat pipe heat exchanger to achieve the objectives of this study. A computer program called Transient system simulation program (TRNSYS) was utilized for analysis in this research. From the outcome of simulations, it was found that the heat pipe heat exchanger could reduce the most energy consumed by the air-conditioning system. It managed to reduce the energy consumption by 57.85%. Moreover, the payback period of the device is only 0.95 years, which is the shortest among all the systems studied. Therefore, applying heat pipe heat exchanger is a good choice to save energy and resolve fungus growth problem in hot and humid areas.

  15. Image charge models for accurate construction of the electrostatic self-energy of 3D layered nanostructure devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, John R.; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Efficient analytical image charge models are derived for the full spatial variation of the electrostatic self-energy of electrons in semiconductor nanostructures that arises from dielectric mismatch using semi-classical analysis. The methodology provides a fast, compact and physically transparent computation for advanced device modeling. The underlying semi-classical model for the self-energy has been established and validated during recent years and depends on a slight modification of the macroscopic static dielectric constants for individual homogeneous dielectric regions. The model has been validated for point charges as close as one interatomic spacing to a sharp interface. A brief introduction to image charge methodology is followed by a discussion and demonstration of the traditional failure of the methodology to derive the electrostatic potential at arbitrary distances from a source charge. However, the self-energy involves the local limit of the difference between the electrostatic Green functions for the full dielectric heterostructure and the homogeneous equivalent. It is shown that high convergence may be achieved for the image charge method for this local limit. A simple re-normalisation technique is introduced to reduce the number of image terms to a minimum. A number of progressively complex 3D models are evaluated analytically and compared with high precision numerical computations. Accuracies of 1% are demonstrated. Introducing a simple technique for modeling the transition of the self-energy between disparate dielectric structures we generate an analytical model that describes the self-energy as a function of position within the source, drain and gated channel of a silicon wrap round gate field effect transistor on a scale of a few nanometers cross-section. At such scales the self-energies become large (typically up to ~100 meV) close to the interfaces as well as along the channel. The screening of a gated structure is shown to reduce the self-energy

  16. Design and Energy Performance of a Buoyancy Driven Exterior Shading Device for Building Application in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Tsang Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional dynamic shading systems are usually driven by electricity for continuously controlling the angle of blind slats to minimize the indoor solar heat gain over times. This paper proposed a novel design of buoyancy driven dynamic shading system, using only minimum amount of electricity. The energy performance and the improved thermal comfort induced by the system were simulated by EnergyPlus for a typical office space under the context of Taiwanese climate. The design processes are composed of three parts: an alterable angle of blind slats that raises the energy performance to be suitable for every orientation, the buoyancy driven transmission mechanism, and a humanized controller that ensures its convenience. The environmental friendly design aspects and control mechanisms to fulfill demands for manufacturing, assembling, maintenance and recycling, etc., were also presented as readily for building application. Besides, the effectiveness of cooling energy saving and thermal comfort enhancing were compared against the cases without exterior blinds and with traditional fixed blinds installed. The results show that the cooling energy is drastically reduced over times and the blind system is effectively enhancing the indoor thermal comfort.

  17. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Haoran; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A PET metallized by electroless nickel was developed as flexible current collector. • The Ni-PET current collector showed good conductivity and chemical stability. • The flexible nanocarbon electrodes with Ni-PET exhibited capacitive behavior. • The Ni-PET enabled electrodes performed nicely in liquid and solid supercapacitors. - Abstract: A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  18. Evaluation of Different Holder Devices for Freeze-Drying in Dual-Chamber Cartridges With a Focus on Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpus, Christoph; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    For freeze-drying in dual-chamber cartridges, a holder device to enable handling and safe positioning in the freeze-dryer is necessary. The aim of this study was to analyze 4 different types of holder devices and to define the best system based on energy transfer. The main criteria were drying homogeneity, ability to minimize the influence of atypical radiation on product temperatures, and heat transfer effectiveness. The shell holder reduced the influence of atypical radiation by almost 60% compared to a block system and yielded the most homogenous sublimation rates. Besides the most efficient heat transfer with values of 1.58E-4 ± 2.06E-6 cal/(s*cm 2 *K) at 60 mTorr to 3.63E-4 ± 1.85E-5 cal/(s*cm 2 *K) at 200 mTorr for K tot , reaction times to shelf temperature changes were up to 4 times shorter compared to the other holder systems and even faster than for vials. The flexible holder provided a comparable shielding against atypical radiation as the shell but introduced a third barrier against energy transfer. Block and guardrail holder were the least efficient system tested. Hence, the shell holder provided the best radiation shielding, enhanced the transferability of the results to a larger scale, and improved the homogeneity between the dual-chamber cartridges. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Very High Brightness Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices via Enhanced Energy Transfer from a Phosphorescent Sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Siboni, Hossein; Sadeghimakki, Bahareh; Sivoththaman, Siva; Aziz, Hany

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate very efficient and bright quantum dot light-emitting devices (QDLEDs) with the use of a phosphorescent sensitizer and a thermal annealing step. Utilizing CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with 560 nm emission peak, bis(4,6-difluorophenylpyridinatoN,C2) picolinatoiridium as a sensitizer, and thermal annealing at 50 °C for 30 min, green-emitting QDLEDs with a maximum current efficiency of 23.9 cd/A, a power efficiency of 31 lm/W, and a brightness of 65,000 cd/m(2) are demonstrated. The high efficiency and brightness are attributed to annealing-induced enhancements in both the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the phosphorescent energy donor to the QD acceptor and hole transport across the device. The FRET enhancement is attributed to annealing-induced diffusion of the phosphorescent material molecules from the sensitizer layer into the QD layer, which results in a shorter donor-acceptor distance. We also find, quite interestingly, that FRET to a QD acceptor is strongly influenced by the QD size, and is generally less efficient to QDs with larger sizes despite their narrower bandgaps.

  20. Home energy management (HEM) database: A list with coded attributes of 308 devices commercially available in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritoni, Marco; Ford, Rebecca; Karlin, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela

    2018-02-01

    Policymakers worldwide are currently discussing whether to include home energy management (HEM) products in their portfolio of technologies to reduce carbon emissions and improve grid reliability. However, very little data is available about these products. Here we present the results of an extensive review including 308 HEM products available on the US market in 2015-2016. We gathered these data from publicly available sources such as vendor websites, online marketplaces and other vendor documents. A coding guide was developed iteratively during the data collection and utilized to classify the devices. Each product was coded based on 96 distinct attributes, grouped into 11 categories: Identifying information, Product components, Hardware, Communication, Software, Information - feedback, Information - feedforward, Control, Utility interaction, Additional benefits and Usability. The codes describe product features and functionalities, user interaction and interoperability with other devices. A mix of binary attributes and more descriptive codes allow to sort and group data without losing important qualitative information. The information is stored in a large spreadsheet included with this article, along with an explanatory coding guide. This dataset is analyzed and described in a research article entitled "Categories and functionality of smart home technology for energy management" (Ford et al., 2017) [1].

  1. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2015-05-01

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.

  2. Energy dissipation mechanism revealed by spatially resolved Raman thermometry of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Hanul; Yun, Wan Soo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Rho, Heesuk; Bae, Myung-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the energy transport by charge carriers and phonons in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures is essential for the development of future energy-efficient 2D nanoelectronics. Here, we performed in situ spatially resolved Raman thermometry on an electrically biased graphene channel and its hBN substrate to study the energy dissipation mechanism in graphene/hBN heterostructures. By comparing the temperature profile along the biased graphene channel with that along the hBN substrate, we found that the thermal boundary resistance between the graphene and hBN was in the range of (1-2) ~ × 10-7 m2 K W-1 from ~100 °C to the onset of graphene break-down at ~600 °C in air. Consideration of an electro-thermal transport model together with the Raman thermometry conducted in air showed that a doping effect occurred under a strong electric field played a crucial role in the energy dissipation of the graphene/hBN device up to T ~ 600 °C.

  3. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  4. Relationship of energy settings and impedance in different anatomic areas using a radiofrequency device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Edward B; Rachel, John D; D'Andrea, Lisa; Corres, Jennifer

    2005-12-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) used for volumetric heating into the deep dermis has been used effectively for rejuvenation of the face. The delivery of the RF energy depends on several variables, including the electrical impedance of the underlying tissue. To describe the effects of impedance on energy delivery into the treated site. We report four patients who underwent treatment using the ThermaCool TC system (Thermage, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA). Five sites on each patient were selected for impedance evaluation at two treatment levels. Impedance levels varied only slightly between treatment levels. The impedance levels varied greatly between patients and from site to site in each patient. The impedance levels for each of the patients were greatest on the arm, followed by the forehead, cheeks, and back. Energy delivery to a treated area is directly related to the impedance of the tissue. The impedance is shown to vary by site and can be changed by manipulation of the tissue, such as by injection of local anesthesia. Alteration of the impedance may have an effect on the uniform delivery of the selected energy.

  5. The role of nanomaterials in redox-based supercapacitors for next generation energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Sánchez, Beatriz Mendoza; Dobson, Peter J; Grant, Patrick S

    2011-03-01

    The development of more efficient electrical storage is a pressing requirement to meet future societal and environmental needs. This demand for more sustainable, efficient energy storage has provoked a renewed scientific and commercial interest in advanced capacitor designs in which the suite of experimental techniques and ideas that comprise nanotechnology are playing a critical role. Capacitors can be charged and discharged quickly and are one of the primary building blocks of many types of electrical circuit, from microprocessors to large-sale power supplies, but usually have relatively low energy storage capability when compared with batteries. The application of nanostructured materials with bespoke morphologies and properties to electrochemical supercapacitors is being intensively studied in order to provide enhanced energy density without comprising their inherent high power density and excellent cyclability. In particular, electrode materials that exploit physical adsorption or redox reactions of electrolyte ions are foreseen to bridge the performance disparity between batteries with high energy density and capacitors with high power density. In this review, we present some of the novel nanomaterial systems applied for electrochemical supercapacitors and show how material morphology, chemistry and physical properties are being tailored to provide enhanced electrochemical supercapacitor performance.

  6. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Single event upset is defined by NASA as 'radiation- induced errors in microelectronic circuits caused when charged particles (usually from the radiation belts or from cosmic rays) lose energy by ionizing the medium through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- tron-hole pairs'. SEU are transient soft errors and ...

  7. Test-beam programs for devices to measure luminosity and energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tem studies for luminosity and energy measurements and beam diagnostics for luminosity optimization. Keywords. ... tional information is obtained from a calorimeter measuring e+e− pairs produced by beamstrahlung ... (left); A diamond sensor of 10 × 10 mm2 size and 300 µm thickness assembled for the test-beam (right).

  8. Boosting capacitive blue-energy and desalination devices with waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Mathijs|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374662606; Härtel, Andreas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371559642; Van Roij, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984

    2014-01-01

    We show that sustainably harvesting "blue" energy from the spontaneous mixing process of fresh and salty water can be boosted by varying the water temperature during a capacitive mixing process. Our modified Poisson-Boltzmann calculations predict a strong temperature dependence of the electrostatic

  9. MEMS-Based Storage Devices : Integration in Energy-Constrained Mobile Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The digital era in which we are living today requires our increasing awareness of energy efficiency to reduce the negative effects on our lovely environment. We, people, are increasingly dealing with digital contents to facilitate our deals, which increases the demand for larger storage capacities

  10. MPA-11: Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices; Overview of an Applied Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew Martin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Our mission is to provide innovative and creative chemical synthesis and materials science solutions to solve materials problems across the LANL missions. Our group conducts basic and applied research in areas related to energy security as well as problems relevant to the Weapons Program.

  11. A tool for simulating collision probabilities of animals with marine renewable energy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culloch, Ross; Lieber, Lilian; Hammar, Linus; Kregting, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The mathematical problem of establishing a collision probability distribution is often not trivial. The shape and motion of the animal as well as of the the device must be evaluated in a four-dimensional space (3D motion over time). Earlier work on wind and tidal turbines was limited to a simplified two-dimensional representation, which cannot be applied to many new structures. We present a numerical algorithm to obtain such probability distributions using transient, three-dimensional numerical simulations. The method is demonstrated using a sub-surface tidal kite as an example. Necessary pre- and post-processing of the data created by the model is explained, numerical details and potential issues and limitations in the application of resulting probability distributions are highlighted. PMID:29186183

  12. Electron dynamics and energy conversion in O-type linear-beam devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, H. K.; Rowe, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A general nonlinear interaction theory is used to investigate the effects of transverse fields (i.e., radial circuit fields and radial space-charge fields) in traveling-wave amplifiers for a variety of beam-focusing conditions. Magnetic focusing fields which are periodic or tapered (increased) with distance along the device are considered in addition to uniform magnetic fields. Results are presented for Brillouin flow and near-Brillouin flow, and the minimum magnetic field strength required to effectively constrain the electron beam is determined as a function of the operating parameters for the various focusing systems. Confined flow is also examined for the uniform-field case in order to have a basis of comparison from which the effects of radial motion of the beam electrons can be determined. The results indicate the importance of transverse effects and further yield information on the stability of strongly modulated cylindrical electron beams.-

  13. Understanding transport phenomena in electrochemical energy devices via X-ray nano CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, B.; Lane, J.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    Porous support layers in electrochemical devices ensure mechanical stability of membrane assemblies such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen transport membranes (OTMs). At the same time, porous layers affect diffusive mass transport of gaseous reactants and contribute to performance losses at high fuel utilisation and conversion ratios. Microstructural characteristics are vital to calculate mass transport phenomena, where tortuosity remains notoriously difficult to determine. Here, the tortuosity of tubular porous support layers of OTMs is evaluated via high resolution X-ray nano computed tomography. The high resolution reveals the complex microstructure of the samples to then execute a selection of image-based tortuosity calculation algorithms. Visible differences between geometric and flux-based algorithms are observed and have thus to be applied with caution.

  14. A tool for simulating collision probabilities of animals with marine renewable energy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Pál; Culloch, Ross; Lieber, Lilian; Molander, Sverker; Hammar, Linus; Kregting, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The mathematical problem of establishing a collision probability distribution is often not trivial. The shape and motion of the animal as well as of the the device must be evaluated in a four-dimensional space (3D motion over time). Earlier work on wind and tidal turbines was limited to a simplified two-dimensional representation, which cannot be applied to many new structures. We present a numerical algorithm to obtain such probability distributions using transient, three-dimensional numerical simulations. The method is demonstrated using a sub-surface tidal kite as an example. Necessary pre- and post-processing of the data created by the model is explained, numerical details and potential issues and limitations in the application of resulting probability distributions are highlighted.

  15. Piloting the use of accelerometry devices to capture energy expenditure in agricultural and rural livelihoods: Protocols and findings from northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In this study we report on the protocols adopted and the findings from a pilot study in northern Ghana involving 40 respondents wearing accelerometry devices for a week. We show how integrating energy expenditure data from wearable accelerometry devices with data on activity and time-use can provide a window into agricultural and rural livelihoods in developing country contexts that has not been previously available for empirical research. Our findings confirm some of the stylised facts of agricultural and rural livelihoods, but the study also provides several new insights that come from the triangulation of energy expenditure, time use, and activity data. We report findings and explore the potential applications of using accelerometry devices for a better understanding of agriculture-nutrition linkages in developing countries. Keywords: Energy expenditure, Wearable accelerometry devices, Time-use, Ghana

  16. Retrofits for Energy Efficient Office Buildings: Integration of Optimized Photovoltaics in the Form of Responsive Shading Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi K. Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a retrofit strategy: integrating optimized photovoltaics (PV in the form of responsive shading devices using a dual-axis solar tracking system. A prototype-based model was fabricated to compare the efficiency of PV in this implementation with the conventional fixed installation. The office building, T1 Empire World in Erbil, was selected as a retrofit case study and for the application of the proposed integration system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed retrofit method, the energy performance of the base case is simulated to be compared later with the energy performance simulations after the integration technique. The amount of generated electricity from the PV surfaces of the integrated shading elements is calculated. The energy simulations were performed using OpenStudio® (NREL, Washington, DC, USA, EnergyPlusTM (NREL, Washington, DC, USA, and Grasshopper/ Ladybug tools in which the essential results were recorded for the baseline reference, as well as the energy performance of the retrofitted building. The results emphasize that the PV-integrated responsive shading devices can maximize the efficiency of PV cells by 36.8% in comparison to the fixed installation. The integrated system can provide approximately 15.39% of the electricity demand for operating the building. This retrofit method has reduced the total site energy consumption by 33.2% compared to the existing building performance. Total electricity end-use of the various utilities was lowered by 33.5%, and the total natural gas end-use of heating demand was reduced by 30.9%. Therefore, the percentage reduction in electricity cooling demand in July and August is 42.7% due to minimizing the heat gain in summer through blocking the sun’s harsh rays from penetrating into interior spaces of the building. In general, this system has multiple benefits, starting with being extremely efficient and viable in generating sustainable alternative energy

  17. Paper-based energy-storage devices comprising carbon fiber-reinforced polypyrrole-cladophora nanocellulose composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razaq, Aamir; Sjoedin, Martin; Stroemme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Nyholm, Leif [Department of Chemistry, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    Composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and Cladophora nanocellulose, reinforced with 8 {mu}m-thick chopped carbon filaments, can be used as electrode materials to obtain paper-based energy-storage devices with unprecedented performance at high charge and discharge rates. Charge capacities of more than 200 C g{sup -1} (PPy) are obtained for paper-based electrodes at potential scan rates as high as 500 mV s{sup -1}, whereas cell capacitances of {proportional_to}60-70 F g{sup -1} (PPy) are reached for symmetric supercapacitor cells with capacitances up to 3.0 F (i.e.,0.48 F cm{sup -2}) when charged to 0.6 V using current densities as high as 31 A g{sup -1} based on the PPy weight (i.e., 99 mA cm{sup -2}). Energy and power densities of 1.75 Wh kg{sup -1} and 2.7 kW kg{sup -1}, respectively, are obtained when normalized with respect to twice the PPy weight of the smaller electrode. No loss in cell capacitance is seen during charging/discharging at 7.7 A g{sup -1} (PPy) over 1500 cycles. It is proposed that the nonelectroactive carbon filaments decrease the contact resistances and the resistance of the reduced PPy composite. The present straightforward approach represents significant progress in the development of low-cost and environmentally friendly paper-based energy-storage devices for high-power applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Electrochemical energy storage devices using electrodes incorporating carbon nanocoils and metal oxides nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-07-28

    Carbon nanocoil (CNC) based electrodes are shown to be promising candidates for electrochemical energy storage applications, provided the CNCs are properly functionalized. In the present study, nanocrystalline metal oxide (RuO 2, MnO2, and SnO2) dispersed CNCs were investigated as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using different electrochemical methods. In the two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with values reaching up to 311, 212, and 134 F/g for RuO2/CNCs, MnO2/CNCs, and SnO2/CNCs, respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be superior to those reported for metal oxide dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two electrode configuration. In addition, the fabricated supercapacitors retained excellent cycle life with ∼88% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 2000 cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. A Dynamic Programming Solution for Energy-Optimal Video Playback on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of mobile technology and wide availability of smartphones, the Internet of Things (IoT starts to handle high volumes of video data to facilitate multimedia-based services, which requires energy-efficient video playback. In video playback, frames have to be decoded and rendered at high playback rate, increasing the computation cost on the CPU. To save the CPU power, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS dynamically adjusts the operating voltage of the processor along with frequency, in which appropriate selection of frequency on power could achieve a balance between performance and power. We present a decoding model that allows buffering frames to let the CPU run at low frequency and then propose an algorithm that determines the CPU frequency needed to decode each frame in a video, with the aim of minimizing power consumption while meeting buffer size and deadline constraints, using a dynamic programming technique. We finally extend this algorithm to optimize CPU frequencies over a short sequence of frames, producing a practical method of reducing the energy required for video decoding. Experimental results show a system-wide reduction in energy of 27%, compared with a processor running at full speed.

  20. Load analysis of hypothetical ruptures and optimum design of H-type anti-whip restraint devices for high energy pipes based on bilinearity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingtian; Cao Feng; Ding Youyuan; Wang Jianjun; Fang Jiang

    2011-01-01

    In order to deal with the dynamic effects induced by the hypothetical ruptures of the high energy pipes in nuclear power plants, the physical isolation and anti-whip restraint devices should be adopted based on the mechanical analysis during the NPP design. This paper not only introduces the calculation methods of jet forces, jet energy and characteristic lengths of circumferential rupture of high energy pipes based on the optimum mechanic mode, but also presents one new bilinearity method which could be used for the design and verification of the H type anti-whip restraint devices. (authors)

  1. Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Yumeng; Zhao, Cheng Xi; Wong, Jen It; Yang, Hui Ying; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) was proposed and developed by utilizing screen printing technology. A typical printed MSC is composed of a printed Ag electrode, MnO 2 /onion-like carbon (MnO 2 /OLC) as active material and a polyvinyl alcohol:H 3 PO 4 (PVA:H 3 PO 4 ) as solid electrolyte. A capacity of 7.04 mF cm −2 was achieved for the screen printed MnO 2 /OLC MSCs at a current density of 20 μA cm −2 . It also showed an excellent cycling stability, with 80% retention of the specific capacity after 1000 cycles. The printed all-solid flexible MSCs exhibited remarkably high mechanical flexibility when the devices were bent to a radius of 3.5 mm. In addition, all-solid MSCs were successfully demonstrated by screen printing technique on various substrates, such as silicon, glass and conventional printing paper. Moreover, the screen printing technique can be extended to other active materials, such as OLC and carbon nanotubes. This method provides a general route for printable all-solid flexible MSCs, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll process for various high performance active materials. (paper)

  2. Energy-dependent finite-orbit treatment for plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation of hot plasma buildup in mirror fusion devices and results from this model are presented. In a small, hot magnetically confined plasma, the ion orbit radius (rho/sub i/) can be comparable to the plasma radius (R/sub p/). It a mirror-confined plasma were rho/sub i//R/sub p/ > 1/25 (such as 2XII-B), a point kinetic treatment of ion interactions becomes inaccurate and a finite gyro-radius (FGR) treatment must be used to adequately describe plasma buildup processes. This is particularly true for describing losses due to cold-gas charge exchange (c-x) near the plasma surface, since a particle lost near the vacuum interface may have contributed to the density as far as 2 rho/sub i/ radially inward from the c-x point. A similar FGR effect applies to beam-deposited ions whose large orbits influence the density up to 2 rho/sub i/ from the trapping point

  3. On-Board Thermal Management of Waste Heat from a High-Energy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    of the lase medium is not carefully controlled , the medium will fracture and disable the system. The microwave must be protected from overheating...2 2 11 MTTt γ (16) 12 2 11 − ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ −+= γ γ γ Mppt (17) A total pressure ratio, π, is defined as the ratio of exiting...management that controls the flow of energy. The heat exchanger between points 4 and 1 is not part of this analysis because of the uncertainty in

  4. Network design optimization of fuel cell systems and distributed energy devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-07-01

    This research explores the thermodynamics, economics, and environmental impacts of innovative, stationary, polygenerative fuel cell systems (FCSs). Each main report section is split into four subsections. The first subsection, 'Potential Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impact of Stationary FCSs,' quantifies the degree to which GHG emissions can be reduced at a U.S. regional level with the implementation of different FCS designs. The second subsection, 'Optimizing the Design of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) FCSs,' discusses energy network optimization models that evaluate novel strategies for operating CHP FCSs so as to minimize (1) electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) emissions of the primary GHG - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The third subsection, 'Optimizing the Design of Combined Cooling, Heating, and Electric Power (CCHP) FCSs,' is similar to the second subsection but is expanded to include capturing FCS heat with absorptive cooling cycles to produce cooling energy. The fourth subsection, - Thermodynamic and Chemical Engineering Models of CCHP FCSs,' discusses the physics and thermodynamic limits of CCHP FCSs.

  5. Numerical Study of an Ejector as an Expansion Device in Split-type Air Conditioners for Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasni Sumeru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a numerical approach for determining both the motive nozzle and constant-area diameters of an ejector as an expansion device, based on the cooling capacity of a split-type air-conditioner using R290 as refrigerant. Previous studies have shown that replacement of HCFC R22 with HC290 (propane in the air conditioner can improve the coefficient of performance (COP. The purpose of replacing the capillary tube with an ejector as an expansion device in a split-type air conditioner using HC290 is to further improve the COP. In developing the model, conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy equations were applied to each part of the ejector. The numerical results show that the motive nozzle diameter remains constant (1.03 mm under varying condenser temperatures, whereas the diameter of the constant-area decreases as the condenser temperature increases. It was also found that improvement of the COP can reach 32.90% at a condenser temperature of 55 °C. From the results mentioned above, it can be concluded that the use of an ejector can further improve the COP of a split-type air conditioner using HC290 as working fluid.

  6. Full design automation of multi-state RNA devices to program gene expression using energy-based optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs can operate as regulatory agents to control protein expression by interaction with the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA. We have developed a physicochemical framework, relying on base pair interaction energies, to design multi-state sRNA devices by solving an optimization problem with an objective function accounting for the stability of the transition and final intermolecular states. Contrary to the analysis of the reaction kinetics of an ensemble of sRNAs, we solve the inverse problem of finding sequences satisfying targeted reactions. We show here that our objective function correlates well with measured riboregulatory activity of a set of mutants. This has enabled the application of the methodology for an extended design of RNA devices with specified behavior, assuming different molecular interaction models based on Watson-Crick interaction. We designed several YES, NOT, AND, and OR logic gates, including the design of combinatorial riboregulators. In sum, our de novo approach provides a new paradigm in synthetic biology to design molecular interaction mechanisms facilitating future high-throughput functional sRNA design.

  7. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    The accomplishments and technology progressmade during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 05NT42403 (duration: July 11, 2005 through April 30, 2014, funded for $125 million in cost- shared research) are summarized in this Final Technical Report for a total of thirty-seven (37) collaborative programs organized by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, LLC (USABC). The USABC is a partnership, formed in 1991, between the three U.S. domestic automakers Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, to sponsor development of advanced high-performance batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The USABC provides a unique opportunity for developers to leverage their resources in combination with those of the automotive industry and the Federal government. This type of pre-competitive cooperation minimizes duplication of effort and risk of failure, and maximizes the benefits to the public of the government funds. A major goal of this program is to promote advanced battery development that can lead to commercialization within the domestic, and as appropriate, the foreign battery industry. A further goal of this program is to maintain a consortium that engages the battery manufacturers with the automobile manufacturers and other key stakeholders, universities, the National Laboratories, and manufacturers and developers that supply critical materials and components to the battery industry. Typically, the USABC defines and establishes consensus goals, conducts pre-competitive, vehicle-related research and development (R&D) in advanced battery technology. The R&D carried out by the USABC is an integral part of the DOE’s effort to develop advanced transportation technologies that will significantly improve fuel economy, comply with projected emissions and safety regulations, and use domestically produced fuels. The USABC advanced battery development plan has the following three focus areas: 1. Existing technology

  8. Thermoelectric properties of SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Khan, Banaras; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Maqbool, M.; Jalai Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of two antiperovskites SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 are calculated using first principles calculations. High values of Seebeck coefficients are observed for these materials. Electrical and thermal conductivities are also calculated. Increase in thermal conductivity and decrease in electrical conductivity are found with increasing temperature. The maximum values of thermal conductivity are 92×1014 W/m K s and 88×1014 W/m K s for SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 900 K. The peak values of 5×1020/Ω m s and 5.2×1020/Ω m s are achieved for n-type SbNCa3 and BiNCa3 respectively at a temperature of 300 K. Figure of merit is achieved for these materials at room temperature which shows that these materials can be useful for thermoelectric devices and alternative energy sources.

  9. Structural and electrochemical properties of single crystalline MoV 2O8 nanowires for energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    We report the synthesis of MoV2O8 nanowires of high quality using spin coating followed by the thermal annealing process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the average diameter of synthesized nanowire about 100 nm, and average length ranges from 1 to 5 μm. The TEM analysis further confirms the <001> growth direction of MoV 2O8 nanowires. The electrochemical properties of synthesized nanowires using cyclic voltammetry show the specific capacitance 56 Fg-1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 that remains 24 Fg -1 at 100 mV s-1. The electrochemical measurements suggest that the MoV2O8 nanowires can be used as a material for the future electrochemical capacitors (energy storage devices). © 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Modification of MXenes: A Pathway to Improve MXene Electrode Performance in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-12-31

    The recent discovery of layered transition metal carbides (MXenes) is one of the most important developments in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Preliminary theoretical and experimental studies suggest a wide range of potential applications for MXenes. The MXenes are prepared by chemically etching ‘A’-layer element from layered ternary metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides (MAX phases) through aqueous acid treatment, which results in various surface terminations such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine. It has been found that surface terminations play a critical role in defining MXene properties and affects MXene performance in different applications such as electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, sensors and catalysis. Also, the electronic, thermoelectric, structural, plasmonic and optical properties of MXenes largely depend upon surface terminations. Thus, controlling the surface chemistry if MXenes can be an efficient way to improve their properties. This research mainly aims to perform surface modifications of two commonly studied MXenes; Ti2C and Ti3C2, via chemical, thermal or physical processes to enhance electrochemical energy storage properties. The as-prepared and surface modified MXenes have been studied as electrode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs). In pursuit of desirable MXene surface, we have developed an in-situ room temperature oxidation process, which resulted in TiO2/MXene nanocomposite and enhanced Li-ion storage. The idea of making metal oxide and MXene nanocomposites was taken to the next level by combining a high capacity anode materials – SnO2 – and MXene. By taking advantage of already existing surface functional groups (–OH), we have developed a composite of SnO2/MXene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) which showed enhanced capacity and excellent cyclic stability. Thermal annealing of MXene at elevated temperature under different atmospheres was

  11. Lead-free piezoelectric transducers for vibration-based energy harvesting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roescher, Mark

    2011-11-15

    Future applications like piezoelectric energy harvesters in addition with increasing environmental awareness ultimately demand novel sophisticated material systems in the field of piezoelectrics as an alternative to the long-established system lead-zirconate-titanate. In this publication state-of-the-art microgenerators have been designed to possess nonlinear Duffing oscillator characteristics. It is shown by measurement and simulation that lead-zirconate-titanate may hence no longer be the first choice in material selection for a piezoelectric microgenerator. Polyvinylidene fluoride has been integrated in a piezoelectric microgenerator and identified as an extraordinarily promising material system for transducer applications being highly insusceptible to stretching induced material failure. Finally, a fundamentally new chemical synthesis approach has been developed for the fabrication of potassium-sodium-niobate films that may also be suitable for other complex oxides.

  12. A versatile analog device for identifying charged particles by their energies and ionizing powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanci, Ali Emre

    1971-06-01

    The various methods of identification previously used are discussed; particular attention is given to an ΔE-E telescope. The usual approximations of the equation of Beth-Livingstone are examined and a more universal formula is given. It is shown that when this formula is applied to the case of light particles (p, d, t, H e 3 , α) identification over a wide energy range is possible. The equipment operates logarithmically using analog operators. The identifier possesses certain number of special features, especially concerning the logarithmic converters and the base line restorers. High accuracy, speed, and a good performance at high counting rates have been achieved. Experimental results confirm the performance of the equipment and the validity of the formulas used. A large number of particles corresponding to Z = 8, were identified. (author) [fr

  13. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  14. Multilayer co-extrusion technique for developing high energy density organic devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Scott W.; Schroeder, John Lee; Mrozek, Randy (Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD); Bieg, Lothar Franz; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD); Stavig, Mark Edwin; Cole, Phillip James (Northrop-Grumman, Herndon, VA); Mondy, Lisa Ann; Winter, Michael R.; Schneider, Duane Allen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop multi-layered co-extrusion (MLCE) capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to produce multifunctional polymeric structures. Multi-layered structures containing layers of alternating electrical, mechanical, optical, or structural properties can be applied to a variety of potential applications including energy storage, optics, sensors, mechanical, and barrier applications relevant to the internal and external community. To obtain the desired properties, fillers must be added to the polymer materials that are much smaller than the end layer thickness. We developed two filled polymer systems, one for conductive layers and one for dielectric layers and demonstrated the potential for using MLCE to manufacture capacitors. We also developed numerical models to help determine the material and processing parameters that impact processing and layer stability.

  15. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rosales; Fajardo, Garcia; Curbelo, Perez; Oliva, Munoz; Hernandez, Garcia, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana City (Cuba); Castells, Escriva [Energetic Engeniering Institute, Politechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Abanades [Department of Simulation of Termoenergetic Systems, Politechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  16. Two dimensional CCD [charged coupled device] arrays as parallel detectors in electron energy loss and x-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1988-08-01

    Parallel detection systems for spectroscopy have generally been based upon linear detector arrays. Replacing the linear arrays with two dimensional systems yields more complicated devices; however, there are corresponding benefits which can be realized for both x-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The operational design of these systems, as well as preliminary results from the construction of such a device used for electron spectroscopy, are presented. 10 refs., 8 figs

  17. Pulsed neutron generators based on plasma focus devices of low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The plasma focus is a pulsed neutron source especially suited for applications because it reduces the danger of contamination of conventional isotopic radioactive sources. As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed neutron generator for industrial applications we constructed two very small plasma focus operating at an energy level of the order of a) tens of joules (PF-50J, 160nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100J, ∼150ns first quarter of period) and b) hundred of joules (PF-400J, 880nF, 20-35kV, 176-539J, ∼300ns first quarter of period). In this article we present results related to design and construction of these small plasma foci (PF-50J and PF-400J). Neutron yield vs. deuterium. pressure has been obtained, a maximum emission of the order of 7x10 4 and 10 6 neutrons per shot has been measured in the PF-50J and PF-400J respectively (author)

  18. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first broad-band acoustic pulse at a first broad-band frequency range having a first central frequency and a first bandwidth spread; generating a second broad-band acoustic pulse at a second broad-band frequency range different than the first frequency range having a second central frequency and a second bandwidth spread, wherein the first acoustic pulse and second acoustic pulse are generated by at least one transducer arranged on a tool located within the borehole; and transmitting the first and the second broad-band acoustic pulses into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated pulse by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic pulses, wherein the collimated pulse has a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies between the first central frequency and the second central frequency and a bandwidth spread equal to the sum of the first bandwidth spread and the second bandwidth spread.

  19. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shirui

    hybrids provides an attractive pathway for the fabrication of novel 3-Dimensional hybrid nanostructures. The second type hybrid is graphene oxide (GO) and SWCNT composite ink (GO-SWCNT ink). SWCNTs are dispersed using a GO aqueous solution (2mg/ml) with sonication support to achieve a SWCNT concentration of 12mg/ml, the highest reported value so far without surfactant assistance. Paper based electrodes for supercapacitors are fabricated using GO-SWCNT composite ink via dip casting method. By employing different concentrations of SWCNT inside the ink, supercapacitors demonstrated different capacitance values. The highest value of specific capacitance reaches up to 295 F/g at a current density of 0.5A/g with a GO/SWCNT weight ratio of 1:5. The cycling stability for the GO-SWCNT paper electrode supercapacitors indicates capacitance retention of 85% over 60,000 cycles. Finally, engineered interactions between nanomaterials, polymers, molecules and graphene/carbon nanotube can lead to the development of new types of devices for myriad applications.

  20. Investigation of a 10 kWh sorption heat storage device for effective utilization of low-grade thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, T.X.; Nomura, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Heating and domestic hot water for family houses represents a notable share of energy consumption. However, sufficient space for the installation of thermal energy storage (TES) components may not be available in family houses or urban areas, where space may be restricted and expensive. Sorption TES devices seem to be a promising means of replacing conventional TES devices and reducing the occupied space for its high energy density. In this paper, a 10 kWh short-term sorption TES device was developed and investigated. The employed composite sorbent was formed from lithium chloride (LiCl) with the addition of expanded graphite (EG). The principle of sorption TES for the LiCl/water working pair is first illustrated. This prototype was tested under conditions representative of transition or winter seasons. Under the conditions used (charging temperature T cha at 85 °C, discharging temperature T dis at 40 °C, condensing temperature T c at 18 °C, and evaporating temperature T e at 30 °C), the heat storage capacity can reach 10.25 kWh, of which sorption heat accounts for approximately 60%. The heat storage density obtained was 873 Wh per kg of composite sorbent or 65.29 kWh/m 3 , while the heat storage density of hot water tank was about 33.02 kWh/m 3 . - Highlights: • A 10 kWh short-term sorption thermal energy device was developed. • The device was tested under conditions of transition and winter seasons. • The performance of the device was improved by recovering waste heat. • The sorption thermal energy device was compared with a 300-L hot water tank.

  1. Load analysis of hypothetical ruptures and optimum design of anti-whip restraint devices for VVP and ARE high energy pipes in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingtian; Cao Feng; Ding Youyuan; Wang Jianjun; Qiu Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    In order to deal with the dynamic effects induced by the imagined ruptures of the VVP and ARE high energy pipes in Nuclear power plants, incident results analysis and release methods must be adopted based on the stress analysis and fatigue calculations. This article not only gives the calculation methods of jet forces, jet energy and characteristic lengths of VVP and ARE high energy pipes ruptures based on the optimum mechanic mode, discusses the rupture locations of the VVP high energy pipes according to the RCC-P and RCC-M codes, but also presents one new bilinearity method which could be used for the design and modification of the H type and U type anti-whip restraint devices for VVP and ARE high energy pipes. This article provides important references for the domestic production of the H type and U type anti-whip restraint devices. (authors)

  2. Noninvasive control of the power transferred to an implanted device by an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovitz, Doron; Ozeri, Shaul; Wang, Chua-Chin; Spivak, Boaz

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer is an effective method for powering implanted devices noninvasively. Nevertheless, the amount of power harvested by the implanted receiver is sensitive to the distance and orientation of the external transmitting transducer attached to the skin with respect to the implanted receiving transducer. This paper describes an ultrasonic power transfer link whose harvested power is controlled by an inductive link. A small (5 μF) storage capacitor voltage, which is part of the implanted unit, is allowed to swing between 3.8 and 3.5 V using hysteretic control. The two control states are indicated by excitation (while the implanted storage capacitor voltage decreases) or the absence of excitation of an implanted coil that is magnetically coupled to an external coil attached to the skin surface. A 35 mW Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer link was fabricated using two piezoelectric transducers of equal size (Fuji Ceramics C-2 PZT disc 15 mm × 3 mm) operated at a vibration frequency of 720 kHz. By applying the proposed hysteretic control, the captured power was effectively regulated for implantation depths of up to 85 mm.

  3. An approach for estimation of optimal energy flows in battery storage devices for electric vehicles in the smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacheva Gergana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the number of the vehicle actuated with liquid fuels are settled, the count of electric vehicles is increasing. For the present moment most of them are scheduled for daily urban usage. This paper presents an analytical approach for estimation of the impact of electrical vehicle (EV battery charging on the distribution grid. Based on the EV charge profile, load curve and local distributed generation the grid nodes, the time variation of grid parameters is obtained. A set of typical load profiles of EV charging modes is studied and presented. A software implementation and a 24h case study of low voltage distribution network with EV charging devices is presented in order to illustrate the approach and the impacts of EV charging on the grid. In the current paper an approach using variable nonlinear algebraic equations for dynamic time domain analysis of the charge of the electric vehicles is presented. Based on the results, the challenges due to EV charging in distribution networks including renewable energy sources are discussed. This approach is widely applicable for various EV charging and distributed energy resources studies considering control algorithms, grid stability analysis, smart grid power management and other power system analysis problems.

  4. ARPA-E Program: Advanced Management Protection of Energy Storage Devices (AMPED) - Monthly Report - November 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-17

    Technology has been developed that enables monitoring of individual cells in high - capacity lithium-ion battery packs, with a distributed array of wireless Bluetooth 4.0 tags and sensors, and without proliferation of extensive wiring harnesses. Given the safety challenges facing lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle, civilian aviation and defense applications, these wireless sensors may be particularly important to these emerging markets. These wireless sensors will enhance the performance, reliability and safety of such energy storage systems. Specific accomplishments to date include, but are not limited to: (1) the development of wireless tags using Bluetooth 4.0 standard to monitor a large array of sensors in battery pack; (2) sensor suites enabling the simultaneous monitoring of cell voltage, cell current, cell temperature, and package strain, indicative of swelling and increased internal pressure, (3) small receivers compatible with USB ports on portable computers; (4) software drivers and logging software; (5) a 7S2P battery simulator, enabling the safe development of wireless BMS hardware in the laboratory; (6) demonstrated data transmission out of metal enclosures, including battery box, with small variable aperture opening; (7) test data demonstrating the accurate and reliable operation of sensors, with transmission of terminal voltage, cell temperature and package strain at distances up to 110 feet; (8) quantification of the data transmission error as a function of distance, in both indoor and outdoor operation; (9) electromagnetic interference testing during operation with live, high -capacity battery management system at Yardney Technical Products; (10) demonstrat ed operation with live high-capacity lithium-ion battery pack during charge-discharge cycling; (11) development of special polymer-gel lithium-ion batteries with embedded temperature sensors, capable of measuring the core temperature of individual of the cells during charge

  5. Construction and installation of low-cost energy-conservation devices on existing residential structures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    Through the Neighborhood Housing Services, Incorporated of Charlotte, a series of hands-on workshops and a demonstration site was provided to enable residents of the Plaza-Midwood Neighborhood to build and install a variety of low-cost, durable, small scale, energy conservation systems. This experimental approach enabled homeowners to apply specific technologies to their own homes. These cost effective measures were designed to encourage both self reliance and the use of renewable resources. The weekend projects included protected entry, numerous moveable window insulation devices, solar air collector/greenhouse, window greenhouse and water storage tubes. The building used for retrofit was the office for the Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS), a non-profit corporation formed to help revitalize residential structures and maintain the economic, racial, and social character of existing neighborhoods. The particular neighborhood involved was Plaza-Midwood and covers approximately a 2 square mile area. The neighborhood housing stock is of the 1910 to 1940 variety with the predominate architectual style being bungalow frame, having 1000 to 1900 square feet in area. The neighborhood is a racially integrated one, with about 70% of the residents being homeowners. An estimated 1700 housing units are in this area. The NHS office presently serves as a resource center for area residents who need loans and/or construction assistance. Providing a continuing educational program is a function of this organization. The Grant provided a significant contribution as a resource for energy conservation mined residents. A resource room displaying procedures and diagrams for the various projects in this proposal was established. Additional resource literature was provided and used by local residents.

  6. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  7. Efficient synthesis of tungsten oxide hydrate-based nanocomposites for applications in bifunctional electrochromic-energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Lu, Tong; Liu, Tao; Lei, Yanhua; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we realized the large-scale synthesis of WO3 · H2O nanoflakes (NFs), g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O nanocomposite (NC) and graphene (G)/WO3 · H2O NC via a sonochemical process with tungsten salt as the precursor, g-C3N4 or G sheets as the supports, and distilled water as the solvent. Both the g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC and G/WO3 · H2O NC exhibited much better electrochromic (EC) performance (higher coloration efficiencies and faster response times) than that of the WO3 · H2O NFs. Using the WO3 · H2O-based materials as electrode materials, EC batteries that integrate the energy storage and EC functions in one device have been assembled. The energy status of the EC batteries could be visually indicated by the reversible color variations. Compared with the plain WO3 · H2O-based EC batteries, the NC-based EC batteries possessed a lower color contrast between the charged and discharged conditions but much longer discharge durations. The EC batteries could be quickly charged in a few seconds by adding H2O2, and the charged batteries exhibited significantly-enhanced discharging durations in comparison with the initial ones. The g-C3N4/WO3 · H2O NC-EC batteries charged by a small amount of H2O2 could produce a long discharging duration up to 760 min.

  8. Solar-energy production and energy-efficient lighting: photovoltaic devices and white-light-emitting diodes using poly(2,7-fluorene), poly(2,7-carbazole), and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupré, Serge; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc T; Leclerc, Mario

    2010-02-23

    World energy needs grow each year. To address global warming and climate changes the search for renewable energy sources with limited greenhouse gas emissions and the development of energy-efficient lighting devices are underway. This Review reports recent progress made in the synthesis and characterization of conjugated polymers based on bridged phenylenes, namely, poly(2,7-fluorene)s, poly(2,7-carbazole)s, and poly(2,7-dibenzosilole)s, for applications in solar cells and white-light-emitting diodes. The main strategies and remaining challenges in the development of reliable and low-cost renewable sources of energy and energy-saving lighting devices are discussed.

  9. Ultrafine tungsten as a plasma-facing component in fusion devices: effect of high flux, high fluence low energy helium irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Atwani, O.; Gonderman, S.; Efe, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T.; Bystrov, K.; D. Klenosky,; Qiu, T.; Allain, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the response of ultrafine-grained tungsten materials to high-flux, high-fluence, low energy pure He irradiation. Ultrafine-grained tungsten samples were exposed in the Pilot-PSI (Westerhout et al 2007 Phys. Scr. T128 18) linear plasma device at the Dutch Institute for Fundamental

  10. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gerbaldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  11. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer’s redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper. In this study, we demonstrated a highly transparent and stretchable supercapacitor by developing Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks as electrode by coating the surface of Ag NWs with a thin layer of gold, which provide higher redox potential than the electropolymerizable monomer. The Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks demonstrated superior mechanical stability under various mechanical bending and stretching. In addition, proposed supercapacitors showed fine optical transmittance together with fivefold improved areal capacitance compared to pristine Ag/Au core-shell nanowire mesh-based supercapacitors.

  12. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jijeesh R; Chiappone, Annalisa; Destro, Matteo; Jabbour, Lara; Meligrana, Giuseppina; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2012-10-17

    In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases) along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  13. Augmenting convection-enhanced delivery through simultaneous co-delivery of fluids and laser energy with a fiberoptic microneedle device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. Lyle; Ecker, Tobias; Andriani, Rudy; Robertson, John; Rossmeisl, John; Rylander, Christopher G.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a new infusion catheter, based on our fiberoptic microneedle device (FMD), designed with the objective of photothermally augmenting the volumetric dispersal of infused therapeutics. We hypothesize that concurrent delivery of laser energy, causing mild localized photothermal heating (4-5 °C), will increase the spatial dispersal of infused chemotherapy over a long infusion period. Agarose brain phantoms, which mimic the brain's mechanical and fluid conduction properties, were constructed from 0.6 wt% Agarose in aqueous solution. FMDs were fabricated by adhering a multimode fiberoptic to a silica capillary tube, such that their flat-polished tips co-terminated. Continuous wave 1064 nm light was delivered simultaneously with FD&C Blue #2 (5%) dye into phantoms. Preliminary experiments, where co-delivery was tested against fluid delivery alone (through symmetrical infusions into in vivo rodent models), were also conducted. In the Agarose phantoms, volumetric dispersal was demonstrated to increase by more than 3-fold over a four-hour infusion time frame for co-delivery relative to infusion-only controls. Both forward and backward (reflux) infusions were also observed to increase slightly. Increased volumetric dispersal was demonstrated with co-delivery in an in vivo rodent model. Photothermal augmentation of infusion was demonstrated to influence the directionality and increase the volume of dye dispersal in Agarose brain phantoms. With further development, FMDs may enable a greater distribution of chemotherapeutic agents during CED therapy of brain tumors.

  14. Enhanced dielectric properties of surface hydroxylated bismuth ferrite–Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene composites for energy storage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Moharana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP based composites with surface hydroxylated BiFeO3 (h-BFO particles were prepared by solution casting techniques. The h-BFO fillers were synthesized from BiFeO3 in aqueous solution of H2O2. The result showed that the dielectric properties of the h-BFO-PVDF-HFP composite exhibits better dielectric properties than that of the unmodified BFO-PVDF-HFP composites. Meanwhile, the 30 wt% of h-BFO-PVDF-HFP composite showed higher dielectric constant, better suppressed dielectric loss, high remnant polarization and high electrical conductivity. It is suggested that the strong interaction between h-BFO particles and PVDF-HFP matrix at the interface is the key role in the enhancement of the dielectric properties. It is helpful to understand the influence of surface hydroxylation on the interfaces between the filler and the polymer matrix. The outcome of this study may be exploited in the progress of high energy storage device applications.

  15. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gerbaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  16. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg -1 . The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  17. Surface-processing technology of a microgrooving and water-repellent coating improves the fusion potential of an ultrasonic energy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Satoru; Shimada, Junichi; Ito, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tatsuo; Oshiumi, Koichiro

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic energy devices are essential for effective hemostasis during endoscopic surgery. Ultrasonic tissue transection occurs as a result of mechanical friction between the oscillating blade and the tissue. We hypothesized that blade surface structures and characteristics would affect tissue transection and sealing. The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of blade surface structures and characteristics in vessel sealing with an ultrasonic vibration. We developed an ultrasonic energy device with 50-kHz vibration frequency and 50 μm amplitude. We manufactured four types of blade surface of the ultrasonic device using microprocessing technology: (1) a non-coated blade without microgrooves, (2) a non-coated blade with microgrooves, (3) a water-repellent-coated blade without microgrooves, and (4) a water-repellent-coated blade with microgrooves. We compared the performance of the four devices and a commercially available ultrasonic device with a non-coated blade without microgrooves in an ex vivo vessel-sealing experiment. We sealed porcine carotid arteries (3-5 mm diameter) using each device 20 times. The cutting time of the water-repellent-coated blade with microgrooves was the shortest (11.0 ± 3.4 s); however, it did not differ significantly from that of the commercial ultrasonic device (12.9 ± 2.9 s, p = 0.73). The burst pressure of the water-repellent-coated blade without microgrooves (1456 ± 425 mmHg) was significantly higher than that of the commercial ultrasonic device (966 ± 559 mmHg, p = 0.04). The sealing failure rate of the water-repellent blade with microgrooves was the lowest of all devices (0 %). Instrumental sticking of tissue decreased in the water-repellent devices. The sealing width was not significantly different. The surface-processing of microgrooves and water-repellent coatings will improve the potential of ultrasonic devices with a fast transection and a high sealing reliability.

  18. Analysis and Comparison of Si and SiC Power Devices on a Grid-Tie Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    In renewable energy applications power conversion efficiency is major concern. This is especially true for grid-tie energy storage systems based on bidirectional dc-dc and dc-ac converters where power flows through these system components. Latest developments in power semiconductors technology......-tie energy storage systems. Results highlight dc-dc conversion efficiencies up to 98.2% with an isolated topology and dc-ac conversion efficiencies up to 97.7%. Overall system efficiency improvements above 1% are achieved compared to traditional Si devices. Results on efficiency improvement are analyzed...

  19. Performance evaluation of one-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor for measuring high energy electron beam using a charge-coupled device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Hyun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae; Chung, Soon Cheol; Tack, Gye Rae; Eom, Gwang Moon; Lee, Bongsoo; Cho, Hyosung; Kim, Sin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated one-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor array for high energy electron beam therapy dosimetry. Fiber-optic radiation sensor comprises an organic scintillator as a sensing volume, optical fiber as a light guider and photo-detector as a light measuring device. Usually, photomultiplier tube or photodiode is used as a photo-detector however we have tried to use a charge-coupled device as a scintillating light measuring system for one-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor array. This system can take an image of the proximal ends of one-dimensional fiber-optic sensor array and can measure light intensities of individual image of optical fibers simultaneously using simple imaging software. Charge-coupled device as a light measuring detector has many advantages which are easy in multi-dimensional measurements, high spatial resolution and relatively low cost. We have measured one-dimensional electron beam distributions in a PMMA phantom with different energies and field sizes of electron beam using a fiber-optic sensor and a charge-coupled device. Also, the percentage depth dose curves for high energy electron beams are obtained. (author)

  20. Automated stride assistance device improved the gait parameters and energy cost during walking of healthy middle-aged females but not those of young controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Risa; Matsumoto, Hiromi; Ueki, Masaru; Uehara, Kazutake; Nozawa, Nobuko; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of an automated stride assistance device on gait parameters and energy cost during walking performed by healthy middle-aged and young females. [Subjects and Methods] Ten middle-aged females and 10 young females were recruited as case and control participants, respectively. The participants walked for 3 minutes continuously under two different experimental conditions: with the device and without the device. Walking distance, mean walking speed, mean step length, cadence, walk ratio and the physiological cost index during the 3-minutes walk were measured. [Results] When walking with the stride assistance device, the step length and walk ratio of the middle-aged group were significantly higher than without it. Also, during walking without assistance from the device, the physiological cost index of the middle-aged group significantly increased; whereas during walking with assistance, there was no change. The intergroup comparison in the middle-aged group showed the physiological cost index was lower under the experimental condition with assistance provided, as opposed to the condition without the provision of assistance. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that the stride assistance device improved the gait parameters of the middle-aged group but not those of young controls. PMID:28174452

  1. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Surveys on development of an at-home welfare device system to rationalize energy use. (Chofu City); 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu chosa (Chofu) saiitaku kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes investigative studies on a new at-home welfare devices. Section 2 of the document, 'Studies on electric power conservation considering living patterns of elderly and physically handicapped persons' describes verification experiments in ferro-concrete buildings and ordinary homes by using a prototype system structured in last fiscal year. Qualitative analysis was performed based on the result thereof. In the 'Surveys on working environments for elderly people', directionality was presented in improving labor environments for the elderly people. Section 3, 'Studies on emergency evacuation devices for physically handicapped and elderly people' discovered that many of the presently available evacuation devices are intended of use mainly by handicap-free people, and there are many aspects that are difficult to say that elderly and physically handicapped people are included in the field of vision. In the 'Studies on an at-home training supporting system to maintain movement functions of the legs of elderly people', design and fabrication were performed on a prototype of an external control device operated by the legs. The 'Surveys on energy demand for at-home welfare devices for elderly people', showed how much the growth of the number of utilized devices will link to the cause to push up the energy demand in the household department in Japan. (NEDO)

  2. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy Conversion Devices (a.k.a. Understanding Photosystem I as a Biomolecular Reactor for Energy Conversion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy Conversion Devices (a.k.a. Understanding Photosystem I as...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6904 April 2014 Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10/1/2010–10/1/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel

  3. Self-assembled graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer film and its application in electrochemical energy storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongrui; Wang, Xiaogong

    2011-03-01

    Graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer films were fabricated through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly, and their performance as electrochemical capacitor electrode was investigated. Cationic azo polyelectrolyte (QP4VP-co-PCN) was synthesized through radical polymerization, postpolymerization azo coupling reaction, and quaternization. Negatively charged graphene nanosheets were prepared by a chemically modified method. The LbL films were obtained by alternately dipping a piece of the pretreated substrates in the QP4VP-co-PCN and nanosheet solutions. The processes were repeated until the films with required numbers of bilayers were obtained. The self-assembly and multilayer surface morphology were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, and TEM. The performance of the LbL films as electrochemical capacitor electrode was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the graphene nanosheets are densely packed in the multilayers and form random graphene network. The azo polyelectrolyte cohesively interacts with the nanosheets in the multilayer structure, which prevents agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. The sheet resistance of the LbL films decreases with the increase of the layer numbers and reaches the stationary value of 1.0 × 10(6) Ω/square for the film with 15 bilayers. At a scanning rate of 50 mV/s, the LbL film with 9 bilayers shows a gravimetric specific capacitance of 49 F/g in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) solution. The LbL films developed in this work could be a promising type of the electrode materials for electric energy storage devices.

  4. Band structure engineering for solar energy applications: Zinc oxide(1-x) selenium(x) films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Marie Annette

    spectroscopy. Measurement of the optical absorption coefficient, α, shows a significant red shift as well as an increase in the low energy density of states with x. Fitting α revealed that the initial Se defect level is located 0.9 eV above the valence band edge and the coupling strength of the interaction is 1.2 eV. Optical reflection data are good agreement with the absorption onset at 2 eV. Taking the derivative of this data reveals experimental observation of the matrix-like band at higher energies. ZnO1-xSex is explicitly evaluated for photoelectrochemical applications. An introduction to semiconductor electrochemistry is followed by flat band, photocurrent, and spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements. The flat band measurements are in excellent agreement with the measurements of the ZnO electron affinity using bulk methods, but show that the conduction band edge of ZnO1-xSex is too low for spontaneous water splitting. Measurements of the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) indicated that photons with energies greater than 2 eV excite carriers that do conduct and induce chemical reactions. Tandem ZnO1-xSe x/Si devices are made with a natural Ohmic contact between the p-Si and n-ZnO1-xSex. Electrochemical testing proves that the presence of the tandem photovoltaic provides an overpotential of ˜0.5 V to electrons enabling the reduction of H+ in solution. Finally, the carrier scattering and recombination lifetimes in ZnO 1-xSex are considered. Resistivity, Hall effect and Seebeck coefficient measurements are used to probe the scattering lifetime, while the recombination lifetime is investigated using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Electrochemical photocurrent measurements in light and dark are a function of the product of both lifetimes. Results indicate that significant scattering in the lateral direction does not prohibit the photoelectrochemical device from operating, but defects from high fluence growth are extremely detrimental to the

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Surveys on development of an at-home welfare device system to rationalize energy use; 1998 nendo energy shiyo gorika zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu chosa itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper analyzes and puts into order the data surveyed and discussed on thirteen Welfare Techno-Houses (WTH) from a comprehensive viewpoint. It summarizes findings contributing to development and structuring of new at-home welfare device systems of effective energy utilization type. The paper first puts into order and discusses the survey and study items available for comparison and discussion, and the survey items with originality found in the surveys of the WTH, with which relatively large number of items were surveyed and studied among the thirteen locations nationwide. Next, the paper attempts comprehensive evaluation on the achievements thereof by the following items: (1) measurement and evaluation on energy consumption of different at-home welfare devices, (2) surveys and studies on energy demand evaluation inside and outside the residential houses arranged with considerations for elderly people according to the district characteristics, (3) evaluation on daily, weekly and annual changes in energy consumption in these houses, and (4) design and development of welfare systems of effective energy utilization type for these houses. Furthermore, the paper summarizes the general attributes of the WTHs in different districts, power consumption in these at-home welfare device systems in the WTH and energy consumption of the houses, in the forms available for comparison and discussion. Then, the paper summarizes the achievements of the present surveys and studies on the thirteen WTHs all over the country. (NEDO)

  6. Comparative study of passive and semi-active energy dissipation devices intended for overhead cranes; Etude comparative de dispositifs de dissipation d`energie passif et semi-actif destines aux ponts roulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Revaud, D.

    1996-04-01

    This paper deals with the results of a bibliographic survey of energy dissipation devices which could be adapted for overhead cranes. The principle of passive devices using friction, yielding steel systems of viscous and viscoelastic systems are remembered. An active control system, which needs a minimum of external control energy is also presented. The application to overhead cranes which have a strong non linear behaviour under strong seismic motion (sliding between rails and wheels, local yielding and damage) is further discussed. The first results of a numerical study in progress are likewise purposed. The criterion of selection of the devices turn on the performance, the robustness and the reliability. The behaviour in the presence of non linearities, the sensitivity to the variations of the vibratory characteristics, and lastly the sensitivity to the response delay of the active controller are taken into account. (authors). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Development and evaluation of multi-energy PbO dosimeter for quality assurance of image-guide radiation therapy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Han, Moo-Jae; Oh, Kyung-Min; Lee, Young-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Wook; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2017-04-01

    In radiation therapy, accurate radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) reproduction is necessary to optimize the clinical results. Thus, attempts have recently been made to ensure high RTP reproducibility using image-guide radiation therapy (IGRT) technology. However, the clinical use of digital X-ray equipment requires extended quality assurance (QA) for those devices, since the IGRT device quality determines the precision of intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The study described in this paper was focused on developing a multi-energy PbO dosimeter for IGRT device QA. The Schottky-type polycrystalline PbO dosimeter with a Au/PbO/ITO structure was evaluated by comparing its response coincidence, dose linearity, measurement reproducibility, linear attenuation coefficient, and percent depth dose with those of Si diode and standard ionization chamber dosimeters.

  8. Cross-calibration of domestic devices and GE lunar prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray densitometer devices for bone mineral measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Chungbuk Health and Science University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung A [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Reliable follow-up of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is essential in clinical practice. When there is a difference in the BMD values from DXA systems in the same patient, cross calibration equation is required for the reliable follow-up. Unfortunately, no equation is existed in BMD measure between GE Lunar Prodigy Advance (US, GE Healthcare; LPA) and Osteosys Dexxum T (Korea, Osteosys; ODT) DXA systems. In this study, we evaluate the agreement of BMD values between LPA and ODT and suggest the cross calibration equation using European spine phantom (ESP) with two systems. We performed BMD measurements using ten scans with ESP in each DXA systems. We compared BMD values and calculated cross calibration equation by linear regression analysis. The comparison between the LPA and ODT bone densitometers used the ESP. Compared to the ESP BMD values, ODT underestimated 14.36% and LPA overestimated 12.96%. The average of total BMD measurement values acquired with ODT were 21.44% lower than those from LPA. Cross-calibration equation for LPA and ODT was derived from ESP. We calculated simple cross calibration equation for LPA and ODT DXA systems. Cross-calibration equation is necessary for the reliable follow-up of BMD values in two different systems.

  9. Cross-calibration of domestic devices and GE lunar prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray densitometer devices for bone mineral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Rho, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Kyoung A; Lee, In Ja

    2017-01-01

    Reliable follow-up of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is essential in clinical practice. When there is a difference in the BMD values from DXA systems in the same patient, cross calibration equation is required for the reliable follow-up. Unfortunately, no equation is existed in BMD measure between GE Lunar Prodigy Advance (US, GE Healthcare; LPA) and Osteosys Dexxum T (Korea, Osteosys; ODT) DXA systems. In this study, we evaluate the agreement of BMD values between LPA and ODT and suggest the cross calibration equation using European spine phantom (ESP) with two systems. We performed BMD measurements using ten scans with ESP in each DXA systems. We compared BMD values and calculated cross calibration equation by linear regression analysis. The comparison between the LPA and ODT bone densitometers used the ESP. Compared to the ESP BMD values, ODT underestimated 14.36% and LPA overestimated 12.96%. The average of total BMD measurement values acquired with ODT were 21.44% lower than those from LPA. Cross-calibration equation for LPA and ODT was derived from ESP. We calculated simple cross calibration equation for LPA and ODT DXA systems. Cross-calibration equation is necessary for the reliable follow-up of BMD values in two different systems

  10. Detection of x-rays emitted from a plasma focus device with energy of 2.8 KJ, and its applications in plasma diagnostic and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.

    2011-06-01

    The local plasma focus device was modified by replacing the old capacitors (25μF,20 kV ,1.43μH ) and the open spark gap by new capacitors with (25μF,20 kV ,200 nH ) and a new closed spark gap, so instead of a current of 50 kA as a maximum value we obtained a maximum current about 120 kA. The modified device is capable now to generate x-rays, which was confirmed by taking some radiographies for metallic pieces, electronic elements and others . In addition to that some diagnostics were carried out on the device using Ohm voltage divider to record voltage curves, Rogovskii coil for measuring the current, and five channel diodes to evaluate the temporal evolution of x-rays generated in the device working on argon vs. pressure and voltage. The generation of the soft x-ray emission in a low energy 2.8 kJ plasma focus device operated with argon using a detector of five PIN-Si BPX-65 diodes filtered with different foils of Mylar, Al and Cu. Spectral analysis using the recorded x-ray signals ratio method shows that there are two components in the x-ray emissions: one arising from the focused argon plasma with temperature of 2.5 keV and the other arising from the electron beam activity on copper anode, where the second component is predominant in most of investigated experiments due to the used of solid anode. Numerical experiments were carried out using five phases radiative Lee model RADPF5.15d-dd with N 2 , O 2 , Ar, Ne gases on plasma focus device AECS PF1-2 (or PF SY1-2) for its characterization and soft x-ray optimization. (author)

  11. Energy-Efficient Source Authentication for Secure Group Communication with Low-Powered Smart Devices in Hybrid Wireless/Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras JohnS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new class of lightweight, symmetric-key digital certificates called extended TESLA certificates and a source authentication protocol for wireless group communication that is based on the certificate. The certificate binds the identity of a wireless smart device to the anchor element of its key chain; keys from the chain are used for computing message authentication codes (MACs on messages sourced by the device. The authentication protocol requires a centralized infrastructure in the network: we describe the protocol in a hybrid wireless network with a satellite overlay interconnecting the wireless devices. The satellite is used as the Certificate Authority (CA and also acts as the proxy for the senders in disclosing the MAC keys to the receivers. We also design a probabilistic nonrepudiation mechanism that utilizes the satellite's role as the CA and sender proxy. Through analysis, we show that the authentication protocol is secure against malicious adversaries. We also present detailed simulation results that demonstrate that the proposed protocol is much cheaper than traditional public key-based authentication technologies for metrics like processing delay, storage requirements, and energy consumption of the smart devices.

  12. Room-temperature vertically-aligned copper oxide nanoblades synthesized by electrochemical restructuring of copper hydroxide nanorods: An electrode for high energy density hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Junya; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Abas, Asim; Su, Qing; Lan, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John)

    2018-04-01

    The fast growing of portable electronics has greatly stimulated the development of energy storage materials, such as transition metal oxides (TMOs). However, TMOs usually involve harsh synthesis conditions, such as high temperature. Here we take advantage of the metastable nature of Cu(OH)2 and grow CuO nanoblades (NBs) on Cu foam under the electric field at room temperature. The electrochemical polarization accelerates the dissolution of Cu(OH)2 nanorods, guides the deposition of the as-dissolved Cu(OH)42- species and eventually leads to the phase transformation of CuO NBs. The unique materials architecture render the vertically-aligned CuO NBs with enhanced electronic and ionic diffusion kinetics, high charge storage (∼779 mC cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), excellent rate capability and long-term cycling performances. Further matching with activated carbon electrode results in high-performance hybrid device, which displays a wide voltage window (1.7 V) in aqueous electrolyte, high energy density (0.17 mWh cm-2) and power density (34 mW cm-2) coupled with long lifetime, surpassing the best CuO based device known. The hybrid device can be randomly connected and power several light-emitting diodes. Importantly, such an electrochemical restructuring approach is cost-effective, environmentally green and universal, and can be extended to synthesize other metastable hydroxides to in-situ grow corresponding oxides.

  13. Embedded nonvolatile memory devices with various silicon nitride energy band gaps on glass used for flat panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dang Ngoc; Van Duy, Nguyen; Jung, Sungwook; Yi, Junsin

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices with a nitride–nitride–oxynitride stack structure on a rough poly-silicon (poly-Si) surface were fabricated using a low-temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistor technology on glass substrates for application of flat panel display (FPD). The plasma-assisted oxidation/nitridation method is used to form a uniform oxynitride with an ultrathin tunneling layer on a rough LTPS surface. The NVMs, using a Si-rich silicon nitride film as a charge-trapping layer, were proposed as one of the solutions for the improvement of device performance such as the program/erase speed, the memory window and the charge retention characteristics. To further improve the vertical scaling and charge retention characteristics of NVM devices, the high-κ high-density N-rich SiN x films are used as a blocking layer. The fabricated NVM devices have outstanding electrical properties, such as a low threshold voltage, a high ON/OFF current ratio, a low subthreshold swing, a low operating voltage of less than ±9 V and a large memory window of 3.7 V, which remained about 1.9 V over a period of 10 years. These characteristics are suitable for electrical switching and data storage with in FPD application

  14. Intercomparison of radiation protection protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; García, M. J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, T.; Latocha, M.; Mares, V.; Mayer, S.; Radon, T.; Reithmeier, H.; Rollet, S.; Roos, H.; Rühm, W.; Sandri, S.; Schardt, D.; Simmer, G.; Spurný, František; Trompier, F.; Villa-Grasa, C.; Weitzenegger, E.; Wiegel, B.; Wielunski, M.; Wissmann, F.; Zechner, A.; Zielczyński, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 7-8 (2009), s. 673-691 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation protection devices * radiation field * detectors * dosemeters Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2009

  15. An Electromagnetic Spectrum for Millennial Students: Teaching Light, Color, Energy, and Frequency Using the Electronic Devices of Our Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen Kendrick

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a comparison of student learning outcomes is made in sophomore-level physical science classes using a "traditional" pedagogical approach versus a "modern" approach. Specifically, when students were taught the electromagnetic spectrum using diagrams and examples that incorporate technological advances and electronic devices of our…

  16. Impact of energy devices on the post-operative systemic immune response in women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease of the uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kallol Kumar; GC, Netra; Singhal, Seema; Bharti, Juhi; Kumar, Sunesh; Mitra, Dipendra K.; Ray, Ruma; Meena, Jyoti; Vanamail, Perumal

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Laparoscopic surgery is associated with reduced surgical stress response, lesser post- operative immune function, and consequent early recovery compared with conventional open surgery. There is a lack of evidence regarding the inflammatory stress response with the use of different energy devices. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the inflammatory response in total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) using three different energy devices. Material and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in 60 women with abnormal uterine bleeding undergoing TLH. They were divided into three groups based on the energy devices used, namely integrated bipolar and ultrasonic energy (Thunderbeat), ultrasonic (Harmonic) and electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing system (Ligasure). Cytokines and chemokines were measured in all three groups at different time points. Results: Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) increased postsurgery in all three groups and gradually declined by 72 hours. The geometric mean serum (IL)-6 levels was highest with Ligasure at 24 hours as compared with the other groups. Levels of TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1) α, MIP-1 β were also higher at 3 hours in the Ligasure group. When the differences between the groups were measured at different time points, there was a significantly greater increase in serum IL-6 levels in the Ligasure group at 24 hours (p=0.010). No significant difference was found in the post-operative course between the groups. Conclusion: A greater inflammatory response was seen after the use of Ligasure indicating greater tissue damage. However, this response was not correlated with any difference in postoperative recovery. PMID:29503255

  17. Epitaxial Piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8O3 Thin Films on Silicon for Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sambri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the properties of ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT thin films grown epitaxially on (001 silicon and on the performance of such heterostructures for microfabricated piezoelectric energy harvesters. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the epitaxial stacks through transmission electron microscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy studies to characterize in detail their crystalline structure. In the second part of the paper, we present the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric cantilevers based on these epitaxial PZT films. The performance of such cantilevers as vibration energy transducers is compared with other piezoelectric harvesters and indicates the potential of the epitaxial approach in the field of energy harvesting devices.

  18. Query processing for the internet-of-things:Coupling of device energy consumption and cloud infrastructure billing

    OpenAIRE

    Renna, Francesco; Doyle, Joseph; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Giotsas, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Audio/visual recognition and retrieval applications have recently garnered significant attention within Internetof-Things (IoT) oriented services, given that video cameras and audio processing chipsets are now ubiquitous even in low-end embedded systems. In the most typical scenario for such services, each device extracts audio/visual features and compacts them into feature descriptors, which comprise media queries. These queries are uploaded to a remote cloud computing service that performs ...

  19. BRAIN Journal - An Energy-Saving Concept of the Smart Building Power Grid with Separated Lines for Standby Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Dmytro Zubov

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Standby power takes 5-10 % of the residential electricity around the world. Some countries lose more than 14 % of the total electricity used in the residential sector. Hence, a new energysaving concept that could help to decrease the power losses is discussed in this paper. Firstly, the two power lines of infrastructure for continuously connected equipment and for standby devices is proposed for new smart buildings. Secondly, the segmented infrastructure with unified hardware uni...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SiC DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROL OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN ENERGY PLANT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias

    2003-12-01

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. The response of these metal/insulator/SiC (MISiC) devices to reducing gases has been assumed to be due to the reduction in the metal work function at the metal/oxide interface that shifts the capacitance to lower voltages. From in-situ capacitance-voltage measurements taken under sensor operating conditions we have discovered that two independent mechanisms are responsible for the sensor response to hydrogen and oxygen. We present a model of the device response based on the chemically induced shift of the metal/semiconductor barrier height as well as the passivation and creation of charged states at the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. The latter mechanism is much slower than the barrier height shift. Preliminary photoemission experiments have been performed to independently monitor the contribution of the two phenomena. We discuss in detail the effect of these results on sensor design and the choice of operating point for high temperature operation.

  1. A flexible, planar energy harvesting device for scavenging road side waste mechanical energy via the synergistic piezoelectric response of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-BaTiO3/PVDF composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekananthan, Venkateswaran; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Purusothaman, Yuvasree; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-10-12

    Flexible, planar composite piezoelectric nanogenerators (C-PNGs) were developed to harness waste mechanical energy using cost-effective composite films (CFs) prepared via a probe-sonication technique. CFs, made up of highly crystalline, randomly oriented lead free piezoelectric nanoparticles (1 - x)K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 -xBaTiO 3 , where x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, or 0.08 [designated as KNN-xBTO], were impregnated in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The KNN piezoelectric properties were tuned via the substitution of BTO nanoparticles, without altering the orthorhombic phase. A C-PNG device (x ≈ 0.02) generates a maximum open circuit voltage ≈160 V, and the instantaneous area power density is ≈14 mW m -2 upon a low mechanical force ≈0.4 N. The effects of BTO concentration in the KNN lattice, electrical poling effects, the fixed weight ratio of nanoparticles in the PVDF matrix, switching polarity tests, and load resistance analysis of C-PNG devices were investigated with constant mechanical force. Furthermore, the experimentally demonstrated C-PNG device output is sufficient to drive commercial blue light emitting diodes. The C-PNG device was placed on a road side, and the maximum energy generation and stability under real time harsh conditions, such as vehicle motion (motorcycle and bicycle) and human walking, were tested. C-PNG generates a peak-to-peak output voltage ≈16 V, when motorcycle forward/backward motion acts on it. This result indicates that the C-PNG device is a potential candidate to power road side sensors, speed tachometers, light indicators, etc. on highways.

  2. Intrauterine Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    S HARE W ITH W OMEN INTRAUTERINE DEVICES INTRAUTERINE DEVICES What is An Intrauterine Device? An intrauterine device (IUD) is anything that is placed inside the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy. ...

  3. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  4. Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices using host materials of lower triplet energy than the phosphorescent blue emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Wang, Liang; Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2011-03-15

    Data from a series of phosphorescent blue organic light emitting devices OLEDs with emissive layers consisting of either CBP:6% Firpic or mCP:6% FIrpic show that the triplet energy of the hole and electron transport layers can have a larger influence on the external quantum efficiency of an operating OLED than the triplet energy of the host material. These results are important and insightful given the commonly held view that host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs must have a triplet energy higher than that of the emitter in order to obtain high external quantum efficiency (EQE). A new host material, 4-(di-ptolylaminophenyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (DHM-A2), which has a triplet energy less than that of FIrpic is also reported. OLEDs fabricated using DHM-A2 show improved performance (lower drive voltage and higher external quantum efficiency) over OLEDs using 4- (diphenylphosphoryl)-N,N-diphenylaniline (HMA1), a high performance ambipolar DHM-A2 analogue with a triplet energy greater than FIrpic. Our results suggest modified design rules for the development of new, high performance host materials., ames, more focus can be placed on molecular structures that provide good charge transport (i.e., ambipolarity for charge balance) and good molecular stability (for long lifetimes). This improved understanding provides additional flexibility in order to generate OLEDs with lower operating voltage and longer lifetime, while still providing high EQE.

  5. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-SED-E 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1138...3). 10. Wang G-q, Yang , Liu. Electrical performance of GaN diode as betavoltaic isotope battery energy converter. Atomic Energy Sci and Tech...Conference, Orlando, FL, 2005 Jan 3. 16. Li F , Gao X, Yuan Y, Yuan J, Lu M. GaN PIN betavoltaic nuclear batteries. Science China Technological

  6. An Energy-Saving Concept of the Smart Building Power Grid with Separated Lines for Standby Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Dmytro Zubov

    2016-01-01

    Standby power takes 5-10 % of the residential electricity around the world. Some countries lose more than 14 % of the total electricity used in the residential sector. Hence, a new energysaving concept that could help to decrease the power losses is discussed in this paper. Firstly, the two power lines of infrastructure for continuously connected equipment and for standby devices is proposed for new smart buildings. Secondly, the segmented infrastructure with unified hardwareunits is proposed...

  7. Optically-powered Voltage-supply-device for Effective Utilization of Optical Energy in the Fiber-To-The-Home Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hideki; Shinagawa, Takeshi; Tsuruta, Kenji

    An optically powered device with using InGaAs-Photodiode has been developed. This study aims to harvest light energy (2.8∼500μW) from the FTTH (Fiber To The Home) network and to utilize it for operating remote sensors without external energy sources. First, we designed and evaluated the characteristics of the booster circuit and confirmed that it could boost an input voltage of 0.3 V to 3.0 V. Next, we also evaluated the characteristics of InGaAs photodiode and confirmed that it can output a voltage over 0.3 V at 10-μW input light. We demonstrate that a ready-made sensor can be operated with an input optical power as low as 10 μW.

  8. Measurement of linear energy transfer distribution at CERN-EU high- energy reference field facility with real-time radiation monitoring device III and its comparison with dosimetric telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Doke, T; Hara, K; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Suzuki, S; Terasawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of linear energy transfer for LET (LET/sub water/) in front of the 80-cm-thick concrete side shield at the CERN-EU high- energy reference field (CERF) facility were measured with a Si detector telescope named real-time radiation monitoring device-III (RRMD-III) covered with and without a 1 cm-thick acrylic plate. In these measurements, a difference of about 20% in the absorbed dose between the two LET/sub water/ distributions was observed as a result of protons, deuterons and tritons recoiled by neutrons. The LET/sub water/ distribution obtained using RRMD-III without the 1-cm-thick acrylic plate is compared with lineal energy distributions obtained using the dosimetric telescope (DOSTEL) detector under the same conditions. These dose equivalents are also compared with that obtained using HANDI TEPC which is used as the standard at the CERF facility. (26 refs).

  9. Probing the Energy Level Alignment and the Correlation with Open-Circuit Voltage in Solution-Processed Polymeric Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Dan; Li, Ho-Wa; Cheng, Yuanhang; Guan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Taili; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Tsang, Sai-Wing

    2016-03-23

    Energy level alignment at the organic donor and acceptor interface is a key to determine the photovoltaic performance in organic solar cells, but direct probing of such energy alignment is still challenging especially for solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films. Here we report a systematic investigation on probing the energy level alignment with different approaches in five commonly used polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) BHJ systems. We find that by tuning the weight ratio of polymer to PCBM the electronic features from both polymer and PCBM can be obtained by photoemission spectroscopy. Using this approach, we find that some of the BHJ blends simply follow vacuum level alignment, but others show strong energy level shifting as a result of Fermi level pinning. Independently, by measuring the temperature-dependent open-circuit voltage (VOC), we find that the effective energy gap (Eeff), the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the polymer donor (EHOMO-D) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the PCBM acceptor (ELUMO-A), obtained by photoemission spectroscopy in all polymer:PCBM blends has an excellent agreement with the extrapolated VOC at 0 K. Consequently, the photovoltage loss of various organic BHJ photovoltaic devices at room temperature is in a range of 0.3-0.6 V. It is believed that the demonstrated direct measurement approach of the energy level alignment in solution-processed organic BHJ will bring deeper insight into the origin of the VOC and the corresponding photovoltage loss mechanism in organic photovoltaic cells.

  10. Memristive devices for computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J Joshua; Strukov, Dmitri B; Stewart, Duncan R

    2013-01-01

    Memristive devices are electrical resistance switches that can retain a state of internal resistance based on the history of applied voltage and current. These devices can store and process information, and offer several key performance characteristics that exceed conventional integrated circuit technology. An important class of memristive devices are two-terminal resistance switches based on ionic motion, which are built from a simple conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stack. These devices were originally conceived in the late 1960s and recent progress has led to fast, low-energy, high-endurance devices that can be scaled down to less than 10 nm and stacked in three dimensions. However, the underlying device mechanisms remain unclear, which is a significant barrier to their widespread application. Here, we review recent progress in the development and understanding of memristive devices. We also examine the performance requirements for computing with memristive devices and detail how the outstanding challenges could be met.

  11. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  12. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  13. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  14. On the effect of the near field records on the steel braced frames equipped with energy dissipating devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bayat

    Full Text Available The behavior of braced steel frame structures is of special importance due to its extensive use. Also the application of active and semi-active control systems, regarding to their benefits in obtaining better seismic performance has increased significantly. The majority of the works on steel structures and steel connections has been done under far field records, and the behavior of steel frame structures equipped with yielding dampers under these circumstances has not yet been fully analyzed. The main purpose of this paper is to determine the behavior of structures equipped with yielding dampers, located in near field based on energy concepts. In order to optimize their seismic behavior, the codes and solutions are also presented.The selected system is a braced steel frame system which is equipped with yielding dampers and the analysis is performed using the "Perform 3D V.4" software and the conclusions are drawn upon energy criterion. The effect of PGA variation and height of the frames are also considered in the study .Finally, using the above mentioned results, a proper solution is presented for typical systems in order to increase the energy damping ability and reduce the destructive effects in structures on an earthquake event, so that a great amount of induced energy is damped and destruction of the structure is prevented as much as possible.

  15. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  16. High Energy Tests of Advanced Materials for Beam Intercepting Devices at CERN HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Berthome, E; Boccone, V; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, S; Francon, P; Gentini, L; Guinchard, M; Mariani, N; Masi, A; Moyret, P; Redaeelli, S; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2012-01-01

    Predicting by simulations the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting Collimators and other Beam Intercepting Devices (BID) is a fundamental issue for machine protection: this can be done by resorting to highly non-linear numerical tools (Hydrocodes). In order to produce accurate results, these codes require reliable material models that, at the extreme conditions generated by a beam impact, are either imprecise or non-existent. To validate relevant constitutive models or, when unavailable, derive new ones, a comprehensive experimental test foreseeing intense particle beam impacts on six different materials, either already used for present BID or under development for future applications, is being prepared at CERN HiRadMat facility. Tests will be run at medium and high intensity using the SPS proton beam (440 GeV). Material characterization will be carried out mostly in real time relying on embarked instrumentation (strain gauges, microphones, temperature and pressure sensors) and on remote acquisition dev...

  17. A new device for the efficient pulverisation and extraction of myocardial biopsies for high energy phosphate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, E H; Sullivan, J; Patterson, R E

    1985-07-01

    We developed a new device for processing frozen myocardial biopsies. Frozen samples of 20 to 50 mg were dropped into a 25 ml stainless steel centrifuge tube held in a custom-made aluminium container precooled in liquid nitrogen. A stainless steel pestle attached to a stainless steel disk was driven by a modified heavy-duty staple gun to pulverise the tissue rapidly at low temperatures. The tissue powder was extracted with 0.3N PCA at 0 degree C in the centrifuge tube which was then transferred to a Sorvall super-speed centrifuge. Values for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were 5.6 +/- 0.7 mumol . g-1 wet weight (mean +/- SD). Creatine phosphate (CP) yield was 12.2 +/- 3 mumol . g-1 wet weight. The % recovery of an added internal standard for ATP was 86 +/- 18% and for CP 90 +/- 16% with the new method.

  18. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  19. Applicability of the two-angle differential method to response measurement of neutron-sensitive devices at the RCNP high-energy neutron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Akihiko, E-mail: aki-masuda@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tetsuro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Iwamoto, Yosuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hagiwara, Masayuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Satoh, Daiki; Sato, Tatsuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yashima, Hiroshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakane, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nishiyama, Jun [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Harano, Hideki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-03-21

    Quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields induced by {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions are used for the response evaluation of neutron-sensitive devices. The quasi-monoenergetic high-energy field consists of high-energy monoenergetic peak neutrons and unwanted continuum neutrons down to the low-energy region. A two-angle differential method has been developed to compensate for the effect of the continuum neutrons in the response measurements. In this study, the two-angle differential method was demonstrated for Bonner sphere detectors, which are typical examples of moderator-based neutron-sensitive detectors, to investigate the method's applicability and its dependence on detector characteristics. Experiments were performed under 96–387 MeV quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The measurement results for large high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sphere detectors agreed well with Monte Carlo calculations, which verified the adequacy of the two-angle differential method. By contrast, discrepancies were observed in the results for small HDPE sphere detectors and metal-induced sphere detectors. The former indicated that detectors that are particularly sensitive to low-energy neutrons may be affected by penetrating neutrons owing to the geometrical features of the RCNP facility. The latter discrepancy could be consistently explained by a problem in the evaluated cross-section data for the metals used in the calculation. Through those discussions, the adequacy of the two-angle differential method was experimentally verified, and practical suggestions were made pertaining to this method.

  20. Resonant transitions between split energy levels triple-barrier nanostructures and their application perspectives in submillimeter-wave devices

    CERN Document Server

    Golant, E I

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for electronic coherent tunneling through the triple-barrier quantum-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures in the terahertz electric field. Using this model the frequency dependences of the negative dynamic conductivity for triple-barrier structures with coherent electron tunneling through the split energy levels are investigated. It has been shown that these structures can be employed in far-infrared coherent quantum lasers, the wave length being 600 mu m (5 THz)