WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy dependence

  1. Energy India 'dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygler, C.

    2007-01-01

    India has an economic growth between 8 to 10 % by year. To become a great country of the twenty first century and to stop poverty it is necessary to keep this growth but the growth of India is dependant of its ability to supply electric power necessary to increase the industrial production. The country has to multiply by four its energy production. The electric production comes from thermal power plants for 65%, 26% from hydroelectric power plants, 6% from renewable energy sources and 3% from nuclear energy. Between solar energy ( India has three hundred solar days by years) and nuclear energy using thorium that can be increased India has to choose an energy policy to answer its energy demand and independence need. (N.C.)

  2. Uranium energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkes, P.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium supply and demand as projected by the Uranium Institute is discussed. It is concluded that for the industrialized countries, maximum energy independence is a necessity. Hence it is necessary to achieve assurance of supply for uranium used in thermal power reactors in current programs and eventually to move towards breeders

  3. Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems

  4. Fricke xylenol gel energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rosangela T.; Moreira, Marcos V.; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2009-01-01

    The advancement of technology has increasingly use the of ionizing radiation mainly in the areas of medicine, industry and research. The development of instruments and methods for an effective performance for detection and measurement of each radiation area was crucial. The literature have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) as an adequate chemical sensor to be used for dosimetry, once its effective atomic number and density are near to those of the soft tissue. The use of photon beams for therapeutic purpose requires knowledge of their characteristics that can vary for each equipment. Therefore, is important to know all parameters involved for the patient irradiation as the total geometry involved, type of radiation, target material composition and beam energy, that have to be taken into account in the beam dosimetry for the treatment success being the energy parameter is one of the most important. This work was developed to study the energetic dependence of the FXG dosimeter. This chemical solution is made with gelatine 300 Bloom, ferrous ammonium sulfate, xylenol orange, sulfuric acid and Milli-Q water and is based on the Fe +2 oxidation to Fe +3 , due to the ionizing radiation leading to the xylenol orange - ferric complex formation, that is linear depend on the absorbed dose. The FXG samples were irradiated with photons of different energies and the absorbance measurements were done with the spectrophotometric technique at the 585 nm, FXG highest absorption peak. The energetic dependence results presented a stronger dependence for low energies and almost independence for high energies, as expected by the interaction of radiation with matter. (author)

  5. Exactly solvable energy-dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Martinez, J.; Garcia-Ravelo, J.; Pena, J.J.; Schulze-Halberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a method for constructing exactly-solvable Schroedinger equations with energy-dependent potentials. Our method is based on converting a general linear differential equation of second order into a Schroedinger equation with energy-dependent potential. Particular examples presented here include harmonic oscillator, Coulomb and Morse potentials with various types of energy dependence.

  6. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  7. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  8. European Union concerns with its energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commeau, N.

    2001-01-01

    European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)

  9. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  10. Detection unit with corrected energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.

    1989-01-01

    The detection unit consists of a plastic scintillator with a layer of a powder semicrystalline scintillator deposited on its surface. An inorgaic monocrystalline scintillator is placed inside the plastic scintillator and surrounded with an absorption layer, except for the window. The advantage of the detection unit is a reduced energy dependence of response, especially in the energy range 100 to 400 keV. (E.J.). 3 figs

  11. Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Crown St, Wollongong

    2009-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to reading to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.

  12. Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T; Butson, M J; Yu, P K N

    2009-03-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6 MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to readings to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.

  13. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Z.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using 60 Co and 137 Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author)

  14. Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.

  15. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  16. Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.

  17. Incident energy dependence of pt correlations at relativistic energies

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta, M R; Mazumdar; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jedynak, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2005-01-01

    We present results for two-particle transverse momentum correlations, , as a function of event centrality for Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 20, 62, 130, and 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We observe correlations decreasing with centrality that are similar at all four incident energies. The correlations multiplied by the multiplicity density increase with incident energy and the centrality dependence may show evidence of processes such as thermalization, minijet production, or the saturation of transverse flow. The square root of the correlations divided by the event-wise average transverse momentum per event shows little or no beam energy dependence and generally agrees with previous measurements at the Super Proton Synchrotron.

  18. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Z. [Military Technical Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation Protection Dept.

    1996-10-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author).

  19. US oil dependency and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-12-01

    As an introduction to the seminar of the 30 May 2002 on the US oil dependency and energy security, the author analyzes the different factors which characterize the american petroleum market situation today. A special interest is thus done to the price increase of 1999-2000 due to the legislation evolution, the gas market tensions, the impact and the power of the OPEC on the international markets, the 11 September 2001 attempts and their political and military consequences. The author also discusses about three papers written after the seminar. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy dependence of double photoionization in He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrah, N.; Wehlitz, R.; Levin, J.; Whitfield, S.B.; Viefhaus, J.; Sellin, I.A.; Becker, U.

    1993-01-01

    The ratio of double-to-single ionization of He has been measured between 280 eV and 1210 eV to investigate its energy dependence in the intermediate region. The new intermediate energy measurement, compared with the most recent theories of Pan and Kelly and of Hino and Hino et al., show the importance of including not only ground state but also final state correlations. They also appear to indicate the importance of including higher-order effects in the theory. The previously reported high energy measurements between 2-12 keV give a ratio of 1.5 (2)% in good agreement with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain and of Aberg, as well as with recent many-body perturbation theory of Ishihara et al., calculations of Dalgarno and Sadeghpour, and of Andersson and Burgdoerfer. In contrast to the intermediate energy behavior, consideration of final state correlations proves inessential as discussed by Dalgarno and Sadeghpour. (orig.)

  1. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-09-29

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T{sub fill} =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T{sub fill}<130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B{sub i}O{sub i} defects, or negative contributions from three deep

  2. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-01-01

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10 14 cm -2 . In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T fill =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T fill <130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V 2 , V 3 and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B i O i defects, or negative contributions from three deep acceptors H(116K), H(140K) and H(152K).

  3. Nuclear three-body problem and energy-dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, A.; Akhmadkhodzhaev, B.; Zubarev, A.L.; Irgaziev, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Energy-dependent potentials in the three-body problem are being considered. Three-particle equations for the case of pairing energy-dependent potentials are generalized and the problems related to this ambiguous generalization are investigated. In terms of the equations obtained the tritium binding energy and vertex coupling constants (Tdn) and (Tdν) are evaluated. The binding energy and, especially, coupling constants are shown to be sensitive to a shape of the energy-dependent potential

  4. Nuclear symmetry energy in density dependent hadronic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2008-12-01

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy and the correlation between parameters of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb are investigated in relativistic Hadronic models. The dependency of the symmetry energy on density is linear around saturation density. Correlation exists between the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb and the value of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density, but not with the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. (author)

  5. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  6. Occupation number dependence of molecular energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambiagi, M.S. de; Giambiagi, M.; Ferreira, R.

    1977-08-01

    The Roothaan expression for the energy of a closed-shell molecular system is generalized in order to apply to open shells. A continuous variation from 0 to 2 is supposed for each level's occupation number, extending to this range tbe correction due to the spurious repulsion appearing in the half-electron method. The characteristic equations of the Xα method are applied to the energy expressions. The one level case is discussed in detail. Ionic and excited states of the 1,3 transbutadiene π system are analyzed

  7. Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

  8. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France); [Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  9. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  10. Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F.

    2013-01-01

    We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect

  11. Energy dependence of ion guiding through nanocapillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiessl, K.; Lemell, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Toekesi, K.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this work, we model the transmission of Ne 7+ ions with varying kinetic energies ranging from 2 to 9 keV through Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries with a diameter of 200 nm (see Fig. 1). We have simulated the ion transmission through insulating nanocapillaries using a mean-field classical-transport theory (see Fig. 2.). Ion trajectories are propagated in the combined fields of charges deposited on the capillary wall, their polarization charges, the projectile image charge, and the macroscopic field from neighboring capillaries. The simulation avoids any freely adjustable parameters in order to be predictive and to provide qualitative insights into underlying mechanisms. We have varied projectile energy and angle of incidence and have tested different models of dielectric shielding. Best agreement with experimental data is found for dielectrically screened surfaces charges. Response and transport employs linear response only. Reasonable agreement with data could be found employing only macroscopic material parameters of PET like dielectric constant, surface and bulk conductivity

  12. Energy dependence of opaqueness for pp collisions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, T T

    1978-01-01

    Opaqueness of pp collisions is evaluated at three CERN-ISR energies. Comparisons with predictions of the factorisable eikonal models and the scaling hypothesis are made. It appears that results are in favour of the factorisable models. (20 refs).

  13. Energy-dependent inversion of p+16O scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    A fast iterative procedure is developed to determine potentials by inversion from elastic cross section, analysing powers and reaction cross-section measurements covering a wide energy range. The procedure incorporates both energy and parity dependence. The method is applied to extensive p+ 16 O scattering data for an energy range from 27.3 to 46.1 MeV, giving a solution which simultaneously reproduces the data at all energies. The wide angle data is well reproduced by including parity dependence and a linear energy dependence is established for the real potential, including the parity-dependent component. The real terms agree qualitatively with potentials derived from the single channel RGM, but the central and spin-orbit imaginary components have distinct features strongly suggestive of further non-local contributions, possibly arising from channel coupling. The large data set is found essential to reduce the potential ambiguities present when fitting scattering data. (orig.)

  14. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  15. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-10-15

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  16. Tackling Dependency: The EU and its Energy Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Europe is facing a future of augmenting energy demands, domestic depletion, high prices and other energy-political challenges. Climate change, infrastructure resilience, producers' coercive energy policy and the EU's internal market failures have put stress on the EU's emerging energy policy and inspired the union to address its challenges with greater enthusiasm than before. Some of the EU's challenges call for strategic choices of a magnitude that EU is not used to handle. The aim of this report is therefore to identify, analyse and assess the political side of Europe's energy predicament and import dependency. Against the background of increasing dependence on energy imports, the report tries to answer questions: what are the key dimensions of Europe's energy security and what are their consequences?

  17. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as

  18. Energy-dependent collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited azulene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Barker, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer parameters for highly vibrationally excited azulene have been deduced from new infrared fluorescence (IRF) emission lifetime data with an improved calibration relating IRF intensity to vibrational energy [J. Shi, D. Bernfeld, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 88, XXXX (1988), preceding paper]. In addition, data from previous experiments [M. J. Rossi, J. R. Pladziewicz, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6695 (1983)] have been reanalyzed based on the improved calibration. Inversion of the IRF decay curves produced plots of energy decay, which were analyzed to determine , the average energy transferred per collision. Master equation simulations reproduced both the original IRF decays and the deduced energy decays. A third (simple) method of determination agrees well with the other two. The results show to be nearly directly proportional to the vibrational energy of the excited azulene from ∼8000 to 33 000 cm -1 . At high energies, there are indications that the energy dependence may be slightly reduced

  19. Equivalence between deep energy-dependent and shallow angular momentum dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedeldey, H.; Sofianos, S.A.; Papastylianos, A.; Amos, K.A.; Allen, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently Baye showed that supersymmetry can be applied to determine a shallow l-dependent potential phase equivalent to a deep potential, assumed to be energy-independent and have Panli forbidden states (PFS), for α-α scattering. The PFS are eliminated by this procedure. Such deep potentials are generated as equivalent local potentials (ELP) to the Resonating Group Model (RGM) and are generally energy-dependent. To eliminate this E-dependence as required for the application of Baye's method, l-dependent, but E-independent, deep local potentials were generated by the exact inversion method of Marchenko. Subsequently, the supersymmetric method was used to eliminate the PFS, ensuring that the generalized Levinson theorem is satisfied. As an example, the method was applied to the simple model of two dineutrons scattering in the RGM, where the deep ELP of Horiuchi has a substantial energy-dependence and one PFS only for l=O. 16 refs., 5 figs

  20. Role of renewable energy policies in energy dependency in Finland: System dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Helo, Petri; Naaranoja, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A system dynamics model for evaluating renewable energy policies on dependency is proposed. • The model considers the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply in Finland. • Dependency on imported sources will decrease depends on the defined scenarios in Finland. - Abstract: Objective: We discuss the role of diversification on dependency and security of energy supply. A system dynamics model with especial focus on the role of renewable energy resources (as a portfolio) on Finland’s energy dependency is developed. The purpose is also to cover a part of research gap exists in the system dynamics modeling of energy security investigations. Methods: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies. The analysis describes the relationship between dynamic factors such as RE encouragement packages, dependency, and energy demand. Results: A causal loops diagram and a system dynamics model evaluate three different Finnish scenarios of renewable energy policies by 2020. Conclusion: Analysis shows that despite 7% electricity/heat consumption growth by 2020 in Finland, dependency on imported sources will decrease between 1% and 7% depend on the defined scenarios. Practice Implications: The proposed model not only helps decision makers to test their scenarios related to renewable energy polices, it can be implemented by other countries

  1. Energy-dependent point interactions in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, F A B; Nogami, Y; Tomio, Lauro; Toyama, F M

    2005-01-01

    We consider a new type of point interaction in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. It is characterized by a boundary condition at the origin that involves the second and/or higher order derivatives of the wavefunction. The interaction is effectively energy dependent. It leads to a unitary S-matrix for the transmission-reflection problem. The energy dependence of the interaction can be chosen such that any given unitary S-matrix (or the transmission and reflection coefficients) can be reproduced at all energies. Generalization of the results to coupled-channel cases is discussed

  2. Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei

  3. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  4. Density and starting-energy dependent effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Norio; Nagata, Sinobu; Kasuga, Teruo

    1979-01-01

    A new effective potential constructed from the reaction matrix calculation of nuclear matters is proposed, taking three-body effects into account. Starting from the two-body scattering equation for nuclear matters, an equation with averaged momentum is introduced as the definition of effective interaction. The parameters in the equation are the Fermi momentum and the starting energy. The nuclear density dependence and the starting energy dependence are independently treated in the potential. The effective interactions including three-body effects were calculated. The dependence on the starting energy is large. The effective interaction is more attractive in the triplet E state, and assures overall saturation without any artificial renormalization. The reaction matrix calculation can be well reproduced by the calculation with this effective potential. The results of calculation for the binding energy of He-4 and O-16 and the shell model matrix elements of O-16 are represented. (Kato, T.)

  5. Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude

  7. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from ~5 K to ~300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Energy based model for temperature dependent ferromagnetic behavior. • Simultaneously accounts for effect of temperature and inhomogeneities. • Benchmarked against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K.

  9. Energy dependence on the electric activities of a neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xin-Lin; Ma Jun; Jin Wu-Yin

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear circuit can be designed by using inductor, resistor, capacitor and other electric devices, and the electromagnetic field energy can be released from the circuit in the oscillating state. The generation of spikes or bursting states in neurons could be energetically a costly process. Based on the Helmholtz’s theorem, a Hamilton energy function is defined to detect the energy shift induced by transition of electric modes in a Hindmarsh–Rose neuron. It is found that the energy storage is dependent on the external forcing, and energy release is associated with the electric mode. As a result, the bursting state and chaotic state could be helpful to release the energy in the neuron quickly. (paper)

  10. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  11. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: chyang@nuist.edu.c [Faculty of Maths and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xu, W. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  12. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  13. Energy-dependent losses in pulsed-feedback preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1978-11-01

    Energy dependent counting losses occur in most pulsed-feedback preamplifiers due to the loss of those pulses which activate the recharge system. A pulsed-feedback system that overcomes this inefficiency is described. Pulsed-light feedback as used with germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is discussed as used at high energies and high rates where those losses become significant. Experimental results are presented

  14. Ideal gas scattering kernel for energy dependent cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.; Dagan, R.

    1998-01-01

    A third, and final, paper on the calculation of the joint kernel for neutron scattering by an ideal gas in thermal agitation is presented, when the scattering cross-section is energy dependent. The kernel is a function of the neutron energy after scattering, and of the cosine of the scattering angle, as in the case of the ideal gas kernel for a constant bound atom scattering cross-section. The final expression is suitable for numerical calculations

  15. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Sun, Keye; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis; Gupta, Mool C.; Choi, Joshua J.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  16. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  17. Study of heavy quarkonium with energy dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pramila; Mehrotra, I

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that charmonium and bottonium states can be calculated by using a nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation. The basic reasons are: 1) the mass of charm and bottom quarks is much larger than QCD scale, which makes this system free of strong normalization effects and 2) the binding energy is small compared to the mass energy ψ and γ states in terms of nonrelativistic qq system governed by more or less phenomenological potentials. In the present work we have studied mass spectra of charmonium and bottonium using the following energy dependent model in the framework of nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation

  18. Dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.E.; Newton, J.O.; Sobotka, L.G.; Lindenberger, H.; Wozniak, G.J.; Moretto, L.G.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; McDonald, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of γ rays associated with deep-inelastic products from the 1150-MeV 136 Xe+ 181 Ta reaction have been measured. The yield of 10--20-MeV γ rays initially increases rapidly with the excitation energy of the products and then more slowly for excitation energies in excess of 120 MeV. Statistical-model calculations with ground-state values of the giant dipole strength function fail to reproduce the shape of the measured γ-ray spectra. This suggests a dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

  19. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant.

  20. The three body problem with energy dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; McKay, C.M.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1975-10-01

    It is shown how to generalize the three body equations of Faddeev, and of Karlsson and Zeiger, to include the case when the two body potential is energy dependent. Such generalizations will prove useful in the three nucleon problem and in three body models of nuclear reactions. (author)

  1. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface excitations of the fusing nuclei are found to be ...

  2. Inelastic surface vibrations versus energy-dependent nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Limitations of the static Woods–Saxon potential and the applicability of the energy- dependent Woods–Saxon potential (EDWSP) model within the framework of one-dimensional. Wong formula to explore the sub-barrier fusion data are highlighted. The inelastic surface exci- tations of the fusing nuclei are found to ...

  3. Energy dependence of critical state of single-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Equations of critical states of the single-component systems: Psub(cr)(/Psub(o)=(Tsub(cr)/Tsub(o))x0.73, Tsub(cr)=K(Tsub(boil))sup(1.116) and Hsub(cr)(/Hsub(B)=Tsub(sr)/Tsub(B))sup(1.48) where Tsub(B)=1K, Hsub(B)-2 kcal/g-at, K-dimension factor are presented. It is shown that the revealed dependence Hsub(cr)=H(Tsub(cr)) is an energy boundary of a liquid-vapour phase state of the single-component systems beyond limits of which difference between liquid and vapour phases vanishes in increasing the system energy content. The given equations of state are true for all the single-component systems and permit to consider physicomechanical properties of substances in dynamic state depending on external conditions. Critical temperatures and dependences for elements from the most fusible He to infusible W and Re have been calculated

  4. Computing more proper covariances of energy dependent nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhanen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper. • We provide methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances in ENDF-6 format. • We propose methods to find nearby more proper covariances. • The methods can be used as a part of a quality assurance program. - Abstract: We present conditions for covariances of energy dependent nuclear data to be proper in the sense that the covariances are positive, i.e., its eigenvalues are non-negative, and consistent with respect to the sum rules of nuclear data. For the ENDF-6 format covariances we present methods to detect non-positive and inconsistent covariances. These methods would be useful as a part of a quality assurance program. We also propose methods that can be used to find nearby more proper energy dependent covariances. These methods can be used to remove unphysical components, while preserving most of the physical components. We consider several different senses in which the nearness can be measured. These methods could be useful if a re-evaluation of improper covariances is not feasible. Two practical examples are processed and analyzed. These demonstrate some of the properties of the methods. We also demonstrate that the ENDF-6 format covariances of linearly dependent nuclear data should usually be encoded with the derivation rules.

  5. Bremsstrahlung of La and its dependence on electron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riehle, F.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of La-bremsstrahlung isocromates with high resolution for quantum energies between 135 eV and 1867 eV are presented and discussed. In the whole energy range investigated, the isocromate structure, identified with the 4f band of La, is placed 5,45 +- 10,1 eV above the Fermi level. This is in contradiction with a calculation of Gloetzel, which predicts the 4f band maximum about 3eV above the Fermi level. This discrepancy is explained in the present work by the fact that the La electronic density of states depends on the occupation number of the states. The bremsstrahlung isocromate has to be considered as a direct copy of the La ion density of states, consisting of the La-atom and the additional primary electron. Resonance like intensity modulations of the x-ray radiation, resulting from transitions of the primary electron in f-like final states, are observed in an analysis of the La-bremsstrahlung isochromate energy dependence. For transitions of the primary electron in d-like final states, no resonances have been found. The energy dependence of the scattering probability in f-like final states can be explained by a model which assumes the final state as composed by a continuum state and a discrete state. (orig.) [de

  6. Generalized Energy-Dependent Q Values for Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2010-03-31

    We extend Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q value for major and minor actinides on the incident neutron energies in the range 0 {le} E{sub n} {le} 20 MeV. Our parameterization is based on the actinide evaluations recommended for the ENDF/B-VII.1 release. This paper describes the calculation of energydependent fission Q values based on the calculation of the prompt energy release in fission by Madland. This calculation was adopted for use in the LLNL ENDL database and then generalized to obtain the prompt fission energy release for all actinides. Here the calculation is further generalized to the total energy release in fission. There are several stages in a fission event, depending on the time scale. Neutrons and gammas may be emitted at any time during the fission event.While our discussion here is focussed on compound nucleus creation by an incident neutron, similar parameterizations could be obtained for incident gammas or spontaneous fission.

  7. Getting to Grips Again with Dependency. Japan's Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrisstoffels, J.H.

    2007-08-01

    Japan has had to deal with a high level of dependency on energy imports for many decades. Today the country faces an increasingly competitive global energy market that forces it to reinvent its traditional security of supply policies. Unfortunately for Japan, the rise of China and India is increasing the competition for scarce energy supplies among consumer countries, whereas in the past supplier countries competed for access to the attractive Japanese market. To confront the challenges of the new environment the Japanese government has drafted a New National Energy Strategy. This paper analyses the strength of the strategy's proposals and targets, in particular those aimed at improving security of oil and gas supply. To assess the impact of the strategy we place it firmly against the background of Japan's history of energy security policy, as well as Japan's recent experiences with 'strategic resource projects'. This paper finds that Japan's policies in post-1973 history have been impeded by a complex set of factors. Traditionally this set has included Japan's troubled bilateral relations with Russia and China, and Japan's security dependence on the United States. Other factors are Japan's inability to synchronise national and corporate interests, and a lack of cooperation between domestic energy companies. More recently, rising oil prices, growing resource competition with China and lacklustre domestic demand-growth for energy have increased anxiety about security of supply amongst policymakers in Tokyo. In three case studies the paper illustrates in detail how these factors - in combination or by themselves - have structurally compromised Japanese initiatives to improve security of supply. The case studies discuss the Azadegan oil development project in Iran, plans for a pan-Siberian oil pipeline, and the oil and gas projects on Russia's Sakhalin Island. Our analysis of the New National Energy Strategy confirms that energy security is back on Japan's policy

  8. Study of energy dependence of a extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Fernanda M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2014-01-01

    This work was with the main objective to study the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber in low energy X-rays to determine the value of the uncertainty associated with the variation of the incident radiation energy in the measures in which it is used. For studying the dependence of energy, were conducted comparative ionization current measurements between the extrapolation chamber and two ionization chambers: a chamber mammography, RC6M model, Radcal with energy dependence less than 5% and a 2575 model radioprotection chamber NE Technology; both chambers have very thin windows, allowing its application in low power beams. Measurements were made at four different depths of 1.0 to 4.0 mm extrapolation chamber, 1.0 mm interval, for each reference radiation. The study showed that there is a variable energy dependence on the volume of the extrapolation chamber. In other analysis, it is concluded that the energy dependence of extrapolation chamber becomes smaller when using the slope of the ionization current versus depth for the different radiation reference; this shows that the extrapolation technique, used for the absorbed dose calculation, reduces the uncertainty associated with the influence of the response variation with energy radiation

  9. Model dependence of energy-weighted sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to energy-weighted sum rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions is investigated. It is found that only isoscalar electric transitions might have model-independent energy-weighted sum rules. For these transitions, explicit momentum and angular momentum dependence of the nuclear force give rise to corrections to the sum rule which are found to be negligibly small, thus confirming the model independence of these specific sum rules. These conclusions are unaffected by correlation effects. (author)

  10. Possible energy dependence of Θ13 in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, Frans R.

    2005-01-01

    A simple three-flavor neutrino-oscillation model is discussed which has both nonzero mass differences and timelike Fermi-point splittings, together with a combined bi-maximal and trimaximal mixing pattern. One possible consequence would be new effects in ν μ →ν e oscillations, characterized by an energy-dependent effective mixing angle Θ 13 . Future experiments such as T2K and NOνA, and perhaps even the current MINOS experiment, could look for these effects

  11. Dependence of balance energy on isospin degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sood, Aman D.; Puri, Rajeev K.; Hartnack, Ch.; Aichelin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Collective transverse in-plane flow in heavy ion collisions has been a subject of intensive theoretical and experimental studies, as it can provide information about the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) as well as in medium nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross section. The study of dependence of collective transverse flow on various entrance channel parameters as beam energy and impact parameter has revealed much interesting physics about the origin and properties of the collective flow. From these studies, it has been found that the transverse in plane flow disappears at an incident energy termed as balance energy (E bal ), where attractive part of the nuclear interactions balances the repulsive part. Presently, due to availability of the radioactive beams, role of isospin degrees of freedom in EOS can be studied. The collective transverse in-plane flow has been found to depend on isospin of the colliding system. Here, we aim to study the dependence of E bal on N/Z ratio of the colliding system using IQMD model

  12. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  13. Rapidity dependence of strangeness enhancement factor at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Kalyan; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2014-01-01

    Strange particles are produced only at the time of collisions and thus expected to carry important information of collision dynamics. Strangeness enhancement is considered to be one of the traditional signatures of formation of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Due to the limitation of the detector acceptance, the past and ongoing heavy ion experiments could measure the strangeness enhancement at midrapidity only. But the future heavy ion experiment CBM at FAIR will have the access to the entire forward rapidity hemisphere and thus the experimental determination of rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement is a possibility. In this work, an attempt has therefore been made to study the rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement at FAIR energies with the help of a string based hadronic model (UrQMD). A sum of 93 million minimum biased UrQMD events have been used for the present analysis

  14. Energy dependence of strangeness production and event-byevent fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustamov Anar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the energy dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and contrast it with the experimental observations in pp and p-A collisions at LHC energies as a function of the charged particle multiplicities. For the high multiplicity final states the results from pp and p-Pb reactions systematically approach the values obtained from Pb-Pb collisions. In statistical models this implies an approach to the thermodynamic limit, where differences of mean multiplicities between various formalisms, such as Canonical and Grand Canonical Ensembles, vanish. Furthermore, we report on event-by-event net-proton fluctuations as measured by STAR at RHIC/BNL and by ALICE at LHC/CERN and discuss various non-dynamical contributions to these measurements, which should be properly subtracted before comparison to theoretical calculations on dynamical net-baryon fluctuations.

  15. The energy dependence of neutron-proton charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.; Diu, R.

    1978-01-01

    The new Fermilab data on up charge exchange are analysed phenomenologically, to determine the energy dependence of the amplitudes in the corresponding domain (60 2 trajectories. If one imposes the presence of standard rho-A 2 terms (three-component analysis), one has to introduce a pomeronlike contribution, with a trajectory α approximately equal to 1.0+0.25t. In both cases, the resulting parametrization gives a good description of the data from Psub(lab)=1GeV/c up to 300GeV/c

  16. Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed

  17. Energy-dependent applications of the transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztunali, O.I.; Aronson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is applied to energy-dependent neutron transport problems for multiplying and nonmultiplying media in one-dimensional plane geometry. Experimental cross sections are used for total, elastic, and inelastic scattering and fission. Numerical solutions are presented for the problem of a unit point isotropic source in an infinite medium of water and for the problem of the critical 235 U slab with finite water reflectors. No iterations were necessary in this method. Numerical results obtained are consistent with physical considerations and compare favorably with the moments method results for the problem of the unit point isotropic source in an infinite water medium. (U.S.)

  18. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yancai; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  19. Effects of symmetry energy and momentum dependent interaction on low-energy reaction mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dipole response associated with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR and the Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR, in connection with specific properties of the nuclear effective interaction (symmetry energy and momentum dependence, in the neutron-rich systems 68Ni, 132Sn and 208Pb. We perform our investigation within a microscopic transport model based on the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation.We observe that the peak energies of PDR and IVGDR are shifted to higher values when employing momentum dependent interactions, with respect to the results obtained neglecting momentum dependence. The calculated energies are close to the experimental values and similar to the results obtained in Hartree-Fock (HF with Random Phase Approximation (RPA calculations.

  20. Low energy neutron scattering for energy dependent cross sections. General considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenstein, W; Dagan, R [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    We consider in this paper some aspects related to neutron scattering at low energies by nuclei which are subject to thermal agitation. The scattering is determined by a temperature dependent joint scattering kernel, or the corresponding joint probability density, which is a function of two variables, the neutron energy after scattering, and the cosine of the angle of scattering, for a specified energy and direction of motion of the neutron, before the interaction takes place. This joint probability density is easy to calculate, when the nucleus which causes the scattering of the neutron is at rest. It can be expressed by a delta function, since there is a one to one correspondence between the neutron energy change, and the cosine of the scattering angle. If the thermal motion of the target nucleus is taken into account, the calculation is rather more complicated. The delta function relation between the cosine of the angle of scattering and the neutron energy change is now averaged over the spectrum of velocities of the target nucleus, and becomes a joint kernel depending on both these variables. This function has a simple form, if the target nucleus behaves as an ideal gas, which has a scattering cross section independent of energy. An energy dependent scattering cross section complicates the treatment further. An analytic expression is no longer obtained for the ideal gas temperature dependent joint scattering kernel as a function of the neutron energy after the interaction and the cosine of the scattering angle. Instead the kernel is expressed by an inverse Fourier Transform of a complex integrand, which is averaged over the velocity spectrum of the target nucleus. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Energy and zenith angle dependence of atmospheric muons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K

    1973-01-01

    The recently proposed new process for energetic-muon production in the atmosphere should be tested at Mt. Chacaltaya. Rigorous calculations of zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric muons have been made for the altitude of 5200 m above sea level with energy range from 100 GeV to 100 TeV and for zenith angles from 0 degrees to 92.3 degrees . Calculations are based on the extension of the Chapman function to the case of a non-isothermal atmosphere, taking into account (i) energy- dependent nuclear-interaction mean free path of cosmic-ray hadrons in air, (ii) different magnitudes of photonuclear cross-section in the energy-loss process of muons in the atmosphere, (iii) contributions of atmospheric muons arriving below the horizontal directions, and (iv) atmospheric structure and geomagnetic deflection. Results are compared with those corresponding to sea level. Range straggling, particularly its effect on horizontally incident muons, is investigated by Monte Carlo calculation, indicating that its effects and t...

  2. Energy dependence of radiation interaction parameters of some organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohinder; Tondon, Akash; Sandhu, B. S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2018-04-01

    Gamma rays interact with a material through photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering and Pair production in the intermediate energy range. The probability of occurrence of a particular type of process depends on the energy of incident gamma rays, atomic number of the material, scattering angle and geometrical conditions. Various radiological parameters for organic compounds, namely ethylene glycol (C2H6O2), propylene glycol (C3H8O2), glycerin (C3H8O3), isoamyl alcohol (C5H12O), butanone (C4H8O), acetophenone (C8H8O2), cyclohexanone (C6H10O), furfural (C5H4O2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O), cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O), glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2), aniline (C6H7N), benzyl amine (C6H7N), nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2), ethyl benzene (C8H10), ethyl formate (C3H6O2) and water (H2O) are presented at 81, 122, 356 and 511 keV energies employing NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in narrow-beam transmission geometry. The radiation interaction parameters such as mass attenuation, molar extinction and mass energy absorption coefficients, half value layer, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and CT number have been evaluated for these organic compounds. The general trend of values of mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer, molar extinction coefficients, total atomic and effective electronic cross-sections and mass energy absorption coefficients shows a decrease with increase in incident gamma photon energy. The values of CT number are found to increases linearly with increase of effective atomic number (Zeff). The variation in CT number around Zeff ≈ 3.3 shows the peak like structure with respect to water and the correlation between CT number and linear attenuation coefficient is about 0.99. Appropriate equations are fitted to these experimentally determined parameters for the organic compounds at incident photon energy ranging from 81 keV to 511 keV used in the present study. Experimental values are compared with the theoretical data obtained using Win

  3. Personnel β-dosimetry method for reducing energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Jones, D.E.; Gupta, V.P.; Kalbeitzer, F.L.; Cusimano, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    Current practices for the measurement of skin dose are reviewed and found to be inadequate. The current INEL dosimeter was examined for systematic and random error. Systematic (i.e., variation with energy) error was found to range over a factor of 10 while the random error was reasonably small for the larger β/γ ratios. Other designs with thicker windows as is more common would show even larger systematic errors. Various methods for improving beta dosimetry were reviewed. A new dosimeter design utilizing three chips, each having a window of difference thickness, was proposed. According to the calculations, this dosimeter should markedly reduce systematic error but will introduce somewhat more random error. Preliminary measurements were carried out related to angular dependence and charged particle equilibrium. The proposed dosimeter design was tested with betas from a uranium slab. The average of the seven results was in excellent agreement with the known dose rate and the standard deviation of the result was 16%

  4. Dose energy dependence in proton imaging with thin detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denyak, V.V., E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Akademicheskaya 1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim 1632, Curitiba 80250-200 (Brazil); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Silva, R.C.L.; Kozuki, C.; Paschuk, S.A.; Milhoretto, E. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Since the earliest works proposing the use of protons for imaging, the main advantage of protons over X-rays was expected to be a result of the specific property of the proton flux dropping off very steeply at the end of the particle range. This idea was declared but was not checked. In the present work, this assumption was investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation for the case of registration of protons with a thin detector. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Principal idea of proton imaging 'to work at the end of the range' was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The case of thin detector was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dose energy dependence was calculated using computer simulation.

  5. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  6. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  7. Electron transfer in organic glass. Distance and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongauz, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have investigated the distance and energy dependence of electron transfer in rigid organic glasses containing randomly dispersed electron donor and electron acceptor molecules. Pulsed radiolysis by an electron beam from a linear accelerator was used for ionization resulting in charge deposition on donor molecules. The disappearance kinetics of donor radical anions due to electron transfer to acceptor was monitored spectroscopically by the change in optical density at the wavelength corresponding to that of donor radical anion absorbance. It was found that the rate of the electron transfer observed experimentally was higher than that computed using the Marcus-Levich theory assuming that the electron-transfer activation barrier is equal to the binding energy of electron on the donor molecule. This discrepancy between the experimental and computed results suggests that the open-quotes inertclose quotes media in which electron-transfer reaction takes place may be participating in the process, resulting in experimentally observed higher electron-transfer rates. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Density dependence of the nuclear energy-density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Park, Tae-Sun; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background: The explicit density dependence in the coupling coefficients entering the nonrelativistic nuclear energy-density functional (EDF) is understood to encode effects of three-nucleon forces and dynamical correlations. The necessity for the density-dependent coupling coefficients to assume the form of a preferably small fractional power of the density ρ is empirical and the power is often chosen arbitrarily. Consequently, precision-oriented parametrizations risk overfitting in the regime of saturation and extrapolations in dilute or dense matter may lose predictive power. Purpose: Beginning with the observation that the Fermi momentum kF, i.e., the cubic root of the density, is a key variable in the description of Fermi systems, we first wish to examine if a power hierarchy in a kF expansion can be inferred from the properties of homogeneous matter in a domain of densities, which is relevant for nuclear structure and neutron stars. For subsequent applications we want to determine a functional that is of good quality but not overtrained. Method: For the EDF, we fit systematically polynomial and other functions of ρ1 /3 to existing microscopic, variational calculations of the energy of symmetric and pure neutron matter (pseudodata) and analyze the behavior of the fits. We select a form and a set of parameters, which we found robust, and examine the parameters' naturalness and the quality of resulting extrapolations. Results: A statistical analysis confirms that low-order terms such as ρ1 /3 and ρ2 /3 are the most relevant ones in the nuclear EDF beyond lowest order. It also hints at a different power hierarchy for symmetric vs. pure neutron matter, supporting the need for more than one density-dependent term in nonrelativistic EDFs. The functional we propose easily accommodates known or adopted properties of nuclear matter near saturation. More importantly, upon extrapolation to dilute or asymmetric matter, it reproduces a range of existing microscopic

  9. Energy dependence of ulrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons and high energy X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, T.

    1977-02-01

    The energy dependence of ultrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons (5-40 MeV) and high energy X-radiation (6 MV, 42 MV) is experimentally determined. The experimental values are compared to values calculted earlier by other authors. The influence of the thickness of the dosemeters have been considered by comparison of experimental values for 0.03 mm thick dosemeters and theoretical values for 0.13 mm and 0.38 mm thick ones. Also different commersially available dosemeters have been compared by experiments. It is difficult to draw any other conclutions about the energy dependence than that the variation of the relative responce is within +- 3 percent (2S). However the results seems to be sulficient for clinical applications

  10. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenau, Melanie; Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus; Sommer, Holger; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2016-08-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm(3)) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a (60)Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks' formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks' formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV(-1) cm(-2). The energy response was quantified relative to the response to (60)Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The observed energy dependence could be well explained with the

  11. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebenau, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.ebenau@tu-dortmunde.de; Sommer, Holger; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Str. 4a, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Flühs, Dirk [Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume <1 mm{sup 3}) made from the commonly used plastic scintillator BC400. Methods: Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a {sup 60}Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks’ formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. Results: The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks’ formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. Conclusions: The energy response was quantified relative to the response to {sup 60}Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The

  12. Charge-dependent and A-dependent effects in isotope shifts of Coulomb displacement energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, R.

    1977-01-01

    Coulomb displacement energies in a series of isotopes generally decrease with A. This decrease can arise from an increase with A of the average distance of interaction between pairs of protons. In the shell model a decrease can also result from charge-independence-breaking effects if the neutron-proton interaction for the valence nucleons is more attractive than the neutron-neutron interaction. Using the model recently proposed by Sherr and Talmi for the 1d/sub 3/2/ shell, existing data for this shell and also the 1d/sub 5/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells were analyzed allowing all matrix elements to vary as A/sup -lambda/3/. Least squares calculations of the rms deviation sigma were carried out for varying values of lambda from -2 to +2. It was found that although there was a minimum in sigma vs lambda it was too shallow to exclude any lambda for -1 to +1 in the 1d/sub 3/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells or 0 to +1 in the 1d/sub 5/2/ shell. It is therefore not possible to distinguish between A dependence and charge dependence in this model. The magnitude of the latter as expressed in terms of (np-nn) matrix elements depends strongly on the former. As lambda increases from -1 to +1, these (np-nn) matrix elements decrease roughly linearly in absolute magnitude and eventually change sign. For lambda = 0 they have appreciable and reasonable magnitudes for the 1d/sub 3/2/ and 1f/sub 7/2/ shells but for the 1d/sub 5/2/ shell the values are too small to be considered significant

  13. Is there dependence and systemic risk between oil and renewable energy stock prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    We study systemic risk and dependence between oil and renewable energy markets using copulas to characterize the dependence structure and to compute the conditional value-at-risk as a measure of systemic risk. We found significant time-varying average and symmetric tail dependence between oil returns and several global and sectoral renewable energy indices. Our evidence on systemic risk indicates that oil price dynamics significantly contributes around 30% to downside and upside risk of renewable energy companies. These results have important implications for risk management and renewable energy policies. - Highlights: • We study systemic risk and dependence between oil and renewable energy markets. • Dependence and conditional value-at-risk is obtained through copulas. • Oil and renewable energy displayed time-varying average and symmetric tail dependence. • Oil price contribution to the downside and upside risks of renewable energy companies was around 30%

  14. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  15. Neutron-energy-dependent cell survival and oncogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Martin, S G; Komatsu, K; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1999-12-01

    Both cell lethality and neoplastic transformation were assessed for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to neutrons with energies from 0.040 to 13.7 MeV. Monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 0.23 to 13.7 MeV and two neutron energy spectra with average energies of 0.040 and 0.070 MeV were produced with a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) in the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University. For determination of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), cells were exposed to 250 kVp X rays. With exposures to 250 kVp X rays, both cell survival and radiation-induced oncogenic transformation were curvilinear. Irradiation of cells with neutrons at all energies resulted in linear responses as a function of dose for both biological endpoints. Results indicate a complex relationship between RBEm and neutron energy. For both survival and transformation, RBEm was greatest for cells exposed to 0.35 MeV neutrons. RBEm was significantly less at energies above or below 0.35 MeV. These results are consistent with microdosimetric expectation. These results are also compatible with current assessments of neutron radiation weighting factors for radiation protection purposes. Based on calculations of dose-averaged LET, 0.35 MeV neutrons have the greatest LET and therefore would be expected to be more biologically effective than neutrons of greater or lesser energies.

  16. Temperature effects on the nuclear symmetry energy and symmetry free energy with an isospin and momentum dependent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hong-Ru; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An

    2007-01-01

    Within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, we investigate the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) and symmetry free energy F sym (ρ,T) for hot, isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) generally decreases with increasing temperature while the symmetry free energy F sym (ρ,T) exhibits opposite temperature dependence. The decrement of the symmetry energy with temperature is essentially due to the decrement of the potential energy part of the symmetry energy with temperature. The difference between the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy is found to be quite small around the saturation density of nuclear matter. While at very low densities, they differ significantly from each other. In comparison with the experimental data of temperature dependent symmetry energy extracted from the isotopic scaling analysis of intermediate mass fragments (IMF's) in heavy-ion collisions, the resulting density and temperature dependent symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) is then used to estimate the average freeze-out density of the IMF's

  17. Impact of density-dependent symmetry energy and Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-07

    Mar 7, 2014 ... The IMF production increases with the stiffness of symmetry energy. .... to clusterization using minimum spanning tree MST(M) method .... To understand the direct role of Coulomb interactions, we display in figure 4 the mean.

  18. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, L.

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to β decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  19. Image Dependent Energy-Constrained Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we consider and propose two extensions to an optimization-based image dependent backlight dimming algorithm. The first extension introduces error weighting based on human perception of luminance, aiming to improve the perceived image quality; the second extension adds an adjustable ...

  20. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    follows a parabolic behaviour unlike a power-law dependence seen in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. ..... SP thanks Department of Science of Technology, India and SDK thanks. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India for financial support.

  1. Contact angle dependence on the fluid-wall dispersive energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, M.; Heitzig, M.; Dan, C.M.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Menisci of the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones fluid between parallel planar walls are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Thereby, the characteristic energy of the unlike dispersive interaction between fluid molecules and wall atoms is systematically varied to determine its influence

  2. Energy dependence of the molecular effect in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Florio, A.R.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements are reported of sputtering yields of Au for Xe + and Xe 2 + impact in the energy range 1 to 50 keV. It was found that non-linear effects exist well outside the range predicted in a recent thermal spike model. (author)

  3. Energy dependence of the molecular effect in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Florio, A.R.; Alonso, E.V.; Baragiola, R.A.; Ferron, J.; Jakas, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of sputtering yields of Au for Xe + and Xe + 2 impact in the energy range 1-50 keV are given. It was found that non-linear effects exist well outside the range predicted in a recent thermal spike model. (author)

  4. Energy dependence of the emittance of damping ring beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiening, R.

    1985-01-01

    The energy at which the SLC damping rings are operated was chosen to be 1.21 GeV. At the time that that specification was made, the repetition rate of the SLC was expected to be 180 Hz. It is now anticipated that the repetition rate during the initial year of operation of the SLC will be 120 Hz. The following curves which show the output emittance of the damping rings as a function of input emittance and energy suggest that there is a range of energies over which the rings can be operated without changing the SLC luminosity. It should be noted that in the era of polarized beams, the damping ring energy will be fixed at the design value on account of the spin precession required in the LTR and RTL transport lines. The SLC design output emittance of the damping rings is 3 x 10 -5 radian-meters. Because of space charge disruption and quantum emission downstream of the damping rings, much lower values than the design value may not have a large beneficial effect on the luminosity. 3 figures

  5. Generating energy dependent neutron flux maps for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For activation analysis and irradiation scheme of miniature neutron source reactor, designers or engineers usually require information on thermal neutron flux levels and other energy group flux levels (such as fast, resonance and epithermal). A methodology for readily generating such flux maps and flux profiles for any ...

  6. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues; Dependance en energie des spectres isotopiques de residus de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, L

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to {beta} decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  7. Collisional energy dependence of molecular ionization by metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.M.; Parr, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    The collisional energy dependence of several molecular total ionization cross sections by metastable rare gas atoms was studied over the thermal energy region using the crossed molecular beam time-of-flight method. Results are reported for the collision systems He, Ne, and Ar ionizing the geometric isomers cis- and trans-dichloroethylene and ortho- and para-dichlorobenzene. The He ionization cross sections oscillate about an energy dependence of E/sup -1/2/ over the energy range 0.004--1.0 eV, and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene cross section oscillates about an energy dependence of E/sup -2/5/ over the energy range 0.011--0.64 eV. The remaining systems are characterized by ''bent'' E/sup -m/ dependences with m values of 0.56--0.70 at low energies changing to 0.07--0.29 at higher energies. Comparison with the slopes of the He* systems and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene system shows that the ''bent'' and ''oscillating'' energy dependences are similar except for the form of the cross section functions at the lowest energies. No systematic differences are found between the cross section energy dependences for ionization of different geometric isomers or for ionization by the different metastable rare gas atoms

  8. Energy dependence of the Cronin effect from nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Kovner, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of dense partonic systems has been suggested as a novel physics mechanism relevant for the dynamics of p-A and A-A collisions at collider energies. Here we study to what extent the description of Cronin enhancement in the framework of this nonlinear evolution is consistent with the recent observation in √(s)=200 GeV d-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation numerically for several initial conditions encoding Cronin enhancement. We find that the properly normalized nuclear gluon distribution is suppressed at all momenta relative to that of a single nucleon. For the resulting spectrum of produced gluons in p-A and A-A collisions, the nonlinear QCD evolution is unable to generate a Cronin-type enhancement, and it quickly erases any such enhancement which may be present at lower energies

  9. Domain shape dependence of semiclassical corrections to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Stationary solution of a one-dimensional sine-Gordon system is embedded in a multidimensional theory with an explicitly finite domain in the added spatial dimensions. Semiclassical corrections to energy are calculated for a static kink solution with emphasis on the impact of the scale of the domain as well as the choice of boundary conditions on the results for a rectangular cross-section. (paper)

  10. Energy dependence of fast neutron dosimetry using electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.J.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1978-01-01

    Registration of fast-neutron induced recoil tracks by the electrochemical etching technique as applied to sensitive Lexan polycarbonate foils provides a simple and inexpensive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry. The sensitivity (tracks/neutron) of recoil particle registration is given as a function of neutron energy. Neutrons of 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, 3 T (d,n) 4 He and 9 B, respectively. Results are compared with other studies using other neutron sources and conventional etching method

  11. Energy Analysis of the Danish Food Production System: Food-EROI and Fossil Fuel Dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Modern food production depends on limited natural resources for providing energy and fertilisers. We assess the fossil fuel dependency for the Danish food production system by means of Food Energy Returned on fossil Energy Invested (Food-EROI) and by the use of energy intensive nutrients from....... Furthermore, nutrients in commercial fertiliser and imported feed account for 84%, 90% and 90% of total supply of N, P and K, respectively. We conclude that the system is unsustainable because it is embedded in a highly fossil fuel dependent system based on a non-circular flow of nutrients. As energy and thus...... imported livestock feed and commercial fertilisers. The analysis shows that the system requires 221 PJ of fossil energy per year and that for each joule of fossil energy invested in farming, processing and transportation, 0.25 J of food energy is produced; 0.28 when crediting for produced bioenergy...

  12. Effect of temperature-dependent energy-level shifts on a semiconductor's Peltier heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    The Peltier heat of a charge carrier in a semiconductor is calculated for the situation in which the electronic energy levels are temperature dependent. The temperature dependences of the electronic energy levels, generally observed optically, arise from their dependences on the vibrational energy of the lattice (e.g., as caused by thermal expansion). It has been suggested that these temperature dependences will typically have a major effect on the Peltier heat. The Peltier heat associated with a given energy level is a thermodynamic quantity; it is the product of the temperature and the change of the entropy of the system when a carrier is added in that level. As such, the energy levels cannot be treated as explicitly temperature dependent. The electron-lattice interaction causing the temperature dependence must be expressly considered. It is found that the carrier's interaction with the atomic vibrations lowers its electronic energy. However, the interaction of the carrier with the atomic vibrations also causes an infinitesimal lowering (approx.1/N) of each of the N vibrational frequencies. As a result, there is a finite carrier-induced increase in the average vibrational energy. Above the Debye temperature, this cancels the lowering of the carrier's electronic energy. Thus, the standard Peltier-heat formula, whose derivation generally ignores the temperature dependence of the electronic energy levels, is regained. This explains the apparent success of the standard formula in numerous analyses of electronic transport experiments

  13. Energy dependence of a local equivalent potential for RGM phase shifts for 16O + 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Tahar, S.; Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.; Wada, T.

    1993-01-01

    We have found, using the IP inversion method, the local representation of a potential that in S(l) equivalent to the RGM nonlocal potential of Wada and Horiuchi. Phase shifts corresponding to RGM calculations at laboratory energies 30, 41, 49, 59, 150, 350 and 500 MeV were inverted and the resulting local potentials compared with the local (but l-dependent) potentials obtained previously in the WKB-RGM scheme. The present l-independent potentials exhibit a smooth radial variation and show marked differences from previous results. The energy dependence arises from that of the exchange term and from the conversion of the l-dependence into an additional energy dependence. In particular, we show that the energy dependence of the volume integrals in this energy region is different from earlier WKB-RGM predictions. (orig.)

  14. Energy dependences of absorption in beryllium windows and argon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C.T.; Staudenmann, J-P.

    1994-01-01

    In part of an ongoing work on x-ray form factors, new absorption coefficients are being evaluated for all elements, across the energy range from below 100 eV to above 100 keV. These new coefficients are applied herein to typical problems in synchrotron radiation stations, namely the use of beryllium windows and argon gas detectors. Results are compared with those of other authors. The electron-ion pair production process in ionization chambers is discussed, and the effects of 3d-element impurities are indicated. 15 refs., 6 figs

  15. Interatomic scattering in energy dependent photoelectron spectra of Ar clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patanen, M.; Benkoula, S.; Nicolas, C.; Goel, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Antonsson, E. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Fachbereich Biologie, Chemie, Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustrasse 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Neville, J. J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 6E2 (Canada); Miron, C., E-mail: Catalin.Miron@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), ‘Horia Hulubei’ National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului Street, RO-077125 Măgurele, Jud. Ilfov (Romania)

    2015-09-28

    Soft X-ray photoelectron spectra of Ar 2p levels of atomic argon and argon clusters are recorded over an extended range of photon energies. The Ar 2p intensity ratios between atomic argon and clusters’ surface and bulk components reveal oscillations similar to photoelectron extended X-ray absorption fine structure signal (PEXAFS). We demonstrate here that this technique allows us to analyze separately the PEXAFS signals from surface and bulk sites of free-standing, neutral clusters, revealing a bond contraction at the surface.

  16. Mass- and energy-dependence of (π+,π-) double isobaric analog transitions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, T.

    1988-01-01

    Transitions to double isobaric analog states (DIAT) have been measured in the double charge exchange (DCX) reaction (π + ,π - ) for the nuclei 26 Mg, 56 Fe at Tsub(π+) = 49 MeV and for 18 O at Tsub(π+) = 24 MeV, 33 MeV, 49 MeV, 64 MeV and 79 MeV for several angles. The experiments have been performed at the pion channels M13 and M11 of TRIUMF using the low energy pion spectrometer QQD. The forward angle cross sections for 18 O can be understood in a quark model as well as in conventional models where the reaction is mainly proceeding through intermediate deltas or low lying excited states of the intermediate nucleus. The angular distribution of 26 Mg at 49 MeV is found to be almost identical to those of 14 C and 18 O while the cross section remarkedly drops for 56 Fe. The forward angle excitation function of 18 O exhibits a maximum at around 35 MeV. The present results are compared to theoretical predictions. Two approaches for a unified study of SCX and DCX at energies ranging from 20 MeV up to 300 MeV are presented. The first is carried out in a mean free path model for investigations of geometry effects in the reaction. For the second, the optical model code PIESDEX is employed. Both studies indicate that the observed mass dependence for DCX at 50 MeV can be explained partly by geometry considerations and partly by details in the nuclear matter distributions of core neutrons and valence neutrons. Furthermore, the optical model investigation reveals the need of shifting the free πN-SCX amplitude down by 30 MeV in order to achieve good agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  17. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  18. An efficient and accurate method to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for general potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T; Heller, E J; Parrott, R E

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent quantum mechanics provides an intuitive picture of particle propagation in external fields. Semiclassical methods link the classical trajectories of particles with their quantum mechanical propagation. Many analytical results and a variety of numerical methods have been developed to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The time-dependent methods work for nearly arbitrarily shaped potentials, including sources and sinks via complex-valued potentials. Many quantities are measured at fixed energy, which is seemingly not well suited for a time-dependent formulation. Very few methods exist to obtain the energy-dependent Green function for complicated potentials without resorting to ensemble averages or using certain lead-in arrangements. Here, we demonstrate in detail a time-dependent approach, which can accurately and effectively construct the energy-dependent Green function for very general potentials. The applications of the method are numerous, including chemical, mesoscopic, and atomic physics

  19. Energy dependency and sustainable regional development in the Baltic states: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štreimikienė Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is one of the most important indicators of sustainable regional development and 'green' growth in implementation of EU strategy Europe 2020. It can provide the harmonized development and cohesion of 'old' and 'new' EU member states. Our paper conducts a comparative study of energy dependency and energy security indicators in the Baltic States. The Baltic countries achieved enormous progress in the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency since their EU accession in 2004. The increase of renewable energy capacities in Baltic States also contributed to the reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity of economy and energy import dependency. Our results show that amongst all three states, it was Estonia that had achieved the best results in increased use of renewables and energy efficiency improvements and had distinguished itself with the best indicators and economic and regional policy outcomes.

  20. Importance of the energy-dependent geometry in the 16O+ 16O optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantis, G.; Ioannidis, K.; Poirier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Optical model potentials with various forms of energy-dependent geometry have been considered for the description of 16 O+ 16 O elastic scattering. It is shown that the variation with energy of the imaginary radius leads to a reasonable fit of the cross-section data, throughout the energy range

  1. Eigenvalue-dependent neutron energy spectra: Definitions, analyses, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Ronen, Y.; Shayer, Z.; Wagschal, J.J.; Yeivin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A general qualitative analysis of spectral effects that arise from solving the kappa-, α-, γ-, and sigma-eigenvalue formulations of the neutron transport equation for nuclear systems that deviate (to first order) from criticality is presented. Hierarchies of neutron spectra softness are established and expressed concisely in terms of the newly introduced spatialdependent local spectral indices for the core and for the reflector. It is shown that each hierarchy is preserved, regardless of the nature of the specific physical mechanism that cause the system to deviate from criticality. Qualitative conclusions regarding the general behavior of the spectrum-dependent integral spectral indices and ICRs corresponding to the kappa-, α-, γ-, and sigma-eigenvalue formalisms are also presented. By defining spectral indices separately for the core and for the reflector, it is possible to account for the characteristics of neutron spectra in both the core and the reflector. The distinctions between the spectra in the core and in the reflector could not have been accounted for by using a single type of spectral index (e.g., a spectral index for the entire system or a spectral index solely for the core)

  2. Energy Dependence of Proton Radiation Damage in Si-Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084399; Neubüser, C.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation experiments on silicon sensors are used to mimic the radiation environment at collider experiments with the aim to forecast the change of the electrical properties of a detector with irradiation. Measurements on irradiated sensors are invaluable in choosing a material well suited for a silicon tracking detector. This is especially true for the upgraded detectors to be used in the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), where silicon sensors as currently used would suffer severe loss in signal from irradiation with charged and neutral hadrons.\\\\ The CMS Tracker Collaboration has initiated irradiation studies with protons with energies ranging from 23 MeV to 23 GeV. They are often used instead of charged hadrons, their radiation induced damage to the silicon being rather similar. However, in oxygen rich silicon, NIEL violation concerning the full depletion voltage has been observed.\\\\ In this paper results from investigations on bulk defects compared to the change of the electrical properties of ...

  3. Approximate calculation of electronic energy levels of axially symmetric quantum dot and quantum ring by using energy dependent effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Min, Liu; Zhong-Yuan, Yu; Xiao-Min, Ren

    2009-01-01

    Calculations of electronic structures about the semiconductor quantum dot and the semiconductor quantum ring are presented in this paper. To reduce the calculation costs, for the quantum dot and the quantum ring, their simplified axially symmetric shapes are utilized in our analysis. The energy dependent effective mass is taken into account in solving the Schrödinger equations in the single band effective mass approximation. The calculated results show that the energy dependent effective mass should be considered only for relatively small volume quantum dots or small quantum rings. For large size quantum materials, both the energy dependent effective mass and the parabolic effective mass can give the same results. The energy states and the effective masses of the quantum dot and the quantum ring as a function of geometric parameters are also discussed in detail. (general)

  4. Management of solar energy in microgrids using IoT-based dependable control

    OpenAIRE

    Phung, Manh Duong; De La Villefromoy, Michel; Ha, Quang

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy generation requires efficient monitoring and management in moving towards technologies for net-zero energy buildings. This paper presents a dependable control system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) to control and manage the energy flow of renewable energy collected by solar panels within a microgrid. Data for optimal control include not only measurements from local sensors but also meteorological information retrieved in real-time from online sources. For system fault toler...

  5. Characterization of the energy-dependent uncertainty and correlation in silicon neutron displacement damage metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous treatment of the uncertainty in the underlying nuclear data on silicon displacement damage metrics is presented. The uncertainty in the cross sections and recoil atom spectra are propagated into the energy-dependent uncertainty contribution in the silicon displacement kerma and damage energy using a Total Monte Carlo treatment. An energy-dependent covariance matrix is used to characterize the resulting uncertainty. A strong correlation between different reaction channels is observed in the high energy neutron contributions to the displacement damage metrics which supports the necessity of using a Monte Carlo based method to address the nonlinear nature of the uncertainty propagation.

  6. SU-F-T-561: Energy Dependence of a Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotskova, O; Xu, A; Jozsef, G [NYU Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the response and dose rate dependence of a scintillation detector over a wide energy range. Methods: The energy dependence of W1 scintillation detector was tested with: 1) 50–225 keV beams generated by an animal irradiator, 2) a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion Co-60 source, 3) 6MV, 6FFF, 10FFF and 15MV photon beams, and 4) 6–20MeV electron beams from a linac. Calibrated linac beams were used to deliver 100 cGy to the detector at dmax in water under reference conditions. The gamma-knife measurement was performed in solid water (100 cGy with 16mm collimator). The low energy beams were calibrated with an ion chamber in air (TG-61), and the scintillation detector was placed at the same location as the ionization chamber during calibration. For the linac photon and electron beams, dose rate dependence was tested for 100–2400 and 100–800 MU/min. Results: The scintillation detector demonstrated strong energy dependence in the range of 50–225keV. The measured values were lower than the delivered dose and increased as the energy increased. Therapeutic photon beams showed energy independence with variations less than 1%. Therapeutic electron beams displayed the same sensitivity of ∼2–3% at their corresponding dmax depths. The change in dose-rate of photon and electron beams within the therapeutic energy range did not affect detector output (<0.5%). Measurements acquired with the gamma knife showed that the output data agreed with the delivered dose up to 3%. Conclusion: W1 scintillation detector output has a strong energy dependence in the diagnostic and orthovoltage energy range. Therapeutic photon beams exhibited energy independence with no observable dose-rate dependence. This study may aid in the implementation of a scintillation detector in QA programs by providing energy calibration factors.

  7. Energy dependence of contrast-detail-dose and object-detectability-dose curves for CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Cohen, G.

    1982-01-01

    The energy dependence of contrast-detail-dose (CdD) and object-detectability-dose (OdD) curves for computed tomographic scanners is investigated. The effects of changes in beam energy on perceptibility are shown to be due to changes in signal-to-noise ratio resulting from changes in contrast and photon statistics. Energy-dependence analysis of OdD curves is shown to depend on the atomic composition of the phantom used to generate the curves, while such an analysis of CdD curves is independent of the atomic composition of the phantom. It is also shown that any OdD curve can be generated from CdD curves and that use of this fact rectifies any potential energy-dependent interpretation of CdD curves

  8. ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.; Agrawal, V. K.; Rao, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy-time lag dependence of the source NGC 4593 using XMM-Newton/EPIC pn data. We found that the time lag dependency is linear in nature with respect to the logarithm of different energy bands. We also investigate the frequency-dependent time lags and identify that at some frequency range (5 x 10 -5 Hz to 2 x 10 -4 Hz) the X-ray emission is highly coherent, mildly frequency dependent, and very strongly energy dependent. These observations can be explained in the framework of the thermal Comptonization process, and they indicate a truncated accretion disk very close to the black hole. We discuss the plausible spectral state to explain the phenomenon and conclude that the observed properties bear a close resemblance to the intermediate state or the steep power-law state, found in galactic black hole sources.

  9. Quantum models with energy-dependent potentials solvable in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Roy, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    We construct energy-dependent potentials for which the Schrödinger equations admit solutions in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. Our method of construction is based on certain point transformations, applied to the equations of exceptional Hermite, Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. We present several examples of boundary-value problems with energy-dependent potentials that admit a discrete spectrum and the corresponding normalizable solutions in closed form.

  10. Quantum models with energy-dependent potentials solvable in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Roy, Pinaki, E-mail: pinaki@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)

    2017-03-15

    We construct energy-dependent potentials for which the Schrödinger equations admit solutions in terms of exceptional orthogonal polynomials. Our method of construction is based on certain point transformations, applied to the equations of exceptional Hermite, Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. We present several examples of boundary-value problems with energy-dependent potentials that admit a discrete spectrum and the corresponding normalizable solutions in closed form.

  11. Energy-dependent microscopic optical potential for scattering of nucleons on light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, M.Y.H.; Esmael, E.H. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Maridi, H.M. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz (Yemen)

    2014-06-15

    We present an energy-dependent microscopic optical model potential for elastic scattering of nucleons on light nuclei. The single-folding model is used for the real part of the optical potential (OP), while the imaginary part is derived within the high-energy approximation theory. The energy dependence of the OP is determined from the parameterization of the volume integrals those calculated from the best-fit OP that fit the experimental data of the cross sections and analyzing powers. This energy-dependent OP is successfully applied to analyze the proton elastic scattering of {sup 4,6,i8}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9,10}Be nuclei at low and intermediate incident energies up to 200MeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic temperature dependence patterns in future energy demand models in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Moll, H.C.; Uiterkamp, A.J.M. Schoot

    2009-01-01

    Energy demand depends on outdoor temperature in a 'u' shaped fashion. Various studies have used this temperature dependence to investigate the effects of climate change on energy demand. Such studies contain implicit or explicit assumptions to describe expected socio-economic changes that may affect future energy demand. This paper critically analyzes these implicit or explicit assumptions and their possible effect on the studies' outcomes. First we analyze the interaction between the socio-economic structure and the temperature dependence pattern (TDP) of energy demand. We find that socio-economic changes may alter the TDP in various ways. Next we investigate how current studies manage these dynamics in socio-economic structure. We find that many studies systematically misrepresent the possible effect of socio-economic changes on the TDP of energy demand. Finally, we assess the consequences of these misrepresentations in an energy demand model based on temperature dependence and climate scenarios. Our model results indicate that expected socio-economic dynamics generally lead to an underestimation of future energy demand in models that misrepresent such dynamics. We conclude that future energy demand models should improve the incorporation of socio-economic dynamics. We propose dynamically modeling several key parameters and using direct meteorological data instead of degree days. (author)

  13. The effect of ν-bar(E) energy dependence at E 239Pu in the lower energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, A.G.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the energy dependence of the average number of prompt neutrons on the 239 Pu fission BNAB-26 group cross-sections has been estimated. It was also found that the values of ν-bar(E) are lowered by approximately 1% when the temperature increases from 300 deg. K to 2000 deg. K. Taking this dependence into account may improve the predictability of the plutonium-fueled reactor characteristics. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Modelling Reliability of Supply and Infrastructural Dependency in Energy Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Arild

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and models for assessing reliability of supply and infrastructural dependency in energy distribution systems with multiple energy carriers. The three energy carriers of electric power, natural gas and district heating are considered. Models and methods for assessing reliability of supply in electric power systems are well documented, frequently applied in the industry and continuously being subject to research and improvement. On the contrary, there are compar...

  15. High-energy electron irradiation of NdFeB permanent magnets: Dependence of radiation damage on the electron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizen, Teruhiko; Asano, Yoshihiro; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Seike, Takamitsu; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji; Hosoda, Naoyasu; Yonehara, Hiroto; Takagi, Tetsuya; Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    High-energy electron-beam bombardment of Nd 2 Fe 14 B-type permanent magnets induces radiation damage characterized by a drop in the magnetic field. Experiments carried out at the SPring-8 booster synchrotron, with 4, 6, and 8 GeV electrons, show that the drop in magnetic field is energy dependent. Electromagnetic shower simulations suggest that most of the radiation damage happens in a small region around the irradiation axis, and that the contribution of neutrons with large scattering angles or with low energies to the magnetic field change is small

  16. High-energy electron irradiation of NdFeB permanent magnets: Dependence of radiation damage on the electron energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizen, Teruhiko [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)]. E-mail: bizen@spring8.or.jp; Asano, Yoshihiro [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Marechal, Xavier-Marie [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Seike, Takamitsu [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Aoki, Tsuyoshi [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, Kenji [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hosoda, Naoyasu [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yonehara, Hiroto [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takagi, Tetsuya [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kitamura, Hideo [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2007-05-11

    High-energy electron-beam bombardment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-type permanent magnets induces radiation damage characterized by a drop in the magnetic field. Experiments carried out at the SPring-8 booster synchrotron, with 4, 6, and 8 GeV electrons, show that the drop in magnetic field is energy dependent. Electromagnetic shower simulations suggest that most of the radiation damage happens in a small region around the irradiation axis, and that the contribution of neutrons with large scattering angles or with low energies to the magnetic field change is small.

  17. Direct observation and theory of trajectory-dependent electronic energy losses in medium-energy ion scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, A; Parkinson, G S; Quinn, P D; Muñoz-Márquez, M A; Woodruff, D P; Grande, P L; Schiwietz, G; Bailey, P; Noakes, T C Q

    2009-03-06

    The energy spectrum associated with scattering of 100 keV H+ ions from the outermost few atomic layers of Cu(111) in different scattering geometries provides direct evidence of trajectory-dependent electronic energy loss. Theoretical simulations, combining standard Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic scattering trajectories with coupled-channel calculations to describe inner-shell ionization and excitation as a function of impact parameter, reproduce the effects well and provide a means for far more complete analysis of medium-energy ion scattering data.

  18. Energy dependence of commercially available diode detectors for in-vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Amarjit S.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    The energy dependence of commercially available diode detectors was measured for nominal accelerating potential ranging between Co-60 and 17 MV. The measurements were performed in a liquid water phantom at 5 cm depth for 10x10 cm 2 collimator setting and source-to-detector distance of 100 cm. The response (nC/Gy) was normalized to Co-60 beam after corrections for the dose rate and temperature dependences for each diode. The energy dependence, calculated by taking the percent difference between the maximum and minimum sensitivity normalized to Co-60 beam, varied by 39% for the n-type Isorad Red, 26% for the n-type Isorad Electron, 19% for the QED Red (p-type), 15% for the QED Electron (p-type), 11% for the QED Blue (p-type), and 6% for the EDP10 diode for nominal accelerating potential between Co-60 and 17 MV. It varied by 34% for the Isorad-3 Gold 1 and 2, 35% for the Veridose Green, 15% for the Veridose Yellow, 9% for the Veridose Electron, 21% for the n-type QED Gold, 24% for the n-type QED Red, 3% for the EDP2 3G , 2% for the PFD (photon field detector), 7% for the EDP10 3G , and 16% for the EDP20 3G for nominal accelerating potential between Co-60 and 15 MV. The magnitude of the energy dependence is verified by Monte Carlo simulation. We concluded that the energy dependence does not depend on whether the diode is n- or p-type but rather depends mainly on the material around the die such as the buildup and the geometry of the buildup material. As a result, the value of the energy dependence can vary for each individual diode depending on the actual geometry and should be used with caution

  19. Wood-energy: success depends on the price of fossil energies and on the carbon tax level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by several graphs indicating the structure of fossil energy prices, the comparison between domestic fuel and wood-energy for public network exploitation, the levels of fossil prices and carbon tax for non-subsidised projects, this article analyses the development of biomass (and more particularly wood-energy), the success of which depends on the price of fossil energies and on the carbon tax level. It outlines the differences of price-building elements between fossil and renewable heat, that subsidies are necessary if reference prices are low. It discusses the influence of carbon tax level and of fossil prices. It finally identifies conditions to be met (reduction of fossil energy supply and therefore higher fossil prices, introduction of a carbon tax) to reach COP objectives

  20. Bombarding energy dependence of nucleon exchange and energy dissipation in the strongly damped reaction 209Bi + 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.; Schroeder, W.U.; Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.; Randrup, J.

    1980-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved in the understanding of strongly damped reactions at energies several MeV/u above the Coulomb barrier, some important experimental results are not yet clearly understood. Among these is the degree of correlation between the nucleon exchange and the large energy losses observed. Experimental evidence suggesting nucleon exchange as described by a one-body model to be the major component of the dissipation mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that the previously unexplained bombarding energy dependence between energy loss and fragment charge dispersion can be understood on the basis of a nucleon exchange model, provided the Pauli exclusion principle is taken into account. No necessity is seen to invoke further energy dissipation mechanisms. 7 figures

  1. Energy-Dependent microscopic optical potential for p+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maridi, H. M., E-mail: h.maridi@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Farag, M. Y. H., E-mail: yehiafarag@cu.edu.eg; Esmael, E. H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen)

    2016-06-10

    The p+{sup 9}Be elastic scattering at an energy range up to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3Y-Paris nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the high-energy approximation for the imaginary one. The analysis reveals that the cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation give results better than the partial-wave expansion calculations. The volume integrals of the optical-potential parts have systematic energy dependencies, and they are parameterized in empirical formulas.

  2. Periodic position dependence of the energy measured in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, Julien

    2006-01-01

    A uniform energy measurement response of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL is essential for precision physics at the LHC. The ECAL barrel calorimeter consists of 61200 lead tungstate crystals arranged in a quasi-projective geometry. The energy of photons reaching the ECAL will be reconstructed by summing the channels corresponding to matrices of 3x3 or 5x5 crystals centred on the crystal with the largest energy deposit. The energy measured using such matrices of fixed size has been studied using electron test beam data taken in 2004. The variation of the energy containment with the incident electron impact position on the central crystal leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A method using only the calorimeter information is presented to correct for the position dependent response. After correction, the energy resolution performance for uniform impact distributions of the electrons on the front face of a crystal approaches that obtained for maximal containment with a central impact. The univ...

  3. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  4. Energy and angular dependence of the personal dosemeter in use at ITN-DPRSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joao G. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: jgalves@itn.pt; Calado, Ana M.; Cardoso, Joao V.; Santos, Luis M. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper the characterization of the dosimetry system and of the personal dosemeter in terms of the stability of the reader calibration factors and of the linearity of the response for the 137Cs reference radiation is presented. The energy and angular dependence of the whole body dosemeter are also shown. The energy dependence was determined performing irradiations with the X-ray narrow series beams N30, N40, N60, N80, N100, N120 and with the gamma reference radiations of 137Cs and 60Co [ISO 4037-1, 1996. X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining Their Response as a Function of Photon Energy-Part 1: Radiation Characteristics and Production Methods. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva] in terms of Hp(10) incident on the ISO water slab phantom. The angular dependence of the dosemeter was determined for the angles 0 deg., {+-}20 deg., {+-}40 deg. and {+-}60 deg. with normal using the above mentioned radiation fields. All irradiations were performed at the Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes lonizantes of ITN-DPRSN. The experiments presented in this paper show the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system is stable and presents a linear behaviour over and extended dose range. The measurements allowed the determination of the energy dependence at normal incidence and of the angular dependence of the dosemeter currently in use. Further studies are being carried out in order to implement correction factors for supralinearity and low energy measurements.

  5. The significance of temperature dependence on the piezoelectric energy harvesting by using a phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Nagaty, Ahmed; Khalifa, Zaki; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an acoustic energy harvester based on a two-dimensional phononic crystal has been constructed. The present structure consists of silicon cylinders in the air background with a polyvinylidene fluoride cylinder as a defect to confine the acoustic energy. The presented energy harvester depends on the piezoelectric effect (using the piezoelectric material polyvinylidene fluoride) that converts the confined acoustic energy to electric energy. The maximum output voltage obtained equals 170 mV. Moreover, the results revealed that the output voltage can be increased with increasing temperature. In addition, the effects of the load resistance and the geometry of the piezoelectric material on the output voltage have been studied theoretically. Based on these results, all previous studies about energy harvesting in phononic structures must take temperature effects into account.

  6. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  7. A method for solving a three-body problem with energy-dependent interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed for solving a three-body problem with energy-dependent interactions. This method is based on introducing the dependence of scattering operators and state vectors on an additional external parameter. Effects caused by the energy dependence of the interaction operator are investigated by using the unitary condition for the amplitude of the 2 → 2 and 2 → 3 transitions. It is shown, in particular, that taking this dependence into account leads to a change in the relation between the asymptotic normalization factor of the wave function of the three-body bound state and the vertex constant of virtual dissociation (synthesis) of the system into two fragments. 15 refs

  8. The change from fossil fuel dependence to sustainable energy sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwu, C.; Ajedegba, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria faces a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants. Although the country is highly dependent on fossil fuel resources, Nigeria has a range of unexploited biomass and hydro power resources, as well as extensive solar energy potential. This paper presented a current energy balance of Nigeria and examined ways of reaching an environmentally sustainable energy balance through the use of a mix of renewable resources. Supply and consumption details of domestic, industrial and transportation sectors as well as electricity production statistics were presented. Total hydropower potential based on the country's river system was estimated to be 10,000 MW. It was estimated that Nigeria has an average of 1.804 x 10 15 of incident solar energy annually, which is 27 times the nation's total conventional energy resources in energy units. It was noted that Nigeria also possesses a significant amount of biomass resources from several large forests that may be used to supply domestic cooking and heating needs as well as for ethanol production. It was noted that wind energy may not be a viable alternative for large scale electricity production in Nigeria. Recommendations to promote the use of renewable resources in the national energy mix included encouraging the decentralization of energy supplies; discouraging the use of wood as fuel; promoting efficient methods in the use of biomass energy resources; private sector participation; and global partnerships. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  9. Analysis of optical near-field energy transfer by stochastic model unifying architectural dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Makoto, E-mail: naruse@nict.go.jp [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Nanophotonics Research Center, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Holmström, Petter [Laboratory of Photonics and Microwave Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Thylén, Lars [Laboratory of Photonics and Microwave Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Huant, Serge [Institut Néel, CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ohtsu, Motoichi [Nanophotonics Research Center, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-04-21

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate energy transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions in a multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) structure composed of a single layer of larger dots and N layers of smaller ones. We construct a stochastic model in which optical near-field interactions that follow a Yukawa potential, QD size fluctuations, and temperature-dependent energy level broadening are unified, enabling us to examine device-architecture-dependent energy transfer efficiencies. The model results are consistent with the experiments. This study provides an insight into optical energy transfer involving inherent disorders in materials and paves the way to systematic design principles of nanophotonic devices that will allow optimized performance and the realization of designated functions.

  10. Analysis of optical near-field energy transfer by stochastic model unifying architectural dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Holmström, Petter; Thylén, Lars; Huant, Serge; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate energy transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions in a multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) structure composed of a single layer of larger dots and N layers of smaller ones. We construct a stochastic model in which optical near-field interactions that follow a Yukawa potential, QD size fluctuations, and temperature-dependent energy level broadening are unified, enabling us to examine device-architecture-dependent energy transfer efficiencies. The model results are consistent with the experiments. This study provides an insight into optical energy transfer involving inherent disorders in materials and paves the way to systematic design principles of nanophotonic devices that will allow optimized performance and the realization of designated functions

  11. Dependence of the quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshai, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence of the quasipotential of one-boson exchange on the total energy of the system is calculated. It is shown that despite the nonlocal form of the obtained quasipotential the three-dimensional equations for the waves function can be reduced by a partial expansion to one-dimensional equations. The influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behavior in the coordinate representation is discussed

  12. On the dependence of quasipotential on the total energy of a two-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapshaj, V.N.; Savrin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    For a system of two relativistic particles described in the framework of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze one-time approach the dependence is calculated of the one-boson exchange potential on the total energy of the system. It is shown that in spite of a nonlocal form of the quasipotential obtained, three-dimensional equations for the wave function are reduced to one-dimensional ones by means of partial expansion. Influence of the energy dependence of the quasipotential on its behaviour in the coordinate representation is discussed

  13. Nanoporous metal film: An energy-dependent transmission device for electron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, S.; Degiovanni, A.; Lapena, L.; Morin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We measure electron transmission through free-standing ultrathin nanoporous gold films, using the coherent electron beam emitted by sharp field emission tips in a low energy electron projection microscope setup. Transmission coefficient versus electron wavelength plots show periodic oscillations between 75 and 850 eV. These oscillations result from the energy dependence of interference between paths through the gold and paths through the nanometer-sized pores of the film. We reveal that these films constitute high transmittance quantum devices acting on electron waves through a wavelength-dependent complex transmittance defined by the porosity and the thickness of the film.

  14. Centrality dependence of multiplicity, transverse energy, and elliptic flow from hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Peter F.; Heinz, Ulrich; Huovinen, Pasi; Eskola, Kari J.; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2001-03-21

    The centrality dependence of the charged multiplicity, transverse energy, and elliptic flow coefficient is studied in a hydrodynamic model, using a variety of different initializations which model the initial energy or entropy production process as a hard or soft process, respectively. While the charged multiplicity depends strongly on the chosen initialization, the p{sub T}-integrated elliptic flow for charged particles as a function of charged particle multiplicity and the p{sub T}-differential elliptic flow for charged particles in minimum bias events turn out to be almost independent of the initialization.

  15. Energy and Beam-Offset dependence of the Luminosity weighted depolarization for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, Jakob; Uggerhoj, Ulrik; Dalena, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We report on simulations of e+e- depolarization due to beam-beam effects. These effects are studied for CLIC at 3 TeV, using GUINEA PIG++. We find a strong energy dependence of the luminosity weighted depolarization. In the luminosity peak at CLIC the total luminosity weighted depolarization remains below the one per-mil level. The effect of a vertical offset on the energy dependent depolarization is investigated. The depolarization in the luminosity peak remains below per-cent level even for 5sy offsets.

  16. Experimental investigation of the energy and temperature dependence of beryllium self sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, S.N.; Guseva, M.I.; Stolijarova, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The low-Z metal beryllium is considered as plasma facing material (PFM) for the ITER. It is expected that operation temperature range of beryllium PFM will be (670 - 1070) K. While experimental Be-sputtering data bases exist for H + , D + and He + -ions, the self-sputtering yields of Be have only been estimated by computer simulation. In this paper we report the experimental results on the energy and temperature dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield (S). The energy dependence of S s in the energy range (0.5 - 10.0) keV was measured at 670 K. The self-sputtering yield of Be attains its maximal value at the ion energy of 1.5 keV, being equal to 0.32 ± at./ion. Comparison of the experimental results and theoretical prediction shows a good agreement for energy dependence of S s . The temperature dependence of S s in the temperature range (370-1070)K was obtained for 0.9keV Be + -ions. The value of S s is not changed up to 870 K. It sharply increases at the temperatures above 870 attaining the value of 0.75 at./ion at 1070 K

  17. Systematic studies of binding energy dependence of neutron-proton momentum correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y B; Ma, Y G; Shen, W Q; Ma, G L; Wang, K; Cai, X Z; Zhong, C; Guo, W; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Tian, W D; Zhou, X F

    2004-01-01

    Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) results of the neutron-proton correlation function have been systematically investigated for a series of nuclear reactions with light projectiles with the help of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy per nucleon of the projectiles and the strength of the neutron-proton HBT at small relative momentum has been obtained. Results show that neutron-proton HBT results are sensitive to the binding energy per nucleon

  18. Energy dependence of the 16O + 12C potential of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ponkratenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The 16O + 12C scattering data originating from various measurements in the energy range from 1 to 100 MeV/nucleon have been analyzed within optical model (OM. As a result the global energy dependent 16O + 12C - OM-potential has been obtained. Satisfactory description of experimental data is achieved. While analyzing differential cross sections of the elastic scattering and fusion cross sections were calculated using var-ious types of optical potentials.

  19. On the energy dependence of the D{sup +}/D{sup −} production asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaroto, E.R., E-mail: cazaroto@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, V.P. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, C.P. 354, CEP 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Navarra, F.S.; Nielsen, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-09

    In this Letter we discuss the origin of the asymmetry present in D meson production and its energy dependence. In particular, we have applied the meson cloud model to calculate the asymmetries in D{sup −}/D{sup +} meson production in high energy pp collisions and find a good agreement with recent LHCb data. Although small, this non-vanishing asymmetry may shed light on the role played by the charm meson cloud of the proton.

  20. Change of energy dependence for X-rays of photodiode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.F. da; Freitas, L.C. de

    1992-01-01

    The energy dependence of photodiode Siemens SFH-206 for X-rays beams of 24 kV to 50 kV was studied and compared with the ionization chamber of parallel plates. The photodiode presented 450% of maxim change response for the energy band studied. A study was made, using aluminium, acrylic, mylar aluminized and mylar graphitized filters and showed that the two last reduce this maxim change response to 101% and 108%, respectively. (C.G.C.)

  1. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of a two-pion interferometry (HBT) analysis in Pb+Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV. A detailed study of the Bertsch-Pratt HBT radius parameters has been performed as function of the mean pair transverse momentum k t and in bins of the centrality of the collision. From these results we extract model-dependent information about the space-time evolution of the reaction. An investigation of the effective volume of the pion emitting system provides an important tool to study the properties of thermal pion freeze-out

  2. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H. E-mail: appels@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.V

    2003-02-10

    Results are presented of a two-pion interferometry (HBT) analysis in Pb+Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV. A detailed study of the Bertsch-Pratt HBT radius parameters has been performed as function of the mean pair transverse momentum k{sub t} and in bins of the centrality of the collision. From these results we extract model-dependent information about the space-time evolution of the reaction. An investigation of the effective volume of the pion emitting system provides an important tool to study the properties of thermal pion freeze-out.

  3. Latitudinal Dependence of the Energy Input into the Mesosphere by High Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C. U.; Nikutowski, B.; Ranta, H.

    1984-01-01

    Night-time ionspheric absorption measurements give the possibility to study the precipitation of high energy electrons into the mesosphere during and after magnetospheric storms. The uniform Finnish riometer network was used together with measurements from Kuhlungsborn and Collm (GDR) to investigate the night-time absorption as a function of latitude (L=6.5 to 2.5) and storm-time for seven storms. The common trends visible in all these events are summarized in a schematic average picture, showing the distribution of increased ionospheric absorption as a function of latitude (L value) and storm-time.

  4. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  5. New formula for dependence of molecular electronic energy on internuclear distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    We formulate an integral virial theorem which connects the change in the molecular electronic energy during finite changes in the size of the nuclear core (in the case of a diatomic molecule, during finite changes of the internuclear distance) with a matrix element of the kinetic electronic energy operator and with an overlap integral between wave functions. Our results can be used to calculate the dependence of the molecular electronic energy on the internuclear distance, as well as to check the quality of, and to improve, the approximate electronic wave functions. The theory is illustrated by the simplest example of the approximate MO LCAO wave function for the hydrogen molecular ion

  6. GDH-Dependent Glutamate Oxidation in the Brain Dictates Peripheral Energy Substrate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karaca, Melis; Frigerio, Francesca; Migrenne, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    in a central energy-deprivation state with increased ADP/ATP ratios and phospho-AMPK in the hypothalamus. This induced changes in the autonomous nervous system balance, with increased sympathetic activity promoting hepatic glucose production and mobilization of substrates reshaping peripheral energy stores...... glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. Here, we investigated the significance of glutamate as energy substrate for the brain. Upon glutamate exposure, astrocytes generated ATP in a GDH-dependent way. The observed lack of glutamate oxidation in brain-specific GDH null CnsGlud1(-/-) mice resulted...

  7. Local charge nonequilibrium and anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    From the study of even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows, we propose a simple picture for charge correlation with nonzero correlation length and calculate the multiplicity distributions and the normalized moments in different rapidity windows at different energies. The results explain the experimentally observed coincidence and separation of even and odd distributions and also the anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows. The reason for the separation of even-odd distributions, appearing first at large multiplicities, is shown to be energy conservation. The special role of no-particle events in narrow rapidity windows is pointed out

  8. SYMMETRY PROPERTIES OF THE COULOMB POTENTIAL WITH A LINEAR DEPENDENCE ON ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Budaca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The D-dimensional Schr ̈odinger equation for a Coulomb potential with a coupling constant depending linearly on energy is analytically solved. The energy spectrum in the asymptotic regime of the slope parameter is found to be fully determined up to a scale only by its quantum numbers. The raising and lowering operators for this limiting model are determined from the recurrence properties of the associated solutions. It is shown that they satisfy the commutation relations of an SU(1,1 algebra and act on wave-functions which are normalized differently from the case of the usual bound state problem for an energy independent Coulomb potential.

  9. Photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in mobile phones for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, Michael; Greiter, Matthias; Woda, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that glass displays extracted from mobile phones are suitable as emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. So far these studies have focused only on recovering the absorbed dose to the material. However, dose in air or dose to the victim carrying the device might be significantly different. Therefore the aim of this work was to investigate photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in modern mobile phones. An over-response of about a factor of five is observed for low photon energies compared to the response to Cs-137 (662 keV) which is in reasonable agreement with calculated values mass energy-absorption coefficients of glass and air. Little variation in the energy dependence can be seen for glass displays coming from three different mobile phone models. The angular response for display glass is flat with regard to air kerma within the incident angle of ±60°, independent of the irradiation setup used (with a water phantom or with air kerma reference conditions). For incident angles of 90° the shielding effect of the mobile phones becomes important. With the dosimetric characterization of the photon energy and angular dependencies the absorbed dose in a glass display can be transferred to a reference air kerma dose and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. - Highlights: • Determination of the photon energy dependence and angular response for display glass used as an accident dosimeter. • Over-response of about a factor of five for low photon energies. • Flat angular response within incident angles between ±60°

  10. Computational scheme for pH-dependent binding free energy calculation with explicit solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyong; Miller, Benjamin T; Brooks, Bernard R

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational scheme to compute the pH-dependence of binding free energy with explicit solvent. Despite the importance of pH, the effect of pH has been generally neglected in binding free energy calculations because of a lack of accurate methods to model it. To address this limitation, we use a constant-pH methodology to obtain a true ensemble of multiple protonation states of a titratable system at a given pH and analyze the ensemble using the Bennett acceptance ratio (BAR) method. The constant pH method is based on the combination of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) with the Hamiltonian replica exchange method (HREM), which yields an accurate semi-grand canonical ensemble of a titratable system. By considering the free energy change of constraining multiple protonation states to a single state or releasing a single protonation state to multiple states, the pH dependent binding free energy profile can be obtained. We perform benchmark simulations of a host-guest system: cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) and benzimidazole (BZ). BZ experiences a large pKa shift upon complex formation. The pH-dependent binding free energy profiles of the benchmark system are obtained with three different long-range interaction calculation schemes: a cutoff, the particle mesh Ewald (PME), and the isotropic periodic sum (IPS) method. Our scheme captures the pH-dependent behavior of binding free energy successfully. Absolute binding free energy values obtained with the PME and IPS methods are consistent, while cutoff method results are off by 2 kcal mol(-1) . We also discuss the characteristics of three long-range interaction calculation methods for constant-pH simulations. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  11. Quantum transfer energy in the framework of time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the process of the quantum transfer of energy considering time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction in a dimer system characterized by two-level atom systems. By taking into account the effect of the acceleration and speed of the atoms in the dimer coupling, we demonstrate that the improvement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy extremely benefits from the incorporation of atomic motion effectiveness and the energy detuning. We explore the relevance between the population and entanglement during the time-evolution and show that this kind of nonlocal correlation may be generated during the process of the transfer of energy. Our work may provide optimal conditions to implement realistic experimental scenario in the transfer of the quantum energy.

  12. Dependency of non-homogeneity energy dispersion on absorbance line-shape of luminescent polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Castanheira da, E-mail: mar_castanheira@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Acre, CP 500, 69915-900 Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Santos Silva, H.; Silva, R.A.; Marletta, Alexandre [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2013-01-16

    In this paper, we study the importance of the non-homogeneity energy dispersion on absorption line-shape of luminescent polymers. The optical transition probability was calculated based on the molecular exciton model, Franck–Condon states, Gaussian distribution of non-entangled chains with conjugate degree n, semi-empirical parameterization of energy gap, electric dipole moment, and electron-vibrational mode coupling. Based on the approach of the energy gap functional dependence 1/n, the inclusion of the non-homogeneity energy dispersion 1/n{sup 2} is essential to obtain good experimental data agreement, mainly, where the absorption spectra display peaks width of about 65 meV. For unresolved absorption spectra, such as those observed for a large number of conjugated polymers processed via spin-coating technique, for example, the non-homogeneity energy dispersion parameterization is not significant. Results were supported by the application of the model for poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films.

  13. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  14. Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.

  15. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for 137Cs and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ( 137 Cs and 60 Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  16. Darboux Transformations for Energy-Dependent Potentials and the Klein–Gordon Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2013-01-01

    We construct explicit Darboux transformations for a generalized Schrödinger-type equation with energy-dependent potential, a special case of which is the stationary Klein–Gordon equation. Our results complement and generalize former findings (Lin et al., Phys Lett A 362:212–214, 2007).

  17. On the A dependence in the process of dilepton production by high-energy nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, S.R.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The process of lepton pair production in nucleon-nucleus collisions for high energies is considered. It is shown, that with due regard for the N → π → μ + μ - inelastic transitions the experimentally observed A dependence of the cross section of the NA → μ + μ - X process can be explained in the framework of the multiple scattering theory

  18. Energy dependence of solar-neutrino--electron scattering as a test of neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The energy dependence of ν-e scattering of solar neutrinos is investigated in the framework of neutrino oscillations and the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. It is shown that, with sufficient data, it will be possible to establish unambiguously whether neutrino oscillations are actually occurring and whether the electron neutrino oscillates into active or inactive (sterile) neutrino flavors

  19. Calculation of the Energy Dependence of Dosimeter Response to Ionizing Photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Using a program in BASIC applied to a desk-top calculator, simplified calculations provide approximate energy dependence correction factors of dosimeter readings of absorbed dose according to Bragg-Gray cavity theories. Burlin's general cavity theory is applied in the present calculations, and ce...

  20. Dependence of electron inelastic mean free paths on electron energy and materials at low energy region, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, Shigeo; Powell, C.J.; Penn, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have proposed a general formula of electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) to describe the calculated IMFPs over the 50-2000 eV energy range based on the Inokuti's modified Bethe formula for the inelastic scattering cross section. The IMFPs for 50-2000 eV electrons in 27 elements were calculated using Penn's algorithm. The IMFP dependence on electron energy in the range 50-200 eV varies considerably from material to material. These variations are associated with substantial differences in the electron energy-loss functions amongst the material. We also found that the modified Bethe formula by Inokuti could be fitted to the calculated IMFPs in the range 50-2000 eV within 3% relative error. (author)

  1. Extended exergy concept to facilitate designing and optimization of frequency-dependent direct energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proved exergy method is not adequate to optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion. • Exergy concept is modified to facilitate the thermoeconomic optimization of photocell. • The exergy of arbitrary radiation is used for a practical purpose. • The utility of the concept is illustrated using pragmatic examples. - Abstract: Providing the radiation within the acceptable (responsive) frequency range(s) is a common method to increase the efficiency of the frequency-dependent energy conversion systems, such as photovoltaic and nano-scale rectenna. Appropriately designed auxiliary items such as spectrally selective thermal emitters, optical filters, and lenses are used for this purpose. However any energy conversion method that utilizes auxiliary components to increase the efficiency of a system has to justify the potential cost incurred by those auxiliary components through the economic gain emerging from the increased system efficiency. Therefore much effort should be devoted to design innovative systems, effectively integrating the auxiliary items and to optimize the system with economic considerations. Exergy is the widely used method to design and optimize conventional energy conversion systems. Although the exergy concept is used to analyze photovoltaic systems, it has not been used effectively to design and optimize such systems. In this manuscript, we present a modified exergy method in order to effectively design and economically optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion systems. Also, we illustrate the utility of this concept using examples of thermophotovoltaic, Photovoltaic/Thermal and concentrated solar photovoltaic

  2. Field-dependent molecular ionization and excitation energies: Implications for electrically insulating liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Davari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular ionization potential has a relatively strong electric-field dependence as compared to the excitation energies which has implications for electrical insulation since the excited states work as an energy sink emitting light in the UV/VIS region. At some threshold field, all the excited states of the molecule have vanished and the molecule is a two-state system with the ground state and the ionized state, which has been hypothesized as a possible origin of different streamer propagation modes. Constrained density-functional theory is used to calculate the field-dependent ionization potential of different types of molecules relevant for electrically insulating liquids. The low singlet-singlet excitation energies of each molecule have also been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that low-energy singlet-singlet excitation of the type n → π* (lone pair to unoccupied π* orbital has the ability to survive at higher fields. This type of excitation can for example be found in esters, diketones and many color dyes. For alkanes (as for example n-tridecane and cyclohexane on the other hand, all the excited states, in particular the σ → σ* excitations vanish in electric fields higher than 10 MV/cm. Further implications for the design of electrically insulating dielectric liquids based on the molecular ionization potential and excitation energies are discussed.

  3. Angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intuitively the origin of the angular momentum and incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction on the basis of the totally- antisymmetrized many-body theory. With the aim of understanding the structure of the nucleus-nucleus interaction, we show first that the nucleus-nucleus interaction can be written by the use of the density-distribution function and the phase-space distribution function instead of using the many-body wave function itself. And we show that the structure change of the density-distribution function with the increase of the angular momentum causes the angular momentum dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction and that the incident-energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus interaction originates from the structure change of the phase-space distribution function

  4. On the energy dependence of DIS in the diffraction region of low x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schildknecht, D. [Bielefeld, Univ., Fakultat fur Physik (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The energy dependence of the virtual photoabsorption cross-section in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at low x = Q{sup 2}/W{sup 2} < 0.1 may be described in terms of the saturation scale that in our approach depends on the energy, {lambda}{sup 2}{sub sat} = {lambda}{sup 2}{sub sat}(W{sup 2}). We briefly summarize our recent findings that allow us to predict the exponent C{sub 2} of {lambda}{sup 2}{sub sat}(W{sup 2}) {approx} (W{sup 2}){sup C{sub 2}} in agreement with the previous result obtained from fitting the experimental data. The exponent C{sub 2} depending on the relative magnitude of the longitudinal and transverse contribution to the structure function, direct measurements of the longitudinal part are urgently needed. (author)

  5. Bohr Hamiltonian with an energy-dependent γ-unstable Coulomb-like potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaca, R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-10-15

    An exact analytical solution for the Bohr Hamiltonian with an energy-dependent Coulomb-like γ-unstable potential is presented. Due to the linear energy dependence of the potential's coupling constant, the corresponding spectrum in the asymptotic limit of the slope parameter resembles the spectral structure of the spherical vibrator, however with a different state degeneracy. The parameter free energy spectrum as well as the transition rates for this case are given in closed form and duly compared with those of the harmonic U(5) dynamical symmetry. The model wave functions are found to exhibit properties that can be associated to shape coexistence. A possible experimental realization of the model is found in few medium nuclei with a very low second 0{sup +} state known to exhibit competing prolate, oblate and spherical shapes. (orig.)

  6. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  7. Reconstructing Space- and Energy-Dependent Exciton Generation in Solution-Processed Inverted Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yajie; Lu, Guanghao; Feng, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Tong; Xie, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Jiahui; Wei, Zhixiang; Bu, Laju

    2018-04-25

    Photon absorption-induced exciton generation plays an important role in determining the photovoltaic properties of donor/acceptor organic solar cells with an inverted architecture. However, the reconstruction of light harvesting and thus exciton generation at different locations within organic inverted device are still not well resolved. Here, we investigate the film depth-dependent light absorption spectra in a small molecule donor/acceptor film. Including depth-dependent spectra into an optical transfer matrix method allows us to reconstruct both film depth- and energy-dependent exciton generation profiles, using which short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency of the inverted device are simulated and compared with the experimental measurements. The film depth-dependent spectroscopy, from which we are able to simultaneously reconstruct light harvesting profile, depth-dependent composition distribution, and vertical energy level variations, provides insights into photovoltaic process. In combination with appropriate material processing methods and device architecture, the method proposed in this work will help optimizing film depth-dependent optical/electronic properties for high-performance solar cells.

  8. Energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography: a review on acquisition, processing and display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppini, G.; Maltinti, G.; Valli, G.; Baroni, M.; Buchignan, M.; Valli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography are analyzed paying particular attention to digital video systems. The main techniques developed in recent years for selective energy imaging are reviewed following a unified approach. Discussion about advantages and limits of energy methods is carried out by a comparative analysis of computer simulated data and experimental results as obtained by standard x-ray equipments coupled to a digital video unit. Geometric phantoms are used as test object, as also images of a chest phantom are produced. Since signal-to-noise ratio degradation is one of the major problems when dealing with selective imaging, a particular effort is made to investigate noise effects. In this perspective, an original colour encoding display of energy sequences is presented. By mapping the various energy measurements on different colour bands (typically those of an RGB TV-monitor), an increased image conspicuity is obtained without a significant noise degradation: this is ensured by the energy dependence of attenuation coefficients and by the integrating characteristics of the display device

  9. Energy dependent modulation of the ulf ion flux oscillations observed at small pitch angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Konradi, A.; Fritz, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of the ultralow frequency oscillations in the ion fluxes observed at small pitch angles by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration detector telescopes on board ATS 6 are again examined. The present report concentrates on the dramatic variation of the flux modulations detected in various energy channels during a single event which occurred on February 18, 1975. The wave amplitude is observed to be larger in a higher energy channel with energies from 100 keV to 150 keV and to decrease toward the lower energy channels. The lowest-energy protons (25--33 keV) in general are seldom seen to be oscillating, but in this event they display a low-amplitude oscillation which is 180 0 out of p ase with the adjacent channel. Such energy dependent modulation of the flux oscillation is thought to be a consequence of the wave particle resonant interaction. However, the prediction of the bounce resonant interaction is not consistent with the observations of both the energy dependent variation of the flux amplitudes and a 180 0 change in the oscillation phase in the adjacent low-energy channels that occurred in the February 18, 1975, event. Since the shape of the undisturned particle distribution can also determine the variation of the particle perturbation at various energies, the first-order particle distribution derived in a homogeneous plasma with a uniform magnetic field is examined without any specification of the wave mode. When the average particle distribution during the wave observation is used together with a parallel wave electric field that presumably causes the flux modulation at small pitch angles, a reasonable agreement is found between the variation of flux modulation derived from the slope of the average particle distribution and that from the experimental observation

  10. Studying the collision energy dependence of elliptic and triangular flow with a hybrid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, Jussi [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, the elliptic flow is expected to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude within the energy range 7.7-39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann+hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable for investigating the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different beam energies.

  11. Dependence of Energetic Electron Precipitation on the Geomagnetic Index Kp and Electron Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the magnetospheric particles can precipitate into the atmosphere of the Earth. In this paper we examine such precipitation of energetic electrons using the data obtained from low-altitude polar orbiting satellite observations. We analyze the precipitating electron flux data for many periods selected from a total of 84 storm events identified for 2001-2012. The analysis includes the dependence of precipitation on the Kp index and the electron energy, for which we use three energies E1 > 30 keV, E2 > 100 keV, E3 > 300 keV. We find that the precipitation is best correlated with Kp after a time delay of < 3 hours. Most importantly, the correlation with Kp is notably tighter for lower energy than for higher energy in the sense that the lower energy precipitation flux increases more rapidly with Kp than does the higher energy precipitation flux. Based on this we suggest that the Kp index reflects excitation of a wave that is responsible for scattering of preferably lower energy electrons. The role of waves of other types should become increasingly important for higher energy, for which we suggest to rely on other indicators than Kp if one can identify such an indicator.

  12. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping; Zhu Zhiyuan; Li Yong; Zhu Dezhang; Xia Huihao

    2008-01-01

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  13. Study of the SEY dependence on the electron beams dose and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commisso, M.

    2011-01-01

    During operation, the internal walls of modern particle accelerators are subjected to synchrotron radiation irradiation and/or electron bombardment. Such phenomena do affect surface properties such as the secondary electron yield, (SEY). A low SEY is a key parameter to control and overcome any detrimental effect on the accelerator performance eventually induced by the build-up of an Electron Cloud (E C). In laboratory experiments SEY reduction (called scrubbing) has been studied as a function of dose but the actual kinetic energy dependence has never been considered as an important parameter. For this reason and given the peculiar behavior observed for low-energy electrons, we decided to study this dependence accurately. Here we report results of SEY measurements performed bombarding Cu samples obtained from the Large Hadron Collider (Lhc) with different doses of electron beam with energy in the range 10-500 eV. Our results demonstrate that the potentiality of an electron beam to reduce the SEY does not only depend on its dose, but also on its energy. Furthermore, since E C build-up was predicted and observed also the DAΦNE ring, we report some preliminary measurements on the conditioning of Al samples. An overview of future experiments which we will perform in LNF is then given.

  14. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  15. U.S. oil dependence 2014: Is energy independence in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Liu, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reducing U.S. oil dependence may have changed in light of developments in the world oil market over the past two decades. Since 2005, increased domestic production and decreased oil use have cut U.S. import dependence in half. The direct costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy are estimated under four U.S. Energy Information Administration Scenarios to 2040. The key premises of the analysis are that the primary oil market failure is the use of market power by OPEC and that U.S. economic vulnerability is a result of the quantity of oil consumed, the lack of readily available, economical substitutes and the quantity of oil imported. Monte Carlo simulations of future oil market conditions indicate that the costs of U.S. oil dependence are likely to increase in constant dollars but decrease relative to U.S. gross domestic product unless oil resources are larger than estimated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Reducing oil dependence therefore remains a valuable goal for U.S. energy policy and an important co-benefit of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: •Increased oil production and decreased use caused U.S. oil imports to fall from 60% in 2005 to 27% in 2014. •OPEC's market power appears to have increased due to lower oil price elasticities. •Future costs of oil dependence to the U.S. are likely to increase but decrease relative to GDP. •If U.S. oil resources are far larger than EIA estimates, the U.S. could be oil independent by 2040

  16. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Combined Alcohol and Energy Drink Use: Hedonistic Motives, Adenosine, and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  18. Analysis of cavity effect on space- and time-dependent fast and thermal neutron energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Katsuhisa; Narita, Masakuni; Ozawa, Yasutomo.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the presence of a central cavity on the space- and time-dependent neutron energy spectra in both thermal and fast neutron systems are analyzed theoretically with use made of the multi-group one-dimensional time-dependent Ssub(n) method. The thermal neutron field is also analyzed for the case of a fundamental time eigenvalue problem with the time-dependent P 1 approximation. The cavity radius is variable, and the system radius for graphite is 120 cm and for the other materials 7 cm. From the analysis of the time-dependent Ssub(n) calculations in the non-multiplying systems of polythene, light water and graphite, cavity heating is the dominant effect for the slowing-down spectrum in the initial period following fast neutron burst, and when the slowing-down spectrum comes into the thermal energy region, cavity heating shifts to cavity cooling. In the multiplying system of 235 U, cavity cooling also takes place as the spectrum approaches equilibrium after the fast neutron burst is injected. The mechanism of cavity cooling is explained analytically for the case of thermal neutron field to illustrate its physical aspects, using the time-dependent P 1 approximation. An example is given for the case of light water. (auth.)

  19. Probing the density dependence of the symmetry potential in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingfeng; Li Zhuxia; Soff, Sven; Gupta, Raj K; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Based on the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model, the effects of the density-dependent symmetry potential for baryons and of the Coulomb potential for produced mesons are investigated for neutron-rich heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The calculated results of the Δ - /Δ ++ and π - /π + production ratios show a clear beam-energy dependence on the density-dependent symmetry potential, which is stronger for the π - /π + ratio close to the pion production threshold. The Coulomb potential of the mesons changes the transverse momentum distribution of the π - /π + ratio significantly, though it alters only slightly the π - and π + total yields. The π - yields, especially at midrapidity or at low transverse momenta and the π - /π + ratios at low transverse momenta are shown to be sensitive probes of the density-dependent symmetry potential in dense nuclear matter. The effect of the density-dependent symmetry potential on the production of both K 0 and K + mesons is also investigated

  20. Measurements of time dependent energy spectra of neutrons in a small graphite assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Shigeyasu; Aizawa, Otohiko; Takahashi, Akito; Sumita, Kenji.

    1975-01-01

    The time-dependent energy spectra of neutrons have been measured in a small 30x30x30 cm 3 graphite assembly by means of the linac-chopper method, with a view to establishing experimental evidence that there is no asymptotic spectrum in such a small assembly, and in order to study the non-asymptotic behavior of neutrons. The arrangement of a polyethylene pre-moderator adjacent to the assembly made the measurements possible with the improvement obtained thereby of the neutron counting statistics. It was indicated from calculation that the presence of the pre-moderator had little effect - at least above the Bragg cut-off energy - on the evolution in time of the energy spectra of neutrons in the graphite assembly. The experimental results indicated very probable disappearance of asymptotic spectra, and revealed significant enhancement of trapping at Bragg energies with the lapse of time. This is consistent with the results of pulsed neutron experiments in small assemblies conducted by Takahashi et al., and falls in line with de Saussure's approximation. The spectra in the graphite assembly showed significant space dependence, the spectra becoming harder with increasing distance from the pre-moderator. This hardening may be attributed to the relatively faster propagation of higher energy neutrons. (auth.)

  1. Nuclear-charge and positron-energy dependence of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palathingal, J.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Wu, X.Y.

    1995-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons in a number of elements having atomic numbers between 49 and 90, utilizing a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements were made of the differential cross sections for the forward direction for the K, L, and M atomic shells in targets of Th, Pb, Au, Hf, Gd, and In, having thicknesses that vary between 2.7 and 4.4 mg/cm 2 . A shielded HPGe detector of high relative photopeak efficiency was used for recording the photon spectrum. Values for the individual atomic shells were obtained in the positron kinetic-energy range 1.02--2.24 MeV. It was observed that the differential cross sections measured for the forward direction varied with energy for each major shell almost alike so that the shell ratios appeared to remain constant while the positron energy varied. The dependence of the cross section on the atomic number Z of the target element was tested for each of the major shells at various energies of measurement. It was seen that the cross sections follow a Z ν relation with ν∼5.1 as the exponent for the K shell. For the higher shells, the exponent is approximately 6.4, which is significantly larger. It was also noted that this pattern is fairly independent of the positron energy. The results on the Z dependence are seen to be clearly at variance with the most updated theoretical predictions

  2. Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time - dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time - dependent boundary conditions.pdf

  3. Doping dependence of low-energy quasiparticle excitations in superconducting Bi2212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Akihiro; Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi

    2013-12-05

    : The doping-dependent evolution of the d-wave superconducting state is studied from the perspective of the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of a high-Tc cuprate, Bi2Sr2CaCu2 O8+δ (Bi2212). The anisotropic evolution of the energy gap for Bogoliubov quasiparticles is parametrized by critical temperature and superfluid density. The renormalization of nodal quasiparticles is evaluated in terms of mass enhancement spectra. These quantities shed light on the strong coupling nature of electron pairing and the impact of forward elastic or inelastic scatterings. We suggest that the quasiparticle excitations in the superconducting cuprates are profoundly affected by doping-dependent screening.

  4. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Feng, Xudong, E-mail: xudong.feng@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Xia, Qing, E-mail: xqing@hsc.pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-10

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  5. Energy Dependent Divisible Load Theory for Wireless Sensor Network Workload Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN, consisting of a large number of microsensors with wireless communication abilities, has become an indispensable tool for use in monitoring and surveillance applications. Despite its advantages in deployment flexibility and fault tolerance, the WSN is vulnerable to failures due to the depletion of limited onboard battery energy. A major portion of energy consumption is caused by the transmission of sensed results to the master processor. The amount of energy used, in fact, is related to both the duration of sensing and data transmission. Hence, in order to extend the operation lifespan of the WSN, a proper allocation of sensing workload among the sensors is necessary. An assignment scheme is here formulated on the basis of the divisible load theory, namely, the energy dependent divisible load theory (EDDLT for sensing workload allocations. In particular, the amount of residual energies onboard sensors are considered while deciding the workload assigned to each sensor. Sensors with smaller amount of residual energy are assigned lighter workloads, thus, allowing for a reduced energy consumption and the sensor lifespan is extended. Simulation studies are conducted and results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed workload allocation method.

  6. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin; Feng, Xudong; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress

  7. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  8. Time-dependent density functional calculation of the energy loss of antiprotons colliding with metallic nanoshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quijada, M.; Borisov, A.G.; Muino, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory is used to study the interaction between antiprotons and metallic nanoshells. The ground state electronic properties of the nanoshell are obtained in the jellium approximation. The energy lost by the antiproton during the collision is calculated and compared to that suffered by antiprotons traveling in metal clusters. The resulting energy loss per unit path length of material in thin nanoshells is larger than the corresponding quantity for clusters. It is shown that the collision process can be interpreted as the antiproton crossing of two nearly bi-dimensional independent metallic systems. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Energy dependence of the Coulomb-nuclear interference at small momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    The analyzing power of the elastic proton-proton scattering at small momentum transfers and the effect of the Coulomb-nuclear interference are examined on the basis of the available experimental data at p L from 6 up to 200 GeV/c taking account of a phenomenological analysis at p L =6 GeV/c and of the dynamic high energy spin model. The structure of the spin-dependent elastic scattering amplitude at small momentum transfers is obtained. The predictions for the analyzing power at RHIC energies are made

  10. Thermal neutron diffusion parameters dependent on the flux energy distribution in finite hydrogenous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Macroscopic parameters for a description of the thermal neutron transport in finite volumes are considered. A very good correspondence between the theoretical and experimental parameters of hydrogenous media is attained. Thermal neutrons in the medium possess an energy distribution, which is dependent on the size (characterized by the geometric buckling) and on the neutron transport properties of the medium. In a hydrogenous material the thermal neutron transport is dominated by the scattering cross section which is strongly dependent on energy. A monoenergetic treatment of the thermal neutron group (admissible for other materials) leads in this case to a discrepancy between theoretical and experimental results. In the present paper the theoretical definitions of the pulsed thermal neutron parameters (the absorption rate, the diffusion coefficient, and the diffusion cooling coefficient) are based on Nelkin's analysis of the decay of a neutron pulse. Problems of the experimental determination of these parameters for a hydrogenous medium are discussed. A theoretical calculation of the pulsed parameters requires knowledge of the scattering kernel. For thermal neutrons it is individual for each hydrogenous material because neutron scattering on hydrogen nuclei bound in a molecule is affected by the molecular dynamics (characterized with internal energy modes which are comparable to the incident neutron energy). Granada's synthetic model for slow-neutron scattering is used. The complete up-dated formalism of calculation of the energy transfer scattering kernel after this model is presented in the paper. An influence of some minor variants within the model on the calculated differential and integral neutron parameters is shown. The theoretical energy-dependent scattering cross section (of Plexiglas) is compared to experimental results. A particular attention is paid to the calculation of the diffusion cooling coefficient. A solution of an equation, which determines the

  11. Matrix elements of vibration kinetic energy operator of tetrahedral molecules in non-orthogonal-dependent coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasevich, Alexander E.; Nikitin, Andrei V.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we propose an algorithm for calculating the matrix elements of the kinetic energy operator for tetrahedral molecules. This algorithm uses the dependent six-angle coordinates (6A) and takes into account the full symmetry of molecules. Unlike A.V. Nikitin, M. Rey, and Vl. G. Tyuterev who operate with the kinetic energy operator only in Radau orthogonal coordinates, we consider a general case. The matrix elements are shown to be a sum of products of one-dimensional integrals.

  12. Pressure-dependent shallow donor binding energy in InGaN/GaN square QWWs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, Haddou El; Jorio, Anouar; Zorkani, Izeddine

    2013-01-01

    Using a variational approach, we perform a theoretical study of hydrostatic pressure effect on the ground-state of axial hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity binding energy in InGaN/GaN square quantum well wire (SQWWs) as a function of the side length within the effective-mass scheme and finite potential barrier. The pressure dependence of wire length, effective mass, dielectric constant and potential barrier are taken into account. Numerical results show that: (i) the binding energy is strongly affected by the wire length and the external applied pressure and (ii) its maximum moves to the narrow wire in particular for height pressure.

  13. LSND versus MiniBooNE: Sterile neutrinos with energy dependent masses and mixing?

    CERN Document Server

    Schwetz, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Standard active-sterile neutrino oscillations do not provide a satisfactory description of the LSND evidence for neutrino oscillations together with the constraints from MiniBooNE and other null-result short-baseline oscillation experiments. However, if the mass or the mixing of the sterile neutrino depends in an exotic way on its energy all data become consistent. I explore the phenomenological consequences of the assumption that either the mass or the mixing scales with the neutrino energy as $1/E_\

  14. Energy Dependence of Particle Multiplicities in Central Au+Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 200 GeV. For the 6% most central collisions, we obtain dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|<1 = 650+/-35(syst). Compared to collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV, the highest energy studied previously, an increase by a factor of 1.14+/-0.05 at 90% confidence level, is found. The energy dependence of the pseudorapidity density is discussed in comparison with data from proton-induced collisions and theoretical predictions.

  15. Efficient method for the solution of the energy dependent integral Boltzmann transport equation in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, G.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of neutron-nuclei reaction rates in the lower resolved resonance region (167 eV - 1.855 eV) is considered in this dissertation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation of these reaction rates for tight lattices where their accuracy is most important. The results of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, VIM, are chosen as reference values for this study. The primary objective of this work is to develop a method for calculating resonance reaction rates which agree well with the reference solution, yet is efficient enough to be used by nuclear reactor fuel cycle designers on a production basis. A very efficient multigroup solution of the two spatial region energy dependent integral transport equation is developed. This solution, denoted the Broad Group Integral Method (BGIM), uses escape probabilities to obtain the spatial coupling between regions and uses an analytical flux shape within a multigroup to obtain weighted cross sections which account for the rapidly varying resonance cross sections. The multigroup lethargy widths chosen for the numerical integration of the two region energy-dependent neutron continuity equations can be chosen much wider (a factor of 30 larger) than in the direct numerical integration methods since the analytical flux shape is used to account for fine structure effects. The BGIM solution is made highly efficient through the use of these broad groups. It is estimated that for a 10 step unit cell fuel cycle depletion calculation, the computer running time for a production code such as EPRI-LEOPARD would be increased by only 6% through the use of the more accurate and intricate BGIM method in the lower resonance energy region

  16. The kinetic energy operator for distance-dependent effective nuclear masses: Derivation for a triatomic molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoma, Mykhaylo; Jaquet, Ralph

    2017-09-21

    The kinetic energy operator for triatomic molecules with coordinate or distance-dependent nuclear masses has been derived. By combination of the chain rule method and the analysis of infinitesimal variations of molecular coordinates, a simple and general technique for the construction of the kinetic energy operator has been proposed. The asymptotic properties of the Hamiltonian have been investigated with respect to the ratio of the electron and proton mass. We have demonstrated that an ad hoc introduction of distance (and direction) dependent nuclear masses in Cartesian coordinates preserves the total rotational invariance of the problem. With the help of Wigner rotation functions, an effective Hamiltonian for nuclear motion can be derived. In the derivation, we have focused on the effective trinuclear Hamiltonian. All necessary matrix elements are given in closed analytical form. Preliminary results for the influence of non-adiabaticity on vibrational band origins are presented for H 3 + .

  17. Temperature Dependence of the Energy Band Diagram of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of the energy band diagram of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was investigated by theoretical calculation and experiment. Through solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently by using the Silvaco Atlas software, the energy band diagram with varying temperature was calculated. The results indicate that the conduction band offset of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 7 K to 200 K, which means that the depth of quantum well at AlGaN/GaN interface becomes shallower and the confinement of that on two-dimensional electron gas reduces. The theoretical calculation results are verified by the investigation of temperature dependent photoluminescence of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. This work provides important theoretical and experimental basis for the performance degradation of AlGaN/GaN HEMT with increasing temperature.

  18. Evolving and energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelian, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present the application of a genetic algorithm to the problem of determining an energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering. The problem requires a search for the global best optical model potential and its energy dependence in a very rugged 12 dimensional parameter space of complex topographical features with many local minima. Random solutions are created in the first generation. The fitness of a solution is related to the χ 2 fit of the calculated differential cross sections with the experimental data. Best fit solutions are evolved through cross over and mutation following the biological example. This genetic algorithm approach combined with local gradient minimization is shown to provide a global, complete and extremely efficient search method, well adapted to complex fitness landscapes. These characteristics, combined with the facility of application, should make it the search method of choice for a wide variety of problems from nuclear physics. (Author)

  19. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194dependence of {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p} from a single experiment at high W. Parameterizing {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p} {proportional_to} W{sup 2c}, {epsilon}=0.111{+-}0.009 (stat.){+-}0.036 (syst.) was obtained. (orig.)

  20. Excitation energy and angular momentum dependence of the nuclear level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.; Behkami, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the excitation energy (E) dependence of nuclear level density for Bethe formula and constant temperature model. The level density parameter aa nd the back shifted energy from the Bethe formula are obtained by fitting the complete level schemes. Also the level density parameters from the constant temperature model have been determined for several nuclei. we have shown that the microscopic theory provides more precise information on the nuclear level densities. On the other hand, the spin cut-off parameter and effective moment of inertia are determined by studying of the angular momentum (J) dependence of the nuclear level density, and effective moment of inertia is compared with rigid body value.

  1. Energy dependence of collective flow of neutrons and charged particles in 197Au+197Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaich, T.; Freiesleben, H.; Holzmann, R.; Keller, J.G.; Prokopowicz, W.; Schuetter, C.; Wajda, E.; Zude, E.

    1994-01-01

    Our contribution focusses on one particular aspect of collective flow of nuclear matter: the so-called ''squeeze-out'', i.e. the preferential emission of mid-rapidity particles perpendicular to the reaction plane. The data were taken for the system 197 Au + 197 Au at 400, 600 and 800 MeV/u. We cover two topics, the comparison of neutrons and protons, and the bombarding energy dependence of the neutrons' squeeze-out. (orig.)

  2. Continuous Energy, Multi-Dimensional Transport Calculations for Problem Dependent Resonance Self-Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multidimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. Specifically, the methods here utilize the existing continuous energy SCALE5 module, CENTRM, and the multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solver, NEWT to develop a new code, CENTRM( ) NEWT. The work here addresses specific theoretical limitations in existing CENTRM resonance treatment, as well as investigates advanced numerical and parallel computing algorithms for CENTRM and NEWT in order to reduce the computational burden. The result of the work here will be a new computer code capable of performing problem dependent self-shielding analysis for both existing and proposed GENIV fuel designs. The objective of the work was to have an immediate impact on the safety analysis of existing reactors through improvements in the calculation of fuel temperature effects, as well as on the analysis of more sophisticated GENIV/NGNP systems through improvements in the depletion/transmutation of actinides for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives.

  3. Energy-dependency correction factors for the digital dosimeters using in NMD environment dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.C.; Huang, Y. F.; Chen, Y.W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Short-term environment dose-rate assessments using real-time digital dosimeters within a Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) are gaining more world-wide uses recently. In the past, conventional ion chamber-type survey-meters are used dominantly in environmental dose rates evaluation. Although it has suffered less gamma energy-dependency, but it is less sensitive in comparison with other digital dosimeters and more bulky in design that can hardly make it into a pocket size application. With modern electronic advancement and its shrinking in physical size, real-time personal dosimeter nowadays has gaining more popular to use a miniature G-M counter or a solid-state diode sensor, or even a NaI(Tl) scintillation device for ambient radiation monitoring. Radiation sensor operated in pulse-mode can never been used in doses or dose rates determination since each digital pulse has carried no energy information of the impinging gamma ray being interactive with, especially in the G-M counter or the diode sensor case. The raw count rates measured from a pulse-mode device are heavily dependent on the packaging of the sensor to make it less energy-sensitive. The doses or dose rates are then calculated by using a built-in conversion factor, based on a Cs-137 beam source calibration data conducted by various manufacturing vendors, to convert its raw counts into a so-called dose or dose-rate unit. In this study, we have focused our interests in the low energy response of the digital dosimeters from several brands currently for our in-house uses. Mainly, Tc-99m and I-131 in point sources and water phantoms detection configurations have been deployed to simulate our NMD outpatients for environment radiation monitoring purpose. The energy-dependent correction factors of the digital dosimeters will be evaluated by using calibrated Tc-99m or I-131 standard sources directly that has much lower gamma energy than the Cs-137 beam source of 661 keV. In the near future, we would

  4. Spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single molecule with intramolecular spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Kuck, Stefan; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hoffmann, Germar; Blügel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2010-07-23

    We investigate the spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, spatially resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin dependence of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a strong hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin dependence due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states.

  5. Dependency of energy and spatial distributions of photons on edge of object in brain SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Deloar, H M; Kudomi, N; Kim, K M; Aoi, T; Iida, H

    2003-01-01

    Accurate mu maps are important for quantitative image reconstruction in SPECT. The Compton scatter energy window (CSW) technique has been proposed to define the outline of objects. In this technique, a lower energy window image is acquired in addition to the main photo-peak energy window. The image of the lower energy window is used to estimate the edge of the scanned object to produce a constant attenuation map. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependency of CSW on the spatial and energy distribution of radioisotope to predict the edges of objects. Two particular cases of brain study were considered, namely uniform distribution and non-uniform distribution using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments with uniform cylindrical phantom and hotspot phantom. The phantoms were filled with water and a radioactive solution of sup 9 sup 9 sup m Tc. For each phantom, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% thresholds of the mean profile were applied to estimate E sub w sub t , the energy window for minimum difference betwee...

  6. Energy Dependence of Synchrotron X-Ray Rims in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Ressler, Sean M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Several young supernova remnants exhibit thin X-ray bright rims of synchrotron radiation at their forward shocks. Thin rims require strong magnetic field amplification beyond simple shock compression if rim widths are only limited by electron energy losses. But, magnetic field damping behind the shock could produce similarly thin rims with less extreme field amplification. Variation of rim width with energy may thus discriminate between competing influences on rim widths. We measured rim widths around Tycho's supernova remnant in 5 energy bands using an archival 750 ks Chandra observation. Rims narrow with increasing energy and are well described by either loss-limited or damped scenarios, so X-ray rim width-energy dependence does not uniquely specify a model. But, radio counterparts to thin rims are not loss-limited and better reflect magnetic field structure. Joint radio and X-ray modeling favors magnetic damping in Tycho's SNR with damping lengths approximately 1-5% of remnant radius and magnetic field strengths approximately 50-400 micron G assuming Bohm diffusion. X-ray rim widths are approximately 1% of remnant radius, somewhat smaller than inferred damping lengths. Electron energy losses are important in all models of X-ray rims, suggesting that the distinction between loss-limited and damped models is blurred in soft X-rays. All loss-limited and damping models require magnetic fields approximately greater than 20 micron G, arming the necessity of magnetic field amplification beyond simple compression.

  7. Dependence of energy per molecule on sputtering yields with reactive gas cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Gas cluster ions show dense energy deposition on a target surface, which result in the enhancement of chemical reactions. In reactive sputtering with gas cluster ions, the energy per atom or molecule plays an important role. In this study, the average cluster size (N, the number of atoms or molecules in a cluster ion) was controlled; thereby the dependences of the energy per molecule on the sputtering yields of carbon by CO 2 cluster ions and that of Si by SF 6 /Ar mixed gas cluster ions were investigated. Large CO 2 cluster ions with energy per molecule of 1 eV showed high reactive sputtering yield of an amorphous carbon film. However, these ions did not cause the formation of large craters on a graphite surface. It is possible to achieve very low damage etching by controlling the energy per molecule of reactive cluster ions. Further, in the case of SF 6 /Ar mixed cluster ions, it was found that reactive sputtering was enhanced when a small amount of SF 6 gas (∼10%) was mixed with Ar. The reactive sputtering yield of Si by one SF 6 molecule linearly increased with the energy per molecule.

  8. Effect of linear temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties on energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    New thermal rate equations were developed by taking the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the thermoelectric (TE) materials into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that they vary linearly with temperature T. The relative energy conversion efficiency η/η 0 for a single TE element was formulated by approximate analysis, where η and η 0 are the energy conversion efficiencies derived from the new and conventional thermal rate equations, respectively. Applying it to Si-Ge alloys, the temperature dependence of ρ is stronger than that of κ, so the former has a more significant effect on η/η 0 than the latter. However, the degree of contribution from both of them to η/η 0 was a little lower than 1% at the temperature difference ΔT of 600 K. When the temperature dependence of κ was increased to become equal to that of ρ, however, it was found that η/η 0 is increased by about 10% at ΔT = 600 K. It is clarified here that the temperature dependences of ρ and κ are also important factors for an improvement in η

  9. Temperature dependence of energy-transducing functions and inhibitor sensitivity in chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurmans, J.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Francke, J.A.; Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.; Kraayenhof, R.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the temperature dependence of energy-transducing reactions in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts and their sensitivity for uncouplers and energy-transfer inhibitors at different temperatures is presented. Arrhenius plots reveal two groups of transitions, around 19/sup 0/C and around 12/sup 0/C. Activities that show transitions around 19/sup 0/C include linear electron flow from water to ferricyanide, its coupled photophosphorylation, the dark-release of the fluorescent probe atebrin, and the slow component of the 515 nm (carotenoid) absorbance decay after a flash. The transitions around 12/sup 0/C are observed with pyocyanine-mediated cyclic photophosphorylation, light- and dithioerythritol-activated ATP hydrolysis, the dark-release of protons, and the fast 515 nm decay component. It is suggested that both groups of temperature transitions are determined by proton displacements in different domains of the exposed thylakoid membranes. The effects of various uncouplers and an energy-transfer inhibitor are temperature dependent. Some uncouplers also show a different relative inhibition of proton uptake and ATP synthesis at lower temperatures. The efficiency of energy transduction (ATP/e/sub 3/) varied with temperature and was optimal around 10/sup 0/C.

  10. Material dependence of electron inelastic mean free paths at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, S.; Powell, C.J.; Penn, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    We present and discuss electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) data for aluminum and gold in the 50--200 eV range. These elements serve as examples of IMFP calculations that have been made for 50--2000 eV electrons in 31 materials (27 elements and 4 compounds). Substantial differences are found in the shapes of the IMFP versus energy curves for Al and Au and these can be understood in terms of the different inelastic scattering mechanisms in the two metals. The minimum IMFP value occurs at 40 eV in aluminum and at 120 eV in gold, a result which is consistent with the trends expected from free-electron IMFP calculations. This result differs, however, from that expected from the Seah and Dench attenuation length formula which shows essentially no material dependence at low energies. We have extended a general formula derived earlier to describe the calculated IMFPs over the 200--2000 eV energy range to give the IMFP dependences on material and energy from 50 to 2000 eV

  11. Coherent and incoherent J /ψ photonuclear production in an energy-dependent hot-spot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Krelina, M.

    2018-02-01

    In a previous publication, we have presented a model for the photoproduction of J /ψ vector mesons off protons, where the proton structure in the impact-parameter plane is described by an energy-dependent hot-spot profile. Here we extend this model to study the photonuclear production of J /ψ vector mesons in coherent and incoherent interactions of heavy nuclei. We study two methods to extend the model to the nuclear case: using the standard Glauber-Gribov formalism and using geometric scaling to obtain the nuclear saturation scale. We find that the incoherent cross section changes sizably with the inclusion of subnucleonic hot spots and that this change is energy dependent. We propose to search for this behavior by measuring the ratio of the incoherent to coherent cross sections at different energies. We compare the results of our model to results from the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and from run 1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), finding satisfactory agreement. We also present predictions for the LHC at the new energies reached in run 2. The predictions include J /ψ production in ultraperipheral collisions, as well as the recently observed photonuclear production in peripheral collisions.

  12. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosek, Tomas

    2016-12-15

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  13. Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.

  14. Global, finite energy, weak solutions for the NLS with rough, time-dependent magnetic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Paolo; Michelangeli, Alessandro; Scandone, Raffaele

    2018-04-01

    We prove the existence of weak solutions in the space of energy for a class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the presence of a external, rough, time-dependent magnetic potential. Under our assumptions, it is not possible to study the problem by means of usual arguments like resolvent techniques or Fourier integral operators, for example. We use a parabolic regularisation, and we solve the approximating Cauchy problem. This is achieved by obtaining suitable smoothing estimates for the dissipative evolution. The total mass and energy bounds allow to extend the solution globally in time. We then infer sufficient compactness properties in order to produce a global-in-time finite energy weak solution to our original problem.

  15. Experimental observation of energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the target having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness, and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation thickness (depth). The present measurements are carried out to study the energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector placed at 90 deg. to the incident beam. We observe that the saturation thickness increases with increasing incident gamma photon energy. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison [Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106] support the present experimental results

  16. Incorporation of Hydrogen Bond Angle Dependency into the Generalized Solvation Free Energy Density Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songling; Hwang, Sungbo; Lee, Sehan; Acree, William E; No, Kyoung Tai

    2018-04-23

    To describe the physically realistic solvation free energy surface of a molecule in a solvent, a generalized version of the solvation free energy density (G-SFED) calculation method has been developed. In the G-SFED model, the contribution from the hydrogen bond (HB) between a solute and a solvent to the solvation free energy was calculated as the product of the acidity of the donor and the basicity of the acceptor of an HB pair. The acidity and basicity parameters of a solute were derived using the summation of acidities and basicities of the respective acidic and basic functional groups of the solute, and that of the solvent was experimentally determined. Although the contribution of HBs to the solvation free energy could be evenly distributed to grid points on the surface of a molecule, the G-SFED model was still inadequate to describe the angle dependency of the HB of a solute with a polarizable continuum solvent. To overcome this shortcoming of the G-SFED model, the contribution of HBs was formulated using the geometric parameters of the grid points described in the HB coordinate system of the solute. We propose an HB angle dependency incorporated into the G-SFED model, i.e., the G-SFED-HB model, where the angular-dependent acidity and basicity densities are defined and parametrized with experimental data. The G-SFED-HB model was then applied to calculate the solvation free energies of organic molecules in water, various alcohols and ethers, and the log P values of diverse organic molecules, including peptides and a protein. Both the G-SFED model and the G-SFED-HB model reproduced the experimental solvation free energies with similar accuracy, whereas the distributions of the SFED on the molecular surface calculated by the G-SFED and G-SFED-HB models were quite different, especially for molecules having HB donors or acceptors. Since the angle dependency of HBs was included in the G-SFED-HB model, the SFED distribution of the G-SFED-HB model is well described

  17. The angular dependence of spin-state energy splittings in the ? core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Lynn; Steenbock, Torben; Herrmann, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Spin-state energy splittings are highly relevant for catalysis, molecular magnetism, and materials science, yet continue to pose a challenge for electronic structure methods. For a Fe2O2+ 2 core, we evaluate the bridging angle dependence of energy splittings between ferromagnetically and antiferromagnetically coupled states for different exchange-correlation functionals, and compare with complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) values, also including second-order perturbative corrections (CASPT2). CASSCF and CASPT2 yield strong antiferromagnetic coupling, with the smallest coupling at 100°, and a smooth dependence on the angle for Fe-O-Fe angles of 70° to 120°. Interestingly, this is qualitatively the same behaviour as often found for stable dinuclear transition metal complexes. While all functionals show the same angular dependence as CASPT2, they favour the antiferromagnetic state less strongly. Pure functionals such as BP86, BLYP, SSB-D, and TPSS come closer to the CASPT2 results (with energy splittings by about 60 kJ/mol smaller than the CASPT2 ones) than hybrid functionals. The hybrid functionals B3LYP, B3LYP⋆, and PBE0 favour the antiferromagnetic state even less strongly, resulting in ferromagnetic coupling for angles around 100°. The good qualitative agreement between CASPT2 and CASSCF on the one hand and CASPT2 and density functional theory on the other hand for angles between 70° and 110° suggests that the chosen active space of 18 electrons in 14 orbitals may be adequate for spin-state energy splitting of Fe2O2+ 2 in that region (possibly due to error cancellation), while angles of 60° or 120° may require larger active spaces. This study is complemented by an analysis of local spins, local charges, and CASSCF natural orbitals.

  18. Charge-state dependence of binary-encounter-electron cross sections and peak energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidmi, H.I.; Richard, P.; Sanders, J.M.; Schoene, H.; Giese, J.P.; Lee, D.H.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Varghese, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state dependence of the binary-encounter-electron (BEE) double-differential cross section (DDCS) at 0 degree with respect to the beam direction resulting from collisions of 1 MeV/amu H + , C q+ , N q+ , O q+ , F q+ , Si q+ , and Cl q+ , and 0.5 MeV/amu Cu q+ with H 2 is reported. The data show an enhancement in the BEE DDCS as the charge state of the projectile is decreased, in agreement with the data reported by Richard et al. [J. Phys. B 23, L213 (1990)]. The DDCS enhancement ratios observed for the three-electron isoelectronic sequence C 3+ :C 6+ , N 4+ :N 7+ , O 5+ :O 8+ , and F 6+ :F 9+ are about 1.35, whereas a DDCS enhancement of 3.5 was observed for Cu 4+ . The BEE enhancement with increasing electrons on the projectile has been shown by several authors to be due to the non-Coulomb static potential of the projectile and additionally to the e-e exchange interaction. An impulse-approximation (IA) model fits the shape of the BEE DDCS and predicts a Z p 2 dependence for the bare-ion cross sections. The IA also predicts a binary peak energy that is independent of q and Z p and below the classical value of 4t, where t is the energy of electrons traveling with the projectile velocity. We observed a BEE energy shift ΔE (ΔE=4t-E peak , where E peak is the measured energy at the peak of the binary encounter electrons) that is approximately independent of q for the low-Z p ions, whereas the measured ΔE values for Si, Cl, and Cu were found to be q dependent

  19. Simulating time-dependent energy transfer between crossed laser beams in an expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittinger, J.A.F.; Dorr, M.R.; Berger, R.L.; Williams, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    A coupled mode system is derived to investigate a three-wave parametric instability leading to energy transfer between co-propagating laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. The model includes beams of finite width refracting in a prescribed transverse plasma flow with spatial and temporal gradients in velocity and density. The resulting paraxial light equations are discretized spatially with a Crank-Nicholson-type scheme, and these algebraic constraints are nonlinearly coupled with ordinary differential equations in time that describe the ion acoustic response. The entire nonlinear differential-algebraic system is solved using an adaptive, backward-differencing method coupled with Newton's method. A numerical study is conducted in two dimensions that compares the intensity gain of the fully time-dependent coupled mode system with the gain computed under the further assumption of a strongly damped ion acoustic response. The results demonstrate a time-dependent gain suppression when the beam diameter is commensurate with the velocity gradient scale length. The gain suppression is shown to depend on time-dependent beam refraction and is interpreted as a time-dependent frequency shift

  20. Two-particle one-hole multiple-scattering contribution to 17O energies using an energy-dependent reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Krenciglowa, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 2p1h correlations in 17 O is studied within a multiple-scattering formalism. An accurate, energy-dependent reaction matrix with orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states is used to assess the relative importance of particle-particle and particle-hole correlations in the 17 O energies. The effect of energy dependence of the reaction matrix is closely examined. (Auth.)

  1. Measurement of time-dependent fast neutron energy spectra in a depleted uranium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.

    1980-10-01

    Time-dependent neutron energy spectra in the range 0.6 to 6.4 MeV have been measured in a depleted uranium assembly. By selecting windows in the time range 0.9 to 82 ns after the beam pulse, it was possible to observe the change of the neutron energy distributions from spectra of predominantly 4 to 6 MeV neutrons to spectra composed almost entirely of fission neutrons. The measured spectra were compared to a Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment using the ENDF/B-IV data file. At times and energies at which the calculation predicted a fission spectrum, the experiment agreed with the calculation, confirming the accuracy of the neutron spectroscopy system. However, the presence of discrepancies at other times and energies suggested that there are significant inconsistencies in the inelastic cross sections in the 1 to 6 MeV range. The time response generated concurrently with the energy spectra was compared to the Monte Carlo calculation. From this comparison, and from examination of time spectra measured by other workers using 235 U and 237 Np fission detectors, it would appear that there are discrepancies in the ENDF/B-IV cross sections below 1 MeV. The predicted decay rates were too low below and too high above 0.8 MeV

  2. Measurement of the energy dependence of X-ray-induced decomposition of potassium chlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong

    2013-03-21

    We report the first measurements of the X-ray induced decomposition of KClO3 as a function of energy in two experiments. KClO3 was pressurized to 3.5 GPa and irradiated with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays ranging in energy from 15 to 35 keV in 5 keV increments. A systematic increase in the decomposition rate as the energy was decreased was observed, which agrees with the 1/E(3) trend for the photoelectric process, except at the lowest energy studied. A second experiment was performed to access lower energies (10 and 12 keV) using a beryllium gasket; suggesting an apparent resonance near 15 keV or 0.83 Ǻ maximizing the chemical decomposition rate. A third experiment was performed using KIO3 to ascertain the anionic dependence of the decomposition rate, which was observed to be far slower than in KClO3, suggesting that the O-O distance is the critical factor in chemical reactions. These results will be important for more efficiently initiating chemical decomposition in materials using selected X-ray wavelengths that maximize decomposition to aid useful hard X-ray-induced chemistry and contribute understanding of the mechanism of X-ray-induced decomposition of the chlorates.

  3. Results on the energy dependence of cosmic-ray charge composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements by a balloon-borne ionization spectrometer of the energy dependence of high-energy cosmic-ray charge composition. The results presented are greatly improved over those obtained earlier by Ormes et al. (1971) by the use of a multidimensional charge analysis with more efficient background rejection, and a more accurate energy determination. Complex couplings between the charge, energy, and trajectory information were taken into account and are discussed. The spectra of individual elements up to oxygen and of groups of nuclei up through iron were measured up to almost 100 GeV per nucleon. The energy spectrum of the secondary nuclei, B + N, is found to be steeper than that of the primary nuclei, C + O, in agreement with Smith et al. (1973). The most dramatic finding is that the spectrum of the iron nuclei is flatter than that of the carbon and oxygen nuclei by 0.57 plus or minus 0.14 of a power.

  4. Proof and implementation of the stochastic formula for ideal gas, energy dependent scattering kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.; Dagan, R.; Lohnert, G.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal gas, scattering kernel for heavy nuclei with pronounced resonances was developed [Rothenstein, W., Dagan, R., 1998. Ann. Nucl. Energy 25, 209-222], proved and implemented [Rothenstein, W., 2004 Ann. Nucl. Energy 31, 9-23] in the data processing code NJOY [Macfarlane, R.E., Muir, D.W., 1994. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91, LA-12740-M] from which the scattering probability tables were prepared [Dagan, R., 2005. Ann. Nucl. Energy 32, 367-377]. Those tables were introduced to the well known MCNP code [X-5 Monte Carlo Team. MCNP - A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 5 LA-UR-03-1987 code] via the 'mt' input cards in the same manner as it is done for light nuclei in the thermal energy range. In this study we present an alternative methodology for solving the double differential energy dependent scattering kernel which is based solely on stochastic consideration as far as the scattering probabilities are concerned. The solution scheme is based on an alternative rejection scheme suggested by Rothenstein [Rothenstein, W. ENS conference 1994 Tel Aviv]. Based on comparison with the above mentioned analytical (probability S(α,β)-tables) approach it is confirmed that the suggested rejection scheme provides accurate results. The uncertainty concerning the magnitude of the bias due to the enhanced multiple rejections during the sampling procedure are proved to lie within 1-2 standard deviations for all practical cases that were analysed.

  5. Determination of alpha effectiveness in ESR dating using nuclear accelerator techniques: methods and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    An important parameter in calculating the environmental dose rate for electron spin resonance (ESR) age estimates is the relative effectiveness of alpha and gamma radiation. A small research accelerator is used as a source of alpha particles of various pre-selected energies, corresponding to those found in the environment, to determine the effectiveness of alpha radiation of different energies. Preparation of sample targets is discussed, including the use of absolute ethanol, thorough etching and deposition by centrifuge. Preliminary results show that the alpha/gamma effectiveness ratio, k, depends on the energy of the incident alpha and must therefore be expressed in terms of a reference energy. The effectiveness of an alpha particle in causing ESR damage is found to vary linearly with its range or path length, not with its energy, a fact which must be considered when calculating effective dose-rates from environmental radionuclide concentrations. Failure to do so may lead to serious systematic errors in the effective alpha contribution to environmental dose-rates and consequently in age estimates. (author)

  6. Energy dependency of mechanical properties on polymer impregnated concrete polymerized by radiation induced method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hironobu

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of polymerization on polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) polymerized by various radiation source which have the peculiar energy respectively as follows; Gamma-rays: 60 Co-1.25MeV, 137 Cs-0.66MeV, X-Ray: 0.88MeV and accelerated electron beam 4.0, 2.0 and 1.2MeV. This experimental program was carried out to investigate the effect of radiation energy, density of cementmortar, optimum irradiating conditions and other factors which have influence upon the polymerization and strength of PIC. The test results shows that the energy dependency on the accelerated electron was remarkable effect for relative absorption energy and strength of specimens (Fig. 5) and it can be estimate that the impregnation depth from the surface of specimens in ordinary mortar MMA-PIC were about 10 mm, 6 mm, and 3 mm as to 4.0, 2.0 and 1.2MeV respectively under curing 50 Mrads (Fig. 2). It is also show that the optimum total exposure dose on magnetic electro wave methods, estimate about 3 MR at 60 Co; 1 x 10 6 R/hr, 2 MR at 137 Cs; 4.5 x 10 4 R/hr and 2 MR at X-ray; 5 x 10 5 R/hr at curing temperature 20 0 C (Fig. 9, Fig. 10). We can see the fact that the energy dependency is noticiable only comparing same kinds of radiation source. (author)

  7. Energy dependence of the optical model of neutron scattering from niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of niobium were measured from 1.5 to 10.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to200 keV below 4.0 MeV, and of approx. =500 keV from 4.0 to 10.0 MeV. Ten to more than fifty differential-cross-section values were determined at each incident energy, distributed over the angular range approx. =20 to 160 0 . The observed values were interpreted in the context of the spherical optical-statistical model. It was found that the volume integral of the real potential decreased with energy whereas the integral of the imaginary part increased. The energy dependence in both cases was consistent with a linear variation. There is a dispersion relationship between the real and imaginary potentials, and when this was used, in conjunction with the experimental imaginary potential, it was possible to predict the observed energy dependence of the real potential to a good degree of accuracy, thus supporting the consistency of the data and its analysis. The real-potential well depths needed to give the correct binding energies of the 2d/sub 5/2/, 3s/sub 1/2/, 2d/sub 3/2/ and 1g/sub 7/2/ particle states and of the 1g/sub 9/2/ hole state are in reasonable agreement with those given by a linear extrapolation of the scattering potential. However, the well depths needed to give the observed binding of the 2p/sub 3/2/, 1f/sub 5/2/ and 2p/sub 1/2/ hole states are about 10% less than the extrapolated values. 40 refs., 5 figs

  8. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  9. Novel scatter compensation with energy and spatial dependent corrections in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Bastien

    2010-01-01

    We developed and validated a fast Monte Carlo simulation of PET acquisitions based on the SimSET program modeling accurately the propagation of gamma photons in the patient as well as the block-based PET detector. Comparison of our simulation with another well validated code, GATE, and measurements on two GE Discovery ST PET scanners showed that it models accurately energy spectra (errors smaller than 4.6%), the spatial resolution of block-based PET scanners (6.1%), scatter fraction (3.5%), sensitivity (2.3%) and count rates (12.7%). Next, we developed a novel scatter correction incorporating the energy and position of photons detected in list-mode. Our approach is based on the reformulation of the list-mode likelihood function containing the energy distribution of detected coincidences in addition to their spatial distribution, yielding an EM reconstruction algorithm containing spatial and energy dependent correction terms. We also proposed using the energy in addition to the position of gamma photons in the normalization of the scatter sinogram. Finally, we developed a method for estimating primary and scatter photons energy spectra from total spectra detected in different sectors of the PET scanner. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of our new spatio-spectral scatter correction and that of the standard spatial correction using realistic Monte Carlo simulations. These results showed that incorporating the energy in the scatter correction reduces bias in the estimation of the absolute activity level by ∼ 60% in the cold regions of the largest patients and yields quantification errors less than 13% in all regions. (author)

  10. Flux and energy dependence of methane production from graphite due to H+ impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1986-06-01

    Carbon is in widespread use for limiter surfaces, as well as first wall coatings in current tokamaks. Chemical erosion via methane formation, due to energetic H + impact, is expected to contribute to the total erosion rate of carbon from these surfaces. Experimental results are presented for the methane yield from pyrolytic graphite due to H + exposure, using a mass analyzed ion beam. H + energies of 0.1-3 keV and flux densities of ∼ 5x10 13 to l0 16 H + /cm 2 s were used. The measured methane yield (CH 4 /H + ) initially increases with flux density, then reaches a maximum, which is followed by a gradual decrease. The magnitude of the maximum yield and the flux density at which it occurs depends on the graphite temperature. The yields obtained at temperatures corresponding to yield maxima at specific flux densities also show an initial increase, followed by a shallow maximum and a gradual decrease as a function of flux density; the maximum occurs at ∼10 15 H + /cm 2 s. Also presented are results on the methane production dependence on ion energy over the range 0.1 to 3 keV, and graphite temperature dependence measurements

  11. Simulation studies of optimum energies for DXA: dependence on tissue type, patient size and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, G. J.; Henderson, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well established technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). However, in recent years DXA is increasingly being used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. DXA scanners must also determine the soft tissue baseline value from soft-tissue-only regions adjacent to bone. The aim of this work is to determine, using computer simulations, the optimum x- ray energies for a number of dose models, different tissues, i.e. bone mineral, average soft tissue, lean soft tissue and fat; and a range of anatomical sites and patient sizes. Three models for patient dose were evaluated total beam energy, entrance exposure and absorbed dose calculated by Monte Carlo modelling. A range of tissue compositions and thicknesses were chosen to cover typical patient variations for the three sites femoral neck, PA spine and lateral spine. In this work, the optimisation of the energies is based on (1) the uncertainty that arises from the quantum statistical nature of the number of x-rays recorded by the detector, and (2) the radiation dose received by the patient. This study has deliberately not considered other parameters such as detector response, electronic noise, x-ray tube heat load etc, because these are technology dependent parameters, not ones that are inherent to the measuring technique. Optimisation of the energies is achieved by minimisation of the product of variance of density measurement and dose which is independent of the absolute intensities of the x-ray beams. The results obtained indicate that if solving for bone density, then E-low in the range 34 to 42 keV, E-high in the range 100 to 200 keV and incident intensity ratio (low energy/high energy) in the range 3 to 10 is a reasonable compromise for the normal range of patient sizes. The choice of energies is complicated by the fact that the DXA unit must also solve for fat and lean soft tissue in soft- tissue-only regions adjacent to the bone. In this

  12. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  13. Energy-dependent expansion of .177 caliber hollow-point air gun projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature. The terminal ballistic performance (energy-dependent expansion and penetration) of four different types of .177 caliber hollow-point pellets discharged at kinetic energy levels from approximately 3 J up to 30 J into water, ordnance gelatin, and ordnance gelatin covered with natural chamois as a skin simulant was the subject of this investigation. Energy-dependent expansion of the tested hollow-point pellets was observed after being shot into all investigated target media. While some hollow-point pellets require a minimum kinetic energy of approximately 10 J for sufficient expansion, there are also hollow-point pellets which expand at kinetic energy levels of less than 5 J. The ratio of expansion (RE, calculated by the cross-sectional area (A) after impact divided by the cross-sectional area (A 0 ) of the undeformed pellet) of hollow-point air gun pellets reached values up of to 2.2. The extent of expansion relates to the kinetic energy of the projectile with a peak for pellet expansion at the 15 to 20 J range. To conclude, this work demonstrates that the hollow-point principle, i.e., the design-related enlargement of the projectiles' frontal area upon impact into a medium, does work in air guns as claimed by the manufacturers.

  14. An investigation of the photon energy dependence of the EPR alanine dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrand, Eva Stabell; Shortt, Ken R; Ross, Carl K; Hole, Eli Olaug

    2003-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) alanine dosimetry system is based on EPR measurements of radicals formed in alanine by ionizing radiation. The system has been studied to determine its energy dependence for photons in the 10-30 MV region relative to those of 60 Co and to find out if the system would be suitable for dosimetry comparisons. The irradiations were carried out at the National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada and the doses ranged from 8 to 54 Gy. The EPR measurements were performed at the University of Oslo, Norway. The ratio of the slope of the alanine reading versus dose-to-water curve for a certain linac photon beam quality and the corresponding slope for a reference 60 Co γ-radiation gives an experimental measure of the relative dose-to-water response of the EPR alanine dosimetry system. For calculating the linear regression coefficients of these alanine reading versus dose curves, the method of weighted least squares was used. This method is assumed to produce more accurate regression coefficients when applied to EPR dosimetry than the common method of standard least squares. The overall uncertainty on the ratio of slopes was between 0.5 and 0.6% for all three linac energies. The relative response for all the linac beams compared to cobalt was less than unity: by about 0.5% for the 20 and 30 MV points but by more than 1% for the 10 MV point. The given standard uncertainties negate concluding that there is any significant internal variation in the measured response as a function of beam quality between the three linac energies. Thus, we calculated the average dose response for all three energies and found that the alanine response is 0.8% (±0.5%) lower for high energy x-rays than for 60 Co γ-rays. This result indicates a small energy dependence in the alanine response for the high-energy photons relative to 60 Co which may be significant. This result is specific to our dosimetry system (alanine with 20% polyethylene binder pressed into a

  15. Magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the energy gap in InN nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aravind

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present tunneling measurements on an InN nanobelt which shows signatures of superconductivity. Superconducting transition takes place at temperature of 1.3K and the critical magnetic field is measured to be about 5.5kGs. The energy gap extrapolated to absolute temperature is about 110μeV. As the magnetic field is decreased to cross the critical magnetic field, the device shows a huge zero-bias magnetoresistance ratio of about 400%. This is attributed to the suppression of quasiparticle subgap tunneling in the presence of superconductivity. The measured magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the superconducting gap agree well with the reported dependences for conventional metallic superconductors.

  16. Simulation of Probe Position-Dependent Electron Energy-Loss Fine Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, M. P.; Kapetanakis, M. D.; Prange, Micah P.; Varela, M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2014-03-31

    We present a theoretical framework for calculating probe-position-dependent electron energy-loss near-edge structure for the scanning transmission electron microscope by combining density functional theory with dynamical scattering theory. We show how simpler approaches to calculating near-edge structure fail to include the fundamental physics needed to understand the evolution of near-edge structure as a function of probe position and investigate the dependence of near-edge structure on probe size. It is within this framework that density functional theory should be presented, in order to ensure that variations of near-edge structure are truly due to local electronic structure and how much from the diffraction and focusing of the electron beam.

  17. Technique for sensitivity analysis of space- and energy-dependent burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A practical method is presented for sensitivity analysis of the very complex, space-energy dependent burn-up equations, in which the neutron and nuclide fields are coupled nonlinearly. The adjoint burn-up equations that are given are in a form which can be directly implemented into multi-dimensional depletion codes, such as VENTURE/BURNER. The data sensitivity coefficients can be used to determine the effect of data uncertainties on time-dependent depletion responses. Initial condition sensitivity coefficients provide a very effective method for computing the change in end of cycle parameters (such as k/sub eff/, fissile inventory, etc.) due to changes in nuclide concentrations at beginning of cycle

  18. Dependence of effective spectrum width of synchrotron radiation on particle energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A.S.; Saprykin, A.D. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    In the classical theory of synchrotron radiation, for the exact quantitative characterization of spectral properties, the concept of effective spectral width is introduced. In the first part of our work, published in EJPC 75 (2015), the effective spectral width as a function of the energy E of the radiating particle was obtained only in the ultra-relativistic approximation. In this article, which can be considered as a natural continuation of this work, a complete investigation is presented of the dependence of the effective width of the synchrotron radiation spectrum on energy for any values of E and for all the polarization components of the radiation. Numerical calculations were carried out for an effective width not exceeding 100 harmonics. (orig.)

  19. Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb{sup -1}. The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)

  20. Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-03-01

    The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb -1 . The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e + e - collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)

  1. Determination of pulse energy dependence for skin denaturation from 585nm fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Ascencio, S.; Velazquez-Gonzalez, J. S.; Mujica-Ascencio, C.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis for the determination of pulse energy from a Q-switched Yb3+-doped fibre laser is required in Port Wine Stain (PWS) treatment. The pulse energy depends on average power, gain, volume, repetition rate and pulse duration. In some treatments such as Selective Photothermolysis (SP), the peak power at the end of the optical fibre and pulse duration can be obtained and modified via a cavity design. For that purpose, a 585nm optical fibre laser full design which considers all of the above besides the average losses through the optical devices proposed for the design and the Ytterbium optical fibre overall gain will be presented.

  2. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Beck, C.; Atencio, S.E.; Dennis, L.C.; Frawley, A.D.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Kemper, K.W.; Kovar, D.G.; Maguire, C.F.; Padalino, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Tiede, M.A.; Wilkins, B.D.; Zingarelli, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Fusion evaporation-residue cross sections for the 28 Si+ 12 C reaction have been measured in the energy range 18≤E c.m. ≤136 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. Velocity distributions of mass-identified reaction products were used to identify evaporation residues and to determine the complete-fusion cross sections at high energies. The data are in agreement with previously established systematics which indicate an entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the incomplete-fusion evaporation-residue process. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with earlier measurements and the predictions of existing models

  3. Isotope effect with energy-dependent density of states and impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.J.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    We have calculated the total isotope coefficient β in a model where there is energy-dependent structure in the electronic density of states. We model the structure with a simple Lorentzian. In our calculation, doping has the effect of shifting the Fermi level and broadening the structure in the density of states. We have treated the dopants both as normal and as magnetic impurities. The asymmetry observed in the experimental data is found in our results. However, the complete range of values observed is difficult to reproduce. We question also whether the shifts in Fermi level required in such models are reasonable

  4. A method for reducing energy dependence of thermoluminescence dosimeter response by means of filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    This work describes the application of the method of partial surface shielding for reducing the energy dependence of the X-ray and γ-ray response of a dosimeter containing a CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent phosphor mixed with KCl. in pellet form. Results are given of approximate computation of filter combinations that accomplish this aim, and of experimental verifications. Incorporation of the described filter combination makes it possible to use this relatively sensitive dosimeter for environmental radiation monitoring. A similar approach could be applied to any type of dosimeter in the form of a thin pellet or wafer. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the energy dependence of ionization chambers pencil type calibrated beam tomography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2015-01-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI - IPEN) performs calibrations of pencil-type ionization chambers (IC) used in measures of dosimetric survey on clinical systems of Computed Tomography (CT). Many users make mistakes when using a calibrated ionization chamber in their CT dosimetry systems. In this work a methodology for determination of factors of correction for quality (Kq) through the calibration curve that is specific for each ionization chamber was established. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate the energy dependence on an pencil-type Ionization Chamber(IC) calibrated at the LCI - IPEN. (author)

  6. Sub-LET Threshold SEE Cross Section Dependency with Ion Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Alia, Ruben; Brandenburg, Sytze; Brugger, Markus; Daly, Eamonn; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Gaillard, Remi; Hoeffgen, Stefan; Menicucci, Alessandra; Metzger, Stefan; Zadeh, Ali; Muschitiello, Michele; Noordeh, Emil; Santin, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the ion species and energy dependence of the heavy ion SEE cross section in the sub-let threshold region through a set of experimental data. In addition, a Monte Carlo based model is introduced and applied, showing a good agreement with the data in the several hundred MeV/n range while evidencing large discrepancies with the measurements in the 10-30 MeV/n interval, notably for the NE ion. Such discrepancies are carefully analysed and discussed.

  7. Temperature dependence of the surface energy of mercury from 0 to 250 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Halas, S

    2002-01-01

    The surface energy (SE) for mercury was calculated on the basis of the free electron model in which the electron density parameter, r sub s , for bulk electrons was calculated from the density of mercury while the electron density parameter for surface electrons, r sub s sub s , was assumed to be higher by a factor that is linearly dependent on temperature. Ideal agreement of calculated SE values with experimental data was attained for the temperatures 0-250 deg. C assuming that r sub s sub s = r sub s x 1.0021 sup T sup / sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 deg. C. (letter to the editor)

  8. Criticality problems for slabs and spheres in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state equation for energy-dependent neutron transport in isotropically scattering slabs and spheres is formulated as an integral equation. The Perron-Frobenius-Jentzsch theory of positive operators is used to analyze criticality problems for transport in slab and spherical media consisting of core and reflector. In addition, with an adroit selection of diffusion-like solutions, this theory is used to obtain an expression relating the critical radius of a homogeneous sphere to a parameter characterizing fission production. 21 refs

  9. Photon energy dependent intensity variations observed in Auger spectra of free argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundwall, M; Lindblad, A; Bergersen, H; Rander, T; Oehrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Peredkov, S; Svensson, S; Bjoerneholm, O

    2006-01-01

    Photon energy dependent intensity variations are experimentally observed in the L 2,3 M 2,3 M 2,3 Auger spectra of argon clusters. Two cluster sizes are examined in the present study. Extrinsic scattering effects, both elastic and inelastic, involving the photoelectron are discussed and suggested as the explanation of the variations in the Auger signal. The atoms in the first few coordination shells surrounding the core-ionized atom are proposed to be the main targets for the scattering processes

  10. The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdan, M.; Farhan, A.M.; Hassib, E.; Kareem, W. Abdel

    2006-01-01

    The isospin dependence of the nucleus-nucleus inelastic cross-section at high energy is investigated within the multiple scattering theory. The multiple integrals are evaluated by Monte Carlo method as well as by the optical limit approximation of the Glauber model. Calculations are performed for 14-23 N, 16-24 O and 18-26 F isotopes colliding with carbon target around 1 GeV. It is found that rms radii and the density distributions show a halo structure of 22 N, 23 O and 24 F

  11. $A$--Dependence of $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ Bond Energies in Double---$\\Lambda$ Hypernuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Lanskoy, D. E.; Lurie, Yu. A.; Shirokov, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The $A$-dependence of the bond energy $\\Delta B_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}$ of the ${\\Lambda\\Lambda}$ hypernuclear ground states is calculated in a three-body ${\\Lambda + \\Lambda + {^{A}Z}}$ model and in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach. Various ${\\Lambda\\Lambda}$ and $\\Lambda$-nucleus or ${\\Lambda N}$ potentials are used and the sensitivity of $\\Delta B_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}$ to the interactions is discussed. It is shown that in medium and heavy ${\\Lambda\\Lambda}$ hypernuclei, $\\Delta B_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}$ i...

  12. On recoil energy dependent void swelling in pure copper: Theoretical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, S.I.; Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.

    2000-06-01

    Over the years, an enormous amount of experimental results have been reported on damage accumulation (e.g. void swelling) in metals and alloys irradiated under vastly different recoil energy conditions. Unfortunately, however, very little is known either experimentally or theoretically about the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation. Recently, dedicated irradiation experiments using 2.5 MeV electrons, 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons have been carried out to determine the effect of recoil energy on the damage accumulation behaviour in pure copper and the results have been reported in Part I of this paper (Singh, Eldrup, Horsewell, Ehrhart and Dworschak 2000). The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework within which the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation behaviour can be understood. The damage accumulation under Frenkel pair production (e.g. 2.5 MeV electron) has been treated in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) model whereas the evolution of the defect microstructure under cascade damage conditions (e.g. 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons) has been calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM). Theoretical results, in agreement with experimental results, show that the damage accumulation behaviour is very sensitive to recoil energy and under cascade damage conditions can be treated only within the framework of the PBM. The intracascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and the properties of SIA clusters such as one-dimensional diffusional transport and thermal stability are found to be the main reasons for the recoil energy dependent vacancy supersaturation. The vacancy supersaturation is the main driving force for the void nucleation and void swelling. In the case of Frenkel pair production, the experimental results are found to be consistent with the SRT model with a dislocation bias value of 2 %. (au)

  13. Energy and target dependence of projectile breakup effect in the elastic scattering of 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Y.

    1986-03-01

    Over the wide range of incident energy (E lab = 40 ∼ 170 MeV) and target mass number (A = 12 ∼ 208), projectile breakup effects in the elastic scattering of 6 Li have been investigated with a microscopic coupled-channel method. The coupling to the 6 Li → α + d breakup process is treated with the method of coupled discretized continuum channels (CDCC). 6 Li-target interactions are provided by the folding of the M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon potential with nucleon densities of colliding nuclei. The calculation well reproduces the observed elastic scattering for all the targets and incident energies without any renormalization in the real folding potentials. The breakup effect is found to depend little on the energy and target, which is confirmed by calculating the dynamical polarization potentials induced by the coupling to the breakup process. Almost irrespectively of energy and target, the potential has a repulsive real part with strength of about 40 % of the folding potential in addition to a negligible imaginary part, which explains well the empirical reduction factor of the double-folding model. Discussions are made on the origin of repulsive nature of the breakup effect. (author)

  14. Monte carlo calculation of energy-dependent response of high-sensitive neutron monitor, HISENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Koide, Hiroaki; Seo, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    A highly sensitive neutron monitor system, HISENS, has been developed to measure leakage neutrons from nuclear facilities. The counter system of HISENS contains a detector bank which consists of ten cylindrical proportional counters filled with 10 atm 3 He gas and a paraffin moderator mounted in an aluminum case. The size of the detector bank is 56 cm high, 66 cm wide and 10 cm thick. It is revealed by a calibration experiment using an 241 Am-Be neutron source that the sensitivity of HISENS is about 2000 times as large as that of a typical commercial rem-counter. Since HISENS is designed to have a high sensitivity in a wide range of neutron energy, the shape of its energy dependent response curve cannot be matched to that of the dose equivalent conversion factor. To estimate dose equivalent values from neutron counts by HISENS, it is necessary to know the energy and angular characteristics of both HISENS and the neutron field. The area of one side of the detector bank is 3700 cm 2 and the detection efficiency in the constant region of the response curve is about 30 %. Thus, the sensitivity of HISENS for this energy range is 740 cps/(n/cm 2 /sec). This value indicates the extremely high sensitivity of HISENS as compared with exsisting highly sensitive neutron monitors. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Beam energy dependence of d and d ‾ production in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; STAR Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The binding energy of light nuclei is small compared to the temperature of the system created in heavy-ion collisions. Consequently, the yields of light nuclei can be used to probe the freeze-out properties, such as correlation volume and local baryon density of the medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. In this paper, we report the results of deuteron and anti-deuteron production in Au+Au collision at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV, measured by STAR at RHIC. The collision energy, centrality and transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameter B2 for deuteron and anti-deuteron production are discussed. We find the values of B2 for anti-deuterons are systematically lower than those for deuterons indicating the correlation volume of anti-baryon are larger than that of baryon. In addition, the values of B2 are found to vary with collision energy and show a broad minimum around √{sNN} = 20GeV, implying a change of the equation of state of the medium in these collisions.

  16. Phase-dependent dynamic potential of magnetically coupled two-degree-of-freedom bistable energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilkee; Nguyen, Minh Sang; Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Young-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-09-28

    A system of magnetically coupled oscillators has been recently considered as a promising compact structure to integrate multiple bistable energy harvesters (BEHs), but its design is not straightforward owing to its varying potential energy pattern, which has not been understood completely yet. This study introduces the concept of phase-dependent dynamic potential in a magnetically coupled BEH system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) to explain the underlying principle of the complicated dynamics of the system. Through theoretical simulations and analyses, two distinct dynamic regimes, called the out-of-phase and in-phase mode regimes in this report, are found to exist in the frequency regions of the 1 st and 2 nd primary intrawell resonances. For the out-of-phase mode regime, the frequency displacement (and output power) responses of the 2-DOF BEH system exhibit typical double-well dynamics, whereas for the in-phase mode regime, only single-well dynamics is observed though the system is statically bistable. These dynamic regimes are also revealed to be caused by the difference in the dynamic potential energy trajectories propagating on a high-dimensional potential energy surface. The present approach to the dynamics of the 2-DOF BEH system can be extended and applied to higher-DOF systems, which sheds light on compact and efficient designs of magnetically coupled BEH chain structures.

  17. Energy dependence evaluation of a ZnO detector for diagnostic X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valença, C.P.V.; Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A.; Santos, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the international organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using X-ray as a diagnosis tool. The current concern is to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can be concluded that, after calibration, the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the energy dependence of a zinc oxide nanofilm X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, C.P.V.; Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A.; Santos, L.A.P

    2015-01-01

    International organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using of the X-ray as a diagnosis tool to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, electronic semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can conclude that the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector with an appropriate calibration. (author)

  19. Guided transmission of highly charged ions through nanocapillaries in PET. Study of the energy dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helhammer, R.; Pesic, Z.D.; Sobocinski, P.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Stolterfoht, N.; Sulik, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently we reported experiments in which slow highly charged ions are transmitted through nanocapillaries of 100nm diameter in an insulating PET foil of 10μm thickness [1]. The results of this work differ significantly from previous studies, which have been focused on capillaries in metals [2]. We measured the transmission of 3 keV Ne 7+ ions through the capillaries and focused the attention on ions whose charge has not changed during the passage through the capillary. The observation that the angular distribution for PET has a peak maximum whose position is equal to the tilt angle indicates a guiding of the Ne 7+ ion within the capillary. This guiding shows that the inner walls of the capillaries are charged up in a self-organizing process and collisions with the surface are finally prevented. We studied the time evolution of the capillary guiding as well as dependencies on the tilt angle [3]. Our most recent measurements were focussed on the investigation of the energy dependency for the guiding of Ne 7+ through capillaries. The measurements were done in an energy range from 2 keV up to 10 keV.We measured higher guiding efficiency for lower energies consistent with a previously developed model, which predicted an increase of the guiding efficiency with decreasing projectile energy [3]. In addition we found the effect of a narrower width of the angular distribution of transmitted ions. This effect is also well described by the model. However, further work is needed to explain the amount of charges to build up the deflection field at the end of the capillaries

  20. The photon energy dependence of the alanine/EPR dosimetry system, an experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrand, E.S.; Hole, E.O.; Shortt, K.R.; Ross, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    The energy dependence of a dosimetry system based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of alanine has been studied to determine its suitability for use in dose verification for radiotherapy. A few experiments with high-energy photon irradiation of alanine have been reported in the literature. However, the reported results disagree whether the ratio of dose in alanine to dose in water is independent of the radiation energy or whether there is a small dependence for photon energies of relevance to radiotherapy. The concentration of free radicals in alanine is proportional to the absorbed dose in alanine over a wide dose range covering three decades. The relative number of radicals may be determined by examining the EPR spectrum, and hence it is possible to determine the dose with a system that has been calibrated using a known dose of 60 Co radiation. In the present work, irradiations of alanine dosimeters were performed at the National Research Council (NRC), in Ottawa, Canada. The radiation qualities investigated were 10, 20 and 30 MV x-rays using the NRC linac. For each radiation quality, 30 dosimeters were irradiated in a water phantom with a level of absorbed dose to water ranging from 10 to 50 Gy. For reference purposes, irradiations using the NRC 60 Co source were performed on more or less the same day as the irradiations at each specific linac quality. In all beams, the dose to water was measured using a graphite-walled NE2571 ionisation chamber that was originally calibrated by comparison with a sealed-water calorimeter. The alanine dosimeters were evaluated at the EPR laboratory at the University of Oslo, Norway, using an X-band Bruker ESP300E spectrometer with a rectangular double resonator. One of the resonators contained a Mn 2+ /MgO sample that was read after each dosimeter reading, in order to provide independence from short-term sensitivity fluctuations in the spectrometer. All dosimeters irradiated at one specific linac quality were

  1. Energy and calcium ion dependence of proteolysis during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, M.B.; Hageman, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have shown, with an optimized [ 14 C]leucine-labeling and chasing procedure, that intracellular protein degradation in sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) is apparently energy dependent. Sodium arsenate, sodium azide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrozone, and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, at levels which did not induce appreciable lysis (≤ 10%) over 10-h periods of sporulation, inhibited intracellular proteolysis by 13 to 93%. Exponentially growing cells acquired arsenate resistance. In contrast to earlier reports, the authors found that chloramphenicol strongly inhibited proteolysis even when added 6 h into the sporulation process. Restricting the calcium ion concentration in the medium had no effect on rates or extent of vegetative growth, strongly inhibited sporulation, and inhibited rates of proteolysis by 60% or more. Inhibitors of energy metabolism, at the same levels which inhibited proteolysis, did not affect the rate or degree of uptake of Ca 2+ by cells. Restricting the Ca 2+ concentration in the medium reduced by threefold of the specific activity in cells of the major intracellular serine proteinase after 12 h of sporulation. finally, cells of a mutant of B. subtilis bearing an insertionally inactivated gene for the Ca 2+ -dependent intracellular proteinase-1 degraded protein in chemically defined sporulation medium at a rate indistinguishable from that of the wild-type cells for period of 8 h

  2. Growth dynamics of the energy dependent economy. Die Wachstumsdynamik der energieabhaengigen Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, R

    1980-01-01

    In Part I the industrial process is analysed and a functional, quantitative definition of capital, by which (instrumental) capital is related to automation is proposed. In this way capital can be defined and measured precisely in terms of physical work done and information processes by machines. Pollution, defined as entropy increase in the economic system, is considered in its various manifestations and taken into account by a product of specific pollution functions. In Part II the role of creativity as a generator of growth intervals and system-characteristics is discussed. The conditions of integrability of the equation of growth are pointed out, thus elucidating the requirements for the existence of a production function which unequivocally depends upon capital, labor and energy. This results in a set of differential equations for the elasticities of production. The states of total automation and full capital employment are analyzed and the extremum principles which govern the quantitative input of the production factors are given. In Part III the dependence of the elasticities of production on the factors of production are examined with the help of the integrability conditions. The path of balanced economic growth is analyzed along which the growth of production within a growth-interval is described by a Cobb-Douglas production function. Scenarios of energy crises are calculated, and simple estimates are given.

  3. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  4. Observation of Energy and Baseline Dependent Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance in the RENO Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Choi, W Q; Choi, Y; Jang, H I; Jang, J S; Jeon, E J; Joo, K K; Kim, B R; Kim, H S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kim, S Y; Kim, W; Kim, Y D; Ko, Y; Lee, D H; Lim, I T; Pac, M Y; Park, I G; Park, J S; Park, R G; Seo, H; Seo, S H; Seon, Y G; Shin, C D; Siyeon, K; Yang, J H; Yeo, I S; Yu, I

    2016-05-27

    The RENO experiment has analyzed about 500 live days of data to observe an energy dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} by comparing their prompt signal spectra measured in two identical near and far detectors. In the period between August of 2011 and January of 2013, the far (near) detector observed 31 541 (290 775) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 4.9% (2.8%). The measured prompt spectra show an excess of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. A clear energy and baseline dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} is observed in the deficit of the observed number of ν[over ¯]_{e}. Based on the measured far-to-near ratio of prompt spectra, we obtain sin^{2}2θ_{13}=0.082±0.009(stat)±0.006(syst) and |Δm_{ee}^{2}|=[2.62_{-0.23}^{+0.21}(stat)_{-0.13}^{+0.12}(syst)]×10^{-3}  eV^{2}.

  5. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R

    2009-01-01

    Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations. (review)

  6. Optimal energy window setting depending on the energy resolution for radionuclides used in gamma camera imaging. Planar imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Arao, Yuichi; Kawasaki, Masaaki; Takaki, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the optimal energy window (EW) setting depending on an energy resolution of a gamma camera, which we previously proposed, is valid on planar scintigraphic imaging using Tl-201, Ga-67, Tc-99m, and I-123. Image acquisitions for line sources and paper sheet phantoms containing each radionuclide were performed in air and with scattering materials. For the six photopeaks excluding the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays' one, the conventional 20%-width energy window (EW20%) setting and the optimal energy window (optimal EW) setting (15%-width below 100 keV and 13%-width above 100 keV) were compared. For the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays' photopeak, the conventional on-peak EW20% setting was compared with the off-peak EW setting (73 keV-25%) and the wider off-peak EW setting (77 keV-29%). Image-count ratio (defined as the ratio of the image counts obtained with an EW and the total image counts obtained with the EW covered the whole photopeak for a line source in air), image quality, spatial resolutions (full width half maximum (FWHM) and full width tenth maximum (FWTM) values), count-profile curves, and defect-contrast values were compared between the conventional EW setting and the optimal EW setting. Except for the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays, the image-count ratios were 94-99% for the EW20% setting, but 78-89% for the optimal EW setting. However, the optimal EW setting reduced scatter fraction (defined as the scattered-to-primary counts ratio) effectively, as compared with the EW20% setting. Consequently, all the images with the optimal EW setting gave better image quality than ones with the EW20% setting. For the Hg-201 characteristic x-rays, the off-peak EW setting showed great improvement in image quality in comparison with the EW20% setting and the wider off-peak EW setting gave the best results. In conclusion, from our planar imaging study it was shown that although the optimal EW setting proposed by us gives less image-count ratio by

  7. Study of the energy dependence of the underlying event in proton-antiproton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodulman, L.; Aaltonen, T; Albrow, M; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T

    2015-11-23

    We study charged particle production (p(T) > 0.5 GeV/c, vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) in proton-antiproton collisions at total center-of-mass energies root s = 300 GeV, 900 GeV, and 1.96 TeV. We use the direction of the charged particle with the largest transverse momentum in each event to define three regions of eta - phi space: "toward", "away", and "transverse." The average number and the average scalar pT sum of charged particles in the transverse region are sensitive to the modeling of the "underlying event." The transverse region is divided into a MAX and MIN transverse region, which helps separate the "hard component" (initial and final-state radiation) from the "beam-beam remnant" and multiple parton interaction components of the scattering. The center-of-mass energy dependence of the various components of the event is studied in detail. The data presented here can be used to constrain and improve QCD Monte Carlo models, resulting in more precise predictions at the LHC energies of 13 and 14 TeV.

  8. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Evidence of Vegard's Rulelike Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Adrian; Nelayah, Jaysen; Amara, Hakim; Creuze, Jérôme; Alloyeau, Damien; Wang, Guillaume; Ricolleau, Christian

    2018-01-12

    We use in situ transmission electron microscopy to monitor in real time the evaporation of gold, copper, and bimetallic copper-gold nanoparticles at high temperature. Besides, we extend the Kelvin equation to two-component systems to predict the evaporation rates of spherical liquid mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles. By linking this macroscopic model to experimental TEM data, we determine the surface energies of pure gold, pure copper, Cu_{50}Au_{50}, and Cu_{25}Au_{75} nanoparticles in the liquid state. Our model suggests that the surface energy varies linearly with the composition in the liquid Cu-Au nanoalloy; i.e., it follows a Vegard's rulelike dependence. To get atomic-scale insights into the thermodynamic properties of Cu-Au alloys on the whole composition range, we perform Monte Carlo simulations employing N-body interatomic potentials. These simulations at a microscopic level confirm the Vegard's rulelike behavior of the surface energy obtained from experiments combined with macroscopic modeling.

  9. Surface effects on sputtered atoms and their angular and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1985-04-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code, Ion Transport in Materials and Compounds (ITMC), has been developed to study in detail the surfaces related phenomena that affect the amount of sputtered atoms and back-scattered ions and their angular and energy dependence. A number of important factors that can significantly affect the sputtering behavior of a surface can be studied in detail, such as having different surface properties and composition than the bulk and synergistic effects due to surface segregation of alloys. These factors can be important in determining and lifetime of fusion reactor first walls and limiters. The ITMC Code is based on Monte Carlo methods to track down the path and the damage produced by charged particles as they slow down in solid metal surfaces or compounds. The major advantages of the ITMC code are its flexibility and ability to use and compare all existing models for energy losses, all known interatomic potentials, and to use different materials and compounds with different surface and bulk composition to allow for dynamic surface composition to allow for dynamic surface composition changes. There is good agreement between the code and available experimental results without using adjusting parameters for the energy losses mechanisms. The ITMC Code is highly optimized, very fast to run and easy to use

  10. Coherent synchrotron radiation transient effects in the energy-dependent region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Botman, Jan; Goloviznin, Vladimir; Wiel, Marnix van der

    2002-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is a well known phenomenon that originates from coherent superposition of electromagnetic waves by ultrarelativistic electrons. CSR longitudinal effects during the passage of a Gaussian beam from a straight to a circular path have often been studied in a regime in which they are energy independent. Nevertheless, the approximations used in such a regime may fail in several practical situations, as in the case of low-energy injectors or for small-wavelength structures within the bunch distribution in CSR-related instability problems. These situations demand a deeper investigation of longitudinal transient effects in the region where the approximations above are no longer valid: a strong γ dependence is found, and described in this paper, in the rate of energy change induced by CSR during the transient of a Gaussian bunch between a straight and a circular path, which was studied with the help of the authors' previous work. Results show that the overall CSR longitudinal effects, in this case, are reduced. One of the outcomes of previous work by Saldin et al. was extended to this situation and very good agreement between the two studies was found

  11. The Energy Dependence of Flow in Ni Induced Collisions from 400A to 1970A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, J.; Brady, F.; Cebra, D.; Kintner, J.; Partlan, M.; Romero, J.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Insolia, A.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G.; Tuve, C.; Bieser, F.; Cebra, D.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.; Symons, T.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Choi, Y.; Elliott, J.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Porile, N.; Scharenberg, R.; Srivastava, B.; Tincknell, M.; Warren, P.; Chacon, A.; Wolf, K.

    1997-01-01

    We study the energy dependence of collective (hydrodynamic-like) nuclear matter flow in (400 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Au and (1000 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Cu reactions. The flow increases with energy, appears to reach a maximum, and then to decrease at higher energies. A way of comparing the energy dependence of flow values for different projectile-target mass combinations is introduced, which demonstrates a more-or-less common scaling behavior among flow values from different systems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the electric power in the current-carrying conductors (so-called Joule’s heat or the energy radiation penetrating into the body of a semitransparent material, etc. The volume power release characterizes an intensity of these processes.The extensive list of references to the theory of heat conductivity of solids offers solutions to problems to determine a stationary (steady over time and non-stationary temperature state of the solids (as a rule, of the canonical form, which act as the sources of volume power release. Thus, in general case, a possibility for changing power release according to the body volume and in solving the nonstationary problems also a possible dependence of this value on the time are taken into consideration.However, in real conditions the volume power release often also depends on the local temperature, and such dependence can be nonlinear. For example, with chemical reactions the intensity of heat release or absorption is in proportion to their rate, which, in turn, is sensitive to the temperature value, and a dependence on the temperature is exponential. A further factor that in such cases makes the analysis of the solid temperature state complicated, is dependence on the temperature and the thermal conductivity of this body material, especially when temperature distribution therein  is significantly non-uniform. Taking into account the influence of these factors requires the mathematical modeling methods, which allow us to build an adequate

  13. Accurate Ground-State Energies of Solids and Molecules from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent densityfunctional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence...

  14. Deviation from an inverse cosine dependence of kinetic secondary electron emission for angle of incidence at keV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Kawata, Jun; Mori, Ichiro

    1989-01-01

    Incident angle dependence of kinetic secondary electron emission from metals resulting from incidence of keV ions is investigated by computer simulation with the TRIM Monte Carlo program of ion scattering in matter. The results show large deviations from the inverse cosine dependence, which derives from high-energy approximation, because of a series of elastic collisions of incident ions with metal atoms. In the keV energy region, the elastic collisions have two different effects on the angular dependence for relatively high-energy light ions and for low-energy heavy ions: they result in over- and under-inverse-cosine dependences, respectively. The properties are observed even with an experiment of the keV-neutral incidence on a contaminated surface. In addition, the effects of the thin oxide layer and roughness on the surface are examined with simplified models. (author)

  15. The dependence of the electronic coupling on energy gap and bridge conformation - Towards prediction of the distance dependence of electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, Mattias P.; Albinsson, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation factor, β, for the distance dependence of electron exchange reactions is a sensitive function of the donor-bridge energy gap and bridge conformation. In this work the electronic coupling for electron and triplet excitation energy transfer has been investigated for five commonly used repeating bridge structures. The investigated bridge structures are OF (oligo fluorene), OP (oligo phenylene), OPE (oligo p-phenyleneethynylene), OPV (oligo phenylenevinylene), and OTP (oligo thiophene). Firstly, the impact of the donor-bridge energy gap was investigated by performing calculations with a variety of donors appended onto bridges that were kept in a planar conformation. This resulted in, to our knowledge, the first presented sets of bridge specific parameters to be inserted into the commonly used McConnell model. Secondly, since at experimental conditions large conformational flexibility is expected, a previously developed model that takes conformational disorder of the bridge into account has been applied to the investigated systems [M.P. Eng, T. Ljungdahl, J. Martensson, B. Albinsson, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 6483]. This model is based on Boltzmann averaging and has been shown to describe the temperature dependence of the attenuation factor through OPE-bridges. Together, the parameters describing the donor-bridge energy gap dependence, for planar bridge structures, and the Boltzmann averaging procedure, describing the impact of rotational disorder, have the potential to a priori predict attenuation factors for electron and excitation energy transfer reactions through bridged donor-acceptor systems

  16. Measured energy dependence of L-shell photoelectric cross sections of lead in the energy region 17-50 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1980-08-28

    The energy dependence of L-shell photoelectric cross sections for lead in the energy region 17-50 keV has been investigated. The method utilises external conversion x-rays as the source of photons and it yields relative rather than absolute cross sections, but is simpler and more accurate. The results show fairly good agreement with theory.

  17. Distance-dependent energy transfer between indole and anthracene moieties in Langmuir Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D. C.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Misra, T. N.

    1998-09-01

    1,2-Diphenyl indole (DPI) and 9,10-diphenyl anthracene (DPA) are non-amphiphilic molecules but form excellent LB films when mixed with stearic acid (SA). Spectroscopic investigations of these films indicate formation of aggregates of DPI and DPA in the mixed LB films. DPA has been used as the quencher of the fluorescence of the DPI donor. Distance-dependent energy transfer between donor and acceptor monolayers in the LB film, where they can be precisely separated by inert spacers of stearic acid layers of varied thickness, is shown to satisfy Khun's quadratic equation. This suggests that the donor excitations are delocalized. The large critical transfer distance estimated from the experimental results has been attributed to the formation of aggregates of the molecules in a LB monolayer.

  18. Energy and orientation dependence of electron-irradiation-induced defects in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, A.; Suski, J.; LeRoux, G.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of several electron-irradiation-induced deep defect levels in InP has been measured by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) as a function of electron energy. The dominant centers exhibit a threshold at about 100 keV, which clearly points to a primary production event by electron--phosphorus-atom collision. This unambiguous determination allowed a test of the recently proposed orientation dependence technique to find the nature of the sublattice involved in the collision process for III-V compounds. A good quantitative agreement is obtained with a hard-sphere model for secondary collisions if disorientation of the beam in the sample is taken into account. Other traps exhibit higher thresholds which correspond either to indium-atom displacements or to the involvement of secondary collisions in the production event

  19. Multicomponent Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Proton and Electron Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Culpitt, Tanner; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2018-04-05

    The quantum mechanical treatment of both electrons and protons in the calculation of excited state properties is critical for describing nonadiabatic processes such as photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. Multicomponent density functional theory enables the consistent quantum mechanical treatment of more than one type of particle and has been implemented previously for studying ground state molecular properties within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework, where all electrons and specified protons are treated quantum mechanically. To enable the study of excited state molecular properties, herein the linear response multicomponent time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived and implemented within the NEO framework. Initial applications to FHF - and HCN illustrate that NEO-TDDFT provides accurate proton and electron excitation energies within a single calculation. As its computational cost is similar to that of conventional electronic TDDFT, the NEO-TDDFT approach is promising for diverse applications, particularly nonadiabatic proton transfer reactions, which may exhibit mixed electron-proton vibronic excitations.

  20. Multi-dimensional relativistic simulations of core-collapse supernovae with energy-dependent neutrino transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we have presented the first multi-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae that combine a detailed, up-to-date treatment of neutrino transport, the equation of state, and - in particular - general relativistic gravity. Building on the well-tested neutrino transport code VERTEX and the GR hydrodynamics code CoCoNuT, we developed and implemented a relativistic generalization of a ray-by-ray-plus method for energy-dependent neutrino transport. The result of these effort, the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, also incorporates a number of improved numerical techniques that have not been used in the code components VERTEX and CoCoNuT before. In order to validate the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, we conducted several test simulations in spherical symmetry, most notably a comparison with the one-dimensional relativistic supernova code AGILE-BOLTZTRAN and the Newtonian PROMETHEUSVERTEX code. (orig.)

  1. Does a deformation of special relativity imply energy dependent photon time delays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical arguments in favor of energy dependent photon time delays from a modification of special relativity (SR) have met with recent gamma ray observations that put severe constraints on the scale of such deviations. We review the case of the generality of this theoretical prediction in the case of a deformation of SR and find that, at least in the simple model based on the analysis of photon worldlines which is commonly considered, there are many scenarios compatible with a relativity principle which do not contain a photon time delay. This will be the situation for any modified dispersion relation which reduces to E=\\vert p\\vert for photons, independently of the quantum structure of spacetime. This fact opens up the possibility of a phenomenologically consistent relativistic generalization of SR with a new mass scale many orders of magnitude below the Planck mass.

  2. Composition-Dependent Energy Splitting between Bright and Dark Excitons in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

    2018-03-14

    Perovskite semiconductor nanocrystals with different compositions have shown promise for applications in light-emitting devices. Dark excitonic states may suppress light emission from such nanocrystals by providing an additional nonradiative recombination channel. Here, we study the composition dependence of dark exciton dynamics in nanocrystals of lead halides by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. The presence of a spin-related dark state is revealed by magneto-optical spectroscopy. The energy splitting between bright and dark states is found to be highly sensitive to both halide elements and organic cations, which is explained by considering the effects of size confinement and charge screening, respectively, on the exchange interaction. These findings suggest the possibility of manipulating dark exciton dynamics in perovskite semiconductor nanocrystals by composition engineering, which will be instrumental in the design of highly efficient light-emitting devices.

  3. Multi-dimensional relativistic simulations of core-collapse supernovae with energy-dependent neutrino transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Bernhard

    2009-05-07

    In this thesis, we have presented the first multi-dimensional models of core-collapse supernovae that combine a detailed, up-to-date treatment of neutrino transport, the equation of state, and - in particular - general relativistic gravity. Building on the well-tested neutrino transport code VERTEX and the GR hydrodynamics code CoCoNuT, we developed and implemented a relativistic generalization of a ray-by-ray-plus method for energy-dependent neutrino transport. The result of these effort, the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, also incorporates a number of improved numerical techniques that have not been used in the code components VERTEX and CoCoNuT before. In order to validate the VERTEX-CoCoNuT code, we conducted several test simulations in spherical symmetry, most notably a comparison with the one-dimensional relativistic supernova code AGILE-BOLTZTRAN and the Newtonian PROMETHEUSVERTEX code. (orig.)

  4. Energy and mass-number dependence of the dissociation temperature in hydrodynamical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Navarra, F.S.

    1990-10-01

    Transverse-momentum distributions of π and K have been analysed to obtain the √s dependence of the collective transverse and the dissociation temperature in pp- and p-barp induced multiparticle production reactions. A good fit of both the pion and kaon data has been obtained in terms of a previously proposed simple parametrization of the collective transverse rapidity distribution. The main outcomes are the logarithmically increasing average transverse rapidity squared and a slowly decreasing dissociation temperature T sub(d) as the incident energy √s increases. This last behaviour is in excellent agreement with early Landau's estimate. An extension of the same estimate to nucleus-nucleus collisions gives the correct low temperature component which has been observed in heavy-ion experiments. (author)

  5. Fitting methods for constructing energy-dependent efficiency curves and their application to ionization chamber measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, A.; Schrader, H.

    2002-01-01

    An ionization chamber without and with an iron liner (absorber) was calibrated by a set of radionuclide activity standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The ionization chamber is used as a secondary standard measuring system for activity at the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU). Energy-dependent photon-efficiency curves were established for the ionization chamber in defined measurement geometry without and with the liner, and radionuclide efficiencies were calculated. Programmed calculation with an analytical efficiency function and a nonlinear regression algorithm of Microsoft (MS) Excel for fitting was used. Efficiencies from bremsstrahlung of pure beta-particle emitters were calibrated achieving a 10% accuracy level. Such efficiency components are added to obtain the total radionuclide efficiency of photon emitters after beta decay. The method yields differences of experimental and calculated radionuclide efficiencies for most of the photon-emitting radionuclides in the order of a few percent

  6. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C (p,2p) Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2001-11-01

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90° c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)2. We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  7. Calculated energy dependence of CaSO4:Dy TL phosphor and phosphor embedded Teflon for X and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-K.; Nam, Y.-M.; Kim, J.-L.; Chang, S.-Y.; Kim, B.-H.

    2001-01-01

    The energy dependence of a CaSO 4 :Dy TL phosphor for 21 monoenergetic photons of energy ranging from 0.01 to 3 MeV was calculated by using MCNP4A code. The calculation results show good agreement with those of other authors within ± 5% relative error. Calculations and experiments are also performed to determine the energy dependence of CaSO 4 : Dy phosphor with Dy concentrations from 0.01 to 1.5 mol %, and with the compositions of TL-Teflon from 10 to 90 wt %. The calculated energy responses show good agreement with the experiment results within ± 20% relative error except for a concentration lower than 0.1 mol % Dy and the low energy regions of M30 (Eave.=20 keV) and M60 (Eave.=34 keV). For the TL-Teflon mixture, the energy dependence shows an decreasing trend with the increase of Teflon concentration in MCNP calculation but shows no dependence for TL-Teflon mixture proportions in experiment. These differences are due to the non-homogeneous distribution of Dy concentration and the effect of large grain size in the phosphors. The energy dependence of the 30 wt/o CaSO 4 (0.1 mol%;Dy) and 70 wt/o Teflon that is placed behind the filters of plastic, aluminum, copper, tin and lead with a thickness from 0.1 to 2 mm were calculated, respectively

  8. Proteome analysis reveals an energy-dependent central process for Populus×canadensis seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Ke-Xin; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan

    2017-06-01

    Poplar (Populus×canadensis) seeds rapidly germinated in darkness at 10, 15, and 20°C and reached 50% seed germination after about 22, 4.5, and 3.5h, respectively. Germination of poplar seeds was markedly inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA) at 50μM and cycloheximide (CHX) at 100μM, and these inhibitive roles were temperature-dependent. In the present study, mature poplar seeds were used to investigate the differentially changed proteome of seeds germinating in water, ABA, and CHX. A total of 130 protein spots showed a significant change (1.5-fold increase/decrease, Pgermination of poplar seeds is closely related with the increase in those proteins involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, protein synthesis and destination, cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. ABA and CHX inhibit the germination of poplar seeds by decreasing the protein abundance associated with protein proteolysis, protein folding, and storage proteins. We conclude that poplar seed germination is an energy-dependent active process, and is accompanied by increasing amino acid activation, protein synthesis and destination, as well as cell defense and rescue, and degradation of storage proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study of the Energy Dependence of the Underlying Event in Proton-Antiproton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Marchese, Luigi; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; Devoto, Francesco; D'Errico, Maria; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; D'Onofrio, Monica; Donati, Simone; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kim, Young-Jin; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucà, Alessandra; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Prokoshin, Fedor; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Sorin, Maria Veronica; Song, Hao; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2015-11-23

    We study charged particle production in proton-antiproton collisions at 300 GeV, 900 GeV, and 1.96 TeV. We use the direction of the charged particle with the largest transverse momentum in each event to define three regions of eta-phi space; toward, away, and transverse. The average number and the average scalar pT sum of charged particles in the transverse region are sensitive to the modeling of the underlying event. The transverse region is divided into a MAX and MIN transverse region, which helps separate the hard component (initial and final-state radiation) from the beam-beam remnant and multiple parton interaction components of the scattering. The center-of-mass energy dependence of the various components of the event are studied in detail. The data presented here can be used to constrain and improve QCD Monte Carlo models, resulting in more precise predictions at the LHC energies of 13 and 14 TeV.

  10. Characterizing the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption to particle precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Adam; Makarevich, Roman; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    Energetic electrons in the 10's of keV range precipitate to the upper D- and lower E-region ionosphere, and are responsible for enhanced ionization. The same particles are important in the inner magnetosphere, as they provide a source of energy for waves, and thus relate to relativistic electron enhancements in Earth's radiation belts.In situ observations of plasma populations and waves are usually limited to a single point, which complicates temporal and spatial analysis. Also, the lifespan of satellite missions is often limited to several years which does not allow one to infer long-term climatology of particle precipitation, important for affecting ionospheric conditions at high latitudes. Multi-point remote sensing of the ionospheric plasma conditions can provide a global view of both ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions, and the coupling between magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena can be examined on time-scales that allow comprehensive statistical analysis. In this study we utilize multi-point riometer measurements in conjunction with in situ satellite data, and physics-based modeling to investigate the spatio-temporal and energy-dependent response of riometer absorption. Quantifying this relationship may be a key to future advancements in our understanding of the complex D-region ionosphere, and may lead to enhanced specification of auroral precipitation both during individual events and over climatological time-scales.

  11. Quantitatively identical orientation-dependent ionization energy and electron affinity of diindenoperylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W. N.; Yonezawa, K.; Makino, R.; Kato, K.; Hinderhofer, A.; Ueno, N.; Kera, S. [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Murdey, R.; Shiraishi, R.; Yoshida, H.; Sato, N. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-12-16

    Molecular orientation dependences of the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA) of diindenoperylene (DIP) films were studied by using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The molecular orientation was controlled by preparing the DIP films on graphite and SiO{sub 2} substrates. The threshold IE and EA of DIP thin films were determined to be 5.81 and 3.53 eV for the film of flat-lying DIP orientation, respectively, and 5.38 and 3.13 eV for the film of standing DIP orientation, respectively. The result indicates that the IE and EA for the flat-lying film are larger by 0.4 eV and the frontier orbital states shift away from the vacuum level compared to the standing film. This rigid energy shift is ascribed to a surface-electrostatic potential produced by the intramolecular polar bond (>C{sup −}-H{sup +}) for standing orientation and π-electron tailing to vacuum for flat-lying orientation.

  12. A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celli Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs, are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.

  13. Role of codeposited impurities during growth. II. Dependence of morphology on binding and barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh; Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Pimpinelli, A.; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    In an accompanying article we showed that surface morphologies obtained through codeposition of a small quantity (2%) of impurities with Cu during growth (step-flow mode, θ = 40 ML) significantly depends on the lateral nearest-neighbor binding energy (ENN) to Cu adatom and the diffusion barrier (Ed) of the impurity atom on Cu(0 0 1). Based on these two energy parameters, ENN and Ed, we classify impurity atoms into four sets. We study island nucleation and growth in the presence of codeposited impurities from different sets in the submonolayer (θ⩽ 0.7 ML) regime. Similar to growth in the step-flow mode, we find different nucleation and growth behavior for impurities from different sets. We characterize these differences through variations of the number of islands (Ni) and the average island size with coverage (θ). Further, we compute the critical nucleus size (i) for all of these cases from the distribution of capture-zone areas using the generalized Wigner distribution.

  14. Isospin effects on the system mass dependence of nuclear stopping around the energy of vanishing flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-10-01

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on nuclear stopping throughout the mass range 50 and 350 for two sets of isotopic systems with N/Z ≈ 1.5 and 1.8, as well as isobaric systems with N/Z = 1.0 and 1.4. Analysis is carried out at incident energies below, at, and above the energy of vanishing flow (EVF) using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. Our findings reveal that nuclear stopping does not show any particular behavior at the EVF. Moreover, system size effects dominate the isospin effects throughout the range of colliding geometry. The Coulomb effects, however, become important at peripheral geometry. The comparative study of the counterbalancing of Coulomb and mean field by removing the nucleon-nucleon collisions and symmetry potential clearly indicates the dominance of nucleon-nucleon cross-section over the Coulomb repulsions. Moreover, the theoretical results presented in this manuscript for the set of reactions can be experimentally verified.

  15. Isospin effects on the system mass dependence of nuclear stopping around the energy of vanishing flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on nuclear stopping throughout the mass range 50 and 350 for two sets of isotopic systems with N/Z ≈ 1.5 and 1.8, as well as isobaric systems with N/Z = 1.0 and 1.4. Analysis is carried out at incident energies below, at, and above the energy of vanishing flow (EVF) using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. Our findings reveal that nuclear stopping does not show any particular behavior at the EVF. Moreover, system size effects dominate the isospin effects throughout the range of colliding geometry. The Coulomb effects, however, become important at peripheral geometry. The comparative study of the counterbalancing of Coulomb and mean field by removing the nucleon–nucleon collisions and symmetry potential clearly indicates the dominance of nucleon–nucleon cross-section over the Coulomb repulsions. Moreover, the theoretical results presented in this manuscript for the set of reactions can be experimentally verified. (paper)

  16. Electron transport in furfural: dependence of the electron ranges on the cross sections and the energy loss distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Krupa, K.; Colmenares, R.; Blanco, F.; Muńoz, A.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limá Vieira, P.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; García, G.

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have provided a complete set of differential and integral electron scattering cross section data from furfural over a broad energy range. The energy loss distribution functions have been determined in this study by averaging electron energy loss spectra for different incident energies and scattering angles. All these data have been used as input parameters for an event by event Monte Carlo simulation procedure to obtain the electron energy deposition patterns and electron ranges in liquid furfural. The dependence of these results on the input cross sections is then analysed to determine the uncertainty of the simulated values.

  17. Bounds on an Energy-Dependent and Observer-Independent Speed of Light from Violations of Locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    We show that models with deformations of special relativity that have an energy-dependent speed of light have nonlocal effects. The requirement that the arising nonlocality is not in conflict with known particle physics allows us to derive strong bounds on deformations of special relativity and rule out a modification to first order in energy over the Planck mass.

  18. D-Dimensional Dirac Equation for Energy-Dependent Pseudoharmonic and Mie-type Potentials via SUSYQM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikot, A.N.; Hassanabadi, H.; Maghsoodi, E.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the approximate solution of the Dirac equation for energy-dependent pseudoharmonic and Mie-type potentials under the pseudospin and spin symmetries using the supersymmetry quantum mechanics. We obtain the bound-state energy equation in an analytical manner and comment on the system behavior via various figures and tables

  19. Dependence of Interaction Free Energy between Solutes on an External Electrostatic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Kun Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the athermal effect of an external electrostatic field on the stabilities of protein conformations and the binding affinities of protein-protein/ligand interactions, the dependences of the polar and hydrophobic interactions on the external electrostatic field, −Eext, were studied using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. By decomposing Eext into, along, and perpendicular to the direction formed by the two solutes, the effect of Eext on the interactions between these two solutes can be estimated based on the effects from these two components. Eext was applied along the direction of the electric dipole formed by two solutes with opposite charges. The attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes decreased for solutes treated as point charges. In contrast, the attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes increased, as observed by MD simulations, for Eext = 40 or 60 MV/cm. Eext was applied perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes. The attractive interaction free energy was increased for Eext = 100 MV/cm as a result of dielectric saturation. The force on the solutes along the direction of Eext computed from MD simulations was greater than that estimated from a continuum solvent in which the solutes were treated as point charges. To explore the hydrophobic interactions, Eext was applied to a water cluster containing two neutral solutes. The repulsive force between these solutes was decreased/increased for Eext along/perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes.

  20. NuSTAR discovery of a luminosity dependent cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present NuSTAR observations of Vela X-1, a persistent, yet highly variable, neutron star high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB). Two observations were taken at similar orbital phases but separated by nearly a year. They show very different 3-79 keV flux levels as well as strong variability during each observation, covering almost one order of magnitude in flux. These observations allow, for the first time ever, investigations on kilo-second time-scales of how the centroid energies of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) depend on flux for a persistent HMXB. We find that the line energy of the harmonic CRSF is correlated with flux, as expected in the sub-critical accretion regime. We argue that Vela X-1 has a very narrow accretion column with a radius of around 0.4 km that sustains a Coulomb interaction dominated shock at the observed luminosities of L {sub x} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}. Besides the prominent harmonic line at 55 keV the fundamental line around 25 keV is clearly detected. We find that the strengths of the two CRSFs are anti-correlated, which we explain by photon spawning. This anti-correlation is a possible explanation for the debate about the existence of the fundamental line. The ratio of the line energies is variable with time and deviates significantly from 2.0, also a possible consequence of photon spawning, which changes the shape of the line. During the second observation, Vela X-1 showed a short off-state in which the power-law softened and a cut-off was no longer measurable. It is likely that the source switched to a different accretion regime at these low mass accretion rates, explaining the drastic change in spectral shape.

  1. Global dependence of optical potential parameters for alpha particles with energies up to 80 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybaev, T.K.; Sadykov, B.M.; Mukhambetzhan, A.; Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.

    2002-01-01

    Global (energy and mass) dependences of optical potential for α-particles with energies up to 80 MeV have been received. A Woods-Saxon form factor for macroscopic potential has been used. Energy and mass dependences of the semi-microscopic α-particle potential parameters have been investigated for the first time. In general, a good description of elastic and inelastic differential and total reactions cross sections for different nuclei using the revealed global parameters has been received within the framework of macroscopic and semi-microscopic approaches

  2. Energy dependence of the absorptive potential for sub-Coulomb energy proton bombardment of zirconium and molybdenum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, D.S.; Hershberger, R.L.; Gabbard, F.

    1985-01-01

    The measured (p,p) and (p,n) excitation functions for /sup 92,94,96/Zr and /sup 95,98,100/Mo were fitted in the energy range 2 3 for all isotopes studied as the proton bombarding energy is increased toward 15 MeV. This result is consistent with results from analyses at higher energies

  3. Mathematical modelling of frequency-dependent hysteresis and energy loss of FeBSiC amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, Branko; Milovanovic, Alenka; Mitrovic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel mathematical model of frequency-dependent magnetic hysteresis. The major hysteresis loop in this model is represented by the ascending and descending curve over an arctangent function. The parameters of the hysteresis model have been calculated from a measured hysteresis loop of the FeBSiC amorphous alloy sample. A number of measurements have been performed with this sample at different frequencies of the sinusoidal excitation magnetic field. A variation of the coercive magnetic field with the frequency has been observed and used in the modelling of frequency-dependent hysteresis with the proposed model. A comparison between measured and modelled hysteresis loops has been presented. Additionally, the areas of the obtained hysteresis loops, representing the energy loss per unit volume, have been calculated and the dependence of the energy loss on the frequency is shown. Furthermore, two models of the frequency dependence of the coercivity and two models of the energy loss separation have been used for fitting the experimental and simulation results. The relations between these models and their parameters have been observed and analysed. Also, the relations between parameters of the hysteresis model and the parameters of the energy loss separation models have been analysed and discussed. - Highlights: • A mathematical model of frequency-dependent hysteresis is proposed. • Dependence of coercivity and energy loss per unit volume on frequency is modelled. • Equivalence between models and relation between model parameters are presented.

  4. Energy-dependent pole expansions for the effective potentials in the four-body integral equations with tensor forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the energy-dependent pole expansion for the (3+1) and (2+2) subamplitudes in the calculation of the binding energy of the α particle, E/sub α/, for separable NN potentials with tensor components. We employ the truncated t-matrix (t 00 ) approximation and compare our results for E/sub α/ to those obtained, independent of any separable expansion, by Gibson and Lehman and to the results for E/sub α/ obtained with the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion of the subamplitudes. It is shown that the energy-dependent pole expansion is both more economical and converges faster than the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion, even one term of the energy-dependent pole approximation already being accurate to better than 1.5%

  5. Density functional and theoretical study of the temperature and pressure dependency of the plasmon energy of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attarian Shandiz, M.; Gauvin, R.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature and pressure dependency of the volume plasmon energy of solids was investigated by density functional theory calculations. The volume change of crystal is the major factor responsible for the variation of valence electron density and plasmon energy in the free electron model. Hence, to introduce the effect of temperature and pressure for the density functional theory calculations of plasmon energy, the temperature and pressure dependency of lattice parameter was used. Also, by combination of the free electron model and the equation of state based on the pseudo-spinodal approach, the temperature and pressure dependency of the plasmon energy was modeled. The suggested model is in good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations and available experimental data for elements with the free electron behavior.

  6. NEUTRON-PROTON EFFECTIVE RANGE PARAMETERS AND ZERO-ENERGY SHAPE DEPENDENCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HACKENBURG, R.W.

    2005-06-01

    A completely model-independent effective range theory fit to available, unpolarized, np scattering data below 3 MeV determines the zero-energy free proton cross section {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.4287 {+-} 0.0078 b, the singlet apparent effective range r{sub s} = 2.754 {+-} 0.018{sub stat} {+-} 0.056{sub syst} fm, and improves the error slightly on the parahydrogen coherent scattering length, a{sub c} = -3.7406 {+-} 0.0010 fm. The triplet and singlet scattering lengths and the triplet mixed effective range are calculated to be a{sub t} = 5.4114 {+-} 0.0015 fm, a{sub s} = -23.7153 {+-} 0.0043 fm, and {rho}{sub t}(0,-{epsilon}{sub t}) = 1.7468 {+-} 0.0019 fm. The model-independent analysis also determines the zero-energy effective ranges by treating them as separate fit parameters without the constraint from the deuteron binding energy {epsilon}{sub t}. These are determined to be {rho}{sub t}(0,0) = 1.705 {+-} 0.023 fm and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) = 2.665 {+-} 0.056 fm. This determination of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is most sensitive to the sparse data between about 20 and 600 keV, where the correlation between the determined values of {rho}{sub t}(0,0) and {rho}{sub s}(0,0) is at a minimum. This correlation is responsible for the large systematic error in r{sub s}. More precise data in this range are needed. The present data do not event determine (with confidence) that {rho}{sub t}(0,0) {ne} {rho}{sub t}(0, -{epsilon}{sub t}), referred to here as ''zero-energy shape dependence''. The widely used measurement of {sigma}{sub 0} = 20.491 {+-} 0.014 b from W. Dilg, Phys. Rev. C 11, 103 (1975), is argued to be in error.

  7. Vacancy migration energy dependence on local chemical environment in Fe–Cr alloys: A Density Functional Theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D., E-mail: davide.costa.ge@gmail.com [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, CNRS UMR8207, Université de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); EDF-R and D Département MMC, Les Renardières, F-77818 Moret sur Loing Cédex (France); Laboratoire commun (EDF–CNRS): Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Adjanor, G. [EDF-R and D Département MMC, Les Renardières, F-77818 Moret sur Loing Cédex (France); Laboratoire commun (EDF–CNRS): Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Becquart, C.S. [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, CNRS UMR8207, Université de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); Laboratoire commun (EDF–CNRS): Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Olsson, P. [Laboratoire commun (EDF–CNRS): Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Reactor Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); and others

    2014-09-15

    The first step towards the understanding and the modelling of the Fe–Cr alloy kinetic properties consists in estimating the migration energies related to the processes that drive the microstructure evolution. The vacancy’s migration barrier is expected to depend on the vacancy–migrating atom pair atomic environment as pointed out by Nguyen-Manh et al. or Bonny et al. In this paper, we address the issue of the dependence on the vacancy’s local atomic environment of both the vacancy migration energy and the configurational energy change ΔE that occurs when the vacancy jumps towards one of its nearest neighbour sites. A DFT approach is used to determine the ground state energy associated to a given configuration of the system. The results are interpreted in the light of the chromium–chromium and chromium–vacancy binding energies as well as the substitutional chromium atoms magnetic properties.

  8. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (˜5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.

  9. Modified Fourth-Order Kinetic Energy Gradient Expansion with Hartree Potential-Dependent Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Lucian A; Fabiano, Eduardo; Della Sala, Fabio

    2017-09-12

    Using the semiclassical neutral atom theory, we developed a modified fourth-order kinetic energy (KE) gradient expansion (GE4m) that keeps unchanged all the linear-response terms of the uniform electron gas and gives a significant improvement with respect to the known semilocal functionals for both large atoms and jellium surfaces. On the other hand, GE4m is not accurate for light atoms; thus, we modified the GE4m coefficients making them dependent on a novel ingredient, the reduced Hartree potential, recently introduced in the Journal of Chemical Physics 2016, 145, 084110, in the context of exchange functionals. The resulting KE gradient expansion functional, named uGE4m, belongs to the novel class of u-meta-generalized-gradient-approximations (uMGGA) whose members depend on the conventional ingredients (i.e., the reduced gradient and Laplacian of the density) as well as on the reduced Hartree potential. To test uGE4m, we defined an appropriate benchmark (including total KE and KE differences for atoms, molecules and jellium clusters) for gradient expansion functionals, that is, including only those systems which are mainly described by a slowly varying density regime. While most of the GGA and meta-GGA KE functionals (we tested 18 of them) are accurate for some properties and inaccurate for others, uGE4m shows a consistently good performance for all the properties considered. This represents a qualitative boost in the KE functional development and highlights the importance of the reduced Hartree potential for the construction of next-generation KE functionals.

  10. Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.

    1981-08-01

    Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)

  11. SU-F-I-70: Investigation of Gafchromic EBT3 Film Energy Dependence Using Proton, Photon, and Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the energy dependence of Gafchromic EBT3 film over a range of clinically used proton, photon and electron energies. Methods: Proton beam energies of 117 and 204 MeV, corresponding respectively to ranges in water of 10 cm and 27 cm from a Mevion S250 double scatter system unit were used. Electron energies of 6 and 20 MeV and photon energies of 6 and 18 MV from a Varian Clinac 21EX Linac were used. Two pieces of film (5×5 cm"2) were irradiated sequentially for doses of 100, 500, and 1000 cGy for all energies and modalities. Films were placed on the central beam axis for a 10×10 cm"2 field size in the middle of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) for proton and in respective dmax for photon and electron energies. Films were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner on the central region of the scanning window using 48-bit, 300 dpi, and landscape orientation after 48 hours post-irradiation of film to account for optical density (OD) stabilization. Film analysis of the red channel was performed using ImageJ 1.48v (National Institutes of Health). Results: The energy dependency of EBT3 among all energies and modalities for all doses studied was small within measurement uncertainties (1σ = ± 4.1%). The mean net OD in red channel for films receiving the same dose in the same energy modality had standard deviations within 0.9% for photons, 4.9% for electrons and 1.8% for protons. It was observed that film pieces were activated during proton irradiation, e.g., 7 mR/hr at surface after 30 minutes of irradiation, lasting for 2 hours post irradiation. Conclusion: EBT3 energy dependency was evaluated for clinically used proton, photon, and electron energies. The film self-activation may have contributed to fog and negligible dose.

  12. EPR dosimetry of cortical bone and tooth enamel irradiated with X and gamma rays: Study of energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Links, J.M.; Desrosiers, M.F.; Le, F.G.; Seltzer, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Previous investigators have reported that the radiation-induced EPR signal intensity in compact or cortical bone increases up to a factor of two with decreasing photon energy for a given absorbed dose. If the EPR signal intensity was dependent on energy, it could limit the application of EPR spectrometry and the additive reirradiation method to obtain dose estimates. We have recently shown that errors in the assumptions governing conversion of measured exposure to absorbed dose can lead to similar open-quotes apparentclose quotes energy-dependence results. We hypothesized that these previous results were due to errors in the estimated dose in bone, rather than the effects of energy dependence per se. To test this hypothesis we studied human adult cortical bone from male and female donors ranging in age from 23 to 95 years, and bovine tooth enamel, using 34 and 138 keV average energy X-ray beams and 137 Cs (662 keV) and 60 Co (1250 keV) γ rays. In a femur from a 47-year-old male (subject 1), there was a difference of borderline significance at the α = 0.05 level in the mean radiation-induced hydroxyapatite signal intensities as a function of photon energy. No other statistically significant differences in EPR signal intensity as a function of photon energy were observed in this subject, or in the tibia from a 23-year-old male (subject 2) and the femur from a 75-year-old female (subject 3). However, there was a trend toward a decrease (12-15%) in signal intensity at the lowest energy compared with the highest energy in subjects 1 and 3. Further analysis of the data from subject 1 revealed that this trend, which is in the opposite direction of previous reports but is consistent with theory, is statistically significant. There were no efforts of energy dependence in the tooth samples. 16 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Temperature dependence of interband recombination energy in symmetric (In,Ga)N spherical quantum dot-quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE, 267 Quartier complémentaire Ennahda 1, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential barrier, single particle and ground-state interband recombination energies in Core|well|shell based on GaN|(In,Ga)N|GaN spherical QDQW are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The temperature dependency of effective-mass, band-gap energy and potential barrier is taken into account. Particle eigenvalue and band-gap energy competing effects are speculated to explain our numerical results which show that the interband recombination energy increases when the temperature increases. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the findings.

  14. Temperature dependence of interband recombination energy in symmetric (In,Ga)N spherical quantum dot-quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of effective-mass approximation and finite parabolic potential barrier, single particle and ground-state interband recombination energies in Core|well|shell based on GaN|(In,Ga)N|GaN spherical QDQW are investigated as a function of the inner and the outer radii. The temperature dependency of effective-mass, band-gap energy and potential barrier is taken into account. Particle eigenvalue and band-gap energy competing effects are speculated to explain our numerical results which show that the interband recombination energy increases when the temperature increases. The results we obtained are in quite good agreement with the findings

  15. Photoemission study of the temperature-dependent energy-gap formation in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, K.; Arita, M.; Takeda, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Higashiguchi, M.; Oguchi, T.; Sasakawa, T.; Suemitsu, T.; Takabatake, T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The orthorhombic CeRhAs, known as a Kondo semiconductor, has attracted much interest for its unusual energy-gap formation associated with the successive 1st order phase transitions. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the energy- gap formation, we have done high-resolution temperature-dependent photoemission spectroscopy on the undulator beamlines of a compact electron-storage ring, HiSOR, at Hiroshima University. We have observed directly the energy-gap formation in the Ce 4f states and in the conduction bands. Comparing with the isostructural Kondo semimetal CeRhSb, we discuss the energy gap formation in CeRhAs

  16. Symmetry energy of the nucleus in the relativistic Thomas-Fermi approach with density-dependent parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, S.

    2017-11-01

    The symmetry energy of a nucleus is determined in a local density approximation and integrating over the entire density distribution of the nucleus, calculated utilizing the relativistic density-dependent Thomas-Fermi approach. The symmetry energy is found to decrease with increasing neutron excess in the nucleus. The isovector coupling channel reduces the symmetry energy, and this effect increases with increased neutron excess. The isovector coupling channel increases the symmetry energy integral in ^{40}Ca and reduces it in ^{48}Ca, and the interplay between the isovector and the isoscalar channels of the nuclear force explains this isotope effect.

  17. Frictional systems under periodic loads — History-dependence, non-uniqueness and energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J R

    2012-01-01

    Nominally static contacts such as bolted or shrink-fit joints typically experience regions of microslip when subjected to oscillatory loading. This results in energy dissipation, reflected as apparent hysteretic damping of the system, and also may cause the initiation of fretting fatigue cracks. Early theoretical studies of the Hertzian contact problem by Cattaneo and Mindlin were confirmed experimentally by Johnson, who identified signs of fretting damage in the slip annulus predicted by the theory. For many years, tribologists assumed that Melan's theorem in plasticity could be extended to frictional systems — i.e. that if there exists a state of residual stress associated with frictional slip that is sufficient to prevent periodic slip in the steady state, then the system will shake down, regardless of the initial condition. However, we now know that this is true only if there is no coupling between the normal and tangential loading problems, as will be the case notably when contact occurs on a symmetry plane. For all other cases, periodic loading scenarios can be devised such that shakedown occurs for some initial conditions and not for others. The initial condition here might be determined by the assembly protocol — e.g. the order in which a set of bolts is tightened — or by the exact loading path before the steady cycle is attained. This non-uniqueness of the steady state persists at load amplitudes above the shakedown limit, in which case there is always some dissipation, but the dissipation per cycle (and hence both the effective damping and the susceptibility to fretting damage) depends on the initial conditions. This implies that fretting fatigue experiments need to follow a well-defined assembly protocol if reproducible results are to be obtained. We shall also present results showing that when both normal and tangential forces vary in time, the energy dissipation is very sensitive to the relative phase of the oscillatory components, being greatest

  18. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaiki, Shuji; Ichida, Hideki; Bamba, Motoaki; Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki; Mizoguchi, Kohji; Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki; Kanematsu, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon

  19. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: s.wakaiki@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  20. Energy Dependent Removal Cross-Sections in Fast Neutron Shielding Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenroos, Henrik

    1965-05-01

    The analytical approximations behind the energy dependent removal cross-section concept of Spinney is investigated and its predictions compared with exact values calculated by Case's singular integral method. The exact values are obtained in plane infinite geometry for the two absorption ratios Σ a /Σ t = 0. 1 and Σ a /Σ t = 0.7 over a range of 20 mfp and for varying degrees of forward anisotrophy in the elastic scattering. The latter is characterized by choosing a suitable general scattering function. It is shown that Spinney's original definition follows if Grosjean's formalism, i. e. the matching of moments, is applied. The prediction of the neutron flux is remarkably accurate, and mostly within 50 % for the spatial range and cases investigated. A definition of the removal cross-sections based on matching the exact asymptotic solution to the exponential part of the approximate solution is found to give less accurate flux values than Spinney's model. A third way to define a removal cross-section independent of the spatial coordinates is the variational method. The possible uses of this technique is briefly commented upon

  1. Energy Dependent Removal Cross-Sections in Fast Neutron Shielding Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, Henrik

    1965-05-15

    The analytical approximations behind the energy dependent removal cross-section concept of Spinney is investigated and its predictions compared with exact values calculated by Case's singular integral method. The exact values are obtained in plane infinite geometry for the two absorption ratios {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0. 1 and {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub t} = 0.7 over a range of 20 mfp and for varying degrees of forward anisotrophy in the elastic scattering. The latter is characterized by choosing a suitable general scattering function. It is shown that Spinney's original definition follows if Grosjean's formalism, i. e. the matching of moments, is applied. The prediction of the neutron flux is remarkably accurate, and mostly within 50 % for the spatial range and cases investigated. A definition of the removal cross-sections based on matching the exact asymptotic solution to the exponential part of the approximate solution is found to give less accurate flux values than Spinney's model. A third way to define a removal cross-section independent of the spatial coordinates is the variational method. The possible uses of this technique is briefly commented upon.

  2. Positive solution of a time and energy dependent neutron transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    A constructive method is given for the determination of a solution and an existence--uniqueness theorem for some nonlinear time and energy dependent neutron transport problems, including the linear transport system. The geometry of the medium under consideration is allowed to be either bounded or unbounded which includes the geometry of a finite or infinite cylinder, a half-space and the whole space R/subm/ (m=1,2,center-dotcenter-dotcenter-dot). Our approach to the problem is by successive approximation which leads to various recursion formulas for the approximations in terms of explicit integrations. It is shown under some Lipschitz conditions on the nonlinear functions, which describe the process of neutrons absorption, fission, and scattering, that the sequence of approximations converges to a unique positive solution. Since these conditions are satisfied by the linear transport equation, all the results for the nonlinear system are valid for the linear transport problem. In the general nonlinear problem, the existence of both local and global solutions are discussed, and an iterative process for the construction of the solution is given

  3. Dependence of asymmetries for charge distribution with respect to the reaction plane on initial energy in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two combinations of correlators are defined in order to investigate the evolution of possible C/CP invariance violation in strong interactions with initial energy for heavy-ion collisions. These combinations correspond to absolute and relative asymmetry of distribution of electrically charge particles with respect to the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions. Energy dependence of parameters under study was derived from data of STAR and ALICE experiments. Significant decreasing both absolute and relative asymmetry is observed at energies √s NN < 20 GeV. This feature agrees qualitatively with other results of stage-I beam energy scan program in STAR experiment. General behavior of dependence of absolute asymmetry on initial energy agrees reasonably with behavior of similar dependence of Chern–Simons diffusion rate calculated at different values of external Abelian magnetic field. The observed behavior of parameters under study versus energy can be considered as indication on possible transition to predominance of hadronic states over quark–gluon degrees of freedom in the mixed phase created in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. (author)

  4. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  5. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Separation along the Magnetic Field in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au +Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  6. Analysis of the Dependence between Energy Demand Indicators in Buildings Based on Variants for Improving Energy Efficiency in a School Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Marta; Rzeszowska, Natalia

    2017-09-01

    One of the five far-reaching goals of the European Union is climate change and sustainable energy use. The first step in the implementation of this task is to reduce energy demand in buildings to a minimum by 2021, and in the case of public buildings by 2019. This article analyses the possibility of improving energy efficiency in public buildings, the relationship between particular indicators of the demand for usable energy (UE), final energy (FE) and primary energy (PE) in buildings and the impact of these indicators on the assessment of energy efficiency in public buildings, based on 5 variants of extensive thermal renovation of a school building. The analysis of the abovementioned variants confirms that the thermal renovation of merely the outer envelope of the building is insufficient and requires the use of additional energy sources, for example RES. Moreover, each indicator of energy demand in the building plays a key role in assessing the energy efficiency of the building. For this reason it is important to analyze each of them individually, as well as the dependencies between them.

  7. On the size and temperature dependence of the energy gap in cadmium-selenide quantum dots embedded in fluorophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatova, Zh. O., E-mail: zluka-yo@mail.ru; Kolobkova, E. V.; Babkina, A. N.; Nikonorov, N. V. [ITMO University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The temperature and size dependences of the energy gap in CdSe quantum dots with diameters of 2.4, 4.0, and 5.2 nm embedded in fluorophosphate glasses are investigated. It is shown that the temperature coefficient of the band gap dE{sub g}/dT in the quantum dots differs from the bulk value and depends strictly on the dot size. It is found that, furthermore, the energy of each transition in these quantum dots is characterized by an individual temperature coefficient dE/dT.

  8. H and D curves of screen--film systems: factors affecting their dependence on x-ray energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitometric properties of radiographic screen--film systems are investigated with regard to their dependence on x-ray energy. Sensitometric measurements and a heuristic model for density formation are used to show that variation in the relative amount of light emitted by front and back screens may be the most important factor influencing the change in system H and D curves with x-ray energy

  9. Energy dependence of photon-induced L-shell x-ray intensity ratios in some high-Z elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatendra, K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1983-12-14

    The L-shell x-ray intensity ratios in Au, Pb, Th and U at various photon energies have been measured and their energy dependence is studied. A comparison of the experimental values is made with those calculated using the x-ray emission rates and subshell photoelectric cross sections, subshell fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities and fairly good agreement is observed.

  10. Energy, target, projectile and multiplicity dependences of intermittency behaviour in high energy O(Si,S) induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Larionova, V.G.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Ameeva, Z.U.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anzon, Z.V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, G.Z.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Skakhova, C.I.; Bhalla, K.B.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Lokanathan, S.; Mookerjee, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Burnett, T.H.; Grote, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Skelding, D.; Strausz, S.C.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cai, X.; Huang, H.; Liu, L.S.; Qian, W.Y.; Wang, H.Q.; Zhou, D.C.; Zhou, J.C.; Chernova, L.P.; Gadzhieva, S.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Kadyrov, F.G.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Navotny, V.S.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Friedlander, E.M.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Garpman, S.; Jakobsson, B.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Soederstroem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Judek, B.; Nasyrov, S.H.; Petrov, N.V.; Xu, G.F.; Zheng, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuations of charged particles in high energy oxygen, silicon and sulphur induced interactions are investigated with the method of scaled factorial moments. It is found that for decreasing bin size down to δη∝0.1 the EMU01 data exhibits intermittent behaviour. The intermittency indexes are found to decrease with increasing incident energy and multiplicity and to increase with increasing target mass. It seems also to increase as the projectile mass increases. (orig.)

  11. Plasma screening effects on the energies of hydrogen atom under the influence of velocity-dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the plasma screening and velocity-dependent potential effects on the hydrogen atom, the Schrödinger equation including a more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb and velocity-dependent potential is solved numerically in the framework asymptotic iteration method. The more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential is used to model Debye and quantum plasma for the specific values of the parameters in its structure. However, in order to examine effects of velocity-dependent potential on energy values of hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasma, the isotropic form factor of velocity-dependent potential is given as harmonic oscillator type, ρ(r)=ρ o r 2 . Then, the energies of s and p states are calculated numerically without any approximation. In order to investigate thoroughly plasma screening effects and contribution of velocity-dependent potential on energy values of hydrogen atom, the corresponding calculations are carried out by using different values of parameters of more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential and isotropic dependence, results of which are discussed

  12. Dependence of wavelength of Xe ion-induced rippled structures on the fluence in the medium ion energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Institute of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ion-beam eroded self-organized nanostructures on semiconductors offer new ways for the fabrication of high density memory and optoelectronic devices. It is known that wavelength and amplitude of noble gas ion-induced rippled structures tune with the ion energy and the fluence depending on the energy range, ion type and substrate. The linear theory by Makeev predicts a linear dependence of the ion energy on the wavelength for low temperatures. For Ar{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +} it was observed by different groups that the wavelength grows with increasing fluence after being constant up to an onset fluence and before saturation. In this coarsening regime power-law or exponential behavior of the wavelength with the fluence was monitored. So far, investigations for Xe ions on silicon surfaces mainly concentrated on energies below 1 keV. We found a linear dependence of both the ion energy and the fluence on the wavelength and amplitude of rippled structures over a wide range of the Xe{sup +} ion energy between 5 and 70 keV. Moreover, we estimated the ratio of wavelength to amplitude to be constant meaning a shape stability when a threshold fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} was exceeded.

  13. Determination of dose correction factor for energy and directional dependence of the MOSFET dosimeter in an anthropomorphic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Koo; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Na, Seong Ho

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the MOSFET dosimeter has been widely used in various medical applications such as dose verification in radiation therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The MOSFET dosimeter is, however, mainly made of silicon and shows some energy dependence for low energy photons. Therefore, the MOSFET dosimeter tends to overestimate the dose for low energy scattered photons in a phantom. This study determines the correction factors to compensate these dependences of the MOSFET dosimeter in ATOM phantom. For this, we first constructed a computational model of the ATOM phantom based on the 3D CT image data of the phantom. The voxel phantom was then implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation code and used to calculate the energy spectrum of the photon field at each of the MOSFET dosimeter locations in the phantom. Finally, the correction factors were calculated based on the energy spectrum of the photon field at the dosimeter locations and the pre-determined energy and directional dependence of the MOSFET dosimeter. Our result for 60 Co and 137 Cs photon fields shows that the correction factors are distributed within the range of 0.89 and 0.97 considering all the MOSFET dosimeter locations in the phantom

  14. Fast ignition: Dependence of the ignition energy on source and target parameters for particle-in-cell-modelled energy and angular distributions of the fast electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellei, C.; Divol, L.; Kemp, A. J.; Key, M. H.; Larson, D. J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Tabak, M.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The energy and angular distributions of the fast electrons predicted by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations differ from those historically assumed in ignition designs of the fast ignition scheme. Using a particular 3D PIC calculation, we show how the ignition energy varies as a function of source-fuel distance, source size, and density of the pre-compressed fuel. The large divergence of the electron beam implies that the ignition energy scales with density more weakly than the ρ{sup −2} scaling for an idealized beam [S. Atzeni, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3316 (1999)], for any realistic source that is at some distance from the dense deuterium-tritium fuel. Due to the strong dependence of ignition energy with source-fuel distance, the use of magnetic or electric fields seems essential for the purpose of decreasing the ignition energy.

  15. Impact Parameter Dependence of π"-/π"+ Ratio in Probing the Nuclear Symmetry Energy Using Heavy-Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Guo-Qiang; Wei, Gao-Feng; Lu, Yi-Xin; Cao, Xin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The impact parameter dependence of π"-/π"+ ratio is examined in heavy-ion collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon within a transport model. It is shown that the sensitivity of π"-/π"+ ratio on symmetry energy shows a transition from central to peripheral collisions; that is, the stiffer symmetry energy leads to a larger π"-/π"+ ratio in peripheral collisions while the softer symmetry energy always leads this ratio to be larger in central collisions. After checking the kinematic energy distribution of π"-/π"+ ratio, we found this transition of sensitivity of π"-/π"+ ratio to symmetry energy is mainly from less energetic pions; that is, the softer symmetry energy gets the less energetic pions to form a smaller π"-/π"+ ratio in peripheral collisions while these pions generate a larger π"-/π"+ ratio in central collisions. Undoubtedly, the softer symmetry energy can also lead more energetic pions to form a larger π"-/π"+ ratio in peripheral collisions. Nevertheless, considering that most of pions are insufficiently energetic at this beam energy, we therefore suggest the π"-/π"+ ratio as a probe of the high-density symmetry energy effective only in central at most to midcentral collisions, thereby avoiding the possible information of low-density symmetry energy carried in π"-/π"+ ratio from peripheral collisions.

  16. The geopolitics of renewables : A mere shift or landslide in energy dependencies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.; Bosman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are often hailed as the panacea for a plethora of challenges associated with the use of fossil fuels. Partly for good reasons; while the utilization of renewables diminishes energy scarcity and lowers various kinds of pollution, their potential to address energy related

  17. Transverse-momentum and collision-energy dependence of high-pT hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at ultrarelativistic energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Drees, K A; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2003-10-24

    We report high statistics measurements of inclusive charged hadron production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. A large, approximately constant hadron suppression is observed in central Au+Au collisions for 5energy dependence of the yields and the centrality and p(T) dependence of the suppression provide stringent constraints on theoretical models of suppression. Models incorporating initial-state gluon saturation or partonic energy loss in dense matter are largely consistent with observations. We observe no evidence of p(T)-dependent suppression, which may be expected from models incorporating jet attenuation in cold nuclear matter or scattering of fragmentation hadrons.

  18. Quantum-Size Dependence of the Energy for Vacancy Formation in Charged Small Metal Clusters. Drop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, V. V.; Reva, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Self-consistent computations of the monovacancy formation energy are performed for Na N , Mg N , and Al N (12 < N ≤ 168) spherical clusters in the drop model for stable jelly. Scenarios of the Schottky vacancy formation and "bubble vacancy blowing" are considered. It is shown that the asymptotic behavior of the size dependences of the energy for the vacancy formation by these two mechanisms is different and the difference between the characteristics of a charged and neutral cluster is entirely determined by the difference between the ionization potentials of clusters and the energies of electron attachment to them.

  19. Time-dependent wave-packet study of the direct low-energy dissociative recombination of HD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orel, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    Wave-packet methods involving the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation have been used with great success in the calculation of cross sections for dissociative recombination of molecular ions by electron impact in the high energy region where the ''boomerang'' model [L. Dube and A. Herzenberg, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1314 (1975)] is valid. We extend this method to study low-energy dissociative recombination where this approximation is no longer appropriate. We apply the method to the ''direct'' low-energy dissociative recombination of HD + . Our results are in excellent agreement with calculations using the multichannel quantum defect method. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. Energy dependent features of X-ray signals in a GridPix detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, C.; Kaminski, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Desch, K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the calibration of an argon/isobutane (97.7%/2.3%)-filled GridPix detector with soft X-rays (277 eV to 8 keV) using the variable energy X-ray source of the CAST Detector Lab at CERN. We study the linearity and energy resolution of the detector using both the number of pixels hit and the total measured charge as energy measures. For the latter, the energy resolution σE / E is better than 10% (20%) for energies above 2 keV (0.5 keV). Several characteristics of the recorded events are studied.

  1. Beam energy dependence of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuka, Naohiko; Isse, Masatsugu; Ohnishi, Akira; Pradip Kumar Sahu; Nara, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    We study radial flow and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies from GSI-SIS to BNL-RHIC energies using hadronic cascade model JAM. The excitation function of radial flow shows the softening of hadronic matter from BNL-AGS to CERN-SPS energies. JAM model reproduces transverse mass spectra at BNL-AGS, CERN-SPS at BNL-RHIC energies as well as elliptic flow upto CERN-SPS. For elliptic flow at BNL-RHIC energy (√s=130 GeV), while JAM gives the enough flow at fragment region, it fails at mid rapidity. (author)

  2. Incident energy dependence of collision dynamics in A+A reactions from AGS to SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    Based on the hadronic transport model of JAM, I calculate the time evolution of particles, density, temperature and energy density for the heavy ion collision at the incident energies of AGS(11A GeV), JHF(25A GeV) and SPS(158A GeV). Microscopic calculations show that resonance matter with extremely large baryon density is created at AGS energy, while at JHF energy, quark matter with extremely large baryon density is suggested. At SPS energy, quark matter with large baryon density might be created. (author)

  3. Fermi energy dependence of the G-band resonance Raman spectra of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Park, J. S.; Sasaki, K.; Saito, R.; Izumida, W.; Kalbáč, Martin; Farhat, H.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 8 (2009), 081402-1-081402-4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk ME09060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Fermi energy dependence * Raman spectroscopy * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  4. Origins and implications of temperature-dependent activation energy barriers for dislocation nucleation in face-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.H.; Curtin, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The linking of atomistic simulations of stress-driven processes to experimentally observed mechanical behavior via the computation of activation energy barriers is a topic of intense current research. Using dislocation nucleation from a crack tip as the reaction process, long-time multiscale molecular dynamics simulations show that the activation barrier can exhibit significant temperature dependence. Using an analytic model for the nucleation process and computing the relevant material properties (elastic constants and stacking fault energies), the temperature dependence is shown to arise primarily from the temperature dependence of the material parameters for both Al and Ni. After thermally activated emission of the first partial dislocation, there is then a competition between two other thermally activated processes: twinning and full dislocation emission. Because the activation barriers depend on temperature, this transition is more complex than usually envisioned. Simulations in Al reveal that a transition from twinning to full dislocation emission back to twinning occurs with increasing temperature, which is counter to traditional metallurgical wisdom. Temperature-dependent activation energies are thus essential to accurate understanding and prediction of those phenomena that control fracture and deformation in metals at realistic loading rates.

  5. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A.; Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A.; Villarreal B, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  6. Universal time-dependence of the mean-square displacement in extremely rugged energy landscapes with equal minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Jacobsen, Jacob M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the time dependence of the mean-square displacement for symmetric random energy barrier hopping models at low temperatures, where the frequency dependence of the normalized diffusion constant D-tilde becomes universal, i.e., independent of the energy barrier...... probability distribution [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11 709 (1994)]. The universal time dependence of the mean-square displacement is calculated from the effective medium approximation (EMA) universality equation, D-tilde lnD-tilde=s-tilde, where s-tilde is the dimensionless imaginary frequency, as well...... as for the approximation to the EMA universality equation D-tilde~=s-tilde/ln(1+s-tilde). At long times the universal mean-square displacement is linear in time, corresponding to ordinary diffusion, whereas the mean-square displacement at short times t in dimensionless units varies as 2/ln(t-1)....

  7. Theoretical and computational study of the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate from hydrogen to higher-Z gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-23

    The recent PSI Lamb shift experiment and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for comparing ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data on proton electromagnetic structure. This measurement critically depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available data provide only qualitative information, and the theoretical predictions have not been verified. We propose a new method by measurements of the transfer rate in thermalized target at different temperatures, estimate its accuracy and investigate the optimal experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Method for measuring the energy dependence of muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases. • Thermalization and depolarization of muonic hydrogen studied by Monte Carlo method. • Optimal experimental conditions determined by Monte Carlo simulations. • Mathematical model and for estimating the uncertainty of the experimental results.

  8. Approximate energies and thermal properties of a position-dependent mass charged particle under external magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Eshghi; H Mehraban; S M Ikhdair

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Schr(o)dinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse-plus-Coulomb potentials and is under the influence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields.The nonrelativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions.We also study the thermal quantifies of such a system.Further,the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism.We give plots for energy states as a function of various physical parameters.The behavior of the internal energy,specific heat,and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown.

  9. Approximate energies and thermal properties of a position-dependent mass charged particle under external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshghi, M; Mehraban, H; Ikhdair, S M

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Schrödinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse-plus-Coulomb potentials and is under the influence of external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields. The nonrelativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions. We also study the thermal quantities of such a system. Further, the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism. We give plots for energy states as a function of various physical parameters. The behavior of the internal energy, specific heat, and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown. (paper)

  10. Dependence of the mechanical fracture energy of the polymeric composite material from the mixture of filler fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Nurullaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper for the first time presents an equation for calculating the mechanical fracture energy of the polymeric composite material (PCM with regard to the basic formulation parameters. By means of the developed computer program the authors calculated the mechanical fracture energy of the polymer binder of the 3D cross-linked plasticized elastomer filled with multifractional silica. The solution of the integral equation was implemented using the corresponding dependence of stress on relative elongation at uniaxial tension. Engineering application of the theory was considered with respect to asphalt road covering. The authors proposed a generalized dependence of ruptural deformation of the polymer binder from the effective concentration of chemical and physical (intermolecular bonds for calculating the mechanical fracture energy of available and advanced PCMs as filled elastomers.

  11. In rich In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N: Composition dependence of longitudinal optical phonon energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiras, E. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, CO4 3SQ Colchester (United Kingdom); Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Gunes, M.; Balkan, N. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, CO4 3SQ Colchester (United Kingdom); Schaff, W.J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The composition dependence of longitudinal optical (LO) phonon energies in undoped and Mg-doped In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N samples are determined using Raman spectroscopy in the range of Ga fraction from x = 0 to x = 56%. The LO phonon energy varies from 73 meV for InN to 83 meV for In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N with 56% Ga. Independent measurements of temperature dependent mobility at high temperatures where LO phonon scattering dominates the transport were also used to obtain the LO phonon energy for x = 0 and x = 20%. The results obtained from the two independent techniques compare extremely well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. A stochastic model for neutron simulation considering the spectrum and nuclear properties with continuous dependence of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Dayana Q. de; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. de; Froehlich, Herberth B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we developed a stochastic model to simulate neutron transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using the Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environments. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational time we introduced a variable control volume together with (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude that there is need to consider the energy dependence and hence defined a spectral effective multiplication factor per Monte Carlo step. (author)

  13. Research on nitrogen implantation energy dependence of the properties of SIMON materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E.X.; Sun, J.Y.; Chen, J.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Zh.X.; Li, N.; Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    With different implantation energies, nitrogen ions were implanted into SIMOX wafers in our work. And then the wafers were subsequently annealed to form separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen (SIMON) wafers. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to observe the distribution of nitrogen and oxygen in the wafers. The result of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was suggested by the dandling bonds densities in the wafers changed with N ions implantation energies. SIMON-based SIS capacitors were made. The results of the C-V test confirmed that the energy of nitrogen implantation affects the properties of the wafers, and the optimum implantation energy was determined

  14. Angular dependence of energy and particle fluxes in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, B.; Bohmeyer, W.; Fussmann, G.

    2005-01-01

    A flat probe allowing simultaneous measurements of energy flux and current density as functions of a bias voltage was rotated in a spatially homogeneous plasma. The experiments were conducted at the PSI-2 facility, a linear divertor simulator with moderate magnetic field strength. Sheath parameters (ion current density j i , floating potential U f , energy flux density q, ion energy reflection coefficient R E and sheath energy transmission coefficient γ) were determined as functions of the angle α between the probe surface normal and the magnetic field. A geometric model has been developed to explain the ion flux density at grazing incidence

  15. SU-F-I-70: Investigation of Gafchromic EBT3 Film Energy Dependence Using Proton, Photon, and Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; De La Fuente Herman, T [University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the energy dependence of Gafchromic EBT3 film over a range of clinically used proton, photon and electron energies. Methods: Proton beam energies of 117 and 204 MeV, corresponding respectively to ranges in water of 10 cm and 27 cm from a Mevion S250 double scatter system unit were used. Electron energies of 6 and 20 MeV and photon energies of 6 and 18 MV from a Varian Clinac 21EX Linac were used. Two pieces of film (5×5 cm{sup 2}) were irradiated sequentially for doses of 100, 500, and 1000 cGy for all energies and modalities. Films were placed on the central beam axis for a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field size in the middle of spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) for proton and in respective dmax for photon and electron energies. Films were scanned on a flatbed Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner on the central region of the scanning window using 48-bit, 300 dpi, and landscape orientation after 48 hours post-irradiation of film to account for optical density (OD) stabilization. Film analysis of the red channel was performed using ImageJ 1.48v (National Institutes of Health). Results: The energy dependency of EBT3 among all energies and modalities for all doses studied was small within measurement uncertainties (1σ = ± 4.1%). The mean net OD in red channel for films receiving the same dose in the same energy modality had standard deviations within 0.9% for photons, 4.9% for electrons and 1.8% for protons. It was observed that film pieces were activated during proton irradiation, e.g., 7 mR/hr at surface after 30 minutes of irradiation, lasting for 2 hours post irradiation. Conclusion: EBT3 energy dependency was evaluated for clinically used proton, photon, and electron energies. The film self-activation may have contributed to fog and negligible dose.

  16. A composition dependent energy scale and the determination of the cosmic ray primary mass in the ankle region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Melo, D.; Sanchez, F.

    2015-08-01

    At present there are still several open questions about the origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays. However, great progress in this area has been made in recent years due to the data collected by the present generation of ground based detectors like the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. In particular, it is believed that the study of the composition of the cosmic rays as a function of energy can play a fundamental role for the understanding of the origin of the cosmic rays. The observatories belonging to this generation are composed of arrays of surface detectors and fluorescence telescopes. The duty cycle of the fluorescence telescopes is ∼10% in contrast with the ∼100% of the surface detectors. Therefore, the energy calibration of the events observed by the surface detectors is performed by using a calibration curve obtained from a set of high quality events observed in coincidence by both types of detectors. The advantage of this method is that the reconstructed energy of the events observed by the surface detectors becomes almost independent of simulations of the showers because just a small part of the reconstructed energy (the missing energy), obtained from the fluorescence telescopes, comes from simulations. However, the calibration curve obtained in this way depends on the composition of the cosmic rays, which can introduce biases in composition analyses when parameters with a strong dependence on primary energy are considered. In this work we develop an analytical method to study these effects. We consider AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array), the low energy extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory corresponding to the surface detectors, to illustrate the use of the method. In particular, we study the biases introduced by an energy calibration dependent on composition on the determination of the mean value of the number of muons, at a given distance to the showers axis, which is one of the parameters most sensitive to

  17. The strictest energy requirements in the world: An analysis of the path dependencies of a self-proclaimed success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelskjær Lauridsen, Erik; Stissing Jensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily influenced by path dependent regime structuration processes, and that the mechanism constitutes a barrier to more radical developments within low energy housing. Few and poorly organized frontrunner activities within low energy housing have accordingly taken place in a Danish context during the past decades. Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes. - Highlights: ► We analyze the role of the building code energy strategy as an incumbent regime. ► Regime independent development activities such as passive houses are retained. ► Industry is characterized by adaptive capacity to support radical development. ► Adaptive capacity needs to be mobilized and configure by regime problematizations. ► Governance capabilities to achieve such a mobilization are presently in short supply.

  18. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  19. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (E bal ) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  20. Z-dependence of Mean Excitation Energies for Second and Third Row Atoms and Their Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens

    2018-01-01

    All mean excitations energies for second and third row atoms and their ions are calculated in the random‐phase approximation using large basis sets. To a very good approximation it turns out that mean excitation energies within an isoelectronic series is a quadratic function of the nuclear charge...

  1. The calculation of collective energies from periodic time-dependent Hartree-Fock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, I.; Baranger, M.

    1983-06-01

    A periodic TDHF solution is used as the reference state for a diagrammatic expansion of the propagator. A discrete Fourier transform leads to a function of energy, whose poles are the corresponding energy levels. Limiting the expansion to first-order diagrams leads to a new derivation of the Bohr-Sommerfeld-like quantization rule for collective states

  2. Biophysical analysis of the dose-dependent overdispersion and the restricted linear energy transfer dependence expressed in dicentric chromosome data from alpha-irradiated human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, R; Harder, D

    1997-06-01

    Experimental data for the induction of dicentric chromosomes in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human T lymphocytes by 241Am alpha-particles obtained by Schmid et al. have been analyzed in the light of biophysical theory. As usual in experiments with alpha-particles, the relative variance of the intercellular distribution of the number of aberrations per cell exceeds unity, and the multiplicity of the aberrations per particle traversal through the cell is understood as the basic effect causing this overdispersion. However, the clearly expressed dose dependence of the relative variance differs from the dose-independent relative variance predicted by the multiplicity effect alone. Since such dose dependence is often observed in experiments with alpha-particles, protons, and high-energy neutrons, the interpretation of the overdispersion needs to be supplemented. In a new, more general statistical model, the distribution function of the number of aberrations is interpreted as resulting from the convolution of a Poisson distribution for the spontaneous aberrations with the overdispersed distributions for the aberrations caused by intratrack or intertrack lesion interaction, and the fluctuation of the cross-sectional area of the cellular chromatin must also be considered. Using a suitable mathematical formulation of the resulting dose-dependent over-dispersion, the mean number lambda 1 of the aberrations produced by a single particle traversal through the cell nucleus and the mean number lambda 2 of the aberrations per pairwise approach between two alpha-particle tracks could be estimated. Coefficient alpha of the dose-proportional yield component, when compared between 241Am alpha-particle irradiation and 137Cs gamma-ray exposure, is found to increase approximately in proportion to dose-mean restricted linear energy transfer, which indicates an underlying pairwise molecular lesion interaction on the nanometer scale.

  3. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; McMaster, K. M.

    1981-10-01

    The utility owned solar electric system methodology is generalized and updated. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs (including a specified return on investment). Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero. While the model was designed for photovoltaic generators with a possible thermal energy byproduct, it applicability is not limited to such systems. The resulting owner-dependent methodology for energy generation system assessment consists of a few equations that can be evaluated without the aid of a high-speed computer.

  4. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Mcmaster, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The utility owned solar electric system methodology is generalized and updated. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs (including a specified return on investment). Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero. While the model was designed for photovoltaic generators with a possible thermal energy byproduct, it applicability is not limited to such systems. The resulting owner-dependent methodology for energy generation system assessment consists of a few equations that can be evaluated without the aid of a high-speed computer.

  5. Measurements of energy behaviour of spin-dependent np—observables over 1.2-3.7 GeV energy region Dubna ``Delta-Sigma'' Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V. I.; Anischenko, N. G.; Antonenko, V. G.; Averichev, S. A.; Azhgirey, L. S.; Bartenev, V. D.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Belyaev, A. A.; Blinov, N. A.; Borisov, N. S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Borzunov, Yu. T.; Bushuev, Yu. P.; Chernenko, L. P.; Chernykh, E. V.; Chumakov, V. F.; Dolgh, S. A.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Golovanov, L. B.; Gurevich, G. M.; Guriev, D. K.; Janata, A.; Kirillov, A. D.; Kolomiets, V. G.; Komogorov, E. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kovalev, A. I.; Krasnov, V. A.; Krstonoshich, P.; Kuzmin, E. S.; Kuzmin, N. A.; Ladygin, V. P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Liburg, M. Yu.; Livanov, A. N.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Maniakov, P. K.; Matafonov, V. N.; Matyushevsky, E. A.; Moroz, V. D.; Morozov, A. A.; Neganov, A. B.; Nikolaevsky, G. P.; Nomofilov, A. A.; Panteleev, Tz.; Pillpenko, Yu. K.; Pisarev, I. L.; Plis, Yu. A.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Prytkov, V. Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Schedrov, V. A.; Schevelev, O. N.; Shilov, S. N.; Shindin, R. A.; Slunecka, M.; Slunečková, V.; Starikov, A. Yu.; Stoletov, G. D.; Strunov, L. N.; Svetov, A. L.; Usov, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, T.; Volkov, V. I.; Vorobiev, E. I.; Yudin, I. P.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zhmyrov, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    New accurate data on the neutron-proton spin-dependent total cross section difference Δ σ L( np) at the neutron beam kinetic energies 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.0 GeV are presented. A number of physical and methodical results on investigation of an elastic np→pn charge exchange process over a few GeV region are also presented. Measurements were carried out at the Synchrophasotron and Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  6. Constraints and trade-offs in climate-dependent adaptation: energy budgets and growth in a latitudinal cline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans O. Pörtner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of temperature-dependent metabolic adaptation as well as their implications for associated changes in energy budgets are analysed based on comparisons of fish and invertebrates from various latitudinal clines in northern and southern hemispheres and on integrated ecological and physiological approaches. To identify putative “bottlenecks” of adaptation and for a general cause and effect understanding, the temperature sensitivity of growth as a key energy budget component is investigated, considering underlying processes at population, whole animal and cellular levels. Available data support the hypothesis that natural selection favours individuals for energy efficiency and maximised growth, but is subject to constraints of limited energy availability and temperature. According to emerging relationships between energy turnover, temperature variability and thermal tolerance, the notion that selection should favour a certain metabolic rate according to mean temperature is too simplistic. Within the energy budget, savings in maintenance costs set free energy for growth, visible as growth increments at a low standard metabolic rate. Such energy savings are maximised at the permanently low temperature of the Antarctic. However, some variability persists as pelagic lifestyles in the Antarctic are fuelled by higher metabolic rates at the expense of reduced growth. Temperature variability in the cold, as in the Subarctic, causes a rise in maintenance costs at the expense of growth, but in favour of exercise and thus foraging capacity. Such transitions in energy cost between sub-polar and polar areas are not visible in the southern hemisphere, where there is less temperature variability. However, these patterns—as well as many of the underlying mechanisms—still remain incompletely investigated, especially with respect to the suggested hierarchy in energy allocation to energy budget components.

  7. Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

    2012-01-01

    Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

  8. Energy dependence and temporal evolution of the 3He/4He ratios in heavy-ion-rich energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, E.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Gloeckler, G.

    1980-01-01

    The energy dependence of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio between 0.44 and 4.1 MeV per nucleon has been studied for six heavy-ion--rich events observed in 1974 and 1976 using the low-energy dE/dx versus E Ultralow-Energy Particle telescope (ULET) on IMP 8. We find that all selected heavy-ion--rich events are also enriched in 3 He, that the 3 He/ 4 He He ratio decreases with decreasing energies, and that a rapid temporal evolution of the 3 He/ 4 He and the Fe/(H+He) ratios is strongly correlated during one event with the maximum value at the onset. These results are discussed in terms of a model which is based on preferential injection of 3 He and Fe resulting from turbulent ion heating and subsequent Fermi acceleration

  9. Angle and frequency dependence of self-energy from spin fluctuation mediated d-wave pairing for high temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Hwan; Choi, Han-Yong

    2013-09-11

    We investigated the characteristics of spin fluctuation mediated superconductivity employing the Eliashberg formalism. The effective interaction between electrons was modeled in terms of the spin susceptibility measured by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystal La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 superconductors. The diagonal self-energy and off-diagonal self-energy were calculated by solving the coupled Eliashberg equation self-consistently for the chosen spin susceptibility and tight-binding dispersion of electrons. The full momentum and frequency dependence of the self-energy is presented for optimally doped, overdoped, and underdoped LSCO cuprates in a superconductive state. These results may be compared with the experimentally deduced self-energy from ARPES experiments.

  10. On the energy dependence of the relative contributions ionospheric and solar sources of the ring current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtyukh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The energy dependence of a fraction of ring current protons of i onospheric origin is calculated using the AMPTE/CCE data for a typical magnetic storm (D st = -120 nT). It is shown that at L = 6-7 (L is the Mcllwain parameter) this fraction monotonically decreases from ∼83 to 25-30% with an increase in proton energy from 5 to 315 keV and is 30-40% at energy 40-50 keV corresponding to the maximum of proton energy density at L 6-7. It is evident that the core of the ring current (L = 3.7-4.7) is enriched by solar protons with E∼10-200 keV during storm main phase (the maximum effect is achieved at E∼20-50 keV). (author)

  11. Energy dependence of an ionization chamber with parallel plates in standard gamma and x-radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistella, M.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-09-01

    The characteristics of low energy X-radiation standard fields were determined and the energy dependence of a ionization chamber of the superficial type, with parallel plates and fixed volume, normally utilized in the dosimetry at the Radiotherapy level was studied. The possibility of adaptation of this chamber type for use in gamma radiation dosimetry was verified. Different thickness Lucite build-up caps, from 2.0 up to 5.5 mm, were produced and tested in 60 Co and 137 Cs gamma radiation fields. This type of detector, with the adequate build-up cap, presented a performance comparable to that of the thimble type ionization chamber. It was concluded that it is not necessary to use different kinds of chambers for each high and mean energy interval. The superficial chamber, specially produced to detect low energy X-radiation, may be adapted to detect gamma radiation. (author) [pt

  12. Continuum corrections to the level density and its dependence on excitation energy, n-p asymmetry, and deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    In the independent-particle model, the nuclear level density is determined from the neutron and proton single-particle level densities. The single-particle level density for the positive-energy continuum levels is important at high excitation energies for stable nuclei and at all excitation energies for nuclei near the drip lines. This single-particle level density is subdivided into compound-nucleus and gas components. Two methods are considered for this subdivision: In the subtraction method, the single-particle level density is determined from the scattering phase shifts. In the Gamov method, only the narrow Gamov states or resonances are included. The level densities calculated with these two methods are similar; both can be approximated by the backshifted Fermi-gas expression with level-density parameters that are dependent on A, but with very little dependence on the neutron or proton richness of the nucleus. However, a small decrease in the level-density parameter is predicted for some nuclei very close to the drip lines. The largest difference between the calculations using the two methods is the deformation dependence of the level density. The Gamov method predicts a very strong peaking of the level density at sphericity for high excitation energies. This leads to a suppression of deformed configurations and, consequently, the fission rate predicted by the statistical model is reduced in the Gamov method

  13. Dependence of the K x-ray energy on the mode of excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.C.; Boehm, F.; Hahn, A.A.; Vogel, P.

    1977-01-01

    The energy shifts in the Ta K x rays resulting from the K-capture of 181 W, fluorescence of Ta, and β - decay of 181 Hf followed by internal conversion in 181 Ta are reported. Both W metal and WO 3 on one hand, and Ta metal and Ta 2 O 5 on the other hand, were used. Comparison of the K x-ray energies of the K-capture sources 153 Gd (Eu x rays) and 175 Hf (Lu x rays) and the corresponding fluorescence sources was also made. Various effects which may influence the K x-ray energies are discussed. 9 references

  14. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+28Si reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S.; Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Maguire, C.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the 28 Si+ 28 Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models

  15. Measurement of the energy dependence of the form factor $f_{+}$ in $K^{0}_{e3}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2000-01-01

    Neutral-kaon decays to \\pielnu\\ % recorded by the CPLEAR experimentwere analysed to determine the $q^2$ dependence of the \\Kzet\\ electroweak form factor $f_+$. Based on $365\\,612$ events,this form factor was found to have a linear dependence on $q^2$with a slope $\\lambda_+ = 0.0245 \\pm 0.0012_{\\text{stat}} \\pm 0.0022_{\\text{syst}}$.

  16. Effect of linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties on the energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The new thermal rate equations were built up by taking the linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient α, the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of a thermoelectric (TE) material into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that their temperature dependences are expressed by a quadratic function of temperature T. The energy conversion efficiency η for a single TE element was formulated using the new thermal rate ones proposed here. By applying it to the high-performance half-Heusler compound, the non-linear component in the temperature dependence of α among those of the TE properties has the greatest effect on η, so that η/η 0 was increased by 11% under the condition of T = 510 K and ΔT = 440 K, where η 0 is a well-known conventional energy conversion efficiency. It was thus found that the temperature dependences of TE properties have a significant influence on η. When one evaluates the accurate achievement rate of η exp obtained experimentally for a TE generator, therefore, η exp should be compared with η the estimated from the theoretical expression proposed here, not with η 0 , particularly when there is a strong non-linearity in the temperature dependence of TE properties.

  17. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  18. Dependence of image quality on energy spread for a Bragg diffraction based radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, P.; Bacci, A.; Bottigli, U.; Ferrario, M.; Gambaccini, M.; Giulietti, D.; Golosio, B.; Maroli, C.; Oliva, P.; Petrillo, V.; Serafini, L.; Stumbo, S.; Taibi, A.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between contrast and energy resolution of a quasi-monochromatic X-ray system based on Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal. Three different energies have been considered: 18, 22 and 26 keV. A commercial phantom containing large and small area details and a digital detector have been used. Results show that for large area details and for a certain value of energy, the energy spread of the incident X-ray beams produces a small reduction of the contrast, while for small area details the high reduction of the contrast is principally due to the spatial resolution properties of the system

  19. Impact-energy dependence of the angular distribution of gold sputtered from a (111) crystal at 100 and 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczak, W.; Wittmaack, K.

    1982-01-01

    The angular distribution of gold sputtered from a (111) crystal has been investigated in the (1anti 10) plane. The sample was bombarded at 100 and 300 K by normally incident (mass-analysed) Ne and Xe ions at energies between 0.2 and 30 keV. The sputtered material was collected on hemicylindrical aluminium foils. Absolute differential sputtering yields were determined by medium energy He backscattering. The partial yield into the [001] spot, ΔY 001 , determined by angular intergration, exhibits an energy dependence distinctly different from the random yield. Neither assisted focusons nor the directional ejection mechanism suggested by Lehmann and Sigmund seem to play an important role. Instead ejection involving projectile scattering in the top two monolayers appears to be the dominant mechanism for [001] spot production. This mechanism may also account for an energy-dependent fraction of ΔY 110 . Moreover, spot shape analysis suggests a sizeable focuson contribution to the [110] spot which may account for up to 30% of the total backsputtering yield under Ne impact. The [110] spot width decreases with decreasing temperature and increasing ion energy. Minimum spot widths as low as 11 0 (fwhm) have been observed at 100 K. (orig.)

  20. A stochastic model for neutron simulation considering the spectrum and nuclear properties with continuous dependence of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Dayana Queiroz de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis has developed a stochastic model to simulate the neutrons transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environment. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational processing time introduced the variable control volume along the (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. The choice of class physical Monte Carlo is due to the fact that it can decompose into simpler constituents the problem of solve a transport equation. The components may be treated separately, these are the propagation and interaction while respecting the laws of energy conservation and momentum, and the relationships that determine the probability of their interaction. We are aware of the fact that the problem approached in this thesis is far from being comparable to building a nuclear reactor, but this discussion the main target was to develop the Monte Carlo model, implement the code in a computer language that allows extensions of modular way. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude the need to consider the energy dependence, i.e. an spectral effective multiplication factor should be introduced each energy group separately. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  2. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Energy dependence of the 3He(3He,π+)6Li reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bornec, Y.; Hibou, F.; Bimbot, L.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J.C.; Reide, F.; Tatischeff, B.; Willis, N.; Aslanides, E.; Bergdolt, G.; Fassnacht, P.; Racca, C.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 3 He( 3 He, π + ) 6 Li reaction has been studied as a function of energy using the 3 He beam at SATURNE. Cross sections for the 6 Li ground state (1 + ) and 2.18 MeV (3 + ) levels have been obtained at 350, 420, 500 and 600 MeV incident energies at angles THETAsub(π)(lab)=15 0 and 40 0 . These results are compared with two theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  4. On the SCA-description of the energy- and impact parameter dependence of K-shell ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, D.; Kauer, T.

    1989-01-01

    We present the application of the SCA-model to impact-parameter and energy-dependent K-shell ionization cross sections for several projectile-target combinations. Then we discuss the successes and failures of the SCA-description and investigate the additional approximations still existing in this approach. It is shown that after the introduction of a fully time-dependent perturbed electronic boundstate wave function many of the former discrepancies between experiment and theory can be resolved and in general very good agreement is obtained. (orig.)

  5. Investigation on the energy spectrums of electrons in atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets and their dependences on the applied voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxian; Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Yadi; Li, Xiaotong; Pan, Jie; Wang, Xiaolong

    2017-08-01

    This work presents a systematical investigation on the spatiotemporal evolution of the energy spectrum of electrons in atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets and its dependence on the applied voltage. The investigations are carried out by means of the numerical simulation based on a particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision model. The characteristics of the spatiotemporal evolution of the energy spectrum of electrons (ESE) in the discharge space have been presented, and especially the mechanisms of inducing these characteristics have also been revealed. The present work shows the following conclusions. In the evolution of ESE, there is a characteristic time under each applied voltage. Before the characteristic time, the peak value of ESE decreases, the peak position shifts toward high energy, and the distribution of ESE becomes wider and wider, but the reverse is true after the characteristic time. The formation of these characteristics can be mainly attributed to the transport of electrons toward a low electric field as well as a balance between the energy gained from the electric field including the effect of space charges and the energy loss due to inelastic collisions in the process of electron transport. The characteristic time decreases with the applied voltage. In addition, the average energy of electrons at the characteristic time can be increased by enhancing the applied voltage. The results presented in this work are of importance for regulating and controlling the energy of electrons in the plasma jets applied to plasma medicine.

  6. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  7. A response matrix method for slab-geometry discrete ordinates adjoint calculations in energy-dependent source-detector problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Ralph S.; Moura, Carlos A., E-mail: ralph@ime.uerj.br, E-mail: demoura@ime.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    Presented here is an application of the Response Matrix (RM) method for adjoint discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems in slab geometry applied to energy-dependent source-detector problems. The adjoint RM method is free from spatial truncation errors, as it generates numerical results for the adjoint angular fluxes in multilayer slabs that agree with the numerical values obtained from the analytical solution of the energy multigroup adjoint SN equations. Numerical results are given for two typical source-detector problems to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered RM computer code. (author)

  8. Influence of linear-energy-dependent density of states on two-band superconductors: Three-square-well model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbuu, O.A.; Abah, O.C.; Asomba, G.C.; Okoye, C.M.I.

    2011-01-01

    We derived the transition temperature and the isotope exponent of two-band superconductor. We employed Bogoliubov-Valatin formalism assuming a three-square-well potential. The effect of linear-energy-dependent electronic DOS in superconductors is considered. The relevance of the studies to MgB 2 is analyzed. We have derived the expressions for the transition temperature and the isotope effect exponent within the framework of Bogoliubov-Valatin two-band formalism using a linear-energy-dependent electronic density of states assuming a three-square-well potentials model. Our results show that the approach could be used to account for a wide range of values of the transition temperature and isotope effect exponent. The relevance of the present calculations to MgB 2 is analyzed.

  9. Dependence of absolute magnitudes (energies) of flares on the cluster age containing flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsamyan, Eh.S.

    1976-01-01

    Dependences between Δmsub(u) and msub(u) are given for the Orion, NGC 7000, Pleiades and Praesepe aggregations. Maximum absolute values of flares have been calculated for stars with different luminosities. It has been shown that the values of flares can be limited by a straight line which gives the representation on the distribution of maximum values of amplitudes for the stars with different luminosities in an aggregation. Presented are k and m 0 parameters characterizing the lines fot the Orion, NGC 7000, Pleiades and Praesepe aggregation and their age T dependence. From the dependence between k (angular coefficient of straight lines) and lgT for the aggregation with known T the age of those aggregation involving a great amount of flaring stars can be found. The age of flaring stars in the neighbourhood of the Sun has been determined. The age of UV Ceti has been shown by an order to exceed that of the rest stars

  10. Fermi energy dependence of the optical emission in core/shell InAs nanowire homostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Oliveira, D. S.; Sahoo, P. K.; Cotta, M. A.; Iikawa, F.; Motisuke, P.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.

    2017-07-01

    InAs nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method are investigated by photoluminescence. We observe that the Fermi energy of all samples is reduced by ˜20 meV when the size of the Au nanoparticle used for catalysis is increased from 5 to 20 nm. Additional capping with a thin InP shell enhances the optical emission and does not affect the Fermi energy. The unexpected behavior of the Fermi energy is attributed to the differences in the residual donor (likely carbon) incorporation in the axial (low) and lateral (high incorporation) growth in the VLS and vapor-solid (VS) methods, respectively. The different impurity incorporation rate in these two regions leads to a core/shell InAs homostructure. In this case, the minority carriers (holes) diffuse to the core due to the built-in electric field created by the radial impurity distribution. As a result, the optical emission is dominated by the core region rather than by the more heavily doped InAs shell. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra and the Fermi energy become sensitive to the core diameter. These results are corroborated by a theoretical model using a self-consistent method to calculate the radial carrier distribution and Fermi energy for distinct diameters of Au nanoparticles.

  11. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  12. In-situ observation of the energy dependence of defect production in Cu and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Merkel, K.L.; Baily, A.C.; Haga, K.; Meshii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The damage function, the average number of Frenkel pairs created as a function of lattice atom recoil energy, was investigated in Cu and Ni using in-situ electrical-resistivity damage-rate measurements in the high-voltage electron micrscope (HVEM) at T < 10K. Electron and proton irradiations were performed in-situ on the same polycrystalline specimens using the Argonne National Laboratory HVEM-Ion Beam Interface. Both Ni and Cu exhibit a sharp rise in the damage function above the minimum threshold energy (approx. 18 eV for Cu and approx. 20 eV for Ni) as displacements in the low-threshold energy regions of the threshold energy surface become possible. A plateau is observed for both materials (0.54 Frenkel pairs for Cu and 0.46 Frenkel pairs for Ni) indicating that no further directions become productive until much higher recoil energies. These damage functions show strong deviations from simple theoretical models, such as the Modified Kinchin-Pease damage function. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of defect production that govern the single-displacement regime of the damage function and are compared with results from recent molecular-dynamics simulations

  13. Quantum mechanical electronic structure calculation reveals orientation dependence of hydrogen bond energy in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Abhisek; Datta, Saumen

    2017-06-01

    Hydrogen bond plays a unique role in governing macromolecular interactions with exquisite specificity. These interactions govern the fundamental biological processes like protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, molecular recognition. Despite extensive research work, till date there is no proper report available about the hydrogen bond's energy surface with respect to its geometric parameters, directly derived from proteins. Herein, we have deciphered the potential energy landscape of hydrogen bond directly from the macromolecular coordinates obtained from Protein Data Bank using quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations. The findings unravel the hydrogen bonding energies of proteins in parametric space. These data can be used to understand the energies of such directional interactions involved in biological molecules. Quantitative characterization has also been performed using Shannon entropic calculations for atoms participating in hydrogen bond. Collectively, our results constitute an improved way of understanding hydrogen bond energies in case of proteins and complement the knowledge-based potential. Proteins 2017; 85:1046-1055. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry in electron beams — energy dependence and improved film read‐out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Jarkko; Kaijaluoto, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Ilkka; Kosunen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    For megavoltage photon radiation, the fundamental dosimetry characteristics of Gafchromic EBT3 film were determined in  60Co gamma ray beam with addition of experimental and Monte Carlo (MC)‐simulated energy dependence of the film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, and 16 MeV electron beams in water phantom. For the film read‐out, two phase correction of scanner sensitivity was applied: a matrix correction for scanning area and dose‐dependent correction by iterative procedure. With these corrections, the uniformity of response can be improved to be within ±50 pixel values (PVs). To improve the read‐out accuracy, a procedure with flipped film orientations was established. With the method, scanner uniformity can be improved further and dust particles, scratches and/or dirt on scanner glass can be detected and eliminated. Responses from red and green channels were averaged for read‐out, which decreased the effect of noise present in values from separate channels. Since the signal level with the blue channel is considerably lower than with other channels, the signal variation due to different perturbation effects increases the noise level so that the blue channel is not recommended to be used for dose determination. However, the blue channel can be used for the detection of emulsion thickness variations for film quality evaluations with unexposed films. With electron beams ranging from 6 MeV to 16 MeV and at reference measurement conditions in water, the energy dependence of the EBT3 film is uniform within 0.5%, with uncertainties close to 1.6% (k=2). Including 6 MV photon beam and the electron beams mentioned, the energy dependence is within 1.1%. No notable differences were found between the experimental and MC‐simulated responses, indicating negligible change in intrinsic energy dependence of the EBT3 film for 6 MV photon beam and 6 MeV–16 MeV electron beams. Based on the dosimetric characteristics of the EBT3 film, the read

  15. High energy ion irradiation effects on polymer materials. LET dependence of G value of scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, H; Sasuga, T; Seguchi, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) dependence on the probability of main chain scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. The probability was obtained from decreases in molecular weight measured by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and LET was evaluated by TRIM code. The scission probability as a function of LET was almost constant in the low LET, and decreased in the high LET ion irradiation. The mechanism was interpreted from the model of spur-overlapping along an ion`s path. (author)

  16. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  17. Incident energy and target dependence of interaction cross sections and density distribution of neutron drip-line nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoura, S.

    1992-01-01

    The relation between nuclear density distribution and interaction cross section is discussed in terms of Glauber model. Based on the model, density distribution of neutron drip-line nucleus 11 Be and 11 Li is determined experimentally from incident energy dependence of interaction cross sections of 11 Be and 11 Li on light targets. The obtained distributions have long tails corresponding to neutron halos of loosely bound neutrons. (Author)

  18. Systematic errors in the readings of track etch neutron dosemeters caused by the energy dependence of response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Horwood, N.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields

  19. Systematic errors in the readings of track etch neutron dosemeters caused by the energy dependence of response

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T; Horwood, N

    1999-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields.

  20. Medium energy inelastic proton-nucleus scattering with spin dependent NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Auger, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    The previously proposed effective profile expansion method for the Glauber multiple scattering model calculation has been extended to the case of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering with spin dependent NN interaction. Using the method which turns out to be computationally simple and of relatively wider applicability, a study of sensitivity of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering calculation to the sometimes neglected momentum transfer dependence of the NN scattering amplitude has been made. We find that the calculated polarization is particularly sensitive in this respect. (author)

  1. Substrate dependence of energy level alignment at the donor-acceptor interface in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.C.; Liu, Z.T.; Tang, J.X.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    The interface energy level alignment between copper phthalocyanine (CuPC) and fullerene (C60), the widely studied donor-acceptor pair in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), on indium-tin oxide (ITO) and Mg substrate was investigated. The CuPC/C60 interface formed on ITO shows a nearly common vacuum level, but a dipole and band bending exist, resulting in a 0.8 eV band offset at the same interface on Mg. This observation indicates that the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPC and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60, which dictates the open circuit voltage of the CuPC/C60 OPV, can be tuned by the work function of the substrate. Furthermore, the substrate effect on the energy alignment at the donor/acceptor interface can satisfactorily explain that a device with an anode of a smaller work function can provide a higher open circuit voltage.

  2. Energy Band Gap Dependence of Valley Polarization of the Hexagonal Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalamkari, Kazu; Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    The origin of valley polarization of the hexagonal lattice is analytically discussed by tight binding method as a function of energy band gap. When the energy gap decreases to zero, the intensity of optical absorption becomes sharp as a function of k near the K (or K') point in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, while the peak intensity at the K (or K') point keeps constant with decreasing the energy gap. When the dipole vector as a function of k can have both real and imaginary parts that are perpendicular to each other in the k space, the valley polarization occurs. When the dipole vector has only real values by selecting a proper phase of wave functions, the valley polarization does not occur. The degree of the valley polarization may show a discrete change that can be relaxed to a continuous change of the degree of valley polarization when we consider the life time of photo-excited carrier.

  3. Dependence of anaphylactic histamine release from rat mast cells on cellular energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The relation between anaphylactic histamine release and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the mast cells was studied. The cells were incubated with glycolytic (2-deoxyglucose) and respiratory inhibitors (antimycin A and oligomycin) in order to decrease the ATP content of the cells prior...... to initiation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction. The secretory capacity of mast cells was less related to the cellular level of ATP at the time of activation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction than to the rate of cellular energy supply. Furthermore, mast cells were...... pretreated with 2-deoxyglucose. The release of histamine from these cells was reduced when respiratory inhibitors were added to the cell suspension 5 to 20 sec after exposure of the cells to antigen. This may indicate that the secretory process requires energy, and it seems necessary that energy should...

  4. SU-E-T-96: Energy Dependence of the New GafChromic- EBT3 Film's Dose Response-Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Tsao, S; Massillon-Jl, G; Domingo-Muñoz, I; Chan, M

    2012-06-01

    To study and compare the dose response curves of the new GafChromic EBT3 film for megavoltage and kilovoltage x-ray beams, with different spatial resolution. Two sets of EBT3 films (lot#A101711-02) were exposed to each x-ray beam (6MV, 15MV and 50kV) at 8 dose values (50-3200cGy). The megavoltage beams were calibrated per AAPM TG-51 protocol while the kilovoltage beam was calibrated following the TG-61 using an ionization chamber calibrated at NIST. Each film piece was scanned three consecutive times in the center of Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner in transmission mode, landscape orientation, 48-bit color at two separate spatial resolutions of 75 and 300 dpi. The data were analyzed using ImageJ and, for each scanned image, a region of interest (ROI) of 2×2cm 2 at the field center was selected to obtain the mean pixel value with its standard deviation in the ROI. For each energy, dose value and spatial resolution, the average netOD and its associated uncertainty were determined. The Student's t-test was performed to evaluate the statistical differences between the netOD/dose values of the three energy modalities, with different color channels and spatial resolutions. The dose response curves for the three energy modalities were compared in three color channels with 75 and 300dpi. Weak energy dependence was found. For doses above 100cGy, no statistical differences were observed between 6 and 15MV beams, regardless of spatial resolution. However, statistical differences were observed between 50kV and the megavoltage beams. The degree of energy dependence (from MV to 50kV) was found to be function of color channel, dose level and spatial resolution. The dose response curves for GafChromic EBT3 films were found to be weakly dependent on the energy of the photon beams from 6MV to 50kV. The degree of energy dependence varies with color channel, dose and spatial resolution. GafChromic EBT3 films were supplied by Ashland Corp. This work was partially supported by DGAPA

  5. Temperature and doping dependence of the high-energy kink in cuprates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemljic, M M; Prelovsek, P; Tohyama, T

    2008-01-25

    It is shown that spectral functions within the extended t-J model, evaluated using the finite-temperature diagonalization of small clusters, exhibit the high-energy kink in single-particle dispersion consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission results on hole-doped cuprates. The kink and waterfall-like features persist up to large doping and to temperatures beyond J; hence, the origin can be generally attributed to strong correlations and incoherent hole propagation at large binding energies. In contrast, our analysis predicts that electron-doped cuprates do not exhibit these phenomena in photoemission.

  6. Structural dependence of threshold displacement energies in rutile, anatase and brookite TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, M., E-mail: marc.robinson@curtin.edu.au [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Marks, N.A. [Discipline of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lumpkin, G.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Systematic molecular dynamics simulations of low energy cascades have been performed to examine how threshold displacement events are effected by changes in crystal structure. Exploiting the structural proximity of the rutile, anatase and brookite polymorphs of TiO{sub 2}, a quantitative examination of defect production has been carried out including detailed defect analysis and the determination of values of the threshold displacement energy (E{sub d}). Across all polymorphs comparable values of E{sub d} are reported for oxygen at around 20 eV, with the value for Ti in rutile (73 ± 2 eV) significantly higher than that in brookite (34 ± 1 eV) and anatase (39 ± 1 eV). Quantifying defect formation probability as a function of Primary Knock-on Atom (PKA) energy, simulations in rutile indicate a consistent reduction in defect formation at energies higher than E{sub d} relative to anatase and brookite. Defect cluster analysis reveals a significant proportion of di-Frenkel pairs in anatase at Ti PKA energies around E{sub d}. These clusters, which are stabilised by the localisation of two Frenkel pairs, are associated with a recombination barrier of approximately 0.19 eV. As such, annihilation is likely under typical experimental conditions which suggests an expected increase in the measured Ti value of E{sub d}. Identical O defect populations produced at the threshold by the O PKA in both rutile and anatase explain the comparable values of E{sub d}. At higher O PKA energies, the commencement of defect production on both sublattices in anatase is observed in contrast to the confinement of defects to the O sublattice in rutile. The overall trends reported are consistent with in-situ irradiation experiments and thermal spike simulations, suggesting the contrasting radiation response of the polymorphs of TiO{sub 2} is apparent during the initial stages of defect production. - Highlights: • Systematic calculation of threshold displacement energies (E{sub d

  7. Resistivity analysis of epitaxially grown, doped semiconductors using energy dependent secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Thomas, Edward W.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-01-01

    A characterization technique is discussed that allows quantitative optimization of doping in epitaxially grown semiconductors. This technique uses relative changes in the host atom secondary ion (HASI) energy distribution from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to indicate relative changes in conductivity of the material. Since SIMS is a destructive process due to sputtering through a film, a depth profile of the energy distribution of sputtered HASIs in a matrix will contain information on the conductivity of the layers of the film as a function of depth. This process is demonstrated with Mg-doped GaN, with the Mg flux slowly increased through the film. Three distinct regions of conductivity were observed: one with Mg concentration high enough to cause compensation and thus high resistivity, a second with moderate Mg concentration and low resistivity, and a third with little to no Mg doping, causing high resistivity due to the lack of free carriers. During SIMS analysis of the first region, the energy distributions of sputtered Ga HASIs were fairly uniform and unchanging for a Mg flux above the saturation, or compensation, limit. For the second region, the Ga HASI energy distributions shifted and went through a region of inconsistent energy distributions for Mg flux slightly below the critical flux for saturation, or compensation. Finally, for the third region, the Ga HASI energy distributions then settled back into another fairly unchanging, uniform pattern. These three distinct regions were analyzed further through growth of Mg-doped step profiles and bulk growth of material at representative Mg fluxes. The materials grown at the two unchanging, uniform regions of the energy distributions yielded highly resistive material due to too high of Mg concentration and low to no Mg concentration, respectively. However, material grown in the transient energy distribution region with Mg concentration between that of the two highly resistive regions yielded low

  8. Resistivity analysis of epitaxially grown, doped semiconductors using energy dependent secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Thomas, Edward W.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-12-01

    A characterization technique is discussed that allows quantitative optimization of doping in epitaxially grown semiconductors. This technique uses relative changes in the host atom secondary ion (HASI) energy distribution from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to indicate relative changes in conductivity of the material. Since SIMS is a destructive process due to sputtering through a film, a depth profile of the energy distribution of sputtered HASIs in a matrix will contain information on the conductivity of the layers of the film as a function of depth. This process is demonstrated with Mg-doped GaN, with the Mg flux slowly increased through the film. Three distinct regions of conductivity were observed: one with Mg concentration high enough to cause compensation and thus high resistivity, a second with moderate Mg concentration and low resistivity, and a third with little to no Mg doping, causing high resistivity due to the lack of free carriers. During SIMS analysis of the first region, the energy distributions of sputtered Ga HASIs were fairly uniform and unchanging for a Mg flux above the saturation, or compensation, limit. For the second region, the Ga HASI energy distributions shifted and went through a region of inconsistent energy distributions for Mg flux slightly below the critical flux for saturation, or compensation. Finally, for the third region, the Ga HASI energy distributions then settled back into another fairly unchanging, uniform pattern. These three distinct regions were analyzed further through growth of Mg-doped step profiles and bulk growth of material at representative Mg fluxes. The materials grown at the two unchanging, uniform regions of the energy distributions yielded highly resistive material due to too high of Mg concentration and low to no Mg concentration, respectively. However, material grown in the transient energy distribution region with Mg concentration between that of the two highly resistive regions yielded low

  9. Size and shape dependent Gibbs free energy and phase stability of titanium and zirconium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Shiyun; Qi Weihong; Huang Baiyun; Wang Mingpu; Li Yejun

    2010-01-01

    The Debye model of Helmholtz free energy for bulk material is generalized to Gibbs free energy (GFE) model for nanomaterial, while a shape factor is introduced to characterize the shape effect on GFE. The structural transitions of Ti and Zr nanoparticles are predicted based on GFE. It is further found that GFE decreases with the shape factor and increases with decreasing of the particle size. The critical size of structural transformation for nanoparticles goes up as temperature increases in the absence of change in shape factor. For specified temperature, the critical size climbs up with the increase of shape factor. The present predictions agree well with experiment values.

  10. Limiting fragmentation, scaling and substructual dependence of multiparticle production in high energy heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterlund, I; Garpman, S; Persson, S; Soderstrom, K; Stenlund, E [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Y A; Chernyavsky, M M; Gerassimov, S G; Kharlamov, S P; Larionova, V G; Maslennikova, N V; Orlova, G I; Peresadko, N G; Salmanova, N A; Tretyakova, M I [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR); Aggarwal, M M; Friedlander, E M; Heckman, H H; Lindstrom, P J [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Andreeva, N P; Anson, Z V; Ameeva, Z V; Bubnov, V I; Chasnicov, I Y; Eremenko, L E; Eligbaeva, G Z; Gaitinov, A S; Kalyachkina, G S; Kanygina, E K; Shakhova, T I [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij (USSR); Arora, R; Bhatia, V S; Kaur, M; Mittra, I S [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Azimov, S A; Chernova, L P; Gadzhieva, S I; Gulamov, K G; Kadyrov, F G; Lukicheva, N S; Navotny, V S; Svechnikova, L N [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR); Basova, E; Bondarenko, R A; Gulyamov, U G; EMUO1 Collaboration

    1990-01-01

    We report on recent results obtained by the EMUO1 collaboration from studies of {sup 16}O + emulsion, at 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV, and {sup 32}S + emulsion and {sup 32}S+Au interactions at 200 A GeV. Shower-particle production in oxygen-induced interactions are studied over the energy range 2.1-200 A GeV. Scaling and limiting fragmentation are observed. Multiplicity and angular distributions of low energy target-associated particles are presented and compared with distributions obtained using the Ranft and the Fritiof simulation codes. (orig.).

  11. Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies

  12. Influence of dopants on the glow curve structure and energy dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Z.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Music, S.

    2011-01-01

    LiF thermoluminescent material doped with Mg, Cu and Si recently developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has shown very good dosimetric properties. Since the thermoluminescence in LiF was found to be dependent on the proper combination of dopants, the investigation of the concentration and type of dopants is very important in developing and characterisation of new TL materials. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of type and concentration of activators on the glow curve structure, sensitivity, reproducibility and on the photon energy response of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors. The energy response was studied in air and on the ISO water phantom in the range of mean photon energies between 33 keV and 164 keV. The morphology and local chemical composition of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that type and concentration of activators influence the glow curve and sensitivity. Different dopant concentrations did not show influence on the photon energy response. The sensitivity of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detector with dopant concentration of Mg = 0.35 mol%, Cu = 0.025 mol% and Si = 0.9 mol% was very high (up to 65 times higher than that of TLD-100). The photon energy response of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors containing all three dopants in various concentrations is in accordance with the IAEA recommendations for individual monitoring.

  13. Influence of dopants on the glow curve structure and energy dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, Z., E-mail: zknez@irb.h [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105 Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Music, S. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-03-15

    LiF thermoluminescent material doped with Mg, Cu and Si recently developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has shown very good dosimetric properties. Since the thermoluminescence in LiF was found to be dependent on the proper combination of dopants, the investigation of the concentration and type of dopants is very important in developing and characterisation of new TL materials. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of type and concentration of activators on the glow curve structure, sensitivity, reproducibility and on the photon energy response of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors. The energy response was studied in air and on the ISO water phantom in the range of mean photon energies between 33 keV and 164 keV. The morphology and local chemical composition of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results show that type and concentration of activators influence the glow curve and sensitivity. Different dopant concentrations did not show influence on the photon energy response. The sensitivity of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detector with dopant concentration of Mg = 0.35 mol%, Cu = 0.025 mol% and Si = 0.9 mol% was very high (up to 65 times higher than that of TLD-100). The photon energy response of LiF:Mg,Cu,Si detectors containing all three dopants in various concentrations is in accordance with the IAEA recommendations for individual monitoring.

  14. Temperature Dependence in Heterogeneous Nucleation with Application to the Direct Determination of Cluster Energy on Nearly Molecular Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert L; Winkler, Paul M; Wagner, Paul E

    2017-12-04

    A re-examination of measurements of heterogeneous nucleation of water vapor on silver nanoparticles is presented here using a model-free framework that derives the energy of critical cluster formation directly from measurements of nucleation probability. Temperature dependence is correlated with cluster stabilization by the nanoparticle seed and previously found cases of unusual increasing nucleation onset saturation ratio with increasing temperature are explained. A necessary condition for the unusual positive temperature dependence is identified, namely that the critical cluster be more stable, on a per molecule basis, than the bulk liquid to exhibit the effect. Temperature dependence is next examined in the classical Fletcher model, modified here to make the energy of cluster formation explicit in the model.  The contact angle used in the Fletcher model is identified as the microscopic contact angle, which can be directly obtained from heterogeneous nucleation experimental data by a recently developed analysis method. Here an equivalent condition, increasing contact angle with temperature, is found necessary for occurrence of unusual temperature dependence. Our findings have immediate applications to atmospheric particle formation and nanoparticle detection in condensation particle counters (CPCs).

  15. Presynaptic Regulation of Leptin in a Defined Lateral Hypothalamus-Ventral Tegmental Area Neurocircuitry Depends on Energy State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Bello, Nicholas T; Pang, Zhiping P

    2017-12-06

    Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding. A presynaptic mechanism mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms may account for this regulation by leptin. The regulatory effects of leptin depend on intact leptin receptor signaling. Interestingly, the synaptic regulatory function of leptin in the LHA-to-VTA neuronal pathway is highly sensitive to energy states: both energy deficiency (acute fasting) and excessive energy storage (high-fat diet-induced obesity) blunt the effect of leptin. These data revealed that leptin may regulate synaptic transmission in the LHA-to-VTA neurocircuitry in an inverted "U-shape" fashion dependent on plasma glucose levels and related to metabolic states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection is an important neural pathway involved in balancing whole-body energy states and reward. We found that the excitatory synaptic inputs to both orexin- and melanin-concentrating hormone expressing LHA neurons projecting to the VTA were suppressed by leptin, a peptide hormone derived from adipocytes that signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Interestingly, energy states seem to affect how leptin regulates synaptic transmission since both the depletion of energy induced by acute food

  16. Method and basis set dependence of anharmonic ground state nuclear wave functions and zero-point energies: Application to SSSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Stephen J.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.

    2010-02-01

    One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which is approximately 29 kJ mol-1 at the CCSD(T)/6-31G∗ level of theory, has a 4 kJ mol-1 dependence on the treatment of electron correlation. The anharmonic ZPEs are consistently 0.3 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the harmonic ZPEs calculated at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and 0.7 kJ mol-1 lower in energy at the CCSD(T)/6-31G∗ level of theory. Ideally, for sub-kJ mol-1 thermochemical accuracy, ZPEs should be calculated using correlated methods with as big a basis set as practicable. The ground state nuclear wave function of SSSH also has significant method and basis set dependence. The analysis of the nuclear wave function indicates that SSSH is localized to a single symmetry equivalent global minimum, despite having sufficient ZPE to be delocalized over both minima. As part of this work, modifications to the interpolated PES construction scheme of Collins and co-workers are presented.

  17. Method and basis set dependence of anharmonic ground state nuclear wave functions and zero-point energies: application to SSSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Stephen J; Jordan, Meredith J T

    2010-02-07

    One of the largest remaining errors in thermochemical calculations is the determination of the zero-point energy (ZPE). The fully coupled, anharmonic ZPE and ground state nuclear wave function of the SSSH radical are calculated using quantum diffusion Monte Carlo on interpolated potential energy surfaces (PESs) constructed using a variety of method and basis set combinations. The ZPE of SSSH, which is approximately 29 kJ mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory, has a 4 kJ mol(-1) dependence on the treatment of electron correlation. The anharmonic ZPEs are consistently 0.3 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy than the harmonic ZPEs calculated at the Hartree-Fock and MP2 levels of theory, and 0.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy at the CCSD(T)/6-31G* level of theory. Ideally, for sub-kJ mol(-1) thermochemical accuracy, ZPEs should be calculated using correlated methods with as big a basis set as practicable. The ground state nuclear wave function of SSSH also has significant method and basis set dependence. The analysis of the nuclear wave function indicates that SSSH is localized to a single symmetry equivalent global minimum, despite having sufficient ZPE to be delocalized over both minima. As part of this work, modifications to the interpolated PES construction scheme of Collins and co-workers are presented.

  18. Topography and surface energy dependent calcium phosphate formation on Sol-Gel derived TiO2 coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järn, Mikael; Areva, Sami; Pore, Viljami; Peltonen, Jouko; Linden, Mika

    2006-09-12

    Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate (CaP) on sol-gel derived TiO(2) coatings was investigated in terms of surface topography and surface energy. The topography of the coatings was derived from AFM measurements, while the surface energy was determined with contact angle measurements. The degree of precipitation was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The precipitation of CaP was found to be dependent on both topography and surface energy. A high roughness value when combining the RMS roughness parameter S(q) with the number of local maxima per unit area parameter S(ds) enhances CaP formation. The hydrophilicity of the coating was also found to be of importance for CaP formation. We suggest that the water contact angle, which is a direct measure of the hydrophilicity of the surface, may be used to evaluate the surface energy dependent precipitation kinetics rather than using the often applied Lewis base parameter.

  19. Dependence of Xmax and multiplicity of electron and muon on different high energy interaction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rastegarzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Different high energy interaction models are the applied in CORSIKA code to simulate Extensive Air Showers (EAS generated by Cosmic Rays (CR. In this work the effects of QGSJET01, QGSJETII, DPMJET, SIBYLL models on Xmax and multiplicity of secondary electrons and muons at observation level are studied.

  20. Beam Energy Dependence of the Third Harmonic of Azimuthal Correlations in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, J.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a harmonic decomposition of two-particle azimuthal correlations measured with the STAR detector in Au +Au collisions for energies ranging from √{sN N }=7.7 to 200 GeV. The third harmonic v32{2 }=⟨cos 3 (ϕ1-ϕ2)⟩ , where ϕ1-ϕ2 is the angular difference in azimuth, is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity difference between particle pairs Δ η =η1-η2 . Nonzero v32{2 } is directly related to the previously observed large-Δ η narrow-Δ ϕ ridge correlations and has been shown in models to be sensitive to the existence of a low viscosity quark gluon plasma phase. For sufficiently central collisions, v32{2 } persist down to an energy of 7.7 GeV, suggesting that quark gluon plasma may be created even in these low energy collisions. In peripheral collisions at these low energies, however, v32{2 } is consistent with zero. When scaled by the pseudorapidity density of charged-particle multiplicity per participating nucleon pair, v32{2 } for central collisions shows a minimum near √{sN N }=20 GeV .

  1. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.

  2. Energy dependent saturable and reverse saturable absorption in cube-like polyaniline/polymethyl methacrylate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.

  3. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  4. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd→ 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  5. Basis Set Dependence of Interaction Energies Computed Using Composite Post-MP2 Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Platts, J. A.; Hill, J. G.; Riley, K. E.; Řezáč, Jan; Hobza, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 330-337 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : plesset perturbation-theory * intermolecular interaction energies * density fitting approximations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2013

  6. Energy dependence of the differences between the quark and gluon jet fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Jarlskog, Ch; Papadopoulou, Th D

    1996-01-01

    Three jet events arising from decays of the Z boson, collected by the DELPHI detector, were used to measure differences in quark and gluon fragmentation. Gluon jets were anti-tagged by identifying b quark jets. Unbiased quark jets came from events with two jets plus one photon. Quark and gluon jet properties in different energy ranges were compared for the first time within the same detector. Quark and gluon jets of nearly the same energy in symmetric three jet event topologies were also compared. Using three independent methods, the average value of the ratio of the mean charged multiplicities of gluon and quark jets is \\[ =1.241\\pm 0.015\\ (stat.) \\pm 0.025\\ (syst.). \\] Gluon jets are broader and produce fragments with a softer energy spectrum than quark jets of equivalent energy. The string effect has been observed in fully symmetric three jet events. The measured ratio R_{\\gamma} of the charged particle flow in the q\\overline{q} inter-jet region of the q\\bar{q}g and q\\bar{q}\\gamma samples agrees with the p...

  7. Energy dependence of the thermodynamical parameters in nucleus-nucleus collisions from 1A to 200A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Byung Sik

    1999-01-01

    The energy dependence of the thermodynamical parameters in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied from 1A to 200A GeV in the framework of the statistical thermal model. The energy and entropy densities, as well as the pressure, of hot and dense hadronic matter are calculated by using the available input parameters of the model. No discontinuity or steep rise in the thermodynamical parameters has been found. The equation of state in terms of the speed of sound is investigated as a function of the energy density, and it increases monotonically up to 200A GeV. The estimated sonic velocities above 10A GeV are very close to that of an ideal ultrarelativistic hadron gas in the presence of resonances

  8. Regulation of energy partitioning and alternative electron transport pathways during cold acclimation of lodgepole pine is oxygen dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitch, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sprott, David P; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2010-09-01

    Second year needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta L.) were exposed for 6 weeks to either simulated control summer ['summer'; 25 °C/250 photon flux denisty (PFD)], autumn ('autumn'; 15°C/250 PFD) or winter conditions ('winter'; 5 °C/250 PFD). We report that the proportion of linear electron transport utilized in carbon assimilation (ETR(CO2)) was 40% lower in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine when compared with the 'summer' pine. In contrast, the proportion of excess photosynthetic linear electron transport (ETR(excess)) not used for carbon assimilation within the total ETR(Jf) increased by 30% in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine. In 'autumn' pine acclimated to 15°C, the increased amounts of 'excess' electrons were directed equally to 21  kPa O2-dependent and 2  kPa O2-dependent alternative electron transport pathways and the fractions of excitation light energy utilized by PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)), thermally dissipated through Φ(NPQ) and dissipated by additional quenching mechanism(s) (Φ(f,D)) were similar to those in 'summer' pine. In contrast, in 'winter' needles acclimated to 5 °C, 60% of photosynthetically generated 'excess' electrons were utilized through the 2  kPa O2-dependent electron sink and only 15% by the photorespiratory (21  kPa O2) electron pathway. Needles exposed to 'winter' conditions led to a 3-fold lower Φ(PSII), only a marginal increase in Φ(NPQ) and a 2-fold higher Φ(f,D), which was O2 dependent compared with the 'summer' and 'autumn' pine. Our results demonstrate that the employment of a variety of alternative pathways for utilization of photosynthetically generated electrons by Lodgepole pine depends on the acclimation temperature. Furthermore, dissipation of excess light energy through constitutive non-photochemical quenching mechanisms is O2 dependent.

  9. From an inflicted dependency to a positive co-operation in the domain of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Host, Jean-Paul; Darras, Marc [Gaz de France (France)

    2007-07-01

    The 20th World Energy Congress entitled, ''Energy Future in an Interdependent World'', is aimed at highlighting the main challenges and opportunities that the energy industry should face to contribute to sustainable development across the world. For we are very much in the face of a challenge: with the demand for energy likely to increase, the energy industry will have to get by with limited resources: as concerns energy, the gradual rarefaction of fossil fuels resources, combined with the lack of any convincing substitution options in the medium term; as concerns natural resources, or more accurately, the harm that the natural environment can bear sustainably; and as concerns capital, insofar as the huge investments needed in the field of energy will be competing with other types of investments that may appear more profitable or safer. Given this situation, two types of political and economic response can be envisioned. The first is to simply let the market run its course and relations between States play out as they normally would. This would, admittedly, make it possible to solve some of the issues raised but no one can guarantee that this will not heighten political tension and lead to dangerous dawdling with regard to the climate issue. Another option is to mobilise the international community so that the interdependency leads to some sort of positive cooperation. This would require that, building on the reflections carried out virtually everywhere, international consensus would emerge and make it possible to create and champion a shared vision, leading to the institution of an enabling environment for action for states and operators altogether. Above and beyond the trade relationship that binds the latter, they have an important part to play insofar as they can significantly contribute to sustainable development across the world through the investments they make abroad and the results of their 'research' when shared through

  10. Analysis of the dependence parametrization of the allocations of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering diffraction maxima from the projectile energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ponkratenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffraction range of available experimental differential cross sections of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering for 17 pairs of the interacting nuclei with 4 ≤ А ≤ 20 have been analyzed in the projectile energy wide interval from 1 to 100 МеV/nucleon. Diffraction maxima and minima positions in the transferred momentum coordinates depending on projectile energy demonstrate smooth behavior at energies higher 2 - 4 МeV/nucleon, and practically do not depend on energy at energies up to 30 - 40 МеV/nucleon. These energy dependences of maxima (minima positions can be parameterized by simple functions. It was found the suitable approximations that describe reasonably the energy dependence of the maxima (minima positions of the experimental elastic scattering differential cross sections. These approximations were evaluated with the same parameters for all colliding nuclei groups.

  11. Analysis of the dependence parametrization of the allocations of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering diffraction maxima from the projectile energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponkratenko, O.A.; Pyirnak, Val. M.; Rudchik, A.A.; Stepanenko, Yu.M.; Uleshchenko, V.V.; Shirma, Yu.O.

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction range of available experimental differential cross sections of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering for the interactive nuclei 17 pairs with 4 ≤ A ≤ 20 have been analyzed in the projectile energy wide interval from 1 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Diffraction maxima and minima positions in the transferred momentum coordinates depending on projectile energy demonstrate smooth behavior at energies higher 2 - 4 MeV/nucleon and at energies to 30 - 40 MeV/nucleon - practically does not depend on energy. These energy dependences of maxima (minima) position. can be parameterized by simple functions. It was found the suitable approximations that describe reasonable the energy dependence of the maxima (minima) positions of the experimental elastic scattering differential cross sections. These approximations were evaluated with the same parameters for all colliding nuclei groups

  12. Energy dependence of EBT-1 radiochromic film response for photon (10 kvp-15 MVp) and electron beams (6-18 MeV) readout by a flatbed scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Christian; Pawelke, Jörg; Karsch, Leonhard; Woithe, Julia

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the energy dependence of the radiochromic film type, Gafchromic EBT-1, when scanned with a flatbed scanner for film readout. Dose response curves were determined for 12 different beam qualities ranging from a 10 kVp x-ray beam to a 15 MVp x-ray beam and include also two high energy electron beam qualities (6 and 18 MeV). The dose responses measured as net optical density (netOD) for the different beam qualities were normalized to the response of a reference beam quality (6 MVp). A strong systematic energy dependence of the film response was found. The lower the effective beam energy, the less sensitive the EBT-1 films get. The maximum decrease in dose for the same film response between the 25 kVp and 6 MVp beam qualities was 44%. Additionally, a difference in energy dependence for different doses was discovered, meaning that higher doses show a smaller dependency on energy than lower doses. The maximum decrease in the normalized netOD was found to be 25% for a dose of 0.5 Gy relative to the normalized netOD for 10 Gy. Moreover, a scaling procedure is introduced, allowing the correction of the energy dependence for the investigated beam qualities and also for comparable x-ray beam qualities within the energy range studied. A strong energy dependence for EBT-1 radiochromic films was found. The films were readout with a flatbed scanner. If the effective beam energy is known, the energy dependence can be corrected with the introduced scaling procedure. Further investigation of the influence of the spectral band of the readout device on energy dependence is needed to understand the reason for the different energy dependences found in this and previous works.

  13. Interpretation of monoclinic hafnia valence electron energy-loss spectra by time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, L.; Guedj, C.; Bernier, N.; Blaise, P.; Olevano, V.; Sottile, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present the valence electron energy-loss spectrum and the dielectric function of monoclinic hafnia (m -HfO2) obtained from time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) predictions and compared to energy-filtered spectroscopic imaging measurements in a high-resolution transmission-electron microscope. Fermi's golden rule density-functional theory (DFT) calculations can capture the qualitative features of the energy-loss spectrum, but we find that TDDFT, which accounts for local-field effects, provides nearly quantitative agreement with experiment. Using the DFT density of states and TDDFT dielectric functions, we characterize the excitations that result in the m -HfO2 energy-loss spectrum. The sole plasmon occurs between 13 and 16 eV, although the peaks ˜28 and above 40 eV are also due to collective excitations. We furthermore elaborate on the first-principles techniques used, their accuracy, and remaining discrepancies among spectra. More specifically, we assess the influence of Hf semicore electrons (5 p and 4 f ) on the energy-loss spectrum, and find that the inclusion of transitions from the 4 f band damps the energy-loss intensity in the region above 13 eV. We study the impact of many-body effects in a DFT framework using the adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) exchange-correlation kernel, as well as from a many-body perspective using "scissors operators" matched to an ab initio G W calculation to account for self-energy corrections. These results demonstrate some cancellation of errors between self-energy and excitonic effects, even for excitations from the Hf 4 f shell. We also simulate the dispersion with increasing momentum transfer for plasmon and collective excitation peaks.

  14. Energy and rate dependence of diagnostic x-ray exposure meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Cerra, F.; Conway, B.; Fewell, T.R.; Ohlhaber, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in x-ray exposure measurements among a variety of contemporary diagnostic exposure meters are investigated. Variations may result from systematic errors due to calibration, beam-quality dependence and exposure-rate dependence. It is concluded that the majority of general purpose diagnostic meters will agree to within 10% of each other if exposure rates are below 1.3 mC kg-1S-1 of air (5 R s-1) and beam qualities are typical for general purpose radiology, excluding mammography. For exposure rates comparable to those in barium enema radiography the variations can range up to 25% or more. Variations up to 40% were observed among general purpose exposure meters at mammographic beam qualities. In the mammographic range, mammographic (thin window) exposure meters varied by no more than 2%

  15. Ab initio calculation of reaction energies. III. Basis set dependence of relative energies on the FH2 and H2CO potential energy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, M.J.; Binkley, J.S.; Schaefer, H.F. III

    1984-01-01

    The relative energies of the stationary points on the FH 2 and H 2 CO nuclear potential energy surfaces relevant to the hydrogen atom abstraction, H 2 elimination and 1,2-hydrogen shift reactions have been examined using fourth-order Moller--Plesset perturbation theory and a variety of basis sets. The theoretical absolute zero activation energy for the F+H 2 →FH+H reaction is in better agreement with experiment than previous theoretical studies, and part of the disagreement between earlier theoretical calculations and experiment is found to result from the use of assumed rather than calculated zero-point vibrational energies. The fourth-order reaction energy for the elimination of hydrogen from formaldehyde is within 2 kcal mol -1 of the experimental value using the largest basis set considered. The qualitative features of the H 2 CO surface are unchanged by expansion of the basis set beyond the polarized triple-zeta level, but diffuse functions and several sets of polarization functions are found to be necessary for quantitative accuracy in predicted reaction and activation energies. Basis sets and levels of perturbation theory which represent good compromises between computational efficiency and accuracy are recommended

  16. On the dependence of energy confinement on elongation in Single Null divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisen, H.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J. M.; Others

    2002-03-01

    An analysis of the effect of magnetic geometry on heat flux in a wide range of Single Null diverted discharge configurations with 1.5 κ ∼ 74, based on the configurations in the study. This is very close to dependences from the ITER database for discharge conditions, such as ELMy H-modes, obtained from a large number of experiments in various tokamak devices. (author)

  17. Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José; Espinoza, Catalina

    2008-06-01

    The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides | U (e 3) | ≠ 0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) γ = 90 and γ = 195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) γ = 195 and γ = 440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline.

  18. Energy dependence of CP-violation reach for monochromatic neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose; Espinoza, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of future neutrino facilities is the determination of CP violation in neutrino oscillations. Besides |U(e3)|≠0, this will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source and energy control. With this objective in mind, the creation of monochromatic neutrino beams from the electron capture decay of boosted ions by the SPS of CERN has been proposed. We discuss the capabilities of such a facility as a function of the energy of the boost and the baseline for the detector. We compare the physics potential for two different configurations: (I) γ=90 and γ=195 (maximum achievable at present SPS) to Frejus; (II) γ=195 and γ=440 (maximum achievable at upgraded SPS) to Canfranc. We conclude that the SPS upgrade to 1000 GeV is important to reach a better sensitivity to CP violation iff it is accompanied by a longer baseline

  19. Energy dependence of angular distributions of sputtered particles by ion-beam bombardment at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori; Maeda, Mitsuo; Akazaki, Masanori; Yamamura, Yasunori.

    1986-01-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered Fe-atoms were measured using the laser fluorescence technique during Ar-ion bombardment for energies of 0.6, 1, 2 and 3 keV at normal incidence. The measured cosine distribution at 0.6 keV progressively deviated to an over-cosine distribution at higher energies, and at 3 keV the angular distribution was an overcosine distribution of about 20 %. The experimental results agree qualitatively with calculations by a recent computer simulation code, ACAT. The results are explained by the competition between surface scattering and the effects of primary knock-on atoms, which tend to make the angular distributions over-cosine and under-cosine, respectively. (author)

  20. Evolution of α-particle distribution in burning plasmas including energy dependent α-transport effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamelander, G.; Sigmar, D.; Woloch, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report resumes the essential results of a common OEFZS/MIT (Plasma Fusion Center) project to investigate fusion alpha transport. A computer code has been developed going beyond standard FOKKER-PLANCK-codes assuming that the fusion products give their energy to the plasma on the place of their birth. The present transport code admits the calculation of the α-distribution function. By means of the distribution function the energy deposition rates are calculated. The time-evolution of the α-distribution function has been evaluated for an ignited plasma. A description of the transport code, of the subroutines and of the input data as well as a listing is enclosed to this report. (Authors)

  1. Searching for the QCD Critical Point with the Energy Dependence of pt Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, John; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    If systems produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions pass near the QCD critical point while cooling, the correlation length of the system may diverge due to the phenomena of critical opalescence. The transverse momentum distribution, being related to the state variable temperature, might be sensitive to this change in correlation length. Non-monotonic behavior with changing incident energy or centrality of any transverse momentum observable that is sensitive to the correlation length could thus be indicative of the QCD critical point. Accordingly, we report measurements related to transverse momentum fluctuations such as as a function of event centrality and incident energy for Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. The results are compared to UrQMD model predictions and previous experimental measurements.

  2. Beam-energy dependence of charge balance functions from Au + Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, H. F.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R. M.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solanki, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Q. H.; Yan, W.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity (Δ η ) for charged particle pairs at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider from Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from Pb + Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). The narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

  3. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-01-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  4. Förster resonance energy transfer between acridinediones and selected fluorophores—Medium dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaveni, R. [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600113 (India); Ramamurthy, P., E-mail: prm60@hotmail.com [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai-600113 (India)

    2013-06-15

    We report highly efficient Förster resonance energy transfer process between acridinedione dyes and basic fluorophores. FRET between free and β-cyclodextrin modified acridinediones as donors and fluorophoric dyes like safranine as acceptor were investigated in an alcoholic medium, polymer solution and a polymeric film. Efficiency of the processes were experimentally found by steady-state and time-resolved experiments for different donor and acceptor combinations. The associated spectral parameters viz., R{sup 0}, J(λ) were calculated, the Stern–Volmer relations based on fluorescence intensity and lifetime were constructed and the rates of energy transfer were calculated. The results indicated that the dominant mechanism responsible for the excitation energy transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole–dipole interaction and the process was found to be highly efficient when the medium was a constrained one as in the case of a polymeric film. A multifold enhancement in efficiency of energy transfer was also observed when the donor was a modified acridinedione when compared to a free acridinedione. The reason is attributed to the effective binding of the acceptor into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin. Highlights: ► FRET between acridinediones and fluorophoric acceptors were investigated. ► FRET analysis was carried out in methanol, a 5% PVA solution and in PVA matrix. ► FRET efficiency was maximum when the medium was PVA matrix. ► FRET efficiency was also more when β-CD modified ADR is used as the donor. ► Efficiency enhancement is due to the inclusion of acceptor into the cavity of β-CD.

  5. Energy Dependence: The $1.4 Trillion Addiction Threatening National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    shared by executives from major automobile manufacturers to include General Motors, Honda, Nissan and Toyota .52 Toyota , for example, is currently leasing...going away. The vehicles and fuels people use to travel and move goods will have to change in order to solve the problem. 9 Figure 1: Toyota Motor...the viability of new automobile products. Toyota Motor Company and the DOE National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), for example, used California to

  6. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to ΔE/E∼10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION registered ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to ΔE/E 2,3 VV-transition with PAES. Thus, within this thesis two objectives were achieved: Firstly, the PAES spectrometer was renewed and improved by at least one order of magnitude with respect to the signal to noise ratio, the measurement time and the energy resolution. Secondly, several measurements have been carried out, demonstrating the high performance of the spectrometer. Amongst them are first dynamic PAES measurements and a high resolution measurement of the CuM 2,3 VV

  7. Heavy Ion Induced Degradation in SiC Schottky Diodes: Bias and Energy Deposition Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanainen, Arto; Galloway, Kenneth F.; Nicklaw, Christopher; Bosser, Alexandre L.; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Pintacuda, Francesco; Reed, Robert A.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Weller, Robert A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results on ion-induced leakage current increase in 4H-SiC Schottky power diodes are presented. Monte Carlo and TCAD simulations show that degradation is due to the synergy between applied bias and ion energy deposition. This degradation is possibly related to thermal spot annealing at the metal semiconductor interface. This thermal annealing leads to an inhomogeneity of the Schottky barrier that could be responsible for the increase leakage current as a function of fluence.

  8. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.; Vanhavere, F.

    2010-01-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to 60 Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity. (authors)

  9. Size-dependent energy levels of InSb quantum dots measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Vaxenburg, Roman; Liu, Wenyong; Rupich, Sara M; Lifshitz, Efrat; Efros, Alexander L; Talapin, Dmitri V; Sibener, S J

    2015-01-27

    The electronic structure of single InSb quantum dots (QDs) with diameters between 3 and 7 nm was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). In this size regime, InSb QDs show strong quantum confinement effects which lead to discrete energy levels on both valence and conduction band states. Decrease of the QD size increases the measured band gap and the spacing between energy levels. Multiplets of equally spaced resonance peaks are observed in the tunneling spectra. There, multiplets originate from degeneracy lifting induced by QD charging. The tunneling spectra of InSb QDs are qualitatively different from those observed in the STS of other III-V materials, for example, InAs QDs, with similar band gap energy. Theoretical calculations suggest the electron tunneling occurs through the states connected with L-valley of InSb QDs rather than through states of the Γ-valley. This observation calls for better understanding of the role of indirect valleys in strongly quantum-confined III-V nanomaterials.

  10. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip

    2010-08-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to (60)Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity.

  11. Nitrogen ion induced nitridation of Si(111) surface: Energy and fluence dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Kumar, Mahesh [Physics and Energy Harvesting Group, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nötzel, R. [ISOM, Universidad Politecnia de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Shivaprasad, S.M., E-mail: smsprasad@jncasr.ac.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-06-01

    We present the surface modification of Si(111) into silicon nitride by exposure to energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. In-situ UHV experiments have been performed to optimize the energy and fluence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} ions to form silicon nitride at room temperature (RT) and characterized in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have used N{sub 2}{sup +} ion beams in the energy range of 0.2–5.0 keV of different fluence to induce surface reactions, which lead to the formation of Si{sub x}N{sub y} on the Si(111) surface. The XPS core level spectra of Si(2p) and N(1s) have been deconvoluted into different oxidation states to extract qualitative information, while survey scans have been used for quantifying of the silicon nitride formation, valence band spectra show that as the N{sub 2}{sup +} ion fluence increases, there is an increase in the band gap. The secondary electron emission spectra region of photoemission is used to evaluate the change in the work function during the nitridation process. The results show that surface nitridation initially increases rapidly with ion fluence and then saturates. - Highlights: • A systematic study for the formation of silicon nitride on Si(111). • Investigation of optimal energy and fluence for energetic N{sub 2}{sup +} ions. • Silicon nitride formation at room temperature on Si(111)

  12. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2006-06-15

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states.

  13. Sweden and the NEGP: A Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Developments between 2004 and 2006 indicate that a North European Gas Pipeline (NEGP) through the Baltic Sea, from Russia to Germany, may be realised in the coming decade. This would provide Europe with yet another opportunity to diversify its import channels of gas. It is however reasonable to assume that the NEGP also could change the strategic pattern and be a source of friction. The NEGP may rock the regional stability and reduce the potential of the new EU members to become security providers in Europe's northern dimension. It also gives increased leverage and influence to Russia, a state that has moved in an authoritarian direction under President Putin. The aim of this pilot study is to elucidate on the NEGP pipeline and Sweden's increasing dependence on Russian energy. A subsidiary aim is to outline a set of concerns that have bearing on the situation for the EU and Baltic Sea Region and that need to be further addressed. In conclusion, the NEGP will enhance Russia's direct leverage on Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, as it will allow Russia to turn off gas supplies without affecting exports to other parts of Europe. Russia will also increase its leverage over the states that will or may be connected to the NEGP (Germany, and possibly Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK). Even if Sweden is not embracing the NEGP, it is today highly sensitive as it imports most of its energy. It is increasingly dependent on Russian oil and is partly dependent on imports of electricity from Russia. Should the NEGP materialise and Sweden becomes connected in the future, it would likely be dependent also on natural gas. It is of paramount importance for the energy security of the connected states how the pipeline is constructed and operated. If there will be technical possibilities for Russia to tamper with the flow of gas to individual states without affecting supply to others, there are tangible threats to the importing states

  14. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  15. Energy dependence of the stopping power of MeV 16O ions in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumi, A.; Shibata, K.; Sato, R.; Tsubuku, K.; Nishimoto, T.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    The energy dependence of the stopping power of 16 O ions in a laser-produced plasma target was experimentally investigated in the projectile energy range of 150-350 keV/u. In order to produce the target plasma a Q-Switched Nd-glass laser was focused onto a small lithium hydride (LiH) pellet. The plasma electron temperature and the electron line density were 15 eV and 2x10 17 cm -2 , respectively. The energy loss of 16 O ions in the plasma was measured by a time-of-flight (TOF) method. We found that the stopping power in the plasma agreed with the theoretical estimation based on a modified Bohr equation with correction at low velocities. In this evaluation, the effective charge of the projectile was calculated by means of rate equations on the loss and capture of electrons. It has been also found that in this projectile energy range the stopping power of the 16 O ions in the plasma still increases with decreasing projectile energy, while it decreases in cold equivalent

  16. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  17. Energy Dependence of Measured CT Numbers on Substituted Materials Used for CT Number Calibration of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mahmoudi

    Full Text Available For accurate dose calculations, it is necessary to provide a correct relationship between the CT numbers and electron density in radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy dependence of measured CT numbers on substituted materials used for CT number calibration of radiotherapy TPSs and the resulting errors in the treatment planning calculation doses.In this study, we designed a cylindrical water phantom with different materials used as tissue equivalent materials for the simulation of tissues and obtaining the related CT numbers. For evaluating the effect of CT number variations of substituted materials due to energy changing of scanner (kVp on the dose calculation of TPS, the slices of the scanned phantom at three kVp's were imported into the desired TPSs (MIRS and CorePLAN. Dose calculations were performed on two TPSs.The mean absolute percentage differences between the CT numbers of CT scanner and two treatment planning systems for all the samples were 3.22%±2.57% for CorePLAN and 2.88%±2.11% for MIRS. It was also found that the maximum absolute percentage difference between all of the calculated doses from each photon beam of linac (6 and 15 MV at three kVp's was less than 1.2%.The present study revealed that, for the materials with effective low atomic number, the mean CT number increased with increasing energy, which was opposite for the materials with an effective high atomic number. We concluded that the tissue substitute materials had a different behavior in the energy ranges from 80 to 130 kVp. So, it is necessary to consider the energy dependence of the substitute materials used for the measurement or calibration of CT number for radiotherapy treatment planning systems.

  18. Size-dependent piezoelectric energy-harvesting analysis of micro/nano bridges subjected to random ambient excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radgolchin, Moeen; Moeenfard, Hamid

    2018-02-01

    The construction of self-powered micro-electro-mechanical units by converting the mechanical energy of the systems into electrical power has attracted much attention in recent years. While power harvesting from deterministic external excitations is state of the art, it has been much more difficult to derive mathematical models for scavenging electrical energy from ambient random vibrations, due to the stochastic nature of the excitations. The current research concerns analytical modeling of micro-bridge energy harvesters based on random vibration theory. Since classical elasticity fails to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of micro-structures, strain gradient theory is employed as a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of the random vibration modeling of the micro-harvester. Equations of motion of the system in the time domain are derived using the Lagrange approach. These are then utilized to determine the frequency and impulse responses of the structure. Assuming the energy harvester to be subjected to a combination of broadband and limited-band random support motion and transverse loading, closed-form expressions for mean, mean square, correlation and spectral density of the output power are derived. The suggested formulation is further exploited to investigate the effect of the different design parameters, including the geometric properties of the structure as well as the properties of the electrical circuit on the resulting power. Furthermore, the effect of length scale parameters on the harvested energy is investigated in detail. It is observed that the predictions of classical and even simple size-dependent theories (such as couple stress) appreciably differ from the findings of strain gradient theory on the basis of random vibration. This study presents a first-time modeling of micro-scale harvesters under stochastic excitations using a size-dependent approach and can be considered as a reliable foundation for future research in the field of

  19. Energy spectrum of galactic cosmic ray modulation and dependence of modulation parameters on distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkhov, V.I.; Kolomeets, E.V.; Likhoded, V.A.; Sevast'yanov, V.N.; Stekol'nikov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical calculation of galactic cosmic ray modulation by solar wind. Calculations were carried out on the basis of diffusion model taking into account convection and adiabatic loss of particles in interplanetary space. Both isotropic and anisotropic models were used in calculations. Modulation coefficient was calculated using the data on intensity of neutron component of cosmic rays and primary cosmic rays in the stratosphere for the period 1958-1979. The form of modulation function was determined. Obtained results allow to determine the size of modulation region and dependence of solar wind speed and diffusion coefficient on distance

  20. Energy and integrated dose dependence of MOSFET dosimeter for clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, D.; Bharanidharan, G.; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.; Tamil Kumar, T.; Rai

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the sensitivity (mV/cGy) and integral dose dependence of a MOSFET detector for different clinical electron beams was studied. Calibrated clinical electron beams (Varian 2100) were used for the exposure. A Markus type parallel plate chamber was used for the absolute dose measurements. In order to study the sensitivity of a MOSFET, the response of the ion chamber and MOSFET for the absorbed dose of 100 cGy was measured. The sensitivity of the MOSFET was then expressed as mV/cGy. Sensitivity was measured for 4-18 MeV electron beams. (author)

  1. Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voorma, H.J.; Louis, E.; Bijkerk, F.

    1997-01-01

    The process of ion bombardment is investigated for the fabrication of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors using e-beam evaporation. The ion treatment is applied immediately after deposition of each of the Si layers to smoothen the layers by removing an additional thickness of the Si layer. In this stu......, the angular dependence of the etch yield, obtained from the in situ reflectivity measurements, is investigated in order o determine the optimal ion beam parameters for the production of multilayer mirrors on curved substrates....

  2. Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Hazem

    2011-01-01

    A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)

  3. Threshold energy dependence as a function of potential strength and the nonexistence of bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, I.; Kleinman, C.J.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The difficulty in attempting to prove that a given set of particles cannot form a bound state is the absence of a margin of error; the possibility of a bound state of arbitrarily small binding energy must be ruled out. At the sacrifice of rigor, one can hope to bypass the difficulty by studying the ground-state energy E(lambda) associated with H(lambda) identical with H/sub true/ + lambda/sub ν/, where H/sub true/ is the true Hamiltonian, ν is an artificial attractive potential, and lambda greater than 0. E(lambda) can be estimated via a Rayleigh-Ritz calculation. If H/sub true/ falls just short of being able to support a bound state, H(lambda) for lambda ''not too small'' will support a bound state of some significant binding. A margin of error is thereby created; the inability to find a bound state for lambda ''not too small'' suggests not only that H(lambda) can support at best a weakly bound state but that H/sub true/ cannot support a bound state at all. To give the argument real substance, one studies E(lambda) in the neighborhood of lambda = lambda 0 , the (unknown) smallest value for lambda for which H(lambda) can support a bound state. A comparison of E(lambda) determined numerically with the form of E(lambda) obtained with the use of a crude bound-state wave function in the Feynman theorem gives a rough self-consistency check. One thereby obtains a believable lower bound on the energy of a possible bound state of H/sub true/ or a believable argument that no such bound state exists. The method is applied to the triplet state of H -

  4. Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Hazem

    2011-05-20

    A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)

  5. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  6. Nuclear Physics——Energy Dependence of String Fragmentation Function and φ Meson Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-hao; WANGZhong-qi

    2003-01-01

    Strangeness enhancement was suggested in the early eighties as one of the most promising signatures for the creation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP) phase in relativistic nuclear collisions.Following the experimental observations on strangeness enhancement in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS energies the WA97 has measured a clear enhancement of multi-strange baryons (Λ, Ξ, Ω )with their strange quark content in 158 AGeV/c Pb+Pb collisions relative to p+Pb collisions.

  7. Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monoatomic solids at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Tawara, Hiro.

    1995-03-01

    The yields of the ion-induced sputtering from monoatomic solids at normal incidence for various ion-target combinations are presented graphically as a function of the incident ion energy. In order to fill the lack of the experimental data, the sputtering yields are also calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows available experimental data points and the ACAT data, together with the sputtering yields calculated by the present empirical formula, whose parameters are determined by the best-fit to available data. (author)

  8. Similarity solutions for explosions in radiating stars with time-dependent energy and idealized magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, G.B.; Vishwakarma, J.P.; Sharan, V.

    1983-01-01

    A stellar model in which density in the undisturbed conducting-gas medium is assumed to obey a power law is considered. Similarity solutions for central explosion in radiating stars have been obtained under the assumption of isothermal-shock conditions. For the existence of self-similar character, it has been assumed that both radiation pressure and energy are negligible. The results of numerical calculations for different models are illustrated through graphs. Moreover, a comparative study has been made between the results in ordinary gasdynamics and those obtained in magnetogasdynamics

  9. Calculation of the energy-dependent efficiency of gridded 3He fast-neutron ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prussin, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Research and development activities under this contract proceeded along several lines, including development of a gas jet facility for the transport and isolation of fission product activities with half lives in the range T/sub 1/2/ less than or equal to 2 sec, studies on the factors affecting the energy and timing resolution of gridded 3 He ionization detectors for delayed neutron spectroscopy and the development of simple models for calculation of the beta-decay characteristics of short-lived fission products near A = 90. Brief outlines of the activities in the areas are given

  10. Initial state dependence of low-energy electron emission in fast ion atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Schmitt, W.; Kollmus, H.; Ullrich, J.; Fainstein, P.D.; Hagmann, S.

    1999-06-01

    Single and multiple ionization of Neon and Argon atoms by 3.6 MeV/u Au 53+ impact has been explored in kinematically complete experiments. Doubly differential cross sections for low-energy electron emission have been obtained for defined charge state of the recoiling target ion and the receding projectile. Observed target specific structures in the electron continuum are attributable to the nodal structure of the initial bound state momentum distribution. The experimental data are in excellent accord with CDW-EIS single ionization calculations if multiple ionization is considered appropriately. (orig.)

  11. Calculation of β-decay rates in a relativistic model with momentum-dependent self-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2007-01-01

    The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of β-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei in the Z≅28 and Z≅50 regions. The study is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation of nuclear ground states, using effective Lagrangians with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, and also extended by the inclusion of couplings between the isoscalar meson fields and the derivatives of the nucleon fields. This leads to a linear momentum dependence of the scalar and vector nucleon self-energies. The residual QRPA interaction in the particle-hole channel includes the π+ρ exchange plus a Landau-Migdal term. The finite-range Gogny interaction is employed in the T=1 pairing channel, and the model also includes a proton-neutron particle-particle interaction. The results are compared with available data, and it is shown that an extension of the standard relativistic mean-field framework to include momentum-dependent nucleon self-energies naturally leads to an enhancement of the effective (Landau) nucleon mass, and thus to an improved PN-QRPA description of β - -decay rates

  12. Experimental study on variations in Charpy impact energies of low carbon steel, depending on welding and specimen cutting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaorui; Kang, Hansaem; Lee, Young Seog [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental study that examines variations of Charpy impact energy of a welded steel plate, depending upon the welding method and the method for obtaining the Charpy specimens. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) were employed to weld an SA516 Gr. 70 steel plate. The methods of wire cutting and water-jet cutting were adopted to take samples from the welded plate. The samples were machined according to the recommendations of ASTM SEC. II SA370, in order to fit the specimen dimension that the Charpy impact test requires. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used to measure the as-weld residual stress and its redistribution after the samples were cut. The Charpy impact energy of specimens was considerably dependent on the cutting methods and locations in the welded plate where the specimens were taken. The specimens that were cut by water jet followed by FCAW have the greatest resistance-to-fracture (Charpy impact energy). Regardless of which welding method was used, redistributed transverse residual stress becomes compressive when the specimens are prepared using water-jet cutting. Meanwhile, redistributed transverse residual stress becomes tensile when the specimens are prepared using wire cutting.

  13. Energy dependence of the reaction rate constants of Ar+, Ar++ and N2+ ions with Cl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Holubcik, L.; Morva, I.; Lindinger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Dry etching processes using low temperature plasmas in Cl 2 and in Cl 2 -noble gas or nitrogen mixtures are common in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, but their chemical mechanisms are often poorly understood. Results are given for the reaction rate constant measurements of Ar + , Ar ++ , N 2 + ions with chlorine as a function of mean relative kinetic energy. The experiments were performed by using the innsbruck flow drift tube (IFDT) apparatus. Measurements were done at various E/N values, where E is the electric field strength and N the buffer gas density in the drift section. The mean relative kinetic energy KE CM between the ions and the neutral chlorine Cl 2 was calculated using the Wanniers formula. It was found that The N 2 + , Ar + and Ar ++ positive ions react with chlorine Cl 2 very fast and the corresponding reaction rate coefficients depend on the mean relative kinetic energy. For the reaction of Ar - with Cl 2 , its reaction coefficient depends also on the buffer gas. It can imply the enhancement of Cl 2 + ions during etching of Si in the Ar/Cl 2 mixtures. (nevyjel)

  14. Energy-dependent dissociation of ATP from high affinity catalytic sites of beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penefsky, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the [gamma- 32 P]ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of [gamma- 32 P]ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide

  15. Orientation dependent size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates with regard to surface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, Abbas; Salehi, Manouchehr; Akhlaghi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, size dependent behavior of single crystalline normal and auxetic anisotropic nanoplates is discussed with consideration of material surface stresses via a generalized model. Bending of pressurized nanoplates and their fundamental resonant frequency are discussed for different crystallographic directions and anisotropy degrees. It is explained that the orientation effects are considerable when the nanoplates' edges are pinned but for clamped nanoplates, the anisotropy effect may be ignored. The size effects are the highest when the simply supported nanoplates are parallel to [110] direction but as the anisotropy gets higher, the size effects are reduced. The orientation effect is also discussed for possibility of self-instability occurrence in nanoplates. The results in simpler cases are compared with previous experiments for nanowires but with a correction factor. There are still some open questions for future studies. - Highlights: • Size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates are discussed. • A generalized model is established containing some physical assumptions. • Orientation dependent size effects due to material anisotropy are explained. • Bending, instability and frequencies are studied at normal/auxetic domain

  16. OPERA-reassessing data on the energy dependence of the speed of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Loret, Niccoló; Mercati, Flavio; Rosati, Giacomo; Lipari, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We offer a preliminary exploration of the two sides of the challenge provided by the recent OPERA data on superluminal neutrinos. On one side we stress that some aspects of this result are puzzling even from the perspective of the wild quantum-gravity literature, where arguments in favor of the possibility of superluminal propagation have been presented, but not considering the possibility of such a sizeable effect for neutrinos of such low energies. We feel this must encourage particularly severe scrutiny of the OPERA result. On the other side, we notice that the OPERA result is reasonably consistent with $\\mu$-neutrino-speed data previously obtained at FERMILAB, reported in papers of 2007 and 1979. And it is intriguing that these FERMILAB79 and FERMILAB07 results, when combined with the new OPERA result, in principle provide a window on $\\mu$-neutrino speeds at different energies broad enough to compare alternative phenomenological models. We test the discriminating power of such an approach by using as ill...

  17. Metal-phthalocyanine ordered layers on Au(110): Metal-dependent adsorption energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.massimi@uniroma1.it; Angelucci, Marco; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La “Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy); Montoro, Silvia [IFIS Litoral, CONICET-UNL, Laboratorio de Fisica de Superficies e Interfaces, Güemes 3450, Santa Fe (Argentina); Mariani, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.mariani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, Università di Roma La “Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-28

    Iron-phthalocyanine and cobalt-phthalocyanine chains, assembled along the Au(110)-(1×2) reconstructed channels, present a strong interaction with the Au metallic states, via the central metal ion. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from the metal-2p core-levels and valence band high-resolution ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy bring to light signatures of the interaction of the metal-phthalocyanine single-layer with gold. The charge transfer from Au to the molecule causes the emerging of a metal-2p core level component at lower binding energy with respect to that measured in the molecular thin films, while the core-levels associated to the organic macrocycle (C and N 1s) are less influenced by the adsorption, and the macrocycles stabilize the interaction, inducing a strong interface dipole. Temperature Programmed Desorption experiments and photoemission as a function of temperature allow to estimate the adsorption energy for the thin-films, mainly due to the molecule-molecule van der Waals interaction, while the FePc and CoPc single-layers remain adsorbed on the Au surface up to at least 820 K.

  18. Energy dependent track structure parametrizations for protons and carbon ions based on nano-metric simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauke, A.; Wilkens, J.J.; Villagrasa, C.; Rabus, H.

    2015-01-01

    The BioQuaRT project within the European Metrology Research Programme aims at correlating ion track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation and develops measurement and simulation techniques for determining ion track structure on different length scales from about 2 nm to about 10 μm. Within this framework, we investigate methods to translate track-structure quantities derived on a nanometer scale to macroscopic dimensions. Input data sets were generated by simulations of ion tracks of protons and carbon ions in liquid water using the Geant-4 Monte Carlo tool-kit with the Geant-4-DNA processes. Based on the energy transfer points - recorded with nanometer resolution - we investigated parametrizations of overall properties of ion track structure. Three different track structure parametrizations have been developed using the distances to the 10 next neighbouring ionizations, the radial energy distribution and ionisation cluster size distributions. These parametrizations of nanometer-scale track structure build a basis for deriving biologically relevant mean values which are essential in the clinical situation where each voxel is exposed to a mixed radiation field. (authors)

  19. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-04-03

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to {delta}E/E{approx}10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION {sup registered} ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to {delta}E/E < 1. The exceptional surface sensitivity and elemental selectivity of PAES was demonstrated in measurements of Pd and Fe, both coated with Cu layers of varying thickness. PAES showed that with 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe, more than 55% of the detected Auger electrons stem from Cu. In the case of the Cu coated Pd sample 0.96 monolayer of Cu resulted in a Cu Auger fraction of more than 30% with PAES and less than 5% with electron induced Auger spectroscopy

  20. [The energy density and the nutritional quality of diet depending on their sugar content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Álvarez, Jesús Román

    2013-07-01

    Sugar content in foods cannot be distinguished from added sugar, although it is true that this added sugar brings mainly energy and no other essential nutrients. On the other hand, in the context of diet, sugar helps make it more varied and palatable allowing including foods that may otherwise not be would consume, thus indirectly contributing to the intake of other nutrients. Having interest in knowing the possible relationship between a high intake of sugars and the decrease in micronutrients intake, we noted that the nutrient density of the diet might be influenced by factors such as the high presence of sugar added to food. It seems that this nutritional dilution produced by adding sugar to food is, in general, not very significant and, often, offset by the fortification in micronutrients that we usually can find in many sugary products. After a detailed analysis of the published studies on the subject, it has been found that there is no a clear evidence of the hypothetical micronutrient dilution that would occur by adding sugar to the diet. On the other hand, given that the addition of sugar to the diet doesn't seem to report any remarkable advantages from the point of view of the intake of micronutrients; It seems reasonable to promote a moderate consumption of foods and sugary drinks, so in that way, they become an important extra energy source. It should also be borne in mind that the addition of sugar to the diet does not seem remarkable report any advantage in terms of intake of micronutrients. For this reason, it seems logical that the consumption of sugary food and sweet drinks will be moderate given the ease of consumption and the likelihood of their becoming a major source of energy. Finally, it is concluded on the need for further research on the mechanisms underlying that, up to now showed no, possible displacement of micro-nutrients and other food components of the diet that could occur in cases of consumption of foods with a high sugar content, as