WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy density battery

  1. Batteries. Higher energy density than gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Michael; Werber, Mathew; Schwartz, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    The energy density of batteries is two orders of magnitude below that of liquid fuels. However, this information alone cannot be used to compare batteries to liquid fuels for automobile energy storage media. Because electric motors have a higher energy conversion efficiency and lower mass than combustion engines, they can provide a higher deliverable mechanical energy density than internal combustion for most transportation applications. (author)

  2. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  3. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  4. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng; Udell, Kent S.; Bowman, Robert C.; Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J.; Kekelia, Bidzina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH 2 and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH 2 to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH 2 as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV 0.62 Mn 1.5 alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles

  5. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  6. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Udell, Kent S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Bowman, Robert C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH{sub 2} and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH{sub 2} to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH{sub 2} as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 1.5} alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles.

  8. Automotive battery energy density — past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.

    Energy and power densities of automotive batteries at engine starting rates have doubled over the past twenty years. Most recent improvements can be credited to the use of both very thin plates with optimized grid design and low-resistance polyethylene separators with a thin backweb and a reduced rib height. Opportunities for further improvements using the same design approach and similar processing techniques are limited. The effect of some recent innovative developments on weight reduction and performance improvement are reviewed, together with possible changes to the electrical system of vehicles.

  9. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  10. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.

  11. High–energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  12. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  13. High Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Extended Cycle Life, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional lithium-ion batteries demonstrate great potential for energy storage applications but they face some major challenges such as low energy density and...

  14. High-Power-Density, High-Energy-Density Fluorinated Graphene for Primary Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Li/CFx is one of the highest-energy-density primary batteries; however, poor rate capability hinders its practical applications in high-power devices. Here we report a preparation of fluorinated graphene (GFx with superior performance through a direct gas fluorination method. We find that the so-called “semi-ionic” C-F bond content in all C-F bonds presents a more critical impact on rate performance of the GFx in comparison with sp2 C content in the GFx, morphology, structure, and specific surface area of the materials. The rate capability remains excellent before the semi-ionic C-F bond proportion in the GFx decreases. Thus, by optimizing semi-ionic C-F content in our GFx, we obtain the optimal x of 0.8, with which the GF0.8 exhibits a very high energy density of 1,073 Wh kg−1 and an excellent power density of 21,460 W kg−1 at a high current density of 10 A g−1. More importantly, our approach opens a new avenue to obtain fluorinated carbon with high energy densities without compromising high power densities.

  15. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  16. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  17. A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin

    2012-05-01

    Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  19. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  20. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A Dual-Stimuli-Responsive Sodium-Bromine Battery with Ultrahigh Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faxing; Yang, Hongliu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Gang; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Feng, Xinliang

    2018-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive energy storage devices have emerged for the fast-growing popularity of intelligent electronics. However, all previously reported stimuli-responsive energy storage devices have rather low energy densities (energy density, electrochromic effect, and fast thermal response is demonstrated. Remarkably, the fabricated Na//Br 2 battery exhibits a large operating voltage of 3.3 V and an energy density up to 760 Wh kg -1 , which outperforms those for the state-of-the-art stimuli-responsive electrochemical energy storage devices. This work offers a promising approach for designing multi-stimuli-responsive and high-energy rechargeable batteries without sacrificing the electrochemical performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Metal-air batteries with high energy density: Li-air versus Zn-air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Sun, Tai Kim; Cao, Ruiguo; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae; Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, there have been exciting developments in the field of lithium ion batteries as energy storage devices, resulting in the application of lithium ion batteries in areas ranging from small portable electric devices to large power systems such as hybrid electric vehicles. However, the maximum energy density of current lithium ion batteries having topatactic chemistry is not sufficient to meet the demands of new markets in such areas as electric vehicles. Therefore, new electrochemical systems with higher energy densities are being sought, and metal-air batteries with conversion chemistry are considered a promising candidate. More recently, promising electrochemical performance has driven much research interest in Li-air and Zn-air batteries. This review provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the area of Li-air and Zn-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the new electrochemical systems. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  4. Estimation of energy density of Li-S batteries with liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Heng; Otaegui, Laida; Singh, Gurpreet; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.

    2016-09-01

    With the exponential growth of technology in mobile devices and the rapid expansion of electric vehicles into the market, it appears that the energy density of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cannot satisfy the practical requirements. Sulfur has been one of the best cathode material choices due to its high charge storage (1675 mAh g-1), natural abundance and easy accessibility. In this paper, calculations are performed for different cell design parameters such as the active material loading, the amount/thickness of electrolyte, the sulfur utilization, etc. to predict the energy density of Li-S cells based on liquid, polymeric and ceramic electrolytes. It demonstrates that Li-S battery is most likely to be competitive in gravimetric energy density, but not volumetric energy density, with current technology, when comparing with LIBs. Furthermore, the cells with polymer and thin ceramic electrolytes show promising potential in terms of high gravimetric energy density, especially the cells with the polymer electrolyte. This estimation study of Li-S energy density can be used as a good guidance for controlling the key design parameters in order to get desirable energy density at cell-level.

  5. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  6. Cathode Materials for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre G.

    2017-01-01

    Li2MnSiO4 has a large theoretical specific capacity (333 mAh/g through exchange of 2 lithium ions per formula unit. The thermal stability due to strong Si-O bonds makes LiMnSiO a very promising material for future energy storage in space applications. Preparation in inert atmosphere showed beneficial improvements of LMSO’s electrochemical properties. Nano-sizing and carbon coating have been effective ways to improve electronic conductivity and therefore electrochemical performance. Up to 1.66 Li per formula unit can be re-inserted in the 1st cycle. XRD analysis showed complete amorphization of Li2MnSiO4 after the 1st charge at 4.8 V with complete modification of the charge/discharge curves in the next cycles. Increasing the carbon coating ratio limits capacity loss during cycling but did not avoid amorphization. Finally influence of voltage window on structure stability was investigated. Careful choice of upper limit voltage has been showed to stabilize Li2MnSiO4 structure but for now is still limited to low Li+ insertion/extraction from the host material.

  7. Hydrate-melt electrolytes for high-energy-density aqueous batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Usui, Kenji; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Ko, Seongjae; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous Li-ion batteries are attracting increasing attention because they are potentially low in cost, safe and environmentally friendly. However, their low energy density (water and the limited selection of suitable negative electrodes, is problematic for their future widespread application. Here, we explore optimized eutectic systems of several organic Li salts and show that a room-temperature hydrate melt of Li salts can be used as a stable aqueous electrolyte in which all water molecules participate in Li+ hydration shells while retaining fluidity. This hydrate-melt electrolyte enables a reversible reaction at a commercial Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with a low reaction potential (1.55 V versus Li+/Li) and a high capacity (175 mAh g-1). The resultant aqueous Li-ion batteries with high energy density (>130 Wh kg-1) and high voltage (˜2.3-3.1 V) represent significant progress towards performance comparable to that of commercial non-aqueous batteries (with energy densities of ˜150-400 Wh kg-1 and voltages of ˜2.4-3.8 V).

  8. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Curtiss, Larry A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Shao, Yuyan; Gallagher, Kevin

    2016-07-11

    Moving to lighter and less expensive battery chemistries compared to lithium-ion requires the control of energy storage mechanisms based on chemical transformations rather than intercalation. Lithium sulfur (Li/S) has tremendous theoretical specific energy, but contemporary approaches to control this solution-mediated, precipitation-dissolution chemistry requires using large excesses of electrolyte to fully solubilize the polysulfide intermediate. Achieving reversible electrochemistry under lean electrolyte operation is the only path for Li/S to move beyond niche applications to potentially transformational performance. An emerging topic for Li/S research is the use of sparingly solvating electrolytes and the creation of design rules for discovering new electrolyte systems that fundamentally decouple electrolyte volume from reaction mechanism. This perspective presents an outlook for sparingly solvating electrolytes as the key path forward for longer-lived, high-energy density Li/S batteries including an overview of this promising new concept and some strategies for accomplishing it.

  9. Weavable, Conductive Yarn-Based NiCo//Zn Textile Battery with High Energy Density and Rate Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ip, Wing Shan; Lau, Yuen Ying; Sun, Jinfeng; Zeng, Jie; Yeung, Nga Sze Sea; Ng, Wing Sum; Li, Hongfei; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Wang, Yukun; Yu, Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-09-26

    With intrinsic safety and much higher energy densities than supercapacitors, rechargeable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based textile batteries are promising power sources for next generation personalized wearable electronics. However, high-performance wearable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based batteries are rarely reported because there is a lack of industrially weavable and knittable highly conductive yarns. Here, we use scalably produced highly conductive yarns uniformly covered with zinc (as anode) and nickel cobalt hydroxide nanosheets (as cathode) to fabricate rechargeable yarn batteries. They possess a battery level capacity and energy density, as well as a supercapacitor level power density. They deliver high specific capacity of 5 mAh cm -3 and energy densities of 0.12 mWh cm -2 and 8 mWh cm -3 (based on the whole solid battery). They exhibit ultrahigh rate capabilities of 232 C (liquid electrolyte) and 116 C (solid electrolyte), which endows the batteries excellent power densities of 32.8 mW cm -2 and 2.2 W cm -3 (based on the whole solid battery). These are among the highest values reported so far. A wrist band battery is further constructed by using a large conductive cloth woven from the conductive yarns by a commercial weaving machine. It powers various electronic devices successfully, enabling dual functions of wearability and energy storage.

  10. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ultrahigh-Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cable Battery Based on the Carbon-Nanotube Woven Macrofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziping; Liu, Kaixi; Lv, Chao; Zhong, Shengwen; Wang, Qinghui; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xianbin; Yin, Yanhong; Hu, Yingyan; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-01

    Moore's law predicts the performance of integrated circuit doubles every two years, lasting for more than five decades. However, the improvements of the performance of energy density in batteries lag far behind that. In addition, the poor flexibility, insufficient-energy density, and complexity of incorporation into wearable electronics remain considerable challenges for current battery technology. Herein, a lithium-ion cable battery is invented, which is insensitive to deformation due to its use of carbon nanotube (CNT) woven macrofilms as the charge collectors. An ultrahigh-tap density of 10 mg cm -2 of the electrodes can be obtained, which leads to an extremely high-energy density of 215 mWh cm -3 . The value is approximately seven times than that of the highest performance reported previously. In addition, the battery displays very stable rate performance and lower internal resistance than conventional lithium-ion batteries using metal charge collectors. Moreover, it demonstrates excellent convenience for connecting electronics as a new strategy is applied, in which both electrodes can be integrated into one end by a CNT macrorope. Such an ultrahigh-energy density lithium-ion cable battery provides a feasible way to power wearable electronics with commercial viability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  14. Flexible Aqueous Li-Ion Battery with High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Ji, Xiao; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ji; Chen, Long; Han, Fudong; Miao, Ling; Xu, Kang; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-11-01

    A flexible and wearable aqueous symmetrical lithium-ion battery is developed using a single LiVPO 4 F material as both cathode and anode in a "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. The symmetric lithium-ion chemistry exhibits high energy and power density and long cycle life, due to the formation of a robust solid electrolyte interphase consisting of Li 2 CO 3 -LiF, which enables fast Li-ion transport. Energy densities of 141 Wh kg -1 , power densities of 20 600 W kg -1 , and output voltage of 2.4 V can be delivered during >4000 cycles, which is far superior to reported aqueous energy storage devices at the same power level. Moreover, the full cell shows unprecedented tolerance to mechanical stress such as bending and cutting, where it not only does not catastrophically fail, as most nonaqueous cells would, but also maintains cell performance and continues to operate in ambient environment, a unique feature apparently derived from the high stability of the "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Advanced Materials Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Energy Density Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin

    In order to meet the ever increasing energy needs of society and realize the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s target for energy storage, acquiring a fundamental understanding of the chemical mechanisms in batteries for direct guidance and searching novel advanced materials with high energy density are critical. To realize rechargeable batteries with superior energy density, great cathodes and excellent anodes are required. LiMn2O4 (LMO) has been considered as a simpler surrogate for high energy cathode materials like NMC. Previous studies demonstrated that Al2O3 coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) improved the capacity of LMO cathodes. This improvement was attributed to a reduction in surface area and diminished Mn dissolution. However, here we propose a different mechanism for ALD Al 2O3 on LMO based on in-situ and ex-situ investigations coupled with density functional theory calculations. We discovered that Al2O 3 not only coats the LMO, but also dopes the LMO surface with Al leading to changes in the Mn oxidation state. Different thicknesses of Al2O 3 were deposited on nonstoichiometric LiMn2O4 for electrochemical measurements. The LMO treated with one cycle of ALD Al2O3 (1xAl 2O3 LMO) to produce a sub-monolayer coating yielded a remarkable initial capacity, 16.4% higher than its uncoated LMO counterpart in full cells. The stability of 1xAl2O3 LMO is also much better as a result of stabilized defects with Al species. Furthermore, 4xAl 2O3 LMO demonstrates remarkable capacity retention. Stoichiometric LiMn2O4 was also evaluated with similar improved performance achieved. All superior results, accomplished by great stability and reduced Mn dissolution, is thanks to the synergetic effects of Al-doping and ALD Al2O 3 coating. Turning our attention to the anode, we again utilized aluminum oxide ALD to form conformal films on lithium. We elaborately designed and studied, for the first time, the growth mechanism during Al2O3 ALD on lithium metal in

  16. Asymmetric battery having a semi-solid cathode and high energy density anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Taison; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Ota, Naoki; Wilder, Throop; Duduta, Mihai

    2017-11-28

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to devices, systems and methods of producing high energy density batteries having a semi-solid cathode that is thicker than the anode. An electrochemical cell can include a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector and an ion-permeable membrane disposed between the positive electrode current collector and the negative electrode current collector. The ion-permeable membrane is spaced a first distance from the positive electrode current collector and at least partially defines a positive electroactive zone. The ion-permeable membrane is spaced a second distance from the negative electrode current collector and at least partially defines a negative electroactive zone. The second distance is less than the first distance. A semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is disposed in the positive electroactive zone, and an anode is disposed in the negative electroactive zone.

  17. Effect of cathode component on the energy density of lithium-sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Seok; Kim, Seok; Choi, Soo Seok; Han, Ji Sung; Kim, Jan Dee; Jeon, Sang Eun; Jung, Bok Hwan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the carbon black types and the sulfur particle size on the discharge capacity or the utilization of sulfur was investigated for the cathode having high loading of sulfur. The DBP (dibutyl phthalate) absorption number of the used carbon black has a strong effect on the utilization while the specific surface area is not so critical to it. It was also found that the sulfur particle size is a factor having an effect on the utilization. We have improved the cathode component and achieved the utilization of about 50%. By using that cathode, the volumetric energy density of about 330 Wh/l was obtained for the full size Li-S battery (3.8 mm thickness, 35 mm width and 62 mm height)

  18. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-10-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g-1 (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm-2, and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg-1 (654 Wh L-1), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application.

  19. Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based...

  20. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@zjnu.cn; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  1. Exploring the Effect of Increased Energy Density on the Environmental Impacts of Traction Batteries: A Comparison of Energy Optimized Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries for Mobility Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cerdas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest towards increasing the energy density of traction battery technologies has led to the emergence and diversification of battery materials. The lithium sulfur battery (LSB is in this regard a promising material for batteries due to its specific energy. However, due to its low volumetric energy density, the LSB faces challenges in mobility applications such as electric vehicles but also other transportation modes. To understand the potential environmental implication of LSB batteries, a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed. For this study, electrodes for both an NMC111 with an anode graphite and a LSB battery cell with a lithium metal foil as anode were manufactured. Data from disassembly experiments performed on a real battery system for a mid-size passenger vehicle were used to build the required life cycle inventory. The energy consumption during the use phase was calculated using a simulative approach. A set of thirteen impact categories was evaluated and characterized with the ReCiPe methodology. The results of the LCA in this study allow identification of the main sources of environmental problems as well as possible strategies to improve the environmental impact of LSB batteries. In this regard, the high requirements of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP for the processing of the sulfur cathode and the thickness of the lithium foil were identified as the most important drivers. We make recommendations for necessary further research in order to broaden the understanding concerning the potential environmental implication of the implementation of LSB batteries for mobility applications.

  2. Dynamic behaviour of interphases and its implication on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangda; Dolocan, Andrei; Oh, Pilgun; Celio, Hugo; Park, Suhyeon; Cho, Jaephil; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Undesired electrode–electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte. Region-of-interest sensitive secondary-ion mass spectrometry shows that a cathode-electrolyte interphase, initially formed on carbon black with no electrochemical bias applied, readily passivates the cathode particles through mutual exchange of surface species. By tuning the interphase thickness, we demonstrate its robustness in suppressing the deterioration of the electrode/electrolyte interface during high-voltage cell operation. Our results provide insights on the formation and evolution of cathode interphases, facilitating development of in situ surface protection on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-based batteries. PMID:28443608

  3. SiLix-C Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Li-ion Battery Anodes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this project Superior Graphite Co. (Chicago, IL, USA), the leading worldwide industrial carbon manufacturer and the only large scale battery grade graphitic...

  4. Composite Conducting Polymer Cathodes For High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary exploration missions require secondary (rechargeable) batteries that can operate at extreme temperatures (-60oC to 60oC) yet deliver high...

  5. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  6. Vanadyl phosphates as high energy density cathode materials for rechargeable sodium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruigang; Mizuno, Fuminori; Ling, Chen; Whittingham, Stanley M.; Zhang, Ruibo; Chen, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    A positive electrode comprising .epsilon.-VOPO.sub.4 and/or Na.sub.x(.epsilon.-VOPO.sub.4) wherein x is a value from 0.1 to 1.0 as an active ingredient, wherein the electrode is capable of insertion and release of sodium ions and a reversible sodium battery containing the positive electrode are provided.

  7. Advanced separators based on aromatic polymer for high energy density lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Woo, Jung-Je; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-21

    A process includes casting a solution including poly(phenylene oxide), inorganic nanoparticles, a solvent, and a non-solvent on a substrate; and removing the solvent to form a porous film; wherein: the porous film is configured for use as a porous separator for a lithium ion battery.

  8. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for High-Energy Density, Aqueous Zinc-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jian; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; McGrail, Pete; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-07-13

    The new aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery (RFB) system with highly soluble active materials as well as ambipolar and bifunctional designs demonstrated significantly enhanced energy density, which shows great potential to reduce RFB cost. However, the poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity of the redox reaction of I3(-)/I(-) couples on graphite felts (GFs) electrode can result in low energy efficiency. Two nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, that have high surface areas when introduced to GF surfaces accelerated the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The flow cell with MOF-modified GFs serving as a positive electrode showed higher energy efficiency than the pristine GFs; increases of about 6.4% and 2.7% occurred at the current density of 30 mA/cm(2) for MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, respectively. Moreover, UiO-66-CH3 is more promising due to its excellent chemical stability in the weakly acidic electrolyte. This letter highlights a way for MOFs to be used in the field of RFBs.

  9. Super high energy density of Li3V2(PO4)3 as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Amin, Mochammad Karim Al; Susanti, Diah; Triwibowo, Joko

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries have many advantages such as high energy density, no memory effect, long time cycleability and friendly environment. One type of cathode material that can be developed is Li3V2(PO4)3. In this study has been carried out the synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 with a hydrothermal temperature variation of 140, 160 and 180 °C and calcination temperature at 800 °C. SEM images show that the morphology of Li3V2(PO4)3 has irregular flakes with a size between 1-10 µm. CV results show redox reaction occurs in the range between 3 V to 4.8 V with the highest specific discharge capacity of 136 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal and calcination are 180 °C and 800 °C. This result demonstrates that Li3V2(PO4)3 has a great potential as cathode material for lithium ion battery.

  10. High-energy-density, aqueous, metal-polyiodide redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-08-29

    Improved metal-based redox flow batteries (RFBs) can utilize a metal and a divalent cation of the metal (M.sup.2+) as an active redox couple for a first electrode and electrolyte, respectively, in a first half-cell. For example, the metal can be Zn. The RFBs can also utilize a second electrolyte having I.sup.-, anions of I.sub.x (for x.gtoreq.3), or both in an aqueous solution, wherein the I.sup.- and the anions of I.sub.x (for x.gtoreq.3) compose an active redox couple in a second half-cell.

  11. High energy density layered-spinel hybrid cathodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S., E-mail: sbasumajumder@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dahiya, P.P.; Akhtar, Mainul [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Ray, S.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chang, J.K. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Majumder, S.B. [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Structural integration of layered domains in spinel matrix of the composite particles. • Highest discharge capacity (275 mAh g{sup −1}) in composite with 30.0 mole% Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}. • Reasonably good rate capability of layered-spinel composite cathode. • Capacity fading with cycling is related to cubic to tetragonal structural phase transition. - Abstract: High energy density Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} (layered)–LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (spinel) composite cathodes have been synthesized using auto-combustion route. Rietveld refinements together with the analyses of high resolution transmission electron micrographs confirm the structural integration of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} nano-domains into the LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} matrix of the composite cathodes. The discharge capacity of the composite cathodes are due to the intercalation of Li{sup +} ion in the tetrahedral (8a) and octahedral (16c) sites of the spinel component and also the insertion of Li{sup +} in the freshly prepared MnO{sub 2} lattice, formed after Li{sub 2}O extraction from the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} domains. The capacity fading of the composite cathodes are explained to be due to the layered to spinel transition of the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} component and Li{sup +} insertion into the octahedral site of the spinel lattices which trigger cubic to tetragonal phase transition resulting volume expansion which eventually retard the Li{sup +} intercalation with cycling.

  12. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  13. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  14. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  15. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  16. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Li-Rich Layered Cathode Oxides for High Volumetric and Power Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bao; Yin, Chong; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into on-board energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials; however, it is very difficult to make them compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here, we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li 0.144 Ni 0.136 Co 0.136 Mn 0.544 ]O 2 , directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide. It is found that the as-prepared material presents a micrometer-sized spherical structure that is typically composed of interconnected nanosized subunits with narrow distributed pores at 3.6 nm. As a result, this unique 3D micro-/nanostructure not only has a high tap density over 2.20 g cm -3 but also exhibits excellent rate capability (197.6 mA h g -1 at 1250 mA g -1 ) as an electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique nanoporous micro-nanostructures, which facilitates the Li + diffusion and enhances the structural stability of the Li-rich layered cathode materials. Our work offers a comprehensive designing strategy to construct 3D nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides for both high volumetric energy density and power density in Li-ion batteries.

  17. Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48% exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48% showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.

  18. Nitrogen-Doped Holey Graphene as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Volumetric Energy Density and Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Lin, Yi; Connell, John W; Dai, Liming

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped holey graphene (N-hG) as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries has delivered a maximum volumetric capacity of 384 mAh cm(-3) with an excellent long-term cycling life up to 6000 cycles, and as an electrochemical capacitor has delivered a maximum volumetric energy density of 171.2 Wh L(-1) and a volumetric capacitance of 201.6 F cm(-3) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High-Energy-Density Aqueous Magnesium-Ion Battery Based on a Carbon-Coated FeVO4 Anode and a Mg-OMS-1 Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-12-01

    Porous FeVO 4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating with carbon to obtain FeVO 4 /C with a hierarchical pore structure. FeVO 4 /C is used as an anodic electrode in aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries. The FeVO 4 /C material not only has improved electrical conductivity as a result of the carbon coating layer, but also has an increased specific surface area as a result of the hierarchical pore structure, which is beneficial for magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, an aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion full battery is successfully constructed with FeVO 4 /C as the anode, Mg-OMS-1 (OMS=octahedral molecular sieves) as the cathode, and 1.0 mol L -1 MgSO 4 as the electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the Mg-OMS-1//FeVO 4 /C aqueous battery is 58.9 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 ; this value is obtained by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7 % after 100 cycles, with almost 100 % coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system has a good electrochemical reversibility. Additionally, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg -1 , which provides powerful evidence that an aqueous magnesium-ion battery is possible. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Batteries Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Energy Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Systems Modeling Transportation SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research program spans

  1. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-05

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints.

  2. Development of a polymer battery with high energy density for mobile and stationary applications. Final report. Entwicklung einer Polymerbatterie hoher Energiedichte fuer mobile und stationaere Anwendungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegele, D.; Bittihn, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this research project, from the many electrically conducting polymers synthesized during the last few years, a selection were to be tested for their suitability as active electrode material. It was necessary to examine various combinations of electrodes and electrolytes for their electrochemical properties for this purpose (polyacetylene, polythiophene, poly (3-methyl) tiophene, polyparaphenylene, phthalocyanine, polypyrol, poly (1.1 to 2 thienyl) ferrocene). Apart from the technical tests, the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions had to be cleared up as far as possible. For example, it was to be made clear which reactions led to the quite high self-discharge rates of those polymer electrode materials. From these basic investigations, a selection was to be made of technically interesting materials and battery systems. The next step was building laboratory samples, which were intended to make a realistic estimate of the competitiveness of these systmes with the secondary batteries now on the market possible from the energy and power densities achieved. (orig./MM).

  3. All-MXene-Based Integrated Electrode Constructed by Ti3C2 Nanoribbon Framework Host and Nanosheet Interlayer for High-Energy-Density Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanfeng; Zheng, Shuanghao; Qin, Jieqiong; Zhao, Xuejun; Shi, Haodong; Wang, Xiaohui; Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhong-Shuai

    2018-03-27

    High-energy-density lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold promise for next-generation portable electronic devices, but are facing great challenges in rational construction of high-performance flexible electrodes and innovative cell configurations for actual applications. Here we demonstrated an all-MXene-based flexible and integrated sulfur cathode, enabled by three-dimensional alkalized Ti 3 C 2 MXene nanoribbon (a-Ti 3 C 2 MNR) frameworks as a S/polysulfides host (a-Ti 3 C 2 -S) and two-dimensional delaminated Ti 3 C 2 MXene (d-Ti 3 C 2 ) nanosheets as interlayer on a polypropylene (PP) separator, for high-energy and long-cycle Li-S batteries. Notably, an a-Ti 3 C 2 MNR framework with open interconnected macropores and an exposed surface area guarantees high S loading and fast ionic diffusion for prompt lithiation/delithiation kinetics, and the 2D d-Ti 3 C 2 MXene interlayer remarkably prevents the shuttle effect of lithium polysulfides via both chemical absorption and physical blocking. As a result, the integrated a-Ti 3 C 2 -S/d-Ti 3 C 2 /PP electrode was directly used for Li-S batteries, without the requirement of a metal current collector, and exhibited a high reversible capacity of 1062 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C and enhanced capacity of 632 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles at 0.5 C, outperforming the a-Ti 3 C 2 -S/PP electrode (547 mAh g -1 ) and conventional a-Ti 3 C 2 -S on an Al current collector (a-Ti 3 C 2 -S/Al) (597 mAh g -1 ). Furthermore, the all-MXene-based integrated cathode displayed outstanding rate capacity of 288 mAh g -1 at 10 C and long-life cyclability. Therefore, this proposed strategy of constructing an all-MXene-based cathode can be readily extended to assemble a large number of MXene-derived materials, from a group of 60+ MAX phases, for applications such as various batteries and supercapacitors.

  4. Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with new electrolytes; Neue Elektrolyte zur Steigerung der Energiedichte einer nicht-waessrigen Vanadium-Acetylacetonat-Redox-Flow-Batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Tatjana

    2015-07-01

    Redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising energy storage technology which is similar to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Currently, this electrochemical energy conversion device is used as a storage system for renewable energies or as uninterruptable power source. All-Vanadium-RFB (VRFB) and Zinc-Bromine-RFB are most well-known types of the aqueous RFB for these applications. But also the non-aqueous RFB is becoming more and more famous, because non-aqueous electrolytes offer wider operating temperature ranges, wider stable potential windows and a potentially higher energy density. However, current research studies show that the solubility of the most used redox active species is not sufficient. Therefore, present study aims to show concepts in order to solve this problem. Vanadium(III)acetylacetonate (V(acac){sub 3}) is used as active species, supported by tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate. In acetonitrile it shows two quasi-reversible redox couples and a cell potential ∝2.2 V. The maximum solubility is ∝0.6 M. In this work other solvents and solvent mixtures were examined with the objective of increasing the solubility of V(acac){sub 3}. In 1,3-dioxolane the solubility was e.g. 0.8 M, dimethyl sulfoxide showed good battery performance with the highest energy efficiency ∝44 %. Acetylacetone is able to regenerate V(acac){sub 3} from the side product that is formed by reaction with water. The new electrolyte solution consisting of acetonitrile, 1,3-dioxolane and dimethyl sulfoxide nearly doubled the solubility of V(acac){sub 3}. In galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, single cell V(acac){sub 3} RFB exhibited energy efficiency between 25-50 % depending an test conditions. Also, the influence of water and oxygen addition an electrolyte was investigated. Finally, experiments with different ambient temperatures show that V(acac){sub 3} RFB is able to operate at temperatures such as 0 C and -25 C.

  5. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  6. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  7. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass...

  8. Determining the Limiting Current Density of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs are used as energy storage systems for intermittent renewable power sources. The performance of VRFBs depends on materials of key components and operating conditions, such as current density, electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition. Mass transfer overpotential is affected by the electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition, which is related to the limiting current density. In order to investigate the effect of operating conditions on mass transport overpotential, this study established a relationship between the limiting current density and operating conditions. First, electrolyte solutions with different states of charge were prepared and used for a single cell to obtain discharging polarization curves under various operating conditions. The experimental results were then analyzed and are discussed in this paper. Finally, this paper proposes a limiting current density as a function of operating conditions. The result helps predict the effect of operating condition on the cell performance in a mathematical model.

  9. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlbusch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses. The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough. Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security. [de

  10. Indicative energy technology assessment of advanced rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Hazeldine, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Several ‘Advanced Rechargeable Battery Technologies’ (ARBT) have been evaluated. • Energy, environmental, economic, and technical appraisal techniques were employed. • Li-Ion Polymer (LIP) batteries exhibited the most attractive energy and power metrics. • Lithium-Ion batteries (LIB) and LIP batteries displayed the lowest CO 2 and SO 2 emissions per kW h. • Comparative costs for LIB, LIP and ZEBRA batteries were estimated against Nickel–Cadmium cells. - Abstract: Several ‘Advanced Rechargeable Battery Technologies’ (ARBT) have been evaluated in terms of various energy, environmental, economic, and technical criteria. Their suitability for different applications, such as electric vehicles (EV), consumer electronics, load levelling, and stationary power storage, have also been examined. In order to gain a sense of perspective regarding the performance of the ARBT [including Lithium-Ion batteries (LIB), Li-Ion Polymer (LIP) and Sodium Nickel Chloride (NaNiCl) {or ‘ZEBRA’} batteries] they are compared to more mature Nickel–Cadmium (Ni–Cd) batteries. LIBs currently dominate the rechargeable battery market, and are likely to continue to do so in the short term in view of their excellent all-round performance and firm grip on the consumer electronics market. However, in view of the competition from Li-Ion Polymer their long-term future is uncertain. The high charge/discharge cycle life of Li-Ion batteries means that their use may grow in the electric vehicle (EV) sector, and to a lesser extent in load levelling, if safety concerns are overcome and costs fall significantly. LIP batteries exhibited attractive values of gravimetric energy density, volumetric energy density, and power density. Consequently, they are likely to dominate the consumer electronics market in the long-term, once mass production has become established, but may struggle to break into other sectors unless their charge/discharge cycle life and cost are improved

  11. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  12. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  13. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  15. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  16. Optimal energy management strategy for battery powered electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Jiaqi; Li, Mian; Xu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The power usage for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors is maximized. • The battery and motor dynamics are examined emphasized on the power conversion and utilization. • The optimal control strategy is derived and verified by simulations. • An analytic expression of the optimal operating point is obtained. - Abstract: Due to limited energy density of batteries, energy management has always played a critical role in improving the overall energy efficiency of electric vehicles. In this paper, a key issue within the energy management problem will be carefully tackled, i.e., maximizing the power usage of batteries for battery-powered electrical vehicles with in-wheel motors. To this end, the battery and motor dynamics will be thoroughly examined with particular emphasis on the power conversion and power utilization. The optimal control strategy will then be derived based on the analysis. One significant contribution of this work is that an analytic expression for the optimal operating point in terms of the component and environment parameters can be obtained. Owing to this finding, the derived control strategy is also rendered a simple structure for real-time implementation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy works both adaptively and robustly under different driving scenarios

  17. 3.0 V High Energy Density Symmetric Sodium-Ion Battery: Na4V2(PO4)3∥Na3V2(PO4)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuhui; Zhu, Zixuan; Li, Qi; Wang, Xuanpeng; Xu, Xiaoming; Meng, Jiashen; Ren, Wenhao; Zhang, Xinhe; Huang, Yunhui; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-28

    Symmetric sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as promising candidates for large-scale energy storage owing to the simplified manufacture and wide abundance of sodium resources. However, most symmetric SIBs suffer from suppressed energy density. Here, a superior congeneric Na 4 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 anode is synthesized via electrochemical preintercalation, and a high energy density symmetric SIB (Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as a cathode and Na 4 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as an anode) based on the deepened redox couple of V 4+ /V 2+ is built for the first time. When measured in half cell, both electrodes show stabilized electrochemical performance (over 3000 cycles). The symmetric SIBs exhibit an output voltage of 3.0 V and a cell-level energy density of 138 W h kg -1 . Furthermore, the sodium storage mechanism under the expanded measurement range of 0.01-3.9 V is disclosed through an in situ X-ray diffraction technique.

  18. Renewable energies look for mega-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    As the development of wind and photovoltaic energy raises the problem of energy storage because of the intermittent character of these both energies, this article proposes an overview of trends and projects for large scale energy storage. It notably evokes the liquid metal battery project which is expected to be experimented in 2014, and should be able to store 2 MWh for 500 kW. Its operation principle is described. It is inspired by a technique used in aluminium production. It does not need any expensive and fragile separation membrane, it is modular, and it could last about ten years. Two other technologies are then evoked: a sodium-sulphur battery manufactured by NGK in Japan for massive storage, and the lithium-ion battery which is already present in most of electric vehicles. For this last one, energy storage could be an opportunity for manufacturer as the electric vehicle market is not very dynamic

  19. Influence of Electrode Density on the Performance of Li-Ion Batteries: Experimental and Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Smekens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery (LIB technology further enabled the information revolution by powering smartphones and tablets, allowing these devices an unprecedented performance against reasonable cost. Currently, this battery technology is on the verge of carrying the revolution in road transport and energy storage of renewable energy. However, to fully succeed in the latter, a number of hurdles still need to be taken. Battery performance and lifetime constitute a bottleneck for electric vehicles as well as stationary electric energy storage systems to penetrate the market. Electrochemical battery models are one of the engineering tools which could be used to enhance their performance. These models can help us optimize the cell design and the battery management system. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the Porous Electrode Theory (PET to predict the effect of changing positive electrode density in the overall performance of Li-ion battery cells. It can be concluded that Porous Electrode Theory (PET is capable of predicting the difference in cell performance due to a changing positive electrode density.

  20. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  1. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  2. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  3. Electroville: Grid-Scale Batteries: High Amperage Energy Storage Device—Energy for the Neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MIT’s battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt don’t mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MIT’s battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

  4. Ruthenium based redox flow battery for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Roberts, Edward Pelham Lindfield; Bae, Chulheung; Saleem, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undivided redox flow battery employing porous graphite felt electrodes was used. → Ruthenium acetylacetonate dissolved in acetonitrile was the electrolyte. → Charge/discharge conditions were determined for both 0.02 M and 0.1 M electrolytes. → Optimum power output of 0.180 W was also determined for 0.1 M electrolyte. → 55% voltage efficiency was obtained when battery was full of electrolytes. -- Abstract: The technical performance for the operation of a stand alone redox flow battery system for solar energy storage is presented. An undivided reactor configuration has been employed along with porous graphite felt electrodes and ruthenium acetylacetonate as electrolyte in acetonitrile solvent. Limiting current densities are determined for concentrations of 0.02 M and 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate. Based on these, operating conditions for 0.02 M ruthenium acetylacetonate are determined as charging current density of 7 mA/cm 2 , charge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0072 cm/s (through the porous electrodes), discharge current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and discharge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0045 cm/s. An optimum power output of 35 mW is also obtained upon discharge at 2.1 mA/cm 2 . With an increase in the concentration of ruthenium species from 0.02 M to 0.1 M, the current densities and power output are higher by a factor of five approximately (at same superficial velocities) due to higher mass transport phenomenon. Moreover at 0.02 M concentration the voltage efficiency is better for battery full of electrolytes prior to charging (52.1%) in comparison to an empty battery (40.5%) due to better mass transport phenomenon. Voltage efficiencies are higher as expected at concentrations of 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate (55% when battery is full of electrolytes and 48% when empty) showing that the all-ruthenium redox flow battery has some promise for future applications in solar energy storage. Some improvements for the

  5. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  6. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseup Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  7. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  8. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  9. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  10. Multifunctional structural lithium ion batteries for electrical energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Atif; Zeshan Ali, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    Multifunctional structural batteries based on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites are fabricated that can bear mechanical loads and act as electrochemical energy storage devices simultaneously. Structural batteries, containing woven carbon fabric anode; lithium cobalt oxide/graphene nanoplatelets coated aluminum cathode; filter paper separator and cross-linked polymer electrolyte, were fabricated through resin infusion under flexible tooling (RIFT) technique. Compression tests, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and impedance spectroscopy were done on the cross-linked polymer electrolytes while cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and in-plane shear tests were conducted on the fabricated structural batteries. A range of solid polymer electrolytes with increasing concentrations of lithium perchlorate salt in crosslinked polymer epoxies were formulated. Increased concentrations of electrolyte salt in cross-linked epoxy increased the ionic conductivity, although the compressive properties were compromised. A structural battery, exhibiting simultaneously a capacity of 0.16 mAh L‑1, an energy density of 0.32 Wh L‑1 and a shear modulus of 0.75 GPa have been reported.

  11. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  12. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  13. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  14. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  15. High-energy redox-flow batteries with hybrid metal foam electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Ki Jae; Oh, Duk-Jin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-07-09

    A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3](+/2+) and [Fe(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. Our approach intoduces a more efficient conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and enhances long-term cell durability. The cell exhibits an outstanding cyclic performance of more than 300 cycles without any significant loss of energy efficiency. Considering the increasing demands for efficient energy storage, our achievement provides insight into a possible development pathway for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries with high energy densities.

  16. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  17. A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Rahimi, Mohammad; Gorski, Christopher A; Logan, Bruce

    2016-04-21

    Large amounts of low-grade waste heat (temperatures energy can be converted to electricity in battery systems. To improve reactor efficiency, a compact, ammonia-based flow battery (AFB) was developed and tested at different solution concentrations, flow rates, cell pairs, and circuit connections. The AFB achieved a maximum power density of 45 W m(-2) (15 kW m(-3) ) and an energy density of 1260 Wh manolyte (-3) , with a thermal energy efficiency of 0.7 % (5 % relative to the Carnot efficiency). The power and energy densities of the AFB were greater than those previously reported for thermoelectrochemical and salinity-gradient technologies, and the voltage or current could be increased using stacked cells. These results demonstrated that an ammonia-based flow battery is a promising technology to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-20

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm(-2). At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm(-2) is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm(-2), and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  19. A manganese-hydrogen battery with potential for grid-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Guodong; Pei, Allen; Li, Yuzhang; Liao, Lei; Wang, Hongxia; Wan, Jiayu; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Guangxu; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiangyan; Cui, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Batteries including lithium-ion, lead-acid, redox-flow and liquid-metal batteries show promise for grid-scale storage, but they are still far from meeting the grid's storage needs such as low cost, long cycle life, reliable safety and reasonable energy density for cost and footprint reduction. Here, we report a rechargeable manganese-hydrogen battery, where the cathode is cycled between soluble Mn2+ and solid MnO2 with a two-electron reaction, and the anode is cycled between H2 gas and H2O through well-known catalytic reactions of hydrogen evolution and oxidation. This battery chemistry exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.3 V, a rate capability of 100 mA cm-2 (36 s of discharge) and a lifetime of more than 10,000 cycles without decay. We achieve a gravimetric energy density of 139 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 210 Wh l-1), with the theoretical gravimetric energy density of 174 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 263 Wh l-1) in a 4 M MnSO4 electrolyte. The manganese-hydrogen battery involves low-cost abundant materials and has the potential to be scaled up for large-scale energy storage.

  20. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  1. Optimal energy management strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchhima, Nejmeddine; Schnierle, Marc; Schulte, Sascha; Birke, Kai Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy management strategy for multi-cell high voltage batteries where the current through each cell can be controlled, called self-reconfigurable batteries. An optimized control strategy further enhances the energy efficiency gained by the hardware architecture of those batteries. Currently, achieving cell equalization by using the active balancing circuits is considered as the best way to optimize the energy efficiency of the battery pack. This study demonstrates that optimizing the energy efficiency of self-reconfigurable batteries is no more strongly correlated to the cell balancing. According to the features of this novel battery architecture, the energy management strategy is formulated as nonlinear dynamic optimization problem. To solve this optimal control, an optimization algorithm that generates the optimal discharge policy for a given driving cycle is developed based on dynamic programming and code vectorization. The simulation results show that the designed energy management strategy maximizes the system efficiency across the battery lifetime over conventional approaches. Furthermore, the present energy management strategy can be implemented online due to the reduced complexity of the optimization algorithm. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency of self-reconfigurable batteries is maximized. • The energy management strategy for the battery is formulated as optimal control problem. • Developing an optimization algorithm using dynamic programming techniques and code vectorization. • Simulation studies are conducted to validate the proposed optimal strategy.

  2. High density energy storage capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Howland, M.M.; Hutzler, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in 3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  3. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke

    density on a limited footprint area. In chapter 4, Li-ion batteries based on the LiMn2O4-TiP 2O7 couple are manufactured on flexible paper substrates; where the use of light-weight paper substrates significantly increase the gravimetric energy density of this electrode couple as compared to traditional metal current collectors. In chapter 5, a novel nanowire growth mechanism will be explored to grow interdigitated metal oxide nanowire micro battery electrodes. The growth kinetics of this mechanism is systematically studied to understand how to optimize the growth process to produce electrodes with improved electrochemical properties.

  4. Flexible rechargeable Ni//Zn battery based on self-supported NiCo2O4 nanosheets with high power density and good cycling stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haozhe Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall electrochemical performances of Ni–Zn batteries are still far from satisfactory, specifically for rate performance and cycling stability Herein, we demonstrated a high-performance flexible Ni//Zn battery with outstanding durability and high power density based on self-supported NiCo2O4 nanosheets as cathode and Zn nanosheets as anode. This Ni//Zn battery is able to deliver a remarkable capacity of 183.1 mAh g−1 and a good cycling performance (82.7% capacity retention after 3500 cycles. More importantly, this battery achieves an admirable power density of 49.0 kW kg−1 and energy density of 303.8 Wh kg−1, substantially higher than most recently reported batteries. With such excellent electrochemical performance, this battery will have great potential as an ultrafast power source in practical application.

  5. Energy management of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power source for vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), CNRS, Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2009-08-01

    This paper proposes a perfect energy source supplied by a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a main power source and storage devices: battery and supercapacitor, for modern distributed generation system, particularly for future fuel cell vehicle applications. The energy in hybrid system is balanced by the dc bus voltage regulation. A supercapacitor module, as a high dynamic and high power density device, functions for supplying energy to regulate a dc bus voltage. A battery module, as a high energy density device, operates for supplying energy to a supercapacitor bank to keep it charged. A FC, as a slowest dynamic source in this system, functions to supply energy to a battery bank in order to keep it charged. Therefore, there are three voltage control loops: dc bus voltage regulated by a supercapacitor bank, supercapacitor voltage regulated by a battery bank, and battery voltage regulated by a FC. To authenticate the proposed control algorithm, a hardware system in our laboratory is realized by analog circuits and numerical calculation by dSPACE. Experimental results with small-scale devices (a PEMFC: 500-W, 50-A; a battery bank: 68-Ah, 24-V; and a supercapacitor bank: 292-F, 30-V, 500-A) corroborate the excellent control principle during motor drive cycle. (author)

  6. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): High Specific Energy Li-ion Battery Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project element is to increase the specific energy of Li-ion battery cells to 265 Wh/kg and the energy density to 500 Wh/L at 10oC while maintaining...

  7. Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash P.; Newman, John

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for calculating the theoretical and practical specific energies of rechargeable batteries, fuels, and materials is presented. The methodology enables comparison of the energy content of diverse systems such as the lithium-ion battery, hydrocarbons, and ammonia. The methodology is relevant for evaluating the possibility of using…

  8. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  9. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power.

  10. Effects of battery charge acceptance and battery aging in complete vehicle energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalik, Z.; Romijn, T.C.J.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Weiland, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the complete vehicle energy management problem with battery charge acceptance limitations and battery aging limitations. The problem is solved using distributed optimization for a case study of a hybrid heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a refrigerated

  11. Minimal nuclear energy density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Jin, Shi; Perez, Rodrigo Navarro; Schunck, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    We present a minimal nuclear energy density functional (NEDF) called "SeaLL1" that has the smallest number of possible phenomenological parameters to date. SeaLL1 is defined by seven significant phenomenological parameters, each related to a specific nuclear property. It describes the nuclear masses of even-even nuclei with a mean energy error of 0.97 MeV and a standard deviation of 1.46 MeV , two-neutron and two-proton separation energies with rms errors of 0.69 MeV and 0.59 MeV respectively, and the charge radii of 345 even-even nuclei with a mean error ɛr=0.022 fm and a standard deviation σr=0.025 fm . SeaLL1 incorporates constraints on the equation of state (EoS) of pure neutron matter from quantum Monte Carlo calculations with chiral effective field theory two-body (NN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) level and three-body (NNN ) interactions at the next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) level. Two of the seven parameters are related to the saturation density and the energy per particle of the homogeneous symmetric nuclear matter, one is related to the nuclear surface tension, two are related to the symmetry energy and its density dependence, one is related to the strength of the spin-orbit interaction, and one is the coupling constant of the pairing interaction. We identify additional phenomenological parameters that have little effect on ground-state properties but can be used to fine-tune features such as the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, the excitation energy of the giant dipole and Gamow-Teller resonances, the static dipole electric polarizability, and the neutron skin thickness.

  12. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D.; Logan, Bruce E.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery

  13. States of high energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O 16 and S 32 incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O 16 on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dσdN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dσdE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations

  14. On the kinetic energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, R.J.; Mas, D.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss two expressions for the density of kinetic energy which differ by an integration by parts. Using the Wigner transform we shown that the arithmetic mean of these two terms is closely analogous to the classical value. Harmonic oscillator wavefunctions are used to illustrate the radial dependence of these expressions. We study the differences they induce through effective mass terms when performing self-consistent calculations. (author)

  15. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  16. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying [Center for Microfibrous Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Ross Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 (United States); Tatarchuk, Bruce J., E-mail: brucet@eng.auburn.edu [Center for Microfibrous Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Ross Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. {yields} Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. {yields} Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. {yields} A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. {yields} Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the

  18. A simplified equivalent circuit model for simulation of Pb-acid batteries at load for energy storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pb-acid battery is reexamined in electrode structure and capacitance enhancement. → Pb-acid batteries were tested through the electrochemical impedance at loads. → Electrode behaviors are evaluated by simulation using an equivalent circuit model. → A defective and a failed Pb-acid battery was used in non-destructive analysis. → Potential applications are for power reserve and sustainable electricity storage. - Abstract: Three main types of battery chemistries in consideration for vehicle applications are Pb-acid, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Lead-acid batteries are widely used in traditional automotive applications for many years. Higher voltage, high-rate discharge capability, good specific energy, lower temperature performance, lower thermal management requirement, and low-cost in both manufacturing and recycling are the advantages of the rechargeable battery. Disadvantages of the lead-acid battery are: weight concerns of lead metal (lower energy density and lower power density) and limited cycle-life (especially in deep-cycle duties). If two major disadvantages have been significantly changed to a proper state to compete with other battery chemistries, the Pb-acid battery is still a good candidate in considering of cost/performance ratio. The lead-acid battery is always a good power source for fast starting of cold vehicles, for recharging from either a stop-start braking system, or for a charge from the engine itself, which consumes battery energy or stores electricity back into chemical energy. The main reasons for reexamining this battery chemistry are cost-savings and life-cycling considerations upon advances in electrode structure design and enhancement of capacitance behavior inside the battery pack. Several Pb-acid batteries were evaluated and tested through a unique method, i.e., the electrochemical impedance method at different loads, in order to characterize and further understand the improved electrode

  19. Research on Battery Energy Storage System Based on User Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Wang, Xuguang; Zhang, Dong; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the effect of user side energy storage on the user side and the network side, a battery energy storage system for the user side is designed. The main circuit topology of the battery energy storage system based on the user side is given, the structure is mainly composed of two parts: DC-DC two-way half bridge converter and DC-AC two-way converter, a control strategy combining battery charging and discharging characteristics is proposed to decouple the grid side and the energy storage side, and the block diagram of the charging and discharging control of the energy storage system is given. The simulation results show that the battery energy storage system of the user side can not only realize reactive power compensation of low-voltage distribution network, but also improve the power quality of the users.

  20. Unleashing the Power and Energy of LiFePO4-Based Redox Flow Lithium Battery with a Bifunctional Redox Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Du, Yonghua; Jia, Chuankun; Zhou, Mingyue; Fan, Li; Wang, Xingzhu; Wang, Qing

    2017-05-10

    Redox flow batteries, despite great operation flexibility and scalability for large-scale energy storage, suffer from low energy density and relatively high cost as compared to the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a redox flow lithium battery, which operates via the redox targeting reactions of LiFePO 4 with a bifunctional redox mediator, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and presents superb energy density as the Li-ion battery and system flexibility as the redox flow battery. The battery has achieved a tank energy density as high as 1023 Wh/L, power density of 61 mW/cm 2 , and voltage efficiency of 91%. Operando X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements were conducted to monitor the evolution of LiFePO 4 , which provides insightful information on the redox targeting process, critical to the device operation and optimization.

  1. Energy storage and the environment: the role of battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Batteries can store energy in a clean, convenient and efficient manner. Battery-powered electric vehicles are expected to contribute to a cleaner environment. In today's world, batteries are used everywhere: in electronic watches, pocket calculators, flashlights, toys, radios, tape recorders, cameras, camcorders, laptop computers, cordless telephones, paging devices, hearing aids, heart pacers, instruments, detectors, sensors, memory back-up devices, drug dispensing, wireless tools, toothbrushes, razors, stationary emergency power equipment, automobile starters, electric vehicles, boats, submarines, airplanes and satellites. Worldwide, about 15 billion primary batteries, and well over 200 million starter batteries are produced per year. What is the impact of this widespread use of batteries on the environment? What role can battery technology play in order to reduce undue effects on the environment? Since this paper is presented at a lead/acid battery conference, the discussion refers, in particular, to this system. The following aspects are covered: (i) the three "E" criteria that are applicable to batteries: Energy, Economics, Environment; (ii) service life and environment; (iii) judicious use and service life; (iv) recycling.

  2. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  3. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (7)Development and Practical Application of Sodium-Sulfur Battery for Electric Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachi, Hideki

    Sodium-Sulfur battery (NAS battery), which has more than 3 times of energy density compared with the conventional lead-acid battery and can be compactly established, has a great installation effects as a distributed energy storage system in the urban area which consumes big electric power. For the power company, NAS battery contributes to the load leveling, the supply capability up at the peak period, the efficient operation of the electric power equipment and the reduction of the capital expenditure. And for the customer, it is possible to enjoy the reduction of the electricity charges by utilizing nighttime electric power and the securing of a security. The contribution to the highly sophisticated information society where the higher electric power quality is desired, mainly office buildings and factories by the progress of IT, is very big. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) developed the elementary technology of NAS battery from 1984 and ended the development of practical battery which has long-term durability and the safety and the performance verification of the megawatt scale. Finally TEPCO accomplished the practical application and commercialization of the stationary energy storage technology by NAS battery. In this paper, we introduces about conquered problems until practical application and commercialization.

  4. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  5. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na2-xMn 5O10 nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...

  7. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  8. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  9. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.

    2015-01-01

    of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...... electricity market for a whole year are used for validating the results....

  10. Interface-Induced Renormalization of Electrolyte Energy Levels in Magnesium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Nitin; Siegel, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    A promising strategy for increasing the energy density of Li-ion batteries is to substitute a multivalent (MV) metal for the commonly used lithiated carbon anode. Magnesium is a prime candidate for such a MV battery due to its high volumetric capacity, abundance, and limited tendency to form...... dendrites. One challenge that is slowing the implementation of Mg-based batteries, however, is the development of efficient and stable electrolytes. Computational screening for molecular species having sufficiently wide electrochemical windows is a starting point for the identification of optimal...... of several common electrolyte solvents on model electrodes of relevance for Mg batteries. Many-body perturbation theory calculations based on the G0W0 method were used to predict shifts in a solvent's electronic levels arising from interfacial interactions. In molecules exhibiting large dipole moments, our...

  11. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  12. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  13. Battery energy storage market feasibility study - Expanded report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  14. High-energy metal air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  15. Energy efficiency of neptunium redox battery in comparison with vanadium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, T.; Watanabe, N.; Shiokawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A neptunium ion possesses two isostructural and reversible redox couples (Np 3+ /Np 4+ and NpO 2 + /NpO 2 2+ ) and is therefore suitable as an active material for a redox-flow battery. Since the plastic formed carbon (PFC) is known to show the largest k values for Np(IV)/Np(III) and Np(V)/Np(VI) reactions among various carbon electrodes, a cell was constructed by using the PFC, with the circulation induced by bubbling gas through the electrolyte. In discharge experiments with a neptunium and a vanadium battery using the cell, the former showed a lower voltage loss which suggests a smaller reaction overvoltage. Because of the high radioactivity of the neptunium, it was difficult to obtain sufficient circulation required for the redox-flow battery, therefore a model for evaluating the energy efficiency of the redox-flow battery was developed. By using the known k values for neptunium and vanadium electrode reactions at PFC electrodes, the energy efficiency of the neptunium battery was calculated to be 99.1% at 70 mA cm -2 , which exceeds that of the vanadium battery by ca. 16%

  16. Smart materials for energy storage in Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf E Abdel-Ghany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced lithium-ion batteries contain smart materials having the function of insertion electrodes in the form of powders with specific and optimized electrochemical properties. Different classes can be considered: the surface modified active particles at either positive or negative electrodes, the nano-composite electrodes and the blended materials. In this paper, various systems are described, which illustrate the improvement of lithium-ion batteries in term of specific energy and power, thermal stability and life cycling.

  17. Aqueous hybrid ion batteries - An environmentally friendly alternative for stationary energy storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F.; Weil, Marcel

    2017-10-01

    Aqueous hybrid ion batteries (AHIB) are being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to existing stationary battery technologies. However, no quantification of their potential environmental impacts has yet been done. This paper presents a prospective life cycle assessment of an AHIB module and compares its performance with lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries in two different stationary energy storage applications. The findings show that the claim of being an environmentally friendly technology can only be supported with some major limitations. While the AHIB uses abundant and non-toxic materials, it has a very low energy density and requires increased amounts of material for providing a given storage capacity. Per kWh of battery, results comparable to those of the alternative lithium- or sodium-ion batteries are obtained, but significantly higher impacts under global warming and ozone depletion aspects. The comparable high cycle life of the AHIB compensates this partially, requiring less battery replacements over the lifetime of the application. On the other hand, its internal inefficiencies are higher, what becomes the dominating factor when charging majorly fossil based electricity, making AHIB unattractive for this type of applications.

  18. Sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery for sustainable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S. T.; Abirami, Mari; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Wooseok; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 10 mA g-1, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.

  19. Online prediction of battery electric vehicle energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiquan; Besselink, Igo; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) depends on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics, driving behavior, route information, traffic states and weather conditions. The variance of these factors and the correlation among each other make the energy consumption

  20. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  1. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  2. Energy vs. density on paths toward more exact density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepp, Kasper P

    2018-03-14

    Recently, the progression toward more exact density functional theory has been questioned, implying a need for more formal ways to systematically measure progress, i.e. a "path". Here I use the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems and the definition of normality by Burke et al. to define a path toward exactness and "straying" from the "path" by separating errors in ρ and E[ρ]. A consistent path toward exactness involves minimizing both errors. Second, a suitably diverse test set of trial densities ρ' can be used to estimate the significance of errors in ρ without knowing the exact densities which are often inaccessible. To illustrate this, the systems previously studied by Medvedev et al., the first ionization energies of atoms with Z = 1 to 10, the ionization energy of water, and the bond dissociation energies of five diatomic molecules were investigated using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z as benchmark at chemical accuracy. Four functionals of distinct designs was used: B3LYP, PBE, M06, and S-VWN. For atomic cations regardless of charge and compactness up to Z = 10, the energy effects of the different ρ are energy-wise insignificant. An interesting oscillating behavior in the density sensitivity is observed vs. Z, explained by orbital occupation effects. Finally, it is shown that even large "normal" problems such as the Co-C bond energy of cobalamins can use simpler (e.g. PBE) trial densities to drastically speed up computation by loss of a few kJ mol -1 in accuracy. The proposed method of using a test set of trial densities to estimate the sensitivity and significance of density errors of functionals may be useful for testing and designing new balanced functionals with more systematic improvement of densities and energies.

  3. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcos-Acevedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product ( of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for  measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  4. Resolution in QCM sensors for the viscosity and density of liquids: application to lead acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Paz, Ana María; Rodríguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, José; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC) is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H(2)SO(4) solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical "resolution limit" to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product [Formula: see text] of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for [Formula: see text] measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  5. Rocking-Chair Ammonium-Ion Battery: A Highly Reversible Aqueous Energy Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianyong; Qi, Yitong; Hong, Jessica J; Li, Zhifei; Hernandez, Alexandre S; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-10-09

    Aqueous rechargeable batteries are promising solutions for large-scale energy storage. Such batteries have the merit of low cost, innate safety, and environmental friendliness. To date, most known aqueous ion batteries employ metal cation charge carriers. Here, we report the first "rocking-chair" NH 4 -ion battery of the full-cell configuration by employing an ammonium Prussian white analogue, (NH 4 ) 1.47 Ni[Fe(CN) 6 ] 0.88 , as the cathode, an organic solid, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI), as the anode, and 1.0 m aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte. This novel aqueous ammonium-ion battery demonstrates encouraging electrochemical performance: an average operation voltage of ca. 1.0 V, an attractive energy density of ca. 43 Wh kg -1 based on both electrodes' active mass, and excellent cycle life over 1000 cycles with 67 % capacity retention. Importantly, the topochemistry results of NH 4 + in these electrodes point to a new paradigm of NH 4 + -based energy storage. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Novel methods for estimating lithium-ion battery state of energy and maximum available energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; He, Tingting; Wei, Yiying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on temperature, current, aging dependencies of maximum available energy. • Study on the various factors dependencies of relationships between SOE and SOC. • A quantitative relationship between SOE and SOC is proposed for SOE estimation. • Estimate maximum available energy by means of moving-window energy-integral. • The robustness and feasibility of the proposed approaches are systematic evaluated. - Abstract: The battery state of energy (SOE) allows a direct determination of the ratio between the remaining and maximum available energy of a battery, which is critical for energy optimization and management in energy storage systems. In this paper, the ambient temperature, battery discharge/charge current rate and cell aging level dependencies of battery maximum available energy and SOE are comprehensively analyzed. An explicit quantitative relationship between SOE and state of charge (SOC) for LiMn_2O_4 battery cells is proposed for SOE estimation, and a moving-window energy-integral technique is incorporated to estimate battery maximum available energy. Experimental results show that the proposed approaches can estimate battery maximum available energy and SOE with high precision. The robustness of the proposed approaches against various operation conditions and cell aging levels is systematically evaluated.

  7. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  8. Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives

  9. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  11. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  13. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  14. Battery electric vehicle energy consumption modelling for range estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Range anxiety is considered as one of the major barriers to the mass adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). One method to solve this problem is to provide accurate range estimation to the driver. This paper describes a vehicle energy consumption model considering the influence of weather

  15. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  16. New Nanostructured Li 2 S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan; McDowell, Matthew T.; Jackson, Ariel; Cha, Judy J.; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode

  17. Model Predictive Control for Distributed Microgrid Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morstyn, Thomas; Hredzak, Branislav; Aguilera, Ricardo P.

    2018-01-01

    , and converter current constraints to be addressed. In addition, nonlinear variations in the charge and discharge efficiencies of lithium ion batteries are analyzed and included in the control strategy. Real-time digital simulations were carried out for an islanded microgrid based on the IEEE 13 bus prototypical......This brief proposes a new convex model predictive control (MPC) strategy for dynamic optimal power flow between battery energy storage (ES) systems distributed in an ac microgrid. The proposed control strategy uses a new problem formulation, based on a linear $d$ – $q$ reference frame voltage...... feeder, with distributed battery ES systems and intermittent photovoltaic generation. It is shown that the proposed control strategy approaches the performance of a strategy based on nonconvex optimization, while reducing the required computation time by a factor of 1000, making it suitable for a real...

  18. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  19. Micro-Intertexture Carbon-Free Iron Sulfides as Advanced High Tap Density Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Hwang, Jang-Yeon; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2017-11-15

    Numerous materials have been considered as promising electrode materials for rechargeable batteries; however, developing efficient materials to achieving good cycling performance and high volumetric energy capacity simultaneously remains a great challenge. Considering the appealing properties of iron sulfides, which include low cost, high theoretical capacity, and favorable electrochemical conversion mechanism, in this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of carbon-free microscale Fe 1-x S as high-efficiency anode materials for rechargeable batteries by designing hierarchical intertexture architecture. The as-prepared intertexture Fe 1-x S microspheres constructed from nanoscale units take advantage of both the long cycle life of nanoscale units and the high tap density (1.13 g cm -3 ) of the micro-intertexture Fe 1-x S. As a result, high capacities of 1089.2 mA h g -1 (1230.8 mA h cm -3 ) and 624.7 mA h g -1 (705.9 mA h cm -3 ) were obtained after 100 cycles at 1 A g -1 in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, respectively, demonstrating one of the best performances for iron sulfide-based electrodes. Even after deep cycling at 20 A g -1 , satisfactory capacities could be retained. Related results promote the practical application of metal sulfides as high-capacity electrodes with high rate capability for next-generation rechargeable batteries.

  20. A low pressure bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golben, M.; Nechev, K.; DaCosta, D.H.; Rosso, M.J.

    1997-12-01

    Ergenics is developing a low pressure high power rechargeable battery for electric vehicles and other large battery applications. The Hy-Stor{trademark} battery couples a bipolar nickel-hydrogen electrochemical system with the high energy storage density of metal hydride technology. In addition to its long cycle life, high specific power, and energy density, this battery offers safety and economic advantages over other rechargeable batteries. Results from preliminary testing of the first Hy-Stor battery are presented.

  1. Dendrite-Free Sodium-Metal Anodes for High-Energy Sodium-Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Jinqiang; Wang, Dan; Munroe, Paul; Wang, Chengyin; Notten, Peter H L; Wang, Guoxiu

    2018-05-31

    Sodium (Na) metal is one of the most promising electrode materials for next-generation low-cost rechargeable batteries. However, the challenges caused by dendrite growth on Na metal anodes restrict practical applications of rechargeable Na metal batteries. Herein, a nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon nanotube (NSCNT) paper is used as the interlayer to control Na nucleation behavior and suppress the Na dendrite growth. The N- and S-containing functional groups on the carbon nanotubes induce the NSCNTs to be highly "sodiophilic," which can guide the initial Na nucleation and direct Na to distribute uniformly on the NSCNT paper. As a result, the Na-metal-based anode (Na/NSCNT anode) exhibits a dendrite-free morphology during repeated Na plating and striping and excellent cycling stability. As a proof of concept, it is also demonstrated that the electrochemical performance of sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries using the Na/NSCNT anodes show significantly improved cycling performances compared with Na-O 2 batteries with bare Na metal anodes. This work opens a new avenue for the development of next-generation high-energy-density sodium-metal batteries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  3. Study of Stable Cathodes and Electrolytes for High Specific Density Lithium-Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne M.; Wu, James; Bennett, William; Ming, Yu; Zhu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Future NASA missions require high specific energy battery technologies, greater than 400 Wh/kg. Current NASA missions are using "state-of-the-art" (SOA) Li-ion batteries (LIB), which consist of a metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. NASA Glenn Research Center is currently studying the physical and electrochemical properties of the anode-electrolyte interface for ionic liquid based Li-air batteries. The voltage-time profiles for Pyr13FSI and Pyr14TFSI ionic liquids electrolytes studies on symmetric cells show low over-potentials and no dendritic lithium morphology. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate that these ionic liquids have a wide electrochemical window. As a continuation of this work, sp2 carbon cathode and these low flammability electrolytes were paired and the physical and electrochemical properties were studied in a Li-air battery system under an oxygen environment.

  4. High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    High-energy-density capacitors that are compact and light-weight are extremely valuable in a number of critical DoD systems that include portable field equipment, pulsed lasers, detection equipment...

  5. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan

    study, the constituted battery of which is termed solid oxide iron-air redox battery (or SOFeARB). The first objective of this PhD work is aimed at demonstrating the proof-of-concept. By combining a commercial anode-supported tubular RSOFC and Fe-based redox couple, the first generation SOFeARB operated at 800°C has been demonstrated to produce an energy capacity of 348Wh/kg-Fe and round-trip efficiency of 91.5% over twenty stable charge/discharge cycles. Further system optimization leads to an 800°C-SOFeARB comprised of a commercial electrolyte-supported planar RSOFC and Fe-based redox couple; this configuration has become a standard testing system for later studies. The 800°C planar SOFeARBs have been investigated under various current densities and cycle durations. The results show that metal utilization plays a determining role in balancing the energy capacity and round-trip efficiency. Increasing metal utilization increases the energy capacity, but at the expense of lowered round-trip efficiency. The second objective of this work is to lower the operating temperature of SOMARBs to intermediate temperature (IT) range (e.g. 550-650°C). Two changes were made in order to enable operation at IT range: introduction of optimized Sr- and Mg- doped LaGaO3 (LSGM) based RSOFC by tape-casting and infiltration techniques, and optimization of morphology of ESU through innovative synthesis methods. The optimized battery can reach a round-trip efficiency as high as 82.5% and specific energy 91% of the theoretical value in the IT range. The third objective of this work is to improve the cyclic durability and stability of IT-SOFeARBs. The results show that the performance, reversibility and stability of a 550°C-SOFeARB can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials synthesized from a low-cost carbothermic reaction. The 100-cycle test explicitly shows an improvement of 12.5%, 27.8% and 214% in specific energy, round-trip efficiency and stability

  6. Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph; Furnstahl, Richard; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witold; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out.

  7. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  8. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung; Gorski, Christopher A.; Logan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes

  9. The mission and status of the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Energy's battery energy storage program history, assessing the importance it has had in the national interest to date in industrial, vehicular, and electric utility load leveling applications. The development status of battery technology is also evaluated for the cases of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-ferricyanide, nickel-hydrogen, aluminum-air, lithium-metal disulfide, and fuel cell systems. Development trends are projected into the foreseeable future.

  10. Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l-1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.

  11. State of charge monitoring of vanadium redox flow batteries using half cell potentials and electrolyte density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.

  12. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  13. Energy density and rate limitations in structural composite supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. F.; Gienger, E.; Wetzel, E. D.; Xu, K.

    2012-06-01

    The weight and volume of conventional energy storage technologies greatly limits their performance in mobile platforms. Traditional research efforts target improvements in energy density to reduce device size and mass. Enabling a device to perform additional functions, such as bearing mechanical load, is an alternative approach as long as the total mass efficiency exceeds that of the individual materials it replaces. Our research focuses on structural composites that function as batteries and supercapacitors. These multifunctional devices could be used to replace conventional structural components, such as vehicle frame elements, to provide significant system-level weight reductions and extend mission times. Our approach is to design structural properties directly into the electrolyte and electrode materials. Solid polymer electrolyte materials bind the system and transfer load to the fibers while conducting ions between the electrodes. Carbon fiber electrodes provide a route towards optimizing both energy storage and load-bearing capabilities, and may also obviate the need for a separate current collector. The components are being integrated using scalable, cost-effective composite processing techniques that are amenable to complex part shapes. Practical considerations of energy density and rate behavior are described here as they relate to materials used. Our results highlight the viability as well as the challenges of this multifunctional approach towards energy storage.

  14. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  15. Density dependence of the nuclear energy-density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Park, Tae-Sun; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background: The explicit density dependence in the coupling coefficients entering the nonrelativistic nuclear energy-density functional (EDF) is understood to encode effects of three-nucleon forces and dynamical correlations. The necessity for the density-dependent coupling coefficients to assume the form of a preferably small fractional power of the density ρ is empirical and the power is often chosen arbitrarily. Consequently, precision-oriented parametrizations risk overfitting in the regime of saturation and extrapolations in dilute or dense matter may lose predictive power. Purpose: Beginning with the observation that the Fermi momentum kF, i.e., the cubic root of the density, is a key variable in the description of Fermi systems, we first wish to examine if a power hierarchy in a kF expansion can be inferred from the properties of homogeneous matter in a domain of densities, which is relevant for nuclear structure and neutron stars. For subsequent applications we want to determine a functional that is of good quality but not overtrained. Method: For the EDF, we fit systematically polynomial and other functions of ρ1 /3 to existing microscopic, variational calculations of the energy of symmetric and pure neutron matter (pseudodata) and analyze the behavior of the fits. We select a form and a set of parameters, which we found robust, and examine the parameters' naturalness and the quality of resulting extrapolations. Results: A statistical analysis confirms that low-order terms such as ρ1 /3 and ρ2 /3 are the most relevant ones in the nuclear EDF beyond lowest order. It also hints at a different power hierarchy for symmetric vs. pure neutron matter, supporting the need for more than one density-dependent term in nonrelativistic EDFs. The functional we propose easily accommodates known or adopted properties of nuclear matter near saturation. More importantly, upon extrapolation to dilute or asymmetric matter, it reproduces a range of existing microscopic

  16. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  17. Condensation energy density in Bi-2212 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru; Haraguchi, Teruhisa; Imada, Takeki; Okamura, Kazunori; Okayasu, Satoru; Uchida, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the condensation energy density and the anisotropy parameter, γ a , has been derived for Bi-2212 superconductors in various anisotropic states by analysing the critical current density due to columnar defects introduced by heavy ion irradiation. The critical current density depended on the size of the defects, determined by the kind and irradiation energy of the ions. A significantly large critical current density of 17.0 MA cm -2 was obtained at 5 K and 0.1 T even for the defect density of a matching field of 1 T in a specimen irradiated with iodine ions. The dependence of the critical current density on the size of the defects agreed well with the prediction from the summation theory of pinning forces, and the condensation energy density could be obtained consistently from specimens irradiated with different ions. The condensation energy density obtained increased with decreasing γ a over the entire range of measurement temperature, and reached about 60% of the value for the most three-dimensional Y-123 observed by Civale et al at 5 K. This gives the reason for the very strong pinning in Bi-2212 superconductors at low temperatures. The thermodynamic critical field obtained decreased linearly with increasing temperature and extrapolated to zero at a certain characteristic temperature, T * , lower than the critical temperature, T c . T * , which seems to be associated with the superconductivity in the block layers, was highest for the optimally doped specimen. This shows that the superconductivity becomes more inhomogeneous as the doped state of a superconductor deviates from the optimum condition

  18. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  19. Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented

  20. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, Rodney [East Penn Manufacturing Company, Inc., Lyon Station, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  1. Density and energy of supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy

    1977-12-01

    The effects of an interstellar magnetic field on the gas flow behind a strong shock front are considered. The ambient density and energy of supernova remnants are estimated from the intensity ratio of sulphur lines I(6717)/I(6731). It is found that, on average, the ambient density around galactic supernova remnants is 4 cm/sup -3/. The total energy appears to be the same for all supernova remnants (to within a factor = approximately 5). A mean value of 4 10/sup 51/ erg is found.

  2. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  3. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed ionic liquids synthesis, characterization, conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, battery cycling and those of other compositions; SEM images; energy density calculation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01518a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.; Kavian, R.; Lu, Y.; Hu, Q.; Shao-Horn, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature. PMID:28757963

  4. A comparative study of all-vanadium and iron-chromium redox flow batteries for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.

    2015-12-01

    The promise of redox flow batteries (RFBs) utilizing soluble redox couples, such as all vanadium ions as well as iron and chromium ions, is becoming increasingly recognized for large-scale energy storage of renewables such as wind and solar, owing to their unique advantages including scalability, intrinsic safety, and long cycle life. An ongoing question associated with these two RFBs is determining whether the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) or iron-chromium redox flow battery (ICRFB) is more suitable and competitive for large-scale energy storage. To address this concern, a comparative study has been conducted for the two types of battery based on their charge-discharge performance, cycle performance, and capital cost. It is found that: i) the two batteries have similar energy efficiencies at high current densities; ii) the ICRFB exhibits a higher capacity decay rate than does the VRFB; and iii) the ICRFB is much less expensive in capital costs when operated at high power densities or at large capacities.

  5. LDHs as electrode materials for electrochemical detection and energy storage: supercapacitor, battery and (bio)-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousty, Christine; Leroux, Fabrice

    2012-11-01

    From an exhaustive overview based on applicative academic literature and patent domain, the relevance of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDHs) as electrode materials for electrochemical detection of organic molecules having environmental or health impact and energy storage is evaluated. Specifically the focus is driven on their application as supercapacitor, alkaline or lithium battery and (bio)-sensor. Inherent to the high versatility of their chemical composition, charge density, anion exchange capability, LDH-based materials are extensively studied and their performances for such applications are reported. Indeed the analytical characteristics (sensitivity and detection limit) of LDH-based electrodes are scrutinized, and their specific capacity or capacitance as electrode battery or supercapacitor materials, are detailed.

  6. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  7. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, M.A.; Hoberecht, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life

  9. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  10. Next generation molten NaI batteries for grid scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Eccleston, Alexis; Lamb, Joshua; Read, Andrew C.; Robins, Matthew; Meaders, Thomas; Ingersoll, David; Clem, Paul G.; Bhavaraju, Sai; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2017-08-01

    Robust, safe, and reliable grid-scale energy storage continues to be a priority for improved energy surety, expanded integration of renewable energy, and greater system agility required to meet modern dynamic and evolving electrical energy demands. We describe here a new sodium-based battery based on a molten sodium anode, a sodium iodide/aluminum chloride (NaI/AlCl3) cathode, and a high conductivity NaSICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) ceramic separator. This NaI battery operates at intermediate temperatures (120-180 °C) and boasts an energy density of >150 Wh kg-1. The energy-dense NaI-AlCl3 ionic liquid catholyte avoids lifetime-limiting plating and intercalation reactions, and the use of earth-abundant elements minimizes materials costs and eliminates economic uncertainties associated with lithium metal. Moreover, the inherent safety of this system under internal mechanical failure is characterized by negligible heat or gas production and benign reaction products (Al, NaCl). Scalability in design is exemplified through evolution from 0.85 to 10 Ah (28 Wh) form factors, displaying lifetime average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.45% and energy efficiencies of 81.96% over dynamic testing lasting >3000 h. This demonstration promises a safe, cost-effective, and long-lifetime technology as an attractive candidate for grid scale storage.

  11. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-01-01

    for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  12. Energy-Storing Structures: Composite Capacitors and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    circuit board (PCB) prepreg C electrode dielectric Autoclave-processed structural capacitor • Objective: High energy density, scalable...Continued scaling (lab safety limit  100 J) – Beyond commercial FR4 prepreg  high dielectric additives, super- clean prepregging

  13. Building a universal nuclear energy density functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G F

    2007-01-01

    This talk describes a new project in SciDAC II in the area of low-energy nuclear physics. The motivation and goals of the SciDAC are presented as well as an outline of the theoretical and computational methodology that will be employed. An important motivation is to have more accurate and reliable predictions of nuclear properties including their binding energies and low-energy reaction rates. The theoretical basis is provided by density functional theory, which the only available theory that can be systematically applied to all nuclei. However, other methodologies based on wave function methods are needed to refine the functionals and to make applications to dynamic processes

  14. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  15. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery’s capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  16. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  17. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  18. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and environment-friendly energy storage system. Battery is the most versatile ... safe but limited in energy density.2 Therefore, new aque- ous rechargeable battery ... The working electrodes were prepared by coating slur- ries of active material ...

  19. Calculations of nuclear energies using the energy density formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, W.W.T.

    1975-01-01

    The energy density formalism (EDF) is used to investigate two problems. In this formalism the energy of the nucleus is expressed as a functional of its density. The nucleus energy is obtained by minimizing the functional with respect to the density. The first problem has to do with the stability of nuclei having shapes of different degrees of central depression (bubble shapes). It is shown that the bubble shapes are energetically favorable only for unrealistically large nuclei. Particularly, the super heavy nucleus that has been suggested (Z = 114, N = 184) prefers a shape with constant central density. These results are in good agreement with earlier calculations using the liquid drop model. The second problem concerns an anomaly detected experimentally in the isotope shift of mercury. The isotope shifts among a long chain of mercury isotopes show a sudden change as the neutron number is reduced. In particular, the experimental result suggests that the effective size of the charge distributions of 183 Hg and 185 Hg are as large as that of 196 Hg. Such sudden changes in other nuclei have been attributed to a sudden onset of permanent quadruple deformation. In the case of mercury there is no experimental evidence for deformed shapes. It was, therefore, suggested that the proton distribution might develop a central depression in the lighter isotopes. The EDF is used to investigate the mercury isotope shift anomaly following the aforementioned suggestion. Specifically, nucleon densities with different degrees of central depression are generated. Energies corresponding to these densities are obtained. To allow for shell effects, nucleon densities are obtained from single-particle wave functions. Calculations are made for a few mercury isotopes, especially for 184 Hg. The results are that in all cases the energy is lower for densities corresponding to a solid spherical shape

  20. Sizing Study of Second Life Li-ion Batteries for Enhancing Renewable Energy Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Renewable power plants must comply with certain codes and requirements to be connected to the grid, being the ramp rate compliance one of the most challenging requirements, especially for photovoltaic or wind energy generation plants. Battery based energy storage systems represent a promising...... economically viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal sizing of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS). SLBESS performance is also validated and, as an ultimate step, the power exchanged with the batteries...... solution due to the fast dynamics of electrochemical storage systems, besides their scalability and flexibility. However, large-scale battery energy storage systems are still too expensive to be a mass market solution for the renewable energy resources integration. Thus, in order to make battery investment...

  1. Nonlocal kinetic-energy-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present nonlocal kinetic-energy functionals T[n] within the average density approximation (ADA) framework, which do not require any extra input when applied to any electron system and recover the exact kinetic energy and the linear response function of a homogeneous system. In contrast with previous ADA functionals, these present good behavior of the long-range tail of the exact weight function. The averaging procedure for the kinetic functional (averaging the Fermi momentum of the electron gas, instead of averaging the electron density) leads to a functional without numerical difficulties in the calculation of extended systems, and it gives excellent results when applied to atoms and jellium surfaces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. The eCOMBAT: Energy consumption monitoring tool for battery powered communication device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available computing, communication and networking applications. One of the best ways to obtain energy-efficient communication and networking is to invest in the renewable energy sources to charge batteries for communication devices and to develop smart energy...

  3. Constraints on the cosmological relativistic energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentner, Andrew R.; Walker, Terry P.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss bounds on the cosmological relativistic energy density as a function of redshift, reviewing the big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background bounds, updating bounds from large scale structure, and introducing a new bound from the magnitude-redshift relation for type Ia supernovae. We conclude that the standard and well-motivated assumption that relativistic energy is negligible during recent epochs is not necessitated by extant data. We then demonstrate the utility of these bounds by constraining the mass and lifetime of a hypothetical massive big bang relic particle

  4. Azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes as high-energy density solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-08-10

    Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. However, large-scale adoption requires enhanced energy storage capacity and thermal stability. Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. Our work also demonstrates that the inclusion of nanoscale templates is an effective strategy for design of highly cyclable, thermally stable, and energy-dense solar thermal fuels.

  5. High energy density, long life energy storage capacitor dielectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.; Wilson, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of energy storage dielectric systems shows a dramatic improvement in life and joule density, culminating in a 50% to 300% life improvement of polypropylene film-paper-phthalate ester over paper-castor oil depending on service. The physical and electrical drawbacks of castor oil are not present in the new system, allowing the capacitor designer to utilize the superior insulation resistance, dielectric strength, and corona resistance to full advantage. The result is longer life for equal joule density or greater joule density for equal life. Field service proof of the film-Geconol system superiority is based on 5 megajoule in operation and 16 megajoule on order

  6. Nuclear symmetry energy in density dependent hadronic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    2008-12-01

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy and the correlation between parameters of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb are investigated in relativistic Hadronic models. The dependency of the symmetry energy on density is linear around saturation density. Correlation exists between the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb and the value of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density, but not with the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. (author)

  7. Low-density silicon thin films for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkan, M.T., E-mail: tmdemirkan@ualr.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Trahey, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Density of sputter deposited silicon (Si) thin films was changed by a simple working gas pressure control process, and its effects on the cycling performance of Si films in Li-ion batteries as anodes was investigated. Higher gas pressure results in reduced film densities due to a shadowing effect originating from lower mean free path of sputter atoms, which leads to a wider angular distribution of the incoming flux and formation of a porous film microstructure. Si thin film anodes of different densities ranging from 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} (film porosity ~ 3%) down to 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity) were fabricated by magnetron sputtering at argon pressures varying from 0.2 Pa to 2.6 Pa, respectively. High density Si thin film anodes of 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} suffered from an unstable cycling behavior during charging/discharging depicted by a continuous reduction in specific down to ~ 830 mAh/g at the 100th cycle. Electrochemical properties of lower density films with 1.99 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 15% porosity) and 1.77 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 24% porosity) got worse resulting in only ~ 100 mAh/g capacity at 100th cycle. On the other hand, as the density of anode was further reduced down to about 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity), cycling stability and capacity retention significantly improved resulting in specific capacity values ~ 650 mAh/g at 100th cycle with coulombic efficiencies of > 98%. Enhancement in our low density Si film anodes are believed to mainly originate from the availability of voids for volumetric expansion during lithiation and resulting compliant behavior that provides superior mechanical and electrochemical stability. - Highlights: • Low density Si thin films were studied as Li-ion battery anodes. • Low density Si films were fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition. • Density of Si films reduced down to as low as ~ 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} with a porosity of ~ 30% • Low density Si films presented superior mechanical properties during cycling.

  8. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  9. Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions (≅0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target

  10. Intelligent battery energy management and control for vehicle-to-grid via cloud computing network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Javadi, Bahman; Goscinski, Andrzej; Stojcevski, Alex; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The intelligent battery energy management substantially reduces the interactions of PEV with parking lots. • The intelligent battery energy management improves the energy efficiency. • The intelligent battery energy management predicts the road load demand for vehicles. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) provide new opportunities to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission. PEVs need to draw and store energy from an electrical grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. As a result, it is important to know when PEVs batteries are available for charging and discharging. Furthermore, battery energy management and control is imperative for PEVs as the vehicle operation and even the safety of passengers depend on the battery system. Thus, scheduling the grid power electricity with parking lots would be needed for efficient charging and discharging of PEV batteries. This paper aims to propose a new intelligent battery energy management and control scheduling service charging that utilize Cloud computing networks. The proposed intelligent vehicle-to-grid scheduling service offers the computational scalability required to make decisions necessary to allow PEVs battery energy management systems to operate efficiently when the number of PEVs and charging devices are large. Experimental analyses of the proposed scheduling service as compared to a traditional scheduling service are conducted through simulations. The results show that the proposed intelligent battery energy management scheduling service substantially reduces the required number of interactions of PEV with parking lots and grid as well as predicting the load demand calculated in advance with regards to their limitations. Also it shows that the intelligent scheduling service charging using Cloud computing network is more efficient than the traditional scheduling service network for battery energy management and control

  11. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  12. Model-based prognostics for batteries which estimates useful life and uses a probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention develops a mathematical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form of the model has been linked to the internal processes of the battery and validated using experimental data. Effects of temperature and load current have also been incorporated into the model. Subsequently, the model has been used in a Particle Filtering framework to make predictions of remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles as well as for cycle life. The prediction performance was found to be satisfactory as measured by performance metrics customized for prognostics for a sample case. The work presented here provides initial steps towards a comprehensive health management solution for energy storage devices.

  13. Advanced Electrode Materials for High Energy Next Generation Li ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Cary Michael

    Lithium ion batteries are becoming an increasingly ubiquitous part of modern society. Since their commercial introduction by Sony in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have grown to be the most popular form of electrical energy storage for portable applications. Today, lithium-ion batteries power everything from cellphones and electric vehicles to e-cigarettes, satellites, and electric aircraft. Despite the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries over twenty years ago, it remains the most active field of energy storage research for its potential improvement over current technology. In order to capitalize on these opportunities, new materials with higher energy density and storage capacities must be developed. Unfortunately, most next-generation materials suffer from rapid capacity degradation or severe loss of capacity when rapidly discharged. In this dissertation, the development of novel anode and cathode materials for advanced high-energy and high-power lithium-ion batteries is reported. In particular, the application of graphene-based materials to stabilize active material is emphasized. Graphene, a unique two-dimensional material composed of atomically thin carbon sheets, has shown potential to address unsatisfactory rate capability, limited cycling performance and abrupt failure of these next-generation materials. This dissertation covers four major subjects: development of silicon-graphene composites, impact of carbon vacancies on graphene high-rate performance, iron fluoride-graphene composites, and ternary iron-manganese fluoride synthesis. Silicon is considered the most likely material to replace graphite as the anode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its ability to alloy with large amounts of lithium, leading to significantly higher specific capacities than the graphite standard. However, Si also expands in size over 300% upon lithiation, leading to particle fracture and isolation from conductive support, resulting in cell failure within a few

  14. Integrated online energy and battery life management for hybrid long haulage truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Battery lifetime management plays an important role for successful commercializing hybrid electric vehicles. This paper aims at integrating the battery lifetime management into the energy management system of a heavy-duty hybrid electric truck. The developed strategy called Integrated Energy

  15. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  16. Adaptive heat pump and battery storage demand side energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieczky, Florian; Lettner, Christian; Natschläger, Thomas; Traxler, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive linear model predictive control strategy is introduced for the problem of demand side energy management, involving a photovoltaic device, a battery, and a heat pump. Moreover, the heating influence of solar radiation via the glass house effect is considered. Global sunlight radiation intensity and the outside temperature are updated by weather forecast data. The identification is carried out after adapting to a time frame witch sufficiently homogeneous weather. In this way, in spite of the linearity an increase in precision and cost reduction of up to 46% is achieved. It is validated for an open and closed loop version of the MPC problem using real data of the ambient temperature and the global radiation.

  17. Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Liu, Nian; Nelson, Johanna; McDowell, Matthew T.; Huggins, Robert A.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.

  18. Full open-framework batteries for stationary energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Liu, Nian; Nelson, Johanna; McDowell, Matthew T; Huggins, Robert A; Toney, Michael F; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of renewable energy sources and their integration with the electrical grid. We have recently introduced a family of cathodes involving the reversible insertion of cations into materials with the Prussian Blue open-framework crystal structure. Here we report a newly developed manganese hexacyanomanganate open-framework anode that has the same crystal structure. By combining it with the previously reported copper hexacyanoferrate cathode we demonstrate a safe, fast, inexpensive, long-cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery, which involves the insertion of sodium ions. This high rate, high efficiency cell shows a 96.7% round trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate and an 84.2% energy efficiency at a 50C rate. There is no measurable capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. Bulk quantities of the electrode materials can be produced by a room temperature chemical synthesis from earth-abundant precursors.

  19. Hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery systems for remote energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centres in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaics, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilisation of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. (orig.) 8 refs.

  20. Si clusters/defective graphene composites as Li-ion batteries anode materials: A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meng; Liu, Yue-Jie; Zhao, Jing-xiang; Wang, Xiao-guang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the interaction between Si clusters with pristine and defective graphene. • We find that the binding strength of Si clusters on graphene can be enhanced to different degrees after introducing various defects. • It is found that both graphene and Si cluster in the Si/graphene composites can preserve their Li uptake ability. - Abstract: Recently, the Si/graphene hybrid composites have attracted considerable attention due to their potential application for Li-ion batteries. How to effectively anchor Si clusters to graphene substrates to ensure their stability is an important factor to determine their performance for Li-ion batteries. In the present work, we have performed comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the geometric structures, stability, and electronic properties of the deposited Si clusters on defective graphenes as well as their potential applications for Li-ion batteries. The results indicate that the interfacial bonding between these Si clusters with the pristine graphene is quietly weak with a small adsorption energy (<−0.21 eV). Due to the presence of vacancy site, the binding strength of Si clusters on defective graphene is much stronger than that of pristine one, accompanying with a certain amount of charge transfer from Si clusters to graphene substrates. Moreover, the ability of Si/graphene hybrids for Li uptake is studied by calculating the adsorption of Li atoms. We find that both graphenes and Si clusters in the Si/graphene composites preserve their Li uptake ability, indicating that graphenes not only server as buffer materials for accommodating the expansion of Si cluster, but also provide additional intercalation sites for Li

  1. Electrodeposition of high-density lithium vanadate nanowires for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kang; Li, Xiujuan; Fang, Dong; Yi, Jianhong; Bao, Rui; Luo, Zhiping

    2018-07-01

    Lithium vanadate nanowires have been electrodeposited onto a titanium (Ti) foil by a direct current electrodeposition without template. The morphology, crystal structure, and the effects of deposition voltage, temperature and time on the prepared samples were tested and presented. The as-prepared lithium vanadate nanowires/Ti composite can be used as electrode for lithium-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode displayed a specific discharge capacitance as high as 235.1 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 30 mA g-1. This research provides a new pathway to explore high tap density vanadates nanowires on metals with enhanced electrochemical performance.

  2. SURFACE SYMMETRY ENERGY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, N; Schunck, N; Nazarewicz, W; Bender, M; Pei, J

    2010-12-20

    We study the bulk deformation properties of the Skyrme nuclear energy density functionals. Following simple arguments based on the leptodermous expansion and liquid drop model, we apply the nuclear density functional theory to assess the role of the surface symmetry energy in nuclei. To this end, we validate the commonly used functional parametrizations against the data on excitation energies of superdeformed band-heads in Hg and Pb isotopes, and fission isomers in actinide nuclei. After subtracting shell effects, the results of our self-consistent calculations are consistent with macroscopic arguments and indicate that experimental data on strongly deformed configurations in neutron-rich nuclei are essential for optimizing future nuclear energy density functionals. The resulting survey provides a useful benchmark for further theoretical improvements. Unlike in nuclei close to the stability valley, whose macroscopic deformability hangs on the balance of surface and Coulomb terms, the deformability of neutron-rich nuclei strongly depends on the surface-symmetry energy; hence, its proper determination is crucial for the stability of deformed phases of the neutron-rich matter and description of fission rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  3. Study on energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijlstra, J.K.; Couvee, J.D.J.

    2001-04-01

    Under the authority of the Dutch Energy Agency 'Novem' industrial design and engineering office NewProducts has performed an inventory study on the energy consumption of adapters and battery chargers. Besides the energy aspects, various aspects of the adapters and chargers have been discussed: The products are classified in categories based on type of the appliance and function of the adapter; The proportions of the Dutch market of adapters and chargers and the players on this market are discussed in brief; The relevant technical background, especially with respect to the energy consumption is discussed. In general there are two types of adapters, linear and switch mode; Product specifications collected from several manufacturers are presented; To fill up the lack of data some measurements have been made of which the results are presented. Together with the product specifications this gives an overview of the performances of adapters and chargers; During the study several ideas and new developments have been found for reducing energy consumption. A remarkable conclusion is that there is no or not much attention from manufacturers or consumers for energy consumption of adapters or no-load power consumption, although there are some initiatives for reduction, e.g. the Code of Conduct on Efficiency of External Power Supplies of the European Union. Lots of linear adapters are still sold and in use, although the efficiency of the switch mode adapters is a lot better. The problem is the higher price. The switch mode adapters are being sold together with sophisticated electronic appliances. Most of the other initiatives and solutions to reduce the no-load energy consumption and improve the efficiency are also technical

  4. Design and Implementation of the Battery Energy Storage System in DC Micro-Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chih Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the battery energy storage system in DC micro-grid systems is demonstrated in this paper. The battery energy storage system (BESS is an important part of a DC micro-grid because renewable energy generation sources are fluctuating. The BESS can provide energy while the renewable energy is absent in the DC micro-grid. The circuit topology of the proposed BESS will be introduced. The design of the voltage controller and the current controller for the battery charger/discharger are also illustrated. Finally, experimental results are provided to validate the performance of the BESS.

  5. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  6. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  7. A novel Gaussian model based battery state estimation approach: State-of-Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, HongWen; Zhang, YongZhi; Xiong, Rui; Wang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Gaussian model is employed to construct a novel battery model. • The genetic algorithm is used to implement model parameter identification. • The AIC is used to decide the best hysteresis order of the battery model. • A novel battery SoE estimator is proposed and verified by two kinds of batteries. - Abstract: State-of-energy (SoE) is a very important index for battery management system (BMS) used in electric vehicles (EVs), it is indispensable for ensuring safety and reliable operation of batteries. For achieving battery SoE accurately, the main work can be summarized in three aspects. (1) In considering that different kinds of batteries show different open circuit voltage behaviors, the Gaussian model is employed to construct the battery model. What is more, the genetic algorithm is employed to locate the optimal parameter for the selecting battery model. (2) To determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is used to determine the best hysteresis order of the combined battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order hysteresis battery model is thought of being the best based on the AIC values. (3) The central difference Kalman filter (CDKF) is used to estimate the real-time SoE and an erroneous initial SoE is considered to evaluate the robustness of the SoE estimator. Lastly, two kinds of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the proposed SoE estimation approach. The results show that the maximum SoE estimation error is within 1% for both LiFePO 4 and LiMn 2 O 4 battery datasets

  8. FY15 GRC CIF -Sulfur Cathode for High-Energy Li-Sulfur Battery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on the Power Energy and Conversion Roadmap TA03 future NASA missions will require high specific energy battery technologies, > 400 Wh/kg. NASA's current...

  9. Magnetic energy density and plasma energy density in the Venus wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Zhang, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Sauvaud, J.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic energy density and plasma energy density in the Venus wake H. Pérez-de-Tejada1, H. Durand-Manterola1, R. Lundin2, S. Barabash2, T. L. Zhang3, A. Sauvaud4, M. Reyes-Ruiz5. 1 - Institute of Geophysics, UNAM, México, D. F. 2 - Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umea, Sweden 3 - Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria 4 - CESR, Toulouse, France 5 - Institute of Astronomy, UNAM, Ensenada, México Measurements conducted in the Venus wake with the magnetometer and the Aspera-4 plasma instrument of the Venus Express spacecraft show that average values of the kinetic energy density of the plasma in that region are comparable to average local values of the magnetic energy density. Observations were carried out in several orbits of the Venus Express near the midnight plane and suggest that the total energy content in the Venus wake is distributed with nearly comparable values between the plasma and the magnetic field. Processes associated with the solar wind erosion of planetary ions from the polar magnetic regions of the ionosphere are involved in the comparable distribution of both energy components.

  10. Towards high-energy and durable lithium-ion batteries via atomic layer deposition: elegantly atomic-scale material design and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Targeted at fueling future transportation and sustaining smart grids, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are undergoing intensive investigation for improved durability and energy density. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling uniform and conformal nanofilms, has recently made possible many new advances for superior LIBs. The progress was summarized by Liu and Sun in their latest review [1], offering many insightful views, covering the design of nanostructured battery components (i.e., electrodes and solid electrolytes), and nanoscale modification of electrode/electrolyte interfaces. This work well informs peers of interesting research conducted and it will also further help boost the applications of ALD in next-generation LIBs and other advanced battery technologies. (viewpoint)

  11. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  12. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  13. Battery-powered pulsed high density inductively coupled plasma source for pre-ionization in laboratory astrophysics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H; Bellan, Paul M

    2015-07-01

    An electrically floating radiofrequency (RF) pre-ionization plasma source has been developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and to access new experimental regimes in the Caltech laboratory astrophysics experiments. The source uses a customized 13.56 MHz class D RF power amplifier that is powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 3-6 kV with the electrodes of the high voltage pulsed power experiments. The amplifier, which is capable of 3 kW output power in pulsed (<1 ms) operation, couples electrical energy to the plasma through an antenna external to the 1.1 cm radius discharge tube. By comparing the predictions of a global equilibrium discharge model with the measured scalings of plasma density with RF power input and axial magnetic field strength, we demonstrate that inductive coupling (rather than capacitive coupling or wave damping) is the dominant energy transfer mechanism. Peak ion densities exceeding 5 × 10(19) m(-3) in argon gas at 30 mTorr have been achieved with and without a background field. Installation of the pre-ionization source on a magnetohydrodynamically driven jet experiment reduced the breakdown time and jitter and allowed for the creation of hotter, faster argon plasma jets than was previously possible.

  14. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  15. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  16. Two novel techniques for increasing energy efficiency of photovoltaic-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel techniques for increasing the energy efficiency of PV-battery systems. • Practically, 27% increase in the energy efficiency of PV-battery systems. • Novel proposed DC/PWM inverter for substituting conventional primary DC/DC converters. • Presenting theoretical, simulation & experimental results to verify the above claims. - Abstract: A photovoltaic (PV)-battery power source consists of a PV panel, a primary DC/DC converter, and a battery or a batteries bank. It is generally used to provide electric energy for local consumers such as buildings. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) schemes cannot be applied to it because the PV panel output current is only determined by the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. In this study, two novel techniques are proposed to increase the energy efficiency of PV-battery power sources. Replacing the primary DC/DC converter with a novel proposed DC/PWM inverter, and decomposing the PV panel into a set of parallel homogenous configured PV modules are the two proposed techniques. It is shown that the implementation of each technique effectively increases the energy efficiency of PV-battery power sources. The two techniques are combined to each other to implement a new PV-battery power source. It is proved that the energy efficiency of the new version is significantly more than conventional version. Simulated results performed in MATLAB/Proteus 6 verify an increase of 29% in the energy efficiency. Four PV-battery power sources have been built, and comparative experimental results are presented that verify an increase of 27% in the energy efficiency.

  17. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  18. Hybrid battery/supercapacitor energy storage system for the electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchachvili, Lia; Yaïci, Wahiba; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently attracted considerable attention and so did the development of the battery technologies. Although the battery technology has been significantly advanced, the available batteries do not entirely meet the energy demands of the EV power consumption. One of the key issues is non-monotonic consumption of energy accompanied by frequent changes during the battery discharging process. This is very harmful to the electrochemical process of the battery. A practical solution is to couple the battery with a supercapacitor, which is basically an electrochemical cell with a similar architecture, but with a higher rate capability and better cyclability. In this design, the supercapacitor can provide the excess energy required while the battery fails to do so. In addition to the battery and supercapacitor as the individual units, designing the architecture of the corresponding hybrid system from an electrical engineering point of view is of utmost importance. The present manuscript reviews the recent works devoted to the application of various battery/supercapacitor hybrid systems in EVs.

  19. Coulomb displacement energies and neutron density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.

    1979-01-01

    We present a short review of the present status of the theory of Coulomb displacement energies, ΔEsub(c), discussing the Okamoto-Nolem-Schiffer anomaly and its solution. We emphasize, in particular, that contrary to previous hopes, ΔEsub(c) does not determine rsub(ex), the root-mean square (rms) radius of the excess (valence) neutron density distribution. Instead, ΔEsub(c) is very sensitive to the value of Δr = rsub(n) - rsub(p), the difference between the rms radii of the density distributions of all neutrons and all protons. For neutron rich nuclei, such as 48 Ca and 208 Pb, a value of Δr = 0.1 fm is found to be consistent with ΔEsub(c). This value of Δr, which is considerably smaller than that (of 0.2 - 0.3 fm) predicted by some common Hartree-Fock calculations, seems to be confirmed by very recent experimental results. (orig.)

  20. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...... to their characteristics such as high power, high efficiency, low self-discharge, and long lifetime. The family of the Li-ion batteries is wide and the selection of the most appropriate Liion chemistries for VPPs is one of the topics of this thesis, where different chemistries are compared and the most suitable ones...... if the batteries are able to meet several performance requirements, which are application dependent. Furthermore, for the VPP, the degradation or failure of the interconnected BESS can lead to costly downtime. Thus, an accurate estimation of the battery cells lifetime becomes mandatory. However, lifetime...

  1. Residential versus Communal Combination of Photovoltaic and Battery in Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marczinkowski, Hannah Mareike; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    and involving the consumers. The importance of minimizing flows to and from the grid as a result from fluctuating energy sources is addressed in both approaches. While residential batteries improve the individual household electricity supply, a communal battery would further regulate other inputs and demands....

  2. Energy vs. density on paths toward exact density functionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the progression toward more exact density functional theory has been questioned, implying a need for more formal ways to systematically measure progress, i.e. a “path”. Here I use the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems and the definition of normality by Burke et al. to define a path toward exactness...

  3. Double-layer capacitors with a higher energy density; Doppelschichtkondensatoren mit hoeherem Energieinhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, Volker [Leibniz-Institut fuer Neue Materialien (INM) gGmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany). Juniorforschungs-Gruppe Energie-Materialien; Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Electrical double-layer capacitors, also known as supercapacitors (SC) are devices for electrical energy storage used for fast acceleration of hybrid cars or for the energy recovery during breaking operations. In contrast, lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are used as energy storage devices to provide an extended travel distance for plug-in hybrid cars and electric vehicles. Current research aims to overcome the major limitations of both technologies (SC: low energy density/LIB: slow recharge and limited service life) and hybrid cells are considered a promising solution. The goal is to improve the performance and energy density of storage devices which can be achieved, as shown by the Leibniz-Institute for New Materials (INM), with the use of nanotechnology. (orig.)

  4. Energy efficiency and capacity retention of Ni–MH batteries for storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Zhu, Ying; Davis, Zenda; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni–MH battery energy efficiency was evaluated at full and partial state-of-charge. ► State-of-charge and state-of-recharge were studied by voltage changes and capacity measurement. ► Capacity retention of the NiMH-B2 battery was 70% after fully charge and 1519 h of storage. ► The inefficient charge process started at ca. 90% of rated capacity when charged at ⩽0.2 C rate. ► Battery durability and low self-discharge strategies are analyzed and discussed for energy storage needs. - Abstract: The Ni–MH batteries were tested for battery energy storage characteristics, including the effects of battery charge or discharge at different rates. The battery energy efficiency and capacity retention were evaluated through measuring the charge/discharge capacities and energies during full and partial state-of-charge (SoC) operations. Energy efficiency results were obtained at various charge input levels and different charge and discharge rates. The inefficient charging process started to take place at ca. 90% state-of-recharge (SoR) when charged at no more than 0.2 C rate. For the NiMH-B2 battery after an approximately full charge (∼100% SoC at 120% SoR and a 0.2 C charge/discharge rate), the capacity retention was obtained as 83% after 360 h of storage, and 70% after 1519 h of storage. The energy efficiency was decreased from 74.0% to 50% after 1519 h of storage time. The Coulomb efficiency was initially 83.34%, and was reduced to 57.95% after 1519 h of storage. The battery has relatively higher energy efficiency at approximately 50% SoC. The energy efficiency was calculated to be more than 92% when the NiMH-C3 battery was charged to 30–70% SoC then discharged to 0% SoC at a 0.2 C charge/discharge rate. In consideration of energy efficiency, charge acceptance, capacity retention rate, and power output needs, as well as Nelson’s analysis on HEV power requirements, the Ni–MH battery is appropriate to work at ca. 50 ± 10% SoC with an

  5. Approach to Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Dimensioning for Urban Electric Buses Regarding Efficiency and Battery Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nájera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS, consisting of a combination of batteries and Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC, for electric urban busses. The aim of the paper is to develop a methodology to determine the hybridization percentage that allows the electric bus to work with the highest efficiency while reducing battery aging, depending on the chosen topology, control strategy, and driving cycle. Three power electronic topologies are qualitatively analyzed based on different criteria, with the topology selected as the favorite being analyzed in detail. The whole system under study is comprised of the following elements: a battery pack (LiFePO4 batteries, an EDLC pack, up to two DC-DC converters (depending on the topology, and an equivalent load, which behaves as an electric bus drive (including motion resistances and inertia. Mathematical models for the battery, EDLCs, DC-DC converter, and the vehicle itself are developed for this analysis. The methodology presented in this work, as the main scientific contribution, considers performance variation (energy efficiency and battery aging and hybridization percentage (ratio between batteries and EDLCs, defined in terms of mass, using a power load profile based on standard driving cycles. The results state that there is a hybridization percentage that increases energy efficiency and reduces battery aging, maximizing the economic benefits of the vehicle, for every combination of topology, type of storage device, control strategy, and driving cycle.

  6. Financial analysis of utility scale photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, Viktor; Papastergiou, Konstantinos D.

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage is a flexible and responsive form of storing electrical energy from Renewable generation. The need for energy storage mainly stems from the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. System integrators are investigating ways to design plants that can provide more stable output power without compromising the financial performance that is vital for investors. Network operators on the other side set stringent requirements for the commissioning of new generation, including preferential terms for energy providers with a well-defined generation profile. The aim of this work is to highlight the market and technology drivers that impact the feasibility of battery energy storage in a Utility-scale solar PV project. A simulation tool combines a battery cycling and lifetime model with a solar generation profile and electricity market prices. The business cases of the present market conditions and a projected future scenario are analyzed. - Highlights: • Generation shifting with batteries allows PV projects to generate additional revenues. • Battery lifetime, lifecycles and price are less relevant than electricity market prices. • Installed battery capacity of up to 50% of the daily PV energy boosts project economy. • A 25% higher premium for energy storage could improve NPV by approximately 65%

  7. New Nanostructured Li 2 S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2010-04-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode materials. The recent development of sulfur/mesoporous carbon nanocomposite cathodes represents a particularly exciting advance, but in full battery cells, sulfur-based cathodes have to be paired with metallic lithium anodes as the lithium source, which can result in serious safety issues. Here we report a novel lithium metal-free battery consisting of a Li 2S/mesoporous carbon composite cathode and a silicon nanowire anode. This new battery yields a theoretical specific energy of 1550 Wh kg ?1, which is four times that of the theoretical specific energy of existing lithium-ion batteries based on LiCoO2 cathodes and graphite anodes (∼410 Wh kg?1). The nanostructured design of both electrodes assists in overcoming the issues associated with using sulfur compounds and silicon in lithium-ion batteries, including poor electrical conductivity, significant structural changes, and volume expansion. We have experimentally realized an initial discharge specific energy of 630 Wh kg ?1 based on the mass of the active electrode materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle

  9. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen [Littleton, CO

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  10. New developments in battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J

    1982-01-01

    Practical, high energy density alternatives to the lead-acid battery are considered for both vehicular and utility load-leveling use, in view of year 2000 potential markets. After demonstrating the high costs and low energy densities and life cycles of lead/acid, nickel/iron and nickel/zinc systems, as well as batteries using gaseous electrodes such as the nickel/hydrogen system employed by communication satellites and those taking advantage of light metals like lithium and sodium, a description is given of the design features and operational characteristics of the sodium/sulfur battery. Attention is given to both internal and external sodium volume battery configurations, both of which employ beta alumina as a solid electrolyte with high sodium ion conductivity, and molten sodium and sulfur at 350 C. It is the thermal insulation of the sodium/sulfur battery that makes its application to electric vehicles difficult, despite a very high energy density.

  11. Novel Solid Polymer Nanocomposite Electrolyte to Enable Lithium Metal Safely Cycling for Next Generation High Energy Battery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA future missions demand safe, high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) batteries. Current state-of-the-art (SOA) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can only provide...

  12. New Alkali Metal Flow Battery for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This seedling task is to develop new lithium-based flow batteries that will provide several fold improvements in specific energy, cost, simplicity and lifetimes,...

  13. Bifunctional Membrane for High Energy, Long Shelf Life Li-S Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The adoption of high energy lithium sulfur batteries hinges on significant improvements in charge/recharge cycle life. Cycle life is limited by migration of...

  14. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.; McDowell, Matthew T.; Peddada, Sandeep V.; Pasta, Mauro; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently

  15. Advanced Nanostructured Cathode for Ultra High Specific Energy Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode materials for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining a high level of...

  16. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joe A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties; Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data; Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  17. High Energy Long Life Betavoltaic Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of an ultra thin p on n junction...

  18. BATTERY RECYCLING: EFFECT OF CURRENT DENSITY ON MANGANESE RECOVERY THROUGH ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. R. Roriz

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to verify the possibility of using depleted batteries as a source of manganese dioxide applying the electrolytic process. An electrolyte solution containing the following metal ions was used: Ca (270 mgL-1, Ni (3.000 mgL-1, Co (630 mgL-1, Mn (115.3 mgL-1, Ti (400 mgL-1 and Pb (20 mgL-1. The production of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD was performed through electrolysis at 98 °C (± 2 °C applying different current densities (ranging from 0.61 A.dm-2 to 2.51 A.dm-2. The materials obtained were analyzed through X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area (BET and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The best results regarding the current efficiency, purity grade and specific surface area were obtained with a current density ranging between 1.02 A.dm-2 and 1.39 A.dm-2. The allotropic εMnO2 variety was found in all tests.

  19. Average Behavior of Battery - Electric Vehicles for Distributed Energy System Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    The increase of focus on electric vehicles (EVs) as distributed energy resources calls for new concepts of aggregated models of batteries. Despite the developed battery models for EVs applications, when looking at energy storage scenarios using EVs, both geographical-temporal aspects and battery...... conditions. The obtained results show that EV fleets are non-linear time-variant systems which however can be described with good approximation taking into account a number of variables such as number of cycles, temperature, depth-of-discharge and current rates....

  20. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  1. Lead-acid batteries life time prolongation in renewable energy source plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Ігорович Ткаченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Charge controllers with microprocessor control are recognized to be almost optimal process control devices for collecting and storing energy in batteries in power systems with renewable energy sources such as solar photoelectric batteries, wind electrogenerators and others. The task of the controller is charging process control, that is such as charging and discharging the batteries while providing maximum charging speed and battery saving parameters that characterize the state of the battery, within certain limits, preventing overcharging, overheating and the batteries deep discharge. The possibility of archiving data that keeps the battery parameters time dependance is also important. Thus, the concept of a charge controller with Texas Instruments microcontroller device MSP430G2553 was introduced in the study. The program saved in the ROM microcontroller provides for: charge regime(with a particular algorithm; control and training cycle followed by charging; continuous charge-discharge regime to restore the battery or the study of charge regime algorithms influence on repair effectiveness. The device can perform its functions without being connected to a personal computer, but this connection makes it possible to observe in real time the characteristics of a number of discharge and charge regimes parameters, as well as reading the stored data from microcontroller flash memory and storing these data on the PC hard disk for further analysis. A four stages charging algorithm with reverse charging regime was offered by the author and correctness of algorithm was proved

  2. Optimal sizing of a lithium battery energy storage system for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dulout , Jérémy; Anvari-Moghaddam , Amjad ,; Luna , Adriana; Jammes , Bruno; Alonso , Corinne; Guerrero , Josep ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also dis...

  3. Safe Energy Source in Battery-operated Toys for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Vignola, Silvia; Nason, Francesca; Boschetti, Federica; Bramerio, Manuela; Bailini, Alessandro; Pinarello, Giordano

    2017-11-01

    Serious and even fatal consequences of disk batteries ingestion in children are well known. Among other applications, disk batteries are used to power small toys, from which they can be unexpectedly extracted and swallowed. We tested a new cell intended for little toys (green cell [GC]), after 6 and 12 hours of in vitro close contact with esophageal swine mucosa. The GC was compared with lithium and silver button batteries under the same experimental conditions. Tissues in contact with the GC did not show pH variations nor histological alterations after 6 and 12 hours. In such conditions, statistically significant differences were found between the GC and the lithium and silver batteries. So far, multidisciplinary medical effort has been driven to both emergency approach and subsequent operative strategies in children with ingested batteries. Our trial demonstrates the possibility to primarily prevent battery-induced damages by designing new-generation safe cells with no tissue toxicity to power little toys intended for children.

  4. A flexible model for economic operational management of grid battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; Webber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    To connect energy storage operational planning with real-time battery control, this paper integrates a dynamic battery model with an optimization program. First, we transform a behavioral circuit model designed to describe a variety of battery chemistries into a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Then, we discretize the differential equations to integrate the battery model with a GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) optimization program, which decides when the battery should charge and discharge to maximize its operating revenue. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by applying it to lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage operating in Texas' restructured electricity market. By simulating 11 years of operation, we find that our model can robustly compute an optimal charge-discharge schedule that maximizes daily operating revenue without violating a battery's operating constraints. Furthermore, our results show there is significant variation in potential operating revenue from one day to the next. The revenue potential of Li-ion storage varies from approximately $0–1800/MWh of energy discharged, depending on the volatility of wholesale electricity prices during an operating day. Thus, it is important to consider the material degradation-related “cost” of performing a charge-discharge cycle in battery operational management, so that the battery only operates when revenue exceeds cost. - Highlights: • A flexible, dynamic battery model is integrated with an optimization program. • Electricity price data is used to simulate 11 years of Li-ion operation on the grid. • The optimization program robustly computes an optimal charge-discharge schedule. • Variation in daily Li-ion battery revenue potential from 2002 to 2012 is shown. • We find it is important to consider the cost of a grid duty cycle

  5. System state estimation and optimal energy control framework for multicell lithium-ion battery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jingwen; Dong, Guangzhong; Chen, Zonghai; Kang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Employed a dual-scale EKF based estimator for in-pack cells’ SOC values. • Proposed a two-stage hybrid state-feedback and output-feedback equalization algorithm. • A switchable balance current mode is designed in the equalization topology. • Verified the performance of proposed method under two conditions. - Abstract: Cell variations caused by the inevitable inconsistency during manufacture and use of battery cells have significant impacts on battery capacity, security and durability for battery energy storage systems. Thus, the battery equalization systems are essentially required to reduce variations of in-pack cells and increase battery pack capability. In order to protect all in-pack cells from damaging, estimate battery state and reduce variations, a system state estimation and energy optimal control framework for multicell lithium-ion battery system is proposed. The state-of-charge (SOC) values of all in-pack cells are firstly estimated using a dual-scale extended Kalman filtering (EKF) to improve estimation accuracy and reduce computation simultaneously. These estimated SOC values provide specific details of battery system, which cannot only be used to protect cells from over-charging/over-discharging, but also be employed to design state-feedback controller for battery equalization system. A two-stage hybrid state-feedback and output-feedback equalization algorithm is proposed. The state-feedback controller is firstly employed for coarse-grained adjustment to reduce equalization time cost with large current. However, due to the inevitable SOC estimation errors, the output-feedback controller is then used for fine-grained adjustment with trickle current. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can provide an effectively estimation and energy control for multicell battery systems. Finally, the implementation of the proposed method is further discussed for the real applications.

  6. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  7. Enhanced energy density of carbon-based supercapacitors using Cerium (III) sulphate as inorganic redox electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Patricia; González, Zoraida; Santamaría, Ricardo; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Blanco, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 /H 2 SO 4 redox electrolyte as a new route to increase the energy density of SCs. •Increased operating cell voltage with no electrolyte decomposition. •Redox reactions on the battery-type electrode. •The negative electrode retains its capacitor behaviour. •Outstanding energy density values compared to those measured in H 2 SO 4 . -- ABSTRACT: The energy density of carbon based supercapacitors (CBSCs) was significantly increased by the addition of an inorganic redox species [Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] to an aqueous electrolyte (H 2 SO 4 ). The development of the faradaic processes on the positive electrode not only significantly increased the capacitance but also the operational cell voltage of these devices (up to 1.5 V) due to the high redox potentials at which the Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ reactions occur. Therefore, in asymmetric CBSCs assembled using an activated carbon as negative electrode and MWCNTs as the positive one, the addition of Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 moderately increases the energy density of the device (from 1.24 W h kg −1 to 5.08 W h kg −1 ). When a modified graphite felt is used as positive electrode the energy density of the cell reaches values as high as 13.84 W h kg −1 . The resultant systems become asymmetric hybrid devices where energy is stored due to the electrical double layer formation in the negative electrode and the development of the faradaic process in the positive electrode, which acts as a battery-type electrode

  8. Prior-knowledge-independent equalization to improve battery uniformity with energy efficiency and time efficiency for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shumei; Qiang, Jiaxi; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    To improve battery uniformity as well as energy efficiency and time efficiency, a SOC (state of charge)-based equalization by AGA (adaptive genetic algorithm) is proposed on basis of two-stage DC/DC converters. The simulation results indicate that compared with FLC (fuzzy logic controller) equalization, the standard deviation of final SOC is improved by 78.7% while energy efficiency is improved by 6.01% and equalization time is decreased by 20% for AGA equalization of extreme dispersion. Additionally, AGA improves the battery uniformity by 30.77% with shortening equalization time by 16.29% and saving energy loss by 1.51% compared with FLC for equalization of regular dispersion. For further validation, the equalization optimization is verified by experiment based on the data-driven parameter identification method which is used to enhance the real-time capability of AGA. For AGA equalization of extreme dispersion, the standard deviation of final SOC is just 0.41% while equalization time prolongs only 14 min and energy efficiency is decreased by 0.81% compared with simulation results. Moreover, not only the standard deviation of final SOC is just 0.28% but also the energy efficiency is decreased by 0.69% and equalization time prolongs by 10.4 min compared with the simulation results for equalization of regular dispersion. - Highlights: • Issues of over equalization, time consumption and energy loss are addressed. • A SOC-based equalization is proposed based on adaptive genetic algorithm. • The equalization aims to improve battery uniformity, efficiency of energy and time. • Data-driven parameter identification is used to enhance the real-time capability.

  9. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  10. AMODS and High Energy Density Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Y.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the Lab for Quantum Optics (LFQO) in KAERI, which has been devoted to the research on atomic spectroscopy for more than 20 years with precision measurement of atomic parameters such as isotope shift, hyperfine structures, autoionization levels and so on as well as with theoretical analysis of atomic systems by developing relativistic calculation methodologies for laser propagation and population dynamics, electron impact ionization, radiative transitions of high Z materials, etc for the application to isotope separation, the AMODS (Atomic Molecular and Optical Database Systems) which was established in 1997 and has been a member of International Data Center Network of IAEA since then is explained by giving an information on the data sources and internal structure of the compilation of AMODS. Since AMODS was explained in detail during last DCN meeting, just a brief introduction is given this time. Then more specific research themes carried out in LFQO in conjunction with A+M data are discussed, including (1) electron impact ionization processes of W, Mo, Be, C, etc, (2) spectra of highly charged ions of W, Xe, and Si, (3) dielectronic recombination process of Fe ion. Also given are the talk about research activities about the simulations of high energy density experiments such as those performed at (1) GEKKO laser facility (Japan) for X-ray photoionization of low temperature Si plasma, which can explain the unsolved arguments on the X-ray spectra of black holes and/or neutron stars, (2) VULCAN laser facility (UK) for two dimensional compression of cylindrical target and investigation of hot electron transport in the compressed target plasma to understand the fast ignition process of laser fusion, (3) LULI laser facility (France) and TITAN laser facility (USA) for one dimensional compression of aluminum targets with different laser energies, and (4) PALS facility (Czech Republic) for 'Laser Induced Cavity Pressure Acceleration' to

  11. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg -1 . The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  12. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions; Batterien als Energiespeicher. Beispiele, Strategien, Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlbusch, Eckhard (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses. The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough. Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security. [German] Dieses Buch stellt die Vielfalt der Batterietechnologien vor und beschreibt ihre mobilen und stationaeren Anwendungs- und Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. Das gesellschaftliche Grossprojekt der Energiewende bedarf einer ganzheitlichen Betrachtung, die neben der Energiegewinnung und -verteilung aus Erneuerbaren Ressourcen besonders Fragen der Energiespeicherung und -effizienz beruecksichtigt. Daneben bietet das Buch einen Ausblick auf die weiteren Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten der Batterietechnologien und Batterieanwendungen. Eine verbesserte Batterietechnik ist ein wichtiger Faktor, um der Elektromobilitaet und der stationaeren Anwendung von Batterien als dezentrale Energiespeicher zum Durchbruch zu verhelfen. Nicht zuletzt werden die Bedeutung und die Notwendigkeit des Recyclings von Batterien und der Vielfalt von Batterietechnologien dargestellt, die im Hinblick auf die Ressourcenschonung und die Ressourcensicherheit groesste Bedeutung haben.

  13. Probing the density content of the nuclear symmetry energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nature of equation of state for the neutron star matter is crucially governed by the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. We attempt to probe the behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy around the saturation density by exploiting the empirical values for volume and surface symmetry energy ...

  14. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  15. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Because of their characteristics, which have been continuously improved during the last years, Lithium ion batteries were proposed as an alternative viable solution to present fast-reacting conventional generating units to deliver the primary frequency regulation service. However, even though...... there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  16. High-energy x-ray scattering studies of battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, Matthew P. B.; Okasinski, John S.; Almer, Jonathan D.; Ren, Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-energy x-ray (HEX) scattering is a sensitive and powerful tool to nondestructively probe the atomic and mesoscale structures of battery materials under synthesis and operational conditions. The penetration power of HEXs enables the use of large, practical samples and realistic environments, allowing researchers to explore the inner workings of batteries in both laboratory and commercial formats. This article highlights the capability and versatility of HEX techniques, particularly from synchrotron sources, to elucidate materials synthesis processes and thermal instability mechanisms in situ, to understand (dis)charging mechanisms in operando under a variety of cycling conditions, and to spatially resolve electrode/electrolyte responses to highlight connections between inhomogeneity and performance. Such studies have increased our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying battery performance. Here, by deepening our understanding of the linkages between microstructure and overall performance, HEXs represent a powerful tool for validating existing batteries and shortening battery-development timelines.

  17. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have been extensively used in consumer electronics because of their characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, and high gravimetric and volumetric energy. In addition, Li-ion batteries are becoming the most attractive candidate as electrochemical storage...... systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  18. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Han; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2011-10-21

    We describe a graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite film prepared by a blending process for use as electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. Specific capacitances of 290.6 F g(-1) and 201.0 F g(-1) have been obtained for a single electrode in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively, using a more practical two-electrode testing system. In the organic electrolyte the energy density reached 62.8 Wh kg(-1) and the power density reached 58.5 kW kg(-1). The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes raised the energy density by 23% and power density by 31% more than the graphene electrodes. The graphene/CNT electrodes exhibited an ultra-high energy density of 155.6 Wh kg(-1) in ionic liquid at room temperature. In addition, the specific capacitance increased by 29% after 1000 cycles in ionic liquid, indicating their excellent cyclicity. The SWCNTs acted as a conductive additive, spacer, and binder in the graphene/CNT supercapacitors. This work suggests that our graphene/CNT supercapacitors can be comparable to NiMH batteries in performance and are promising for applications in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  19. On exact and approximate exchange-energy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1999-01-01

    Based on correspondence rules between quantum-mechanical operators and classical functions in phase space we construct exchange-energy densities in position space. Whereas these are not unique but depend on the chosen correspondence rule, the exchange potential is unique. We calculate this exchange......-energy density for 15 closed-shell atoms, and compare it with kinetic- and Coulomb-energy densities. It is found that it has a dominating local-density character, but electron-shell effects are recognizable. The approximate exchange-energy functionals that have been proposed so far are found to account only...

  20. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  1. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  2. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem....... In this regard, optimal operating points of DG units as well as ESSs are calculated based on a cost-effective strategy. Degradation cost of ESSs is also taken into consideration for short-term scheduling. Simulation results demonstrate that including well-planned energy storage options together with optimal...

  3. A load predictive energy management system for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system in solar application using the Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Yen Yee; Lee, Lam Hong; Shafiabady, Niusha; Isa, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel energy management system (EMS) for supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is implemented. • It is a load predictive EMS which is implemented using Support Vector Machine (SVM). • An optimum SVM load prediction model is obtained, which yields 100% accuracy in 0.004866 s of training time. • The implemented load predictive EMS is compared with the conventional sequential programming control. • This methodology reduces the number of power electronics used and prolong battery lifespan. - Abstract: This paper presents the use of a Support Vector Machine load predictive energy management system to control the energy flow between a solar energy source, a supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage combination and the load. The supercapacitor-battery hybrid energy storage system is deployed in a solar energy system to improve the reliability of delivered power. The combination of batteries and supercapacitors makes use of complementary characteristic that allow the overlapping of a battery’s high energy density with a supercapacitors’ high power density. This hybrid system produces a straightforward benefit over either individual system, by taking advantage of each characteristic. When the supercapacitor caters for the instantaneous peak power which prolongs the battery lifespan, it also minimizes the system cost and ensures a greener system by reducing the number of batteries. The resulting performance is highly dependent on the energy controls implemented in the system to exploit the strengths of the energy storage devices and minimize its weaknesses. It is crucial to use energy from the supercapacitor and therefore minimize jeopardizing the power system reliability especially when there is a sudden peak power demand. This study has been divided into two stages. The first stage is to obtain the optimum SVM load prediction model, and the second stage carries out the performance comparison of the proposed SVM-load predictive

  4. Economic analysis of second use electric vehicle batteries for residential energy storage and load-levelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymans, Catherine; Walker, Sean B.; Young, Steven B.; Fowler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of Li-ion EV batteries for energy storage systems (ESS) in stationary settings is a promising technology to support improved management of demand and supply of electricity. In this paper, MatLAB simulation of a residential energy profile and regulated cost structure is used to analyze the feasibility of and cost savings from repurposing an EV battery unit for peak-shifting. in situ residential energy storage can contribute to the implementation of a smart grid by supporting the reduction of demand during typical peak use periods. Use of an ESS increases household energy use but potentially improves economic effectiveness and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The research supports the use of financial incentives for Li-ion battery reuse in ESS, including lower energy rates and reduced auxiliary fees. - Highlights: • EV Li-ion batteries can be reused in stationary energy storage systems (ESS). • A single ESS can shift 2 to 3 h of electricity used in a house. • While energy use increases, potential economic and environmental effectiveness improve. • ESS supports smart grid objectives. • Incentives like reduced fees are needed to encourage implementation of Li-ion battery ESS

  5. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  6. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Shuhong; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing

    2017-01-01

    We report that lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) have recently attracted extensive interest in the energy-storage field after silence from the public view for several decades. However, many challenges still need to be overcome before their practical application, especially those that are related to the interfacial instability of Li metal anodes. Here, we reveal for the first time that the thickness of the degradation layer on the metallic Li anode surface shows a linear relationship with Li areal capacity utilization up to 4.0 mAh cm -2 in a practical LMB system. The increase in Li capacity utilization in each cycle causes variations in the morphology and composition of the degradation layer on the Li anode. Under high Li capacity utilization, the current density for charge (i.e., Li deposition) is identified to be a key factor controlling the corrosion of the Li metal anode. Lastly, these fundamental findings provide new perspectives for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  7. COMBINATION OF DENSITY AND ENERGY MODULATION IN MICROBUNCHING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Microbunching instability (MBI) has been one of the most challenging issues in the transport of high-brightness electron beams for modern recirculating or energy recovery linac machines. Recently we have developed and implemented a Vlasov solver [1] to calculate the microbunching gain for an arbitrary beamline lattice, based on the extension of existing theoretical formulation [2-4] for the microbunching amplification from an initial density perturbation to the final density modulation. For more thorough analyses, in addition to the case of (initial) density to (final) density amplification, we extend in this paper the previous formulation to more general cases, including energy to density, density to energy and energy to energy amplifications for a recirculation machine. Such semi-analytical formulae are then incorporated into our Vlasov solver, and qualitative agreement is obtained when the semi-analytical Vlasov results are compared with particle tracking simulation using ELEGANT [5].

  8. Materials for lithium-ion battery safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Pei, Allen; Cui, Yi

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered to be one of the most important energy storage technologies. As the energy density of batteries increases, battery safety becomes even more critical if the energy is released unintentionally. Accidents related to fires and explosions of LIBs occur frequently worldwide. Some have caused serious threats to human life and health and have led to numerous product recalls by manufacturers. These incidents are reminders that safety is a prerequisite for batteries, and serious issues need to be resolved before the future application of high-energy battery systems. This Review aims to summarize the fundamentals of the origins of LIB safety issues and highlight recent key progress in materials design to improve LIB safety. We anticipate that this Review will inspire further improvement in battery safety, especially for emerging LIBs with high-energy density.

  9. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA and University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  10. The joint center for energy storage research: A new paradigm for battery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, George

    2015-01-01

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments

  11. A Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverter with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres-Marcos, Víctor Manuel; Guerrero-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Barrero-González, Fermín; Milanés-Montero, María Isabel

    2017-08-11

    The power generation from renewable power sources is variable in nature, and may contain unacceptable fluctuations, which can be alleviated by using energy storage systems. However, the cost of batteries and their limited lifetime are serious disadvantages. To solve these problems, an improvement consisting in the collaborative association of batteries and supercapacitors has been studied. Nevertheless, these studies don't address in detail the case of residential and large-scale photovoltaic systems. In this paper, a selected combined topology and a new control scheme are proposed to control the power sharing between batteries and supercapacitors. Also, a method for sizing the energy storage system together with the hybrid distribution based on the photovoltaic power curves is introduced. This innovative contribution not only reduces the stress levels on the battery, and hence increases its life span, but also provides constant power injection to the grid during a defined time interval. The proposed scheme is validated through detailed simulation and experimental tests.

  12. A Review on Battery Charging and Discharging Control Strategies: Application to Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Banguero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage has become a fundamental component in renewable energy systems, especially those including batteries. However, in charging and discharging processes, some of the parameters are not controlled by the battery’s user. That uncontrolled working leads to aging of the batteries and a reduction of their life cycle. Therefore, it causes an early replacement. Development of control methods seeks battery protection and a longer life expectancy, thus the constant-current–constant-voltage method is mostly used. However, several studies show that charging time can be reduced by using fuzzy logic control or model predictive control. Another benefit is temperature control. This paper reviews the existing control methods used to control charging and discharging processes, focusing on their impacts on battery life. Classical and modern methods are studied together in order to find the best approach to real systems.

  13. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a a V = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a a S = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L∼95 MeV and K sym ∼25 MeV

  14. Modular battery design for reliable, flexible and multi-technology energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothgang, Susanne; Baumhöfer, Thorsten; Hoek, Hauke van; Lange, Tobias; De Doncker, Rik W.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Collection of existing battery topologies in electric vehicles. • Analysis of load profiles and the power consumption for electric vehicles. • Composition of battery packs and their passive components. • Modular, hybrid battery architecture with a dc-link. - Abstract: With large scale battery systems being more and more used in demanding applications regarding lifetime, performance and safety, it is of great importance to utilize not only cells with a high cyclic and calendric lifetime but also to optimize the whole system architecture. The aim of this work is therefore, to highlight the benefits of a modular system architecture allowing the use of hybrid battery systems combining high power and high energy cells in a multi-technology system. To achieve an optimized performance, efficiency and lifetime for an electric vehicle the complete drive train topology has to be taken into account instead of optimizing one of the components individually. Consequently, the topic will be analyzed from the system’s point of view, addressing in particular the modularization of the battery as well as the power electronics needed to do so. It will be shown that a highly flexible battery system can be realized by dc-to-dc converters between a modular, hybrid battery system and the drive inverter. By the dc-to-dc converters the battery output voltages and the inverter input voltages are decoupled. Hence, the battery’s topology can be chosen unrestrictedly within a wide range and easily be interconnected to a common dc-link of a different voltage. The benefits of this flexibility will be analyzed in detail showing especially how the lifetime of the battery system can be improved and the impact on system weight

  15. Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2017-09-01

    Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake. Other studies show that consuming a large volume of a low-energy-dense food such as soup, salad, or fruit as a first course preload can enhance satiety and reduce overall energy intake at a meal. Current evidence suggests that energy density influences intake through a complex interplay of cognitive, sensory, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neural influences. Other studies that focus on practical applications show how the strategic incorporation of foods lower in energy density into the diet allows people to eat satisfying portions while improving dietary patterns. This review discusses studies that have led to greater understanding of the importance of energy density for food intake regulation and weight management.

  16. Energy Density and Weight Loss: Feel Full on Fewer Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Behavior. 2009;97:609. Rouhani MH, et al. Associations between dietary energy density and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrition. 2016;32:1037. Stelmach-Mardas M, et al. Link between food energy density and body weight changes in obese ...

  17. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  18. Long-Cycling Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery (AORFB) toward Sustainable and Safe Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; DeBruler, Camden; Rhodes, Zayn; Liu, T Leo

    2017-01-25

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are a viable technology to store renewable energy in the form of electricity that can be supplied to electricity grids. However, widespread implementation of traditional RFBs, such as vanadium and Zn-Br 2 RFBs, is limited due to a number of challenges related to materials, including low abundance and high costs of redox-active metals, expensive separators, active material crossover, and corrosive and hazardous electrolytes. To address these challenges, we demonstrate a neutral aqueous organic redox flow battery (AORFB) technology utilizing a newly designed cathode electrolyte containing a highly water-soluble ferrocene molecule. Specifically, water-soluble (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (FcNCl, 4.0 M in H 2 O, 107.2 Ah/L, and 3.0 M in 2.0 NaCl, 80.4 Ah/L) and N 1 -ferrocenylmethyl-N 1 ,N 1 ,N 2 ,N 2 ,N 2 -pentamethylpropane-1,2-diaminium dibromide, (FcN 2 Br 2 , 3.1 M in H 2 O, 83.1 Ah/L, and 2.0 M in 2.0 M NaCl, 53.5 Ah/L) were synthesized through structural decoration of hydrophobic ferrocene with synergetic hydrophilic functionalities including an ammonium cation group and a halide anion. When paired with methyl viologen (MV) as an anolyte, resulting FcNCl/MV and FcN 2 Br 2 /MV AORFBs were operated in noncorrosive neutral NaCl supporting electrolytes using a low-cost anion-exchange membrane. These ferrocene/MV AORFBs are characterized as having high theoretical energy density (45.5 Wh/L) and excellent cycling performance from 40 to 100 mA/cm 2 . Notably, the FcNCl/MV AORFBs (demonstrated at 7.0 and 9.9 Wh/L) exhibited unprecedented long cycling performance, 700 cycles at 60 mA/cm 2 with 99.99% capacity retention per cycle, and delivered power density up to 125 mW/cm 2 . These AORFBs are built from earth-abundant elements and are environmentally benign, thus representing a promising choice for sustainable and safe energy storage.

  19. Energy density functional analysis of shape coexistence in 44S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z. P.; Yao, J. M.; Vretenar, D.; Nikšić, T.; Meng, J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of low-energy collective states in the neutron-rich nucleus 44 S is analyzed using a microscopic collective Hamiltonian model based on energy density functionals (EDFs). The calculated triaxial energy map, low-energy spectrum and corresponding probability distributions indicate a coexistence of prolate and oblate shapes in this nucleus.

  20. Clustering and Symmetry Energy in a Low Density Nuclear Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, S.; Natowitz, J.B.; Shlomo, S.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Wang, J.; Materna, T.; Chen, Z.; Ma, Y.G.; Qin, L.; Botvina, A.S.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Rizzi, V.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; Keutgen, T.; El Masri, Y.; Majka, Z.; Ono, A.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and density dependent symmetry energy coefficients have been derived from isoscaling analyses of the yields of nuclei with A= 64 Zn projectiles with 92 Mo and 197 Au target nuclei. The symmetry energies at low density are larger than those obtained in mean field calculations, reflecting the clustering of low density nuclear matter. They are in quite good agreement with results of a recently proposed Virial Equation of State calculation

  1. Graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong–Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are important on-chip micro-power sources for miniaturized electronic devices. Although the performance of micro-supercapacitors has been significantly advanced by fabricating nanostructured materials, developing thin-film manufacture technologies and device architectures, their power or energy densities remain far from those of electrolytic capacitors or lithium thin-film batteries. Here we demonstrate graphene-based in-plane interdigital micro-supercapacitors on arbitrary substrates. The resulting micro-supercapacitors deliver an area capacitance of 80.7 μF cm−2 and a stack capacitance of 17.9 F cm−3. Further, they show a power density of 495 W cm−3 that is higher than electrolytic capacitors, and an energy density of 2.5 mWh cm−3 that is comparable to lithium thin-film batteries, in association with superior cycling stability. Such microdevices allow for operations at ultrahigh rate up to 1,000 V s−1, three orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional supercapacitors. Micro-supercapacitors with an in-plane geometry have great promise for numerous miniaturized or flexible electronic applications. PMID:24042088

  2. Graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors with high power and energy densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are important on-chip micro-power sources for miniaturized electronic devices. Although the performance of micro-supercapacitors has been significantly advanced by fabricating nanostructured materials, developing thin-film manufacture technologies and device architectures, their power or energy densities remain far from those of electrolytic capacitors or lithium thin-film batteries. Here we demonstrate graphene-based in-plane interdigital micro-supercapacitors on arbitrary substrates. The resulting micro-supercapacitors deliver an area capacitance of 80.7 μF cm⁻² and a stack capacitance of 17.9 F cm⁻³. Further, they show a power density of 495 W cm⁻³ that is higher than electrolytic capacitors, and an energy density of 2.5 mWh cm⁻³ that is comparable to lithium thin-film batteries, in association with superior cycling stability. Such microdevices allow for operations at ultrahigh rate up to 1,000 V s⁻¹, three orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional supercapacitors. Micro-supercapacitors with an in-plane geometry have great promise for numerous miniaturized or flexible electronic applications.

  3. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  4. Design and Performance of Energy Conversion Units of Betavoltaic Isotopic Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanquan; Yang Yuqing; Zhang Huaming; Hu Rui; Wei Hongyuan; Xiong Xiaoling; Luo Shunzhong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the single crystal silicon semiconductor junction devices, the relationships between their configurable parameters and the electrical properties were discussed for the purpose of design of energy conversion units of betavoltaic isotopic batteries. Two kinds of silicon semiconductor junction devices as energy conversion units of betavoltaic batteries were designed and customized. The electrical output properties of the devices irradiated by 63 Ni source were measured. The results show that the new designed devices perform better than the existing commercial one in open-circuit voltage, output power and energy conversion efficiency. (authors)

  5. Energy confinement of high-density tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F.C.; Schram, D.C.; Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W.

    1977-01-01

    Neoclassical ion heat conduction is the major energy loss mechanism in the center of an ohmically heated high-d. tokamak discharge (n>3 * 1020 m-3). This fixes the mutual dependence of plasma quantities on the axis and leads to scaling laws for the poloidal b and energy confinement time, given the

  6. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  7. Trivial constraints on orbital-free kinetic energy density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Trickey, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    Approximate kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) are central to orbital-free density functional theory. Limitations on the spatial derivative dependencies of KEDFs have been claimed from differential virial theorems. We identify a central defect in the argument: the relationships are not true for an arbitrary density but hold only for the minimizing density and corresponding chemical potential. Contrary to the claims therefore, the relationships are not constraints and provide no independent information about the spatial derivative dependencies of approximate KEDFs. A simple argument also shows that validity for arbitrary v-representable densities is not restored by appeal to the density-potential bijection.

  8. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  9. The topology of the Coulomb potential density. A comparison with the electron density, the virial energy density, and the Ehrenfest force density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lizé-Mari; Eaby, Alan; Dillen, Jan

    2017-12-15

    The topology of the Coulomb potential density has been studied within the context of the theory of Atoms in Molecules and has been compared with the topologies of the electron density, the virial energy density and the Ehrenfest force density. The Coulomb potential density is found to be mainly structurally homeomorphic with the electron density. The Coulomb potential density reproduces the non-nuclear attractor which is observed experimentally in the molecular graph of the electron density of a Mg dimer, thus, for the first time ever providing an alternative and energetic foundation for the existence of this critical point. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Thermal management of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, H. F.; Chen, C.-C.

    Control of the internal temperature during high rate discharge or charge can be a major design problem for large, high energy density battery systems. A systematic approach to the thermal management of such systems is described for different load profiles based on: thermodynamic calculations of internal heat generation; calorimetric measurements of heat flux; analytical and finite difference calculations of the internal temperature distribution; appropriate system designs for heat removal and temperature control. Examples are presented of thermal studies on large lead-acid batteries for electrical utility load levelling and nickel-zinc and lithium-iron sulphide batteries for electric vehicle propulsion.

  11. On-line energy and battery thermal management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Nevels, R.M.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach for energy and thermal management to minimize the fuel consumption of a hybrid electric heavy-duty truck. Conventional Energy Management Systems (EMS) operate separately from the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).

  12. Primary frequency regulation supported by battery storage systems in power systems dominated by renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turk, Ana; Sandelic, Monika; Noto, Giancarlo

    2018-01-01

    replaced by intermittent renewable generators. Therefore, maintaining system quality and stability in terms of power system frequency control is one of the major challenges that requires new resources and their system integration. Battery energy storage systems (BESS), as fast-acting energy storage systems...

  13. Energy Efficient Monitoring for Intrusion Detection in Battery-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hassanzadeh, Amin; Stoleru, Radu; Shihada, Basem

    2011-01-01

    in such environments battery-powered mesh routers, operating in an energy efficient manner, are required. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of energy efficient solutions, e.g., involving duty-cycling, on WMN intrusion detection systems, which require continuous

  14. Energy Systems Based on Polyacetylene: Rechargeable Batteries and Schottky Barrier Solar Cells. Final Report, March 1, 1981-February 29, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDiarmid, A. G.

    1984-02-01

    The chief thrust of the research has been directed towards the evaluation of polyacetylene (CH){sub x}, the prototype conducting polymer as an electrode- active material in novel, rechargeable batteries employing nonaqueous electrolytes. The p-doped material, [(CH{sup +y})A{sub y}{sup -}]{sub x}, (where A{sup -} is an anion) in conjunction with a Li anode, shows excellent discharge characteristics, e.g., very little change in discharge voltage with change in discharge current and a high power density. Its energy density is also good but it shows poor shelf life. When (CH){sub x} is used as a cathode (Li anode), which results in the formation of the n-doped polymer, [Li{sub y} {sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x}, during discharge, good discharge plateaus and power densities are obtained together with excellent shelf life and good recyclability. The energy density is, however only moderate. Cells employing an [M{sub y}{sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x} (where M = Li, Na) anode and a TiS{sub 2} cathode show very good discharge and recycling characteristics but their energy density is poor.

  15. Update of axion CDM energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Ji-Haeng

    2008-01-01

    We update cosmological bound on axion model. The contribution from the anharmonic effect and the newly introduced initial overshoot correction are considered. We present an explicit formula for the axion relic density in terms of the QCD scale Λ QCD , the current quark masses m q 's and the Peccei-Quinn scale F a , including firstly introduced 1.85 factor which is from the initial overshoot.

  16. Exchange-correlation energies of atoms from efficient density functionals: influence of the electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianmin; Ye, Lin-Hui; Duan, Yuhua

    2017-12-01

    The primary goal of Kohn-Sham density functional theory is to evaluate the exchange-correlation contribution to electronic properties. However, the accuracy of a density functional can be affected by the electron density. Here we apply the nonempirical Tao-Mo (TM) semilocal functional to study the influence of the electron density on the exchange and correlation energies of atoms and ions, and compare the results with the commonly used nonempirical semilocal functionals local spin-density approximation (LSDA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS), and hybrid functional PBE0. We find that the spin-restricted Hartree-Fock density yields the exchange and correlation energies in good agreement with the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly for spherical atoms and ions. However, the errors of these semilocal and hybrid functionals become larger for self-consistent densities. We further find that the quality of the electron density have greater effect on the exchange-correlation energies of kinetic energy density-dependent meta-GGA functionals TPSS and TM than on those of the LSDA and GGA, and therefore, should have greater influence on the performance of meta-GGA functionals. Finally, we show that the influence of the density quality on PBE0 is slightly reduced, compared to that of PBE, due to the exact mixing.

  17. Single-particle energies and density of states in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aggelen, H.; Chan, G. K.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is commonly used as the foundation to obtain neutral excited states and transition weights in DFT, but does not allow direct access to density of states and single-particle energies, i.e. ionisation energies and electron affinities. Here we show that by extending TD-DFT to a superfluid formulation, which involves operators that break particle-number symmetry, we can obtain the density of states and single-particle energies from the poles of an appropriate superfluid response function. The standard Kohn- Sham eigenvalues emerge as the adiabatic limit of the superfluid response under the assumption that the exchange- correlation functional has no dependence on the superfluid density. The Kohn- Sham eigenvalues can thus be interpreted as approximations to the ionisation energies and electron affinities. Beyond this approximation, the formalism provides an incentive for creating a new class of density functionals specifically targeted at accurate single-particle eigenvalues and bandgaps.

  18. A method for state of energy estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guangzhong; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-energy is an important evaluation index for energy optimization and management of power battery systems in electric vehicles. Unlike the state-of-charge which represents the residual energy of the battery in traditional applications, state-of-energy is integral result of battery power, which is the product of current and terminal voltage. On the other hand, like state-of-charge, the state-of-energy has an effect on terminal voltage. Therefore, it is hard to solve the nonlinear problems between state-of-energy and terminal voltage, which will complicate the estimation of a battery's state-of-energy. To address this issue, a method based on wavelet-neural-network-based battery model and particle filter estimator is presented for the state-of-energy estimation. The wavelet-neural-network based battery model is used to simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries. The temperature and discharge rate are also taken into account to improve model accuracy. Besides, in order to suppress the measurement noises of current and voltage, a particle filter estimator is applied to estimate cell state-of-energy. Experimental results on LiFePO_4 batteries indicate that the wavelet-neural-network based battery model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the estimation value based on the particle filter estimator converges to the real state-of-energy within an error of ±4%. - Highlights: • State-of-charge is replaced by state-of-energy to determine cells residual energy. • The battery state-space model is established based on a neural network. • Temperature and current influence are considered to improve the model accuracy. • The particle filter is used for state-of-energy estimation to improve accuracy. • The robustness of new method is validated under dynamic experimental conditions.

  19. Integrating a Photocatalyst into a Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery for Direct Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yarong; Tang, Daiming; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-03

    Direct capture and storage of abundant but intermittent solar energy in electrical energy-storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries is of great importance, and could provide a promising solution to the challenges of energy shortage and environment pollution. Here we report a new prototype of a solar-driven chargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, in which the capture and storage of solar energy was realized by oxidizing S(2-) ions to polysulfide ions in aqueous solution with a Pt-modified CdS photocatalyst. The battery can deliver a specific capacity of 792 mAh g(-1) during 2 h photocharging process with a discharge potential of around 2.53 V versus Li(+)/Li. A specific capacity of 199 mAh g(-1), reaching the level of conventional lithium-ion batteries, can be achieved within 10 min photocharging. Moreover, the charging process of the battery can proceed under natural sunlight irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  1. Improved Accuracy of Density Functional Theory Calculations for CO2 Reduction and Metal-Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have greatly contributed to the atomic level understanding of electrochemical reactions. However, in some cases, the accuracy can be prohibitively low for a detailed understanding of, e.g. reaction mechanisms. Two cases are examined here, i.e. the elec......Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have greatly contributed to the atomic level understanding of electrochemical reactions. However, in some cases, the accuracy can be prohibitively low for a detailed understanding of, e.g. reaction mechanisms. Two cases are examined here, i.......47 eV and 0.17 eV using metals as reference. The presented approach for error identification is expected to be applicable to a very broad range of systems. References: [1] A. A. Peterson, F. Abild-Pedersen, F. Studt, J. Rossmeisl, and J. K. Nørskov, Energy Environ. Sci., 3,1311 (2010) [2] F. Studt, F...

  2. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai

    2017-02-09

    A newly designed dense SiOx@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite with a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1 and tap density of 1.13 g cm−3 was prepared, in which the CNTs were stripped by physical energy crushing and then coated on SiOx nanoparticles. The composite exhibits high capacities of 835 and 687 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100 and 200 mA g−1, which can be finely persevered over 100 cycles. Benefiting from this promising anode, two new full cells of SiOx@CNTs/LiMn2O4 and SiOx@CNTs/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high energy densities of 2273 and 2747 Wh kganode−1 (i. e. 413 and 500 Wh kgcathode−1), respectively, were successfully assembled and can cycle more than 400 cycles. Even with further cycling at the elevated temperature of 45 °C, the cells can still deliver relatively high capacities of 568 and 465 mAh ganode−1, respectively, over 100 cycles. Such desired high-energy lithium-ion batteries with working voltages over 4.0 V can be widely developed for diverse applications (e. g. in handheld devices, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  3. Dynamic performance improvement of standalone battery integrated PMSG wind energy system using proportional resonant controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar Varma Sagiraju

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The load voltage and frequency should be controlled under steady state and transient conditions in off grid applications. Power quality and power management is very important task for rural communities under erratic wind and load conditions. This paper presents a coordinated Proportional resonant (PR and battery energy controller for enhancement of power quality and power management in direct drive standalone wind energy system. The dynamic performance of standalone direct drive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG is investigated with the proposed control scheme under various operating conditions such as fluctuating wind with step increase and decrease in wind velocity, balanced and unbalanced load conditions. The proposed PR control strategy with battery energy controller also ensures effective power balance between wind and battery source in order to fulfill the load demand. The superiority of the proposed control strategy is confirmed by comparing with the traditional vector control strategy under fluctuating wind and load conditions through MATLAB/SIMULINK platform.

  4. New composite separator pellet to increase power density and reduce size of thermal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne Mary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barringer, David Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DiAntonio, Christopher Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Thomas P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey Gloe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Lindsey R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitchett, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We show that it is possible to manufacture strong macroporous ceramic films that can be backfilled with electrolyte to form rigid separator pellets suitable for use in thermal batteries. Several new ceramic manufacturing processes are developed to produce sintered magnesium oxide foams with connected porosities of over 80% by volume and with sufficient strength to withstand the battery manufacturing steps. The effects of processing parameters are quantified, and methods to imbibe electrolyte into the ceramic scaffold demonstrated. Preliminary single cell battery testing show that some of our first generation pellets exhibit longer voltage life with comparable resistance at the critical early times to that exhibited by a traditional pressed pellets. Although more development work is needed to optimize the processes to create these rigid separator pellets, the results indicate the potential of such ceramic separator pellets to be equal, if not superior to, current pressed pellets. Furthermore, they could be a replacement for critical material that is no longer available, as well as improving battery separator strength, decreasing production costs, and leading to shorter battery stacks for long-life batteries.

  5. Longitudinal density modulation and energy conversion in intense beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J. R.; Neumann, J. G.; Tian, K.; O'Shea, P. G.

    2007-01-01

    Density modulation of charged particle beams may occur as a consequence of deliberate action, or may occur inadvertently because of imperfections in the particle source or acceleration method. In the case of intense beams, where space charge and external focusing govern the beam dynamics, density modulation may, under some circumstances, be converted to velocity modulation, with a corresponding conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Whether this will occur depends on the properties of the beam and the initial modulation. This paper describes the evolution of discrete and continuous density modulations on intense beams and discusses three recent experiments related to the dynamics of density-modulated electron beams

  6. More Reliable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Status, Solutions and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruopian; Zhao, Shiyong; Sun, Zhenhua; Wang, Da-Wei; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted tremendous interest because of their high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. The target of Li-S battery research is to produce batteries with a high useful energy density that at least outperforms state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, due to an intrinsic gap between fundamental research and practical applications, the outstanding electrochemical results obtained in most Li-S battery studies indeed correspond to low useful energy densities and are not really suitable for practical requirements. The Li-S battery is a complex device and its useful energy density is determined by a number of design parameters, most of which are often ignored, leading to the failure to meet commercial requirements. The purpose of this review is to discuss how to pave the way for reliable Li-S batteries. First, the current research status of Li-S batteries is briefly reviewed based on statistical information obtained from literature. This includes an analysis of how the various parameters influence the useful energy density and a summary of existing problems in the current Li-S battery research. Possible solutions and some concerns regarding the construction of reliable Li-S batteries are comprehensively discussed. Finally, insights are offered on the future directions and prospects in Li-S battery field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC...... microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also discussed through a probabilistic analysis on some years of real data from the ADREAM photovoltaic building of the LAAS...

  8. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  9. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  10. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer

  11. Metallic ions catalysis for improving bioleaching yield of Zn and Mn from spent Zn-Mn batteries at high pulp density of 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhirui; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Jia; Yang, Yiran; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi

    2015-11-15

    Bioleaching of spent batteries was often conducted at pulp density of 1.0% or lower. In this work, metallic ions catalytic bioleaching was used for release Zn and Mn from spent ZMBs at 10% of pulp density. The results showed only Cu(2+) improved mobilization of Zn and Mn from the spent batteries among tested four metallic ions. When Cu(2+) content increased from 0 to 0.8 g/L, the maximum release efficiency elevated from 47.7% to 62.5% for Zn and from 30.9% to 62.4% for Mn, respectively. The Cu(2+) catalysis boosted bioleaching of resistant hetaerolite through forming a possible intermediate CuMn2O4 which was subject to be attacked by Fe(3+) based on a cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). However, poor growth of cells, formation of KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 and its possible blockage between cells and energy matters destroyed the cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), stopping bioleaching of hetaerolite. The chemical reaction controlled model fitted best for describing Cu(2+) catalytic bioleaching of spent ZMBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. State-of-Charge Balancing Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter with an Integrated Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of the electric vehicle industry, the reuse of second-life batteries in vehicles are becoming more attractive, however, both the state-of-charge (SOC inconsistency and the capacity inconsistency of second-life batteries have limits in their utilization. This paper focuses on the second-life batteries applied battery energy storage system (BESS based on modular multilevel converter (MMC. By analyzing the power flow characteristics among all sources within the MMC-BESS, a three-level SOC equilibrium control strategy aiming to battery capacity inconsistency is proposed to balance the energy of batteries, which includes SOC balance among three-phase legs, SOC balance between the upper and lower arms of each phase, and SOC balance of submodules within each arm. In battery charging and discharging control, by introducing power regulations based on battery capacity proportion of three-phase legs, capacity deviation between the upper and lower’s arm, and the capacity coefficient of the submodule into the SOC feedback control loop, SOC balance of all battery modules is accomplished, thus effectively improving the energy utilization of second-life battery energy storage system. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods are verified by results obtained from simulations and the experimental platform.

  13. Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy Systems with Combined Heat and Power Generation, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Considering Battery Lifetime Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy systems (IESs are considered a trending solution for the energy crisis and environmental problems. However, the diversity of energy sources and the complexity of the IES have brought challenges to the economic operation of IESs. Aiming at achieving optimal scheduling of components, an IES operation optimization model including photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation system (CHP and battery energy storage is developed in this paper. The goal of the optimization model is to minimize the operation cost under the system constraints. For the optimization process, an optimization principle is conducted, which achieves maximized utilization of photovoltaic by adjusting the controllable units such as energy storage and gas turbine, as well as taking into account the battery lifetime loss. In addition, an integrated energy system project is taken as a research case to validate the effectiveness of the model via the improved differential evolution algorithm (IDEA. The comparison between IDEA and a traditional differential evolution algorithm shows that IDEA could find the optimal solution faster, owing to the double variation differential strategy. The simulation results in three different battery states which show that the battery lifetime loss is an inevitable factor in the optimization model, and the optimized operation cost in 2016 drastically decreased compared with actual operation data.

  14. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  15. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  16. Unique aqueous Li-ion/sulfur chemistry with high energy density and reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Hou, Singyuk; Ma, Zhaohui; Amine, Khalil; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-06-13

    Leveraging the most recent success in expanding the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes, in this work we create a unique Li-ion/sulfur chemistry of both high energy density and safety. We show that in the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte, lithiation of sulfur experiences phase change from a high-order polysulfide to low-order polysulfides through solid-liquid two-phase reaction pathway, where the liquid polysulfide phase in the sulfide electrode is thermodynamically phase-separated from the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte. The sulfur with solid-liquid two-phase exhibits a reversible capacity of 1,327 mAh/(g of S), along with fast reaction kinetics and negligible polysulfide dissolution. By coupling a sulfur anode with different Li-ion cathode materials, the aqueous Li-ion/sulfur full cell delivers record-high energy densities up to 200 Wh/(kg of total electrode mass) for >1,000 cycles at ∼100% coulombic efficiency. These performances already approach that of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a nonaqueous electrolyte, along with intrinsic safety not possessed by the latter. The excellent performance of this aqueous battery chemistry significantly promotes the practical possibility of aqueous LIBs in large-format applications.

  17. Electrochemical energy storage. Vol. 1. Fundamentals, aqueous storage batteries. Elektrochemische Energiespeicher. Bd. 1. Grundlagen, waessrige Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F; Euler, K J

    1984-01-01

    Vol. 1 is a synthesis of electrochemical, battery-technical and energy industry aspects. The role of energy storage systems in the energy industry, e.g. in connection with a hydrogen technology, is discussed along with the thermodynamic, kinetic, materials-technical and process engineering fundamentals. ''Classic'' and new systems are described in full detail for the first time. Cyclisation and technical/economic criteria of selection are discussed. (orig./GG).

  18. The emerging chemistry of sodium ion batteries for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Dipan; Talaie, Elahe; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-03-09

    Energy storage technology has received significant attention for portable electronic devices, electric vehicle propulsion, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and load leveling of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Lithium ion batteries have dominated most of the first two applications. For the last two cases, however, moving beyond lithium batteries to the element that lies below-sodium-is a sensible step that offers sustainability and cost-effectiveness. This requires an evaluation of the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, their electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of ion mobility based on computational methods. The Review considers some of the current scientific issues underpinning sodium ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Intelligent Energy Management System for PV-Battery-based Microgrids in Future DC Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. K.; Rajpurohit, B. S.; Gonzalez-Longatt, F. M.; Singh, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel intelligent energy management system (IEMS) for a DC microgrid connected to the public utility (PU), photovoltaic (PV) and multi-battery bank (BB). The control objectives of the proposed IEMS system are: (i) to ensure the load sharing (according to the source capacity) among sources, (ii) to reduce the power loss (high efficient) in the system, and (iii) to enhance the system reliability and power quality. The proposed IEMS is novel because it follows the ideal characteristics of the battery (with some assumptions) for the power sharing and the selection of the closest source to minimize the power losses. The IEMS allows continuous and accurate monitoring with intelligent control of distribution system operations such as battery bank energy storage (BBES) system, PV system and customer utilization of electric power. The proposed IEMS gives the better operational performance for operating conditions in terms of load sharing, loss minimization, and reliability enhancement of the DC microgrid.

  20. Effect of energy-regenerative braking on electric vehicle battery thermal management and control method based on simulation investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jingying; Qin, Datong; Peng, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is developed for battery. • The battery thermal model is integrated with vehicle driving model. • Real-time battery thermal responses is obtained. • Active control of current by regenerative braking ratio adjustment is proposed. • More energy is recovered with smaller battery temperature rise. - Abstract: Battery thermal management is important for the safety and reliability of electric vehicle. Based on the parameters obtained from battery hybrid pulse power characterization test, a two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is established. The battery model is then integrated with vehicle driving model to simulate real-time battery thermal responses. An active control method is proposed to reduce heat generation due to regenerative braking. The proposed control method not only subjects to the braking safety regulation, but also adjusts the regenerative braking ratio through a fuzzy controller. By comparing with other regenerative braking scenarios, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been validated. According to the results, the proposed control strategy suppresses battery temperature rise by modifying the charge current due to regenerative braking. The overlarge components of current are filtered out whereas the small ones are magnified. Therefore, with smaller battery temperature rise, more energy is recovered. Compared to the traditional passive heat dissipating, the proposed active methodology is feasible and provides a novel solution for electric vehicle battery thermal management.

  1. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dua...

  2. Negative vacuum energy densities and the causal diamond measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arguably a major success of the landscape picture is the prediction of a small, nonzero vacuum energy density. The details of this prediction depend in part on how the diverging spacetime volume of the multiverse is regulated, a question that remains unresolved. One proposal, the causal diamond measure, has demonstrated many phenomenological successes, including predicting a distribution of positive vacuum energy densities in good agreement with observation. In the string landscape, however, the vacuum energy density is expected to take positive and negative values. We find the causal diamond measure gives a poor fit to observation in such a landscape - in particular, 99.6% of observers in galaxies seemingly just like ours measure a vacuum energy density smaller than we do, most of them measuring it to be negative.

  3. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Meeting ambitious goals of transition to distributed and environmentally-friendly renewable energy generation can be difficult to achieve without energy storage systems due to technical and economical challenges. Moreover, energy storage systems have a high potential of not only smoothing and imp...... electricity market. Moreover, in this paper a possible improvement of the Li-ion BESS energy management strategy is shown, which allows for obtaining the higher NPV....... lifetime, which introduces significant risk into the business model. This paper deals with the investigation of the lifetime of LiFeP04/C battery systems when they are used to provide primary frequency regulation service. A semi-empirical lifetime model for these battery cells was developed based...... on the results obtained from accelerated lifetime testing. The developed Li­-ion battery lifetime model is later a base for the analyses of the economic profitability of the investment in the Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), which delivers the primary frequency regulation service on the Danish...

  4. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  5. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  6. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  7. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  8. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  9. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs

  10. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  11. GaAs low-energy X-ray radioluminescence nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Rong; Liu, Yun-Peng; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Yuan, Zi-Cheng; Liu, Kai; Chen, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The output properties of X-ray radioluminescence (RL) nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers were investigated by using low-energy X-ray. Results indicated that the values of electrical parameters increased as the X-ray energy increased, and the output power of nuclear battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer was greater than those of batteries with ZnS:Ag, (Zn,Cd)S:Cu or Y2O3:Eu phosphor layers under the same excitation conditions. To analyze the RL effects of the phosphor layers under X-ray excitation, we measured the RL spectra of the different phosphor layers. Their fluorescence emissions were absorbed by the GaAs device. In addition, considering luminescence utilization in batteries, we introduced an aluminum (Al) film between the X-ray emitter and phosphor layer. Al film is a high performance reflective material and can increase the fluorescence reaching the GaAs photovoltaic device. This approach significantly improved the output power of the battery.

  12. Energy Storage Scheduling with an Advanced Battery Model: A Game–Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Pilz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems will play a key role for individual users in the future smart grid. They serve two purposes: (i handling the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for a more reliable and efficient system; and (ii preventing the impact of blackouts on users and allowing for more independence from the grid, while saving money through load-shifting. In this paper we investigate the latter scenario by looking at a neighbourhood of 25 households whose demand is satisfied by one utility company. Assuming the users possess lithium-ion batteries, we answer the question of how each household can make the best use of their individual storage system given a real-time pricing policy. To this end, each user is modelled as a player of a non-cooperative scheduling game. The novelty of the game lies in the advanced battery model, which incorporates charging and discharging characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The action set for each player comprises day-ahead schedules of their respective battery usage. We analyse different user behaviour and are able to obtain a realistic and applicable understanding of the potential of these systems. As a result, we show the correlation between the efficiency of the battery and the outcome of the game.

  13. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  14. Li-ion batteries: Phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)

  15. Research on high energy density plasmas and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Recently, technologies on lasers, accelerators, and pulse power machines have been significantly advanced and input power density covers the intensity range from 10 10 W/cm 2 to higher than 10 20 W/cm 2 . As the results, high pressure gas and solid targets can be heated up to very high temperature to create hot dense plasmas which have never appeared on the earth. The high energy density plasmas opened up new research fields such as inertial confinement fusion, high brightness X-ray radiation sources, interiors of galactic nucleus,supernova, stars and planets, ultra high pressure condensed matter physics, plasma particle accelerator, X-ray laser, and so on. Furthermore, since these fields are intimately connected with various industrial sciences and technologies, the high energy density plasma is now studied in industries, government institutions, and so on. This special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research reviews the high energy density plasma science for the comprehensive understanding of such new fields. In May, 1998, the review committee for investigating the present status and the future prospects of high energy density plasma science was established in the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. We held three committee meetings to discuss present status and critical issues of research items related to high energy density plasmas. This special issue summarizes the understandings of the committee. This special issue consists of four chapters: They are Chapter 1: Physics important in the high energy density plasmas, Chapter 2: Technologies related to the plasma generation; drivers such as lasers, pulse power machines, particle beams and fabrication of various targets, Chapter 3: Plasma diagnostics important in high energy density plasma experiments, Chapter 4: A variety of applications of high energy density plasmas; X-ray radiation, particle acceleration, inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics

  16. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... for automotive batteries. Three parallel strategies will be followed in order to achieve those targets: (i) Highly focused materials development; two improved generations of NMC materials will allow the performance, stability and cyclability of state of the art cells to be improved. (ii) Understanding ageing...... of degradation processes. (iii) Reduction of battery cost; a way to reduce costs, increase battery residual value and improve sustainability is to consider second life uses of batteries used in EV. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary...

  17. High security ion-lithium batteries with rapid recharge for the terrestrial transport and energy storage; Batteries de type ion-lithium de haute securite a recharge rapide pour le transport terrestre et le stockage d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaghib, Karim; Dontigny, M.; Charest, P.; Guerfi, A.; Trotier, J.; Mathieu, M.C.; Zhu, W.; Petitclerc, M.; Veillette, R.; Serventi, A.; Hovington, P.; Lagace, M.; Trudeau, M.; Vijh, A.

    2010-09-15

    Electrical terrestrial transport is today a hub of innovation and growth for Hydro-Quebec. In the perspective of electrification of terrestrial transports, battery remains the critical factor of future success of rechargeable electrical vehicles. For nearly 20 years, Hydro-Quebec, via its research institute, has worked at developing battery material for the lithium-ion technology. Two types of Li-ion batteries have been developed: the energy battery and the power battery. [French] Le transport terrestre electrique est aujourd'hui un pole d'innovation et de croissance pour Hydro-Quebec. Dans la perspective de l'electrification des transports terrestres, la batterie demeure le facteur critique du succes futur des vehicules electriques rechargeables. Depuis pres de 20 ans, Hydro-Quebec, par le biais de son Institut de recherche, travaille au developpement de materiaux de batteries destinees a la technologie lithium-ion. Deux types de batteries Li-ion ont ete mises au point : la batterie d'energie et la batterie de puissance.

  18. Ultimate energy density of observable cold baryonic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, James M; Prakash, Madappa

    2005-03-25

    We demonstrate that the largest measured mass of a neutron star establishes an upper bound to the energy density of observable cold baryonic matter. An equation of state-independent expression satisfied by both normal neutron stars and self-bound quark matter stars is derived for the largest energy density of matter inside stars as a function of their masses. The largest observed mass sets the lowest upper limit to the density. Implications from existing and future neutron star mass measurements are discussed.

  19. Realistic level densities in fragment emission at high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.G.; Blann, M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy fragment emission from a 44 100 Ru compound nucleus at 400 and 800 MeV of excitation is analyzed to study the influence of level density models on final yields. An approach is used in which only quasibound shell-model levels are included in calculating level densities. We also test the traditional Fermi gas model for which there is no upper energy limit to the single particle levels. We compare the influence of these two level density models in evaporation calculations of primary fragment excitations, kinetic energies and yields, and on final product yields

  20. Two-stage energy storage equalization system for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z. X.; Dong, G. Q.; Li, Y. B.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    How to raise the efficiency of energy storage and maximize storage capacity is a core problem in current energy storage management. For that, two-stage energy storage equalization system which contains two-stage equalization topology and control strategy based on a symmetric multi-winding transformer and DC-DC (direct current-direct current) converter is proposed with bidirectional active equalization theory, in order to realize the objectives of consistent lithium-ion battery packs voltages and cells voltages inside packs by using a method of the Range. Modeling analysis demonstrates that the voltage dispersion of lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs can be kept within 2 percent during charging and discharging. Equalization time was 0.5 ms, which shortened equalization time of 33.3 percent compared with DC-DC converter. Therefore, the proposed two-stage lithium-ion battery equalization system can achieve maximum storage capacity between lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs, meanwhile efficiency of energy storage is significantly improved.

  1. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered...

  2. Toward an Aqueous Solar Battery: Direct Electrochemical Storage of Solar Energy in Carbon Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjaski, Filip; Kröger, Julia; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2018-03-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have emerged as an earth-abundant family of polymeric materials for solar energy conversion. Herein, a 2D cyanamide-functionalized polyheptazine imide (NCN-PHI) is reported, which for the first time enables the synergistic coupling of two key functions of energy conversion within one single material: light harvesting and electrical energy storage. Photo-electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes reveal the underlying mechanism of this "solar battery" material: the charge storage in NCN-PHI is based on the photoreduction of the carbon nitride backbone and charge compensation is realized by adsorption of alkali metal ions within the NCN-PHI layers and at the solution interface. The photoreduced carbon nitride can thus be described as a battery anode operating as a pseudocapacitor, which can store light-induced charge in the form of long-lived, "trapped" electrons for hours. Importantly, the potential window of this process is not limited by the water reduction reaction due to the high intrinsic overpotential of carbon nitrides for hydrogen evolution, potentially enabling new applications for aqueous batteries. Thus, the feasibility of light-induced electrical energy storage and release on demand by a one-component light-charged battery anode is demonstrated, which provides a sustainable solution to overcome the intermittency of solar radiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Control of a battery energy storage system connected to a low voltage grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, J.J.C.M.; de Groot, Robert; Morren, Johan; Slootweg, Han

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a control algorithm for a battery energy storage system, which is connected to a residential low voltage grid. By predicting future load demand and photovoltaic production within the neighbourhood concerned, flattening of the aggregated neighbourhood

  4. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  5. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  6. Control mechanisms for battery energy storage system performing primary frequency regulation and self-consumption optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pliatskas Stylianidis, A.

    2016-01-01

    This report contains the design of a model for the integration of a battery energy system in a household level and its use for primary frequency regulation and self-consumption optimization. The main goal of this project was to investigate what are the possible applications and the most suitable for

  7. Biopolymer-nanocarbon composite electrodes for use as high-energy high-power density electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Zhu, Jingyi; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) address our current energy storage and delivery needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Although activated carbon is extensively used as a supercapacitor electrode due to its inexpensive nature, its low specific capacitance (100-120 F/g) fundamentally limits the energy density of SCs. We demonstrate that a nano-carbon based mechanically robust, electrically conducting, free-standing buckypaper electrode modified with an inexpensive biorenewable polymer, viz., lignin increases the electrode's specific capacitance (~ 600-700 F/g) while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes. Research supported by US NSF CMMI Grant 1246800.

  8. The relation between food price, energy density and diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Bolarić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy density diet, high in fruits and vegetables, is related to lower obesity risk and to better health status, but is more expensive. High energy density diet, high in added sugar and fats, is more affordable, but is related to higher obesity and chronic diseases risk. The aim of this study was to report prices according to energy density (low vs. high of food items and to show how food affordability could affect food choice and consumers’ health. Data was collected for 137 raw and processed foods from three purchase sites in Zagreb (one representative for supermarket, one smaller shop and green market. Results showed that low energy density food is more expensive than high energy density food (for example, the price of 1000 kcal from green zucchini (15 kcal/100 g is 124.20 kn while the price of 1000 kcal from sour cream (138 kcal/100 g is 13.99 kn. Food energy price was significantly different (p<0.05 between food groups with highest price for vegetable products (159.04 ± 36.18 kn/1000 kcal and raw vegetables (97.90 ± 50.13 kn/1000 kcal and lowest for fats (8.49 ± 1.22 kn/1000 kcal and cereals and products (5.66 ± 0.76 kn/1000 kcal. Negative correlation (Spearman r=-0.72, p<0.0001 was observed for energy density (kcal/100 g and price of 1000 kcal. Therefore, it is advisable to develop strategies in order to reduce price of low energy density food and encourage its intake since it would improve diet quality, which could lead to better costumers’ health.

  9. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai; Qiu, Jingyi; Zhang, Songtong; Li, Meng; Zhu, Xiayu; Wang, Liming; Ming, Jun

    2017-01-01

    , electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  10. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  11. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  12. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  13. Geometric Process-Based Maintenance and Optimization Strategy for the Energy Storage Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is critical for improving energy structure and reducing environment pollution. But its strong fluctuation and randomness have a serious effect on the stability of the microgrid without the coordination of the energy storage batteries. The main factors that influence the development of the energy storage system are the lack of valid operation and maintenance management as well as the cost control. By analyzing the typical characteristics of the energy storage batteries in their life cycle, the geometric process-based model including the deteriorating system and the improving system is firstly built for describing the operation process, the preventive maintenance process, and the corrective maintenance process. In addition, this paper proposes an optimized management strategy, which aims to minimize the long-run average cost of the energy storage batteries by defining the time interval of the detection and preventive maintenance process as well as the optimal corrective maintenance times, subjected to the state of health and the reliability conditions. The simulation is taken under the built model by applying the proposed energy storage batteries’ optimized management strategy, which verifies the effectiveness and applicability of the management strategy, denoting its obvious practicality on the current application.

  14. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Braff, W. A.; Bazant, M. Z.; Buie, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less, hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densiti...

  15. Material and Structural Design of Novel Binder Systems for High-Energy, High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Yu, Guihua

    2017-01-01

    Developing high-performance battery systems requires the optimization of every battery component, from electrodes and electrolyte to binder systems. However, the conventional strategy to fabricate battery electrodes by casting a mixture of active materials, a nonconductive polymer binder, and a conductive additive onto a metal foil current collector usually leads to electronic or ionic bottlenecks and poor contacts due to the randomly distributed conductive phases. When high-capacity electrode materials are employed, the high stress generated during electrochemical reactions disrupts the mechanical integrity of traditional binder systems, resulting in decreased cycle life of batteries. Thus, it is critical to design novel binder systems that can provide robust, low-resistance, and continuous internal pathways to connect all regions of the electrode. Here in this Account, we review recent progress on material and structural design of novel binder systems. Nonconductive polymers with rich carboxylic groups have been adopted as binders to stabilize ultrahigh-capacity inorganic electrodes that experience large volume or structural change during charge/discharge, due to their strong binding capability to active particles. To enhance the energy density of batteries, different strategies have been adopted to design multifunctional binder systems based on conductive polymers because they can play dual functions of both polymeric binders and conductive additives. We first present that multifunctional binder systems have been designed by tailoring the molecular structures of conductive polymers. Different functional groups are introduced to the polymeric backbone to enable multiple functionalities, allowing separated optimization of the mechanical and swelling properties of the binders without detrimental effect on electronic property. Then, we describe the design of multifunctional binder systems via rationally controlling their nano- and molecular structures, developing

  16. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  17. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  18. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of high-density LiFePO4/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhaorong; Lv Haojie; Tang Hongwei; Li Huaji; Yuan Xiaozi; Wang Haijiang

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a high-energy-density lithium electrode, high-density LiFePO 4 /C composite cathode material for a lithium-ion battery was synthesized using self-produced high-density FePO 4 as a precursor, glucose as a C source, and Li 2 CO 3 as a Li source, in a pipe furnace under an atmosphere of 5% H 2 -95% N 2 . The structure of the synthesized material was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO 4 /carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the charge/discharge process. The tap-density of the synthesized LiFePO 4 /carbon composite powder with a carbon content of 7% reached 1.80 g m -3 . The charge/discharge tests show that the cathode material has initial charge/discharge capacities of 190.5 and 167.0 mAh g -1 , respectively, with a volume capacity of 300.6 mAh cm -3 , at a 0.1C rate. At a rate of 5C, the LiFePO 4 /carbon composite shows a high discharge capacity of 98.3 mAh g -1 and a volume capacity of 176.94 mAh cm -3 .

  20. Electrically rechargeable zinc/air battery: a high specific energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F; Sauter, J -C; Masanz, G; Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This contribution describes our research and development efforts towards the demonstration of a light-weight, low-cost 12 V/20 Ah electrically rechargeable Zn/air battery. We successfully developed electrodes having active areas of up to 200 cm{sup 2}. Deep discharge cycles at different currents as well as current-voltage curves are reported for a 10 cell Zn/air battery (serial connection) with a rated capacity of 20 Ah. Based on the discharge cycle at a power of 19 W, and the weight of the battery, a specific energy of more than 90 Wh/kg could be evaluated for the whole system. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  1. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. A Statistical Analysis of the Economic Drivers of Battery Energy Storage in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Matthew; Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Anderson, Katie

    2016-11-01

    There is significant interest in using battery energy storage systems (BESS) to reduce peak demand charges, and therefore the life cycle cost of electricity, in commercial buildings. This paper explores the drivers of economic viability of BESS in commercial buildings through statistical analysis. A sample population of buildings was generated, a techno-economic optimization model was used to size and dispatch the BESS, and the resulting optimal BESS sizes were analyzed for relevant predictor variables. Explanatory regression analyses were used to demonstrate that peak demand charges are the most significant predictor of an economically viable battery, and that the shape of the load profile is the most significant predictor of the size of the battery.

  3. The Research of Super Capacitor and Battery Hybrid Energy Storage System with the THIPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has to be considered that dynamic performance of Super Capacitor and Battery hybrid energy storage system is poor and the output waveform of AC voltage distorted seriously. The Third Harmonic Injection PWM (THIPWM with the three-level inverter, which has a excellent performance to improve the dynamic performance of the super capacitor and battery, gathers information from ends of the DC output voltage or current and the total current of the DC side to solve the problem of unbalanced neutral line voltage of three-level inverter .It also keeps super capacitor and battery controlled smoothly during the operation, and reduces the final output waveform distortion index. The simulation results verify the practicality and correctness of the three-level inverter topology and its control algorithm.

  4. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid....... Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds...... multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed...

  5. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  6. Lithium polymer batteries and proton exchange membrane fuel cells as energy sources in hydrogen electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    This paper deals with the application of lithium ion polymer batteries as electric energy storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell power trains. The experimental study was firstly effected in steady state conditions, to evidence the basic features of these systems in view of their application in the automotive field, in particular charge-discharge experiments were carried at different rates (varying the current between 8 and 100 A). A comparison with conventional lead acid batteries evidenced the superior features of lithium systems in terms of both higher discharge rate capability and minor resistance in charge mode. Dynamic experiments were carried out on the overall power train equipped with PEM fuel cell stack (2 kW) and lithium batteries (47.5 V, 40 Ah) on the European R47 driving cycle. The usage of lithium ion polymer batteries permitted to follow the high dynamic requirement of this cycle in hard hybrid configuration, with a hydrogen consumption reduction of about 6% with respect to the same power train equipped with lead acid batteries.

  7. Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation.

  8. Driving rural energy access: a second-life application for electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Hanjiro; Gershenson, Dimitry; Gershenson, Alexander; Kammen, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Building rural energy infrastructure in developing countries remains a significant financial, policy and technological challenge. The growth of the electric vehicle (EV) industry will rapidly expand the resource of partially degraded, ‘retired’, but still usable batteries in 2016 and beyond. These batteries can become the storage hubs for community-scale grids in the developing world. We model the resource and performance potential and the technological and economic aspects of the utilization of retired EV batteries in rural and decentralized mini- and micro-grids. We develop and explore four economic scenarios across three battery chemistries to examine the impacts on transport and recycling logistics. We find that EVs sold through 2020 will produce 120-549 GWh in retired storage potential by 2028. Outlining two use scenarios for decentralized systems, we discuss the possible impacts on global electrification rates. We find that used EV batteries can provide a cost-effective and lower environmental impact alternative to existing lead-acid storage systems in these applications.

  9. Optimization of power and energy densities in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David B. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969 MS 9291, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Supercapacitors use nanoporous electrodes to store large amounts of charge on their high surface areas, and use the ions in electrolytes to carry charge into the pores. Their high power density makes them a potentially useful complement to batteries. However, ion transport through long, narrow channels still limits power and efficiency in these devices. Proper design can mitigate this. Current collector geometry must also be considered once this is done. Here, De Levie's model for porous electrodes is applied to quantitatively predict device performance and to propose optimal device designs for given specifications. Effects unique to nanoscale pores are considered, including that pores may not have enough salt to fully charge. Supercapacitors are of value for electric vehicles, portable electronics, and power conditioning in electrical grids with distributed renewable sources, and that value will increase as new device fabrication methods are developed and proper design accommodates those improvements. Example design outlines for vehicle applications are proposed and compared. (author)

  10. Energy Harvesting by Nickel Prussian Blue Analogue Electrode in Neutralization and Mixing Entropy Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Wellington J A S; de Oliveira, Cainã; Huguenin, Fritz

    2015-08-11

    Some industries usually reduce the concentration of protons in acidic wastewater by conducting neutralization reactions and/or adding seawater to industrial effluents. This work proposes a novel electrochemical system that can harvest energy originating from entropic changes due to alteration in the concentration of sodium ions along wastewater treatment. Preparation of a self-assembled material from nickel Prussian blue analogue (NPBA) was the first step to obtain such electrochemical system. Investigation into the electrochemical properties of this material helped to evaluate its potential use in neutralization and mixing entropy batteries. Assessment of parameters such as the potentiodynamic profile of the current density as a function of the concentration of protons and sodium ions, charge capacity, and cyclability as well as the reversibility of the sodium ion electroinsertion process aided estimation of the energy storage efficiency of the system. Frequency-domain measurements and models and the proposed charge compensation mechanism provided the rate constants at different dc potentials. After each charge/discharge cycle, the NPBA electrode harvested 12.4 kJ per mol of intercalated sodium ion in aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations of 20 mM and 3.0 M. The full electrochemical cell consisted of an NPBA positive electrode and a negative electrode of silver particles dispersed in a polypyrrole electrode. This cell extracted 16.8 kJ per mol of intercalated ion after each charge/discharge cycle. On the basis of these results, the developed electrochemical system should encourage wastewater treatment and help to achieve sustainable growth.

  11. Ultra-stiff metallic glasses through bond energy density design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Volker; Köhler, Mathias; Music, Denis; Bednarcik, Jozef; Clegg, William J; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M

    2017-07-05

    The elastic properties of crystalline metals scale with their valence electron density. Similar observations have been made for metallic glasses. However, for metallic glasses where covalent bonding predominates, such as metalloid metallic glasses, this relationship appears to break down. At present, the reasons for this are not understood. Using high energy x-ray diffraction analysis of melt spun and thin film metallic glasses combined with density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the physical origin of the ultrahigh stiffness in both metalloid and non-metalloid metallic glasses is best understood in terms of the bond energy density. Using the bond energy density as novel materials design criterion for ultra-stiff metallic glasses, we are able to predict a Co 33.0 Ta 3.5 B 63.5 short range ordered material by density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations with a high bond energy density of 0.94 eV Å -3 and a bulk modulus of 263 GPa, which is 17% greater than the stiffest Co-B based metallic glasses reported in literature.

  12. Highly ordered and ultra-long carbon nanotube arrays as air cathodes for high-energy-efficiency Li-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruimin; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Dong, Shaoming

    2016-02-01

    Carbonaceous air cathodes with rational architecture are vital for the nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries to achieve large energy density, high energy efficiency and long cycle life. In this work, we report the cathodes made of highly ordered and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on permeable Ta foil substrates (VACNTs-Ta) via thermal chemical vapour deposition. The VACNTs-Ta, composed of uniform carbon nanotubes with approximately 240 μm in superficial height, has the super large surface area. Meanwhile, the oriented carbon nanotubes provide extremely outstanding passageways for Li ions and oxygen species. Electrochemistry tests of VACNTs-Ta air cathodes show enhancement in discharge capacity and cycle life compared to those made from short-range oriented and disordered carbon nanotubes. By further combining with the LiI redox mediator that is dissolved in the tetraethylene dimethyl glycol based electrolytes, the batteries exhibit more than 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g-1 with a cut-off discharge capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, and their energy efficiencies increase from 50% to 82%. The results here demonstrate the importance of cathode construction for high-energy-efficiency and long-life Li-O2 batteries.

  13. Controlled functionalization of carbonaceous fibers for asymmetric solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high volumetric energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Li; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Wenchao; Chen, Yuan

    2014-10-22

    A 1.8 V asymmetric solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor is designed with one MnO2 -coated reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (rGO/SWCNT) composite fiber as positive electrode and one nitrogen-doped rGO/SWCNT fiber as negative electrode, which demonstrates ultrahigh volumetric energy density, comparable to some thin-film lithium batteries, along with high power density, long cycle life, and good flexibility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhao, Xingxing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g −1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g −1 ). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g −1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g −1

  15. An exposition on Friedmann cosmology with negative energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Joshi, Ravi; Patla, Bijunath R.

    2015-01-01

    How would negative energy density affect a classic Friedmann cosmology? Although never measured and possibly unphysical, certain realizations of quantum field theories leaves the door open for such a possibility. In this paper we analyze the evolution of a universe comprising varying amounts of negative energy forms. Negative energy components have negative normalized energy densities, Ω < 0. They include negative phantom energy with an equation of state parameter w < −1, negative cosmological constant: w=−1, negative domain walls: w = −2/3, negative cosmic strings: w=−1/3, negative mass: w = 0, negative radiation: w = 1/3 and negative ultralight: w > 1/3. Assuming that such energy forms generate pressure like perfect fluids, the attractive or repulsive nature of negative energy components are reviewed. The Friedmann equation is satisfied only when negative energy forms are coupled to a greater magnitude of positive energy forms or positive curvature. We show that the solutions exhibit cyclic evolution with bounces and turnovers.The future and fate of such universes in terms of curvature, temperature, acceleration, and energy density are reviewed. The end states are dubbed ''big crunch,' '' big void,' or ''big rip' and further qualified as ''warped',''curved', or ''flat',''hot' versus ''cold', ''accelerating' versus ''decelerating' versus ''coasting'. A universe that ends by contracting to zero energy density is termed ''big poof.' Which contracting universes ''bounce' in expansion and which expanding universes ''turnover' into contraction are also reviewed

  16. Preliminary energy use and economic analysis of the aluminum-air battery for automotive propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C. L.; Putnam, E. S.

    1980-04-01

    Cost and energy parameters were analyzed based on existing technology and resource pricing structures. The results of these status quo assessments were critiqued in the light of potential changes in technology and resource prices. Estimates of the operating characteristics of the vehicle were made on the basis of laboratory test results, performance simulation model test results, and hypotheses on the refueling infrastructural scenario. If the amount of energy currently used to produce aluminum remains the same, the energy efficiency of the aluminum air battery vehicle in 2000 was estimated to be less than the energy efficiency of future vehicles operating on coal-derived methanol or gasoline.

  17. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  18. Are energy-dense foods really cheaper? Reexamining the relation between food price and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M

    2009-11-01

    The inverse relation between energy density (kcal/g) and energy cost (price/kcal) has been interpreted to suggest that produce (fruit, vegetables) is more expensive than snacks (cookies, chips). The objective of this study was to show the methodologic weakness of comparing energy density with energy cost. The relation between energy density and energy cost was replicated in a random-number data set. Additionally, observational data were collected for produce and snacks from an online supermarket. Variables included total energy (kcal), total weight (g), total number of servings, serving size (g/serving), and energy density (kcal/g). Price measures included energy cost ($/kcal), total price ($), unit price ($/g), and serving price ($/serving). Two-tailed t tests were used to compare price measures by food category. Relations between energy density and price measures within food categories were examined with the use of Spearman rank correlation analysis. The relation between energy density and energy cost was shown to be driven by the algebraic properties of these variables. Food category was strongly correlated with both energy density and food price measures. Energy cost was higher for produce than for snacks. However, total price and unit price were lower for produce. Serving price and serving size were greater for produce than for snacks. Within food categories, energy density was uncorrelated with most measures of food price, except for a weak positive correlation with serving price within the produce category. The findings suggest the relation between energy density and food price is confounded by food category and depends on which measure of price is used.

  19. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  1. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Converters for Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir Ayob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University, small-scale electricity generation in the buoy is needed to power a tidal compensating system designed to increase the performance of the WEC in areas with high tides. The two considered and modeled concepts are an oscillating water column (OWC and a heaving point absorber. The results indicate that the OWC is too small for the task and does not produce enough energy. On the other hand, the results show that a hybrid system composed of a small heaving point absorber combined with a solar energy system would be able to provide a requested minimum power of around 37.7 W on average year around. The WEC and solar panel complement each other, as the WEC produces enough energy by itself during wintertime (but not in the summer, while the solar panel produces enough energy in the summer (but not in the winter.

  2. Rydberg energies using excited state density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-L.; Wu Qin; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2008-01-01

    We utilize excited state density functional theory (eDFT) to study Rydberg states in atoms. We show both analytically and numerically that semilocal functionals can give quite reasonable Rydberg energies from eDFT, even in cases where time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fails catastrophically. We trace these findings to the fact that in eDFT the Kohn-Sham potential for each state is computed using the appropriate excited state density. Unlike the ground state potential, which typically falls off exponentially, the sequence of excited state potentials has a component that falls off polynomially with distance, leading to a Rydberg-type series. We also address the rigorous basis of eDFT for these systems. Perdew and Levy have shown using the constrained search formalism that every stationary density corresponds, in principle, to an exact stationary state of the full many-body Hamiltonian. In the present context, this means that the excited state DFT solutions are rigorous as long as they deliver the minimum noninteracting kinetic energy for the given density. We use optimized effective potential techniques to show that, in some cases, the eDFT Rydberg solutions appear to deliver the minimum kinetic energy because the associated density is not pure state v-representable. We thus find that eDFT plays a complementary role to constrained DFT: The former works only if the excited state density is not the ground state of some potential while the latter applies only when the density is a ground state density.

  3. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  4. Energy use and climate change improvements of Li/S batteries based on life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Janssen, Matty; Svanström, Magdalena; Johansson, Patrik; Sandén, Björn A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell regarding its energy use (in electricity equivalents, kWhel) and climate change (in kg carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2 eq) with the aim of identifying improvement potentials. Possible improvements are illustrated by departing from a base case of Li/S battery design, electricity from coal power, and heat from natural gas. In the base case, energy use is calculated at 580 kWhel kWh-1 and climate change impact at 230 kg CO2 eq kWh-1 of storage capacity. The main contribution to energy use comes from the LiTFSI electrolyte salt production and the main contribution to climate change is electricity use during the cell production stage. By (i) reducing cell production electricity requirement, (ii) sourcing electricity and heat from renewable sources, (iii) improving the specific energy of the Li/S cell, and (iv) switching to carbon black for the cathode, energy use and climate change impact can be reduced by 54 and 93%, respectively. For climate change, our best-case result of 17 kg CO2 eq kWh-1 is of similar magnitude as the best-case literature results for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The lithium metal requirement of Li/S batteries and LIBs are also of similar magnitude.

  5. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-02-28

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Energy density, stopping and flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, H.; von Keitz, A.; Mattiello, R.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Lorentz invariant molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) is employed to investigate the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at energies (E kin = 10AGeV hor-ellipsis 200AGeV). The calculations for various nucleus nucleus reactions show a high degree of stopping power. The importance of secondary rescattering at these beam energies is demonstrated. The computed nucleon rapidity distributions are compared to available experimental data. It is demonstrated that nonlinear, collective effects like full stopping of target and projectile and matter flow could be expected for heavy projectiles only. For nuclear collisions in the Booster era at BNL and for the lead beam at CERN SPS the authors predict a stimulating future: then a nearly equilibrated, long lived (8 fm/c) macroscopic volume of very high energy density (> 1 GeV/fm 3 ) and baryon density (> 5 times ground state density) is produced

  7. KIDS Nuclear Energy Density Functional: 1st Application in Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Hana; Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Hyun, Chang Ho; Oh, Yongseok

    We apply the KIDS (Korea: IBS-Daegu-Sungkyunkwan) nuclear energy density functional model, which is based on the Fermi momentum expansion, to the study of properties of lj-closed nuclei. The parameters of the model are determined by the nuclear properties at the saturation density and theoretical calculations on pure neutron matter. For applying the model to the study of nuclei, we rely on the Skyrme force model, where the Skyrme force parameters are determined through the KIDS energy density functional. Solving Hartree-Fock equations, we obtain the energies per particle and charge radii of closed magic nuclei, namely, 16O, 28O, 40Ca, 48Ca, 60Ca, 90Zr, 132Sn, and 208Pb. The results are compared with the observed data and further improvement of the model is shortly mentioned.

  8. A Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverter with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Barrero-González, Fermín

    2017-01-01

    The power generation from renewable power sources is variable in nature, and may contain unacceptable fluctuations, which can be alleviated by using energy storage systems. However, the cost of batteries and their limited lifetime are serious disadvantages. To solve these problems, an improvement consisting in the collaborative association of batteries and supercapacitors has been studied. Nevertheless, these studies don’t address in detail the case of residential and large-scale photovoltaic systems. In this paper, a selected combined topology and a new control scheme are proposed to control the power sharing between batteries and supercapacitors. Also, a method for sizing the energy storage system together with the hybrid distribution based on the photovoltaic power curves is introduced. This innovative contribution not only reduces the stress levels on the battery, and hence increases its life span, but also provides constant power injection to the grid during a defined time interval. The proposed scheme is validated through detailed simulation and experimental tests. PMID:28800102

  9. A Techno-Commercial Assessment of Residential and Bulk Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

  10. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.; Gaines, Linda G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-09-30

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  11. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  12. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin

    2014-01-18

    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  13. High energy density capacitors fabricated by thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Johnson, G W; Wagner, A V.

    1999-01-01

    Low energy density in conventional capacitors severely limits efforts to miniaturize power electronics and imposes design limitations on electronics in general. We have successfully applied physical vapor deposition technology to greatly increase capacitor energy density. The high dielectric breakdown strength we have achieved in alumina thin films allows high energy density to be achieved with this moderately low dielectric constant material. The small temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, and the high reliability, high resistivity, and low dielectric loss of Al 2 O 3 , make it even more appealing. We have constructed single dielectric layer thin film capacitors and shown that they can be stacked to form multilayered structures with no loss in yield for a given capacitance. Control of film growth morphology is critical for achieving the smooth, high quality interfaces between metal and dielectric necessary for device operation at high electric fields. Most importantly, high rate deposition with extremely low particle generation is essential for achieving high energy storage at a reasonable cost. This has been achieved by reactive magnetron sputtering in which the reaction to form the dielectric oxide has been confined to the deposition surface. By this technique we have achieved a yield of over 50% for 1 cm 2 devices with an energy density of 14 J per cubic centimeter of Al 2 O 3 dielectric material in 1.2 kV, 4 nF devices. By further reducing defect density and increasing the dielectric constant of the material, we will be able to increase capacitance and construct high energy density devices to meet the requirements of applications in power electronics

  14. Cost-effective energy management for hybrid electric heavy-duty truck including battery aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.T.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Huisman, R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Battery temperature has large impact on battery power capability and battery life time. In Hybrid Electric Heavy-duty trucks (HEVs), the high-voltage battery is normally equipped with an active Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) guaranteeing a desired battery life time. Since the BTMS can

  15. Wind power statistics and an evaluation of wind energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, M.; Parsa, S.; Majidi, M. [Materials and Energy Research Centre, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the statistical data of fifty days` wind speed measurements at the MERC- solar site are used to find out the wind energy density and other wind characteristics with the help of the Weibull probability distribution function. It is emphasized that the Weibull and Rayleigh probability functions are useful tools for wind energy density estimation but are not quite appropriate for properly fitting the actual wind data of low mean speed, short-time records. One has to use either the actual wind data (histogram) or look for a better fit by other models of the probability function. (Author)

  16. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either sta...

  17. Tradeoffs between battery energy capacity and stochastic optimal power management in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Scott J.; Fathy, Hosam K.; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power management research suggest that battery energy capacity requirements may be reduced through proper power management algorithm design. Specifically, algorithms which blend fuel and electricity during the charge depletion phase using smaller batteries may perform equally to algorithms that apply electric-only operation during charge depletion using larger batteries. The implication of this result is that ''blended'' power management algorithms may reduce battery energy capacity requirements, thereby lowering the acquisition costs of PHEVs. This article seeks to quantify the tradeoffs between power management algorithm design and battery energy capacity, in a systematic and rigorous manner. Namely, we (1) construct dynamic PHEV models with scalable battery energy capacities, (2) optimize power management using stochastic control theory, and (3) develop simulation methods to statistically quantify the performance tradeoffs. The degree to which blending enables smaller battery energy capacities is evaluated as a function of both daily driving distance and energy (fuel and electricity) pricing. (author)

  18. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  19. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  20. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  1. High energy density fusing using the Compact Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    My remarks are concerned with employing the Compact Torus magnetic field configuration to produce fusion energy. In particular, I would like to consider high energy density regimes where the pressures generated extend well beyond the strength of materials. Under such conditions, where nearby walls are vaporized and pushed aside each shot, the technological constraints are very different from usual magnetic fusion and may admit opportunities for an improved fusion reactor design. 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Performance evaluation of Mg-AgCI batteries for underwater propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    K. Venkateswara Rao

    2001-01-01

    Magnesium-silver chloride seawater activated reserve pile-type battery was exclusively used in all underwater vehicles as a source of power due to its high energy density and power density. Various tests have been conducted on fully assembled battery to test its performance, suitability and compatibility. However, it is also essential that the battery is subjected to failure mode studies to understand the limitations of the battery and to analyse the vehicles performance under such sit...

  3. Photovoltaic Plants Generation Improvement Using Li-Ion Batteries as Energy Buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Luna, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the PV power plants operability improvement obtained when introducing energy storage (ES) systems which allow decoupling the power received from the sun on the photovoltaic (PV) panels from the power injected by the power plant into the grid. Two energy management strategies a...... are presented and analyzed, using Li-ion batteries as the energy storage buffer. The generated power redistribution and its variability reduction are All the results obtained in this paper are based on one year long simulations which used real irradiance data sampled every two minutes....

  4. Editorial: The Energy Challenge, Batteries, and Why Simple Math Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelhelm, Philipp

    2018-06-04

    "Despite the great progress we have seen in the last 20 years, we are still far from having a sustainable energy supply … When discussing the Energiewende, the relevant numbers are so large that they are hard to realize. How can we understand the dimension of the Energiewende in a more concrete way? …". Read more in the Editorial by Philipp Adelhelm. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Li-ion batteries from LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and anatase/graphene composite anode for stationary energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Viswanathan, Vish V.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Bae, In-Tae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Duong, Tien [US Departments of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20858 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Li-ion batteries made from LiFePO{sub 4} cathode and anatase TiO{sub 2}/graphene composite anode were investigated for potential application in stationary energy storage. Fine-structured LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized by a novel molten surfactant approach whereas anatase TiO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via self-assembly method. The full cell that operated at 1.6 V demonstrated negligible fade even after more than 700 cycles at measured 1 C rate. While with relative lower energy density than traditional Li-ion chemistries interested for vehicle applications, the Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} combination potentially offers long life and low cost, along with safety, all which are critical to the stationary applications. (author)

  6. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  7. Novel nanostructured materials for high energy density supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are currently examining methods of improving energy density while not sacrificing the high power density of supercapacitors. In this study, nanostructured materials assembled from nanometer-sized building blocks with mesoporosity were synthesized in order investigate diffusion time, kinetics, and capacitances. Petal-like cobalt hydroxide Co(OH){sub 2} mesocrystals, urchin-like Co(OH){sub 2} and dicobalt tetroxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ordered arrays as well as N{sub i}O microspheres were assembled from 0-D nanoparticles, 1-D mesoporous nanowires and nanobelts, and 2-D mesoporous nanopetals. The study showed that all the synthesized nanostructured materials delivered larger energy densities while showing electrochemical stability at high rates.

  8. Creating high energy density in nuclei with energetic antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of creating a phase change in nuclear matter using energetic antiprotons and antideuterons is examined. It is found that energy densities of the order of 2 GeV/c can be obtained for periods of approx.2 fm/c with the proper experimental selection of events. 10 refs., 7 figs

  9. Estimate of energy density on CYCLOPS spatial filter pinhole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guch, S. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of a spatial filter between the B and C stages in CYCLOPS to reduce the effects of small-scale beam self-focusing is discussed. An estimate is made of the energy density to which the pinhole will be subjected, and the survivability of various pinhole materials and designs is discussed

  10. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Neutron stars have long been regarded as extraterrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory are highlighted. Although the focus is on the much ...

  11. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  12. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  13. Density-scaling exponents and virial potential-energy correlation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the relation between the density-scaling exponent γ and the virial potential energy correlation coefficient R at several thermodynamic state points in three dimensions for the generalized (2n, n) Lennard-Jones (LJ) system for n = 4, 9, 12, 18, as well as for the standard n = 6 LJ system in two,three, and ...

  14. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  15. Internal wave energy flux from density perturbations in nonlinear stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-11-01

    Tidal flow over the topography at the bottom of the ocean, whose density varies with depth, generates internal gravity waves that have a significant impact on the energy budget of the ocean. Thus, understanding the energy flux (J = p v) is important, but it is difficult to measure simultaneously the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, p and v . In a previous work, a Green's-function-based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous p, v , and thus J , given a density perturbation field for a constant buoyancy frequency N. Here we extend the previous analytic Green's function work to include nonuniform N profiles, namely the tanh-shaped and linear cases, because background density stratifications that occur in the ocean and some experiments are nonlinear. In addition, we present a finite-difference method for the general case where N has an arbitrary profile. Each method is validated against numerical simulations. The methods we present can be applied to measured density perturbation data by using our MATLAB graphical user interface EnergyFlux. PJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088. HLS and MRA were supported by ONR Grant No. N000141110701.

  16. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  17. Energy savings and increased electric vehicle range through improved battery thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Schneider, Christoph; Koehler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells are temperature sensitive: operation outside the optimal operating range causes premature aging and correspondingly reduces vehicle range and battery system lifetime. In order to meet consumer demands for electric and hybrid-electric vehicle performance, especially in adverse climates, a battery thermal management system (BTMS) is often required. This work presents a novel experimental method for analyzing BTMS using three sample cooling plate concepts. For each concept, the input parameters (ambient temperature, coolant temperature and coolant flow rate) are varied and the resulting effect on the average temperature and temperature distribution across and between cells is compared. Additionally, the pressure loss along the coolant path is utilized as an indicator of energy efficiency. Using the presented methodology, various cooling plate layouts optimized for production alternative techniques are compared to the state of the art. It is shown that these production-optimized cooling plates provide sufficient thermal performance with the additional benefit of mechanical integration within the battery and/or vehicle system. It is also shown that the coolant flow influences battery cell thermal behavior more than the solid material and that pressure drop is more sensitive to geometrical changes in the cooling plate than temperature changes at the module.

  18. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  19. In-situ and operando characterization of batteries with energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, William Arthur

    Batteries play a pivotal role in the low-carbon society that is required to thwart the effects of climate change. Alternative low-carbon energy sources, such as wind and solar, are often intermittent and unreliable. Batteries are able capture their energy and deliver it later when it is needed. The implementation of battery systems in grid-level and transportation sectors is essential for efficient use of alternative energy sources. Scientists and engineers need better tools to analyze and measure the performance characteristics of batteries. One of the main hindrances in the progress of battery research is that the constituent electrode materials are inaccessible once an electrochemical cell is constructed. This leaves the researcher with a limited number of available feedback mechanisms to assess the cell's performance, e.g., current, voltage, and impedance. These data are limited in their ability to reveal the more-localized smaller-scale structural mechanisms on which the batteries' performance is so dependent. Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery. By analyzing the structural behavior of battery electrodes, one is able to gain insight to the physical properties on which the battery's performance is dependent. In this dissertation, EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation is used to probe the electrodes of manufactured primary and secondary lithium batteries under in-situ and operando conditions. The technique is then applied to solve specific challenges facing lithium ion batteries. Diffraction spectra are collected from within a battery at 40 micrometer resolution. Peak-fitting is used to quantitatively estimate the abundance of lithiated and non-lithiated phases. Through mapping the distribution of phases within, structural changes are linked to the battery's galvanic response. A three-dimensional spatial analysis of lithium iron phosphate batteries suggests that evolution

  20. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  1. Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2013-05-21

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  2. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-06-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg-1total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg-1total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  3. Nanostructured oxides for energy storage applications in batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.; Roberts, A. J.; Yee, E. L. H.; Slade, R. C. T.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are extensively investigated for application in energy storage and power generation devices. This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials based on oxides of vanadium and with their application as electrode materials for energy storage systems viz. supercapacitors. These nano-oxides have been synthesized using a hydrothermal route in the presence of templates: 1-hexadecylamine, Tweens and Brij types. Using templates during synthesis enables tailoring of the particle morphology and physical characteristics of synthesized powders. Broad X-ray diffraction peaks show the formation of nanoparticles, confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations. SEM studies show that a large range of nanostructures such as needles, fibers, particles, etc. can be synthesized. These particles have varying surface areas and electrical conductivity. Enhancement of surface area as much as seven times relative to surface areas of starting parent materials has been observed. These properties make such materials ideal candidates for application as electrode materials in super capacitors. Assembly and characterization of supercapacitors based on electrodes containing these active nano-oxides are discussed. Specific capacitance of >100 F g -1 has been observed. The specific capacitance decreases with cycling: causes of this phenomenon are presented. (authors)

  4. One-step electroplating porous graphene oxide electrodes of supercapacitors for ultrahigh capacitance and energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Zhu, Jiaqi

    2015-01-01

    An electroplating method was used for the first time to synthesize 3D porous graphene oxide (PGO) architectures, exhibiting ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrodes of supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated the porous structures which promoted the stability and alleviated the stacking of the graphene oxide layers. As investigated in a three-electrode supercapacitor cell, PGO electrodes exhibited the maximum capacitance and energy of 973 F · g −1 and 98.4 Wh · Kg −1 , which are better than current reports and comparable to batteries. At 4 A · g −1 for high-power applications, PGO electrodes reached a capacitance, energy, and power density of 493 F · g −1 , 49.9 Wh · Kg −1 , and 1700 W · Kg −1 , and they retained ∼97.83% of capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge processes. Furthermore, when the PGO was bent exaggeratedly, it still displayed identical properties, which is of important significance for supporting wearable devices. (paper)

  5. One-step electroplating porous graphene oxide electrodes of supercapacitors for ultrahigh capacitance and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Zhu, Jiaqi

    2015-02-06

    An electroplating method was used for the first time to synthesize 3D porous graphene oxide (PGO) architectures, exhibiting ultrahigh capacitance and energy density as electrodes of supercapacitors. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated the porous structures which promoted the stability and alleviated the stacking of the graphene oxide layers. As investigated in a three-electrode supercapacitor cell, PGO electrodes exhibited the maximum capacitance and energy of 973 F · g(-1) and 98.4 Wh · Kg(-1), which are better than current reports and comparable to batteries. At 4 A · g(-1) for high-power applications, PGO electrodes reached a capacitance, energy, and power density of 493 F · g(-1), 49.9 Wh · Kg(-1), and 1700 W · Kg(-1), and they retained ∼97.83% of capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge processes. Furthermore, when the PGO was bent exaggeratedly, it still displayed identical properties, which is of important significance for supporting wearable devices.

  6. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  7. Kinetic-energy density functional: Atoms and shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.

    1996-01-01

    We present a nonlocal kinetic-energy functional which includes an anisotropic average of the density through a symmetrization procedure. This functional allows a better description of the nonlocal effects of the electron system. The main consequence of the symmetrization is the appearance of a clear shell structure in the atomic density profiles, obtained after the minimization of the total energy. Although previous results with some of the nonlocal kinetic functionals have given incipient structures for heavy atoms, only our functional shows a clear shell structure for most of the atoms. The atomic total energies have a good agreement with the exact calculations. Discussion of the chemical potential and the first ionization potential in atoms is included. The functional is also extended to spin-polarized systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Solvent density inhomogeneities and solvation free energies in supercritical diatomic fluids: a density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husowitz, B; Talanquer, V

    2007-02-07

    Density functional theory is used to explore the solvation properties of a spherical solute immersed in a supercritical diatomic fluid. The solute is modeled as a hard core Yukawa particle surrounded by a diatomic Lennard-Jones fluid represented by two fused tangent spheres using an interaction site approximation. The authors' approach is particularly suitable for thoroughly exploring the effect of different interaction parameters, such as solute-solvent interaction strength and range, solvent-solvent long-range interactions, and particle size, on the local solvent structure and the solvation free energy under supercritical conditions. Their results indicate that the behavior of the local coordination number in homonuclear diatomic fluids follows trends similar to those reported in previous studies for monatomic fluids. The local density augmentation is particularly sensitive to changes in solute size and is affected to a lesser degree by variations in the solute-solvent interaction strength and range. The associated solvation free energies exhibit a nonmonotonous behavior as a function of density for systems with weak solute-solvent interactions. The authors' results suggest that solute-solvent interaction anisotropies have a major influence on the nature and extent of local solvent density inhomogeneities and on the value of the solvation free energies in supercritical solutions of heteronuclear molecules.

  9. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS, and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB. In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between system parameters and battery serving life, the data during a 37-minute driving cycle has been collected and decomposed into discharging/charging fragments firstly, and then the optimal control strategy which is supposed to maximally use the available EDLC energy is presented to decompose the power between battery and EDLC. Furthermore, based on a battery degradation model, the conversion of power demand by PE function and PE matrix is applied to evaluate the relationship between the available energy stored in HESS and the serving life of battery pack. Therefore, according to the approach which could decouple parameters matching and optimal control of the HESS, the process of battery degradation and its serving life estimation for HESS has been summed up.

  10. Comparison of comprehensive properties of Ni-MH (nickel-metal hydride) and Li-ion (lithium-ion) batteries in terms of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jianqiang; Yan, Fuwu; Zhang, Pei; Du, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we successfully proposed a method to compare the comprehensive properties of different battery systems in terms of a parameter, energy efficiency. The quantitative relationship of OCV (open circuit voltage) and SOC (state of charge) for Ni-MH batteries is firstly established to calculate the energy efficiency. Then a comprehensive comparison of the energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries is systemically analyzed under different operating conditions. The results suggest that the energy efficiency is larger for Li-ion batteries than for Ni-MH batteries under charge and charge–discharge cycles, but lesser under a large current rate discharge. The outcome indicates that Ni-MH batteries are more favorable in the case of large current rates discharge than Li-ion batteries. Under plus current rates, two factors, SOC and current rates are analyzed with respect to energy efficiency. For both the batteries, the energy efficiency is varied slightly with SOC, but declines greatly with increased current rates. - Highlights: • A method to compare the comprehensive property for different battery systems. • The relationship of OCV and SOC for Ni-MH batteries established. • An analysis of energy efficiency for Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries. • Ni-MH batteries are more favorable under large current rates discharge

  11. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, William A.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Buie, Cullen R.

    2013-08-01

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm-2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.

  12. Privacy aware energy management for a smart home including a battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmueller, Christoph; Charzinski, Joachim [Hochschule der Medien, Stuttgart (Germany); Grecos, Christos [University of the West of Scotland (UWS) (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Besides many benefits the intelligent power grid smart grid implies new security and privacy risks. The energy usage profiles recorded by smart meters could be used harmfully against energy customers, as they may reveal information on personal or business activity involving electric devices. Transmission of energy usage data over the internet and data mining techniques increase scalability and potential damage of possible attacks. Besides known measures of IT security, local energy storage capable of changing load profiles with its charging and discharging activity could be a fundamental privacy improvement for electricity customers. This paper shows a management algorithm for stationary electric storage with respect to information contained in energy usage profiles of housing units. A software simulation benchmarks parameters of a battery management algorithm by reference to privacy aspects and energy cost. (orig.)

  13. Anti-Ferroelectric Ceramics for High Energy Density Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing dependence on electrical energy for powering modern equipment and electronics, research is focused on the development of efficient methods for the generation, storage and distribution of electrical power. In this regard, the development of suitable dielectric based solid-state capacitors will play a key role in revolutionizing modern day electronic and electrical devices. Among the popular dielectric materials, anti-ferroelectrics (AFE display evidence of being a strong contender for future ceramic capacitors. AFE materials possess low dielectric loss, low coercive field, low remnant polarization, high energy density, high material efficiency, and fast discharge rates; all of these characteristics makes AFE materials a lucrative research direction. However, despite the evident advantages, there have only been limited attempts to develop this area. This article attempts to provide a focus to this area by presenting a timely review on the topic, on the relevant scientific advancements that have been made with respect to utilization and development of anti-ferroelectric materials for electric energy storage applications. The article begins with a general introduction discussing the need for high energy density capacitors, the present solutions being used to address this problem, and a brief discussion of various advantages of anti-ferroelectric materials for high energy storage applications. This is followed by a general description of anti-ferroelectricity and important anti-ferroelectric materials. The remainder of the paper is divided into two subsections, the first of which presents various physical routes for enhancing the energy storage density while the latter section describes chemical routes for enhanced storage density. This is followed by conclusions and future prospects and challenges which need to be addressed in this particular field.

  14. Solid ionic: these unusual materials applications in high-energy-density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, D.F.; Farrington, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The idea that ions can diffuse as rapidly in a solid as in an aqueous salt solution may seem strange to many chemists. But a variety of solids with high ionic conductivities are known. Compounds have been discovered that conduct anions (including F - and O 2- ) and cations (including monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations). These substances range from hard, refractory materials, such as sodium β-alumina, through softer compounds, such as silver iodide (AgI) to the very soft polymer electrolytes. They include compounds that are stoichiometric (AgI), nonstoichiometric (sodium β-alumina), or doped (calcia-stabilized zirconia). A variety of names have been applied to these materials: among them, solid electrolytes, superionic conductors, and fast-ion conductors. Fast-ion transport in solids is a lively area of study in solid-state chemistry and physics. High-conductivity solid electrolytes have revolutionized conventional concepts of ionic compounds, and their potential uses range from high-energy-density battery and fuel-cell electrolytes to chemical sensors and from lasers to phosphors. Devices using solid electrolytes are already available commercially-oxygen detectors for automotive pollution-control systems employ solid O 2- electrolytes, and solid-state batteries using solid electrolytes are employed in heart pacemakers

  15. Functional derivative of noninteracting kinetic energy density functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shubin; Ayers, Paul W.

    2004-01-01

    Proofs from different theoretical frameworks, namely, the Hohenbergh-Kohn theorems, the Kohn-Sham scheme, and the first-order density matrix representation, have been presented in this paper to show that the functional derivative of the noninteracting kinetic energy density functional can uniquely be expressed as the negative of the Kohn-Sham effective potential, arbitrary only to an additive orbital-independent constant. Key points leading to the current result as well as confusion about the quantity in the literature are briefly discussed

  16. Energy Management Strategy in Consideration of Battery Health for PHEV via Stochastic Control and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs that not only tries to minimize the energy consumption, but also considers the battery health. First, a battery model that can be applied to energy management optimization is given. In this model, battery health damage can be estimated in the different states of charge (SOC and temperature of the battery pack. Then, because of the inevitability that limiting the battery health degradation will increase energy consumption, a Pareto energy management optimization problem is formed. This multi-objective optimal control problem is solved numerically by using stochastic dynamic programming (SDP and particle swarm optimization (PSO for satisfying the vehicle power demand and considering the tradeoff between energy consumption and battery health at the same time. The optimization solution is obtained offline by utilizing real historical traffic data and formed as mappings on the system operating states so as to implement online in the actual driving conditions. Finally, the simulation results carried out on the GT-SUITE-based PHEV test platform are illustrated to demonstrate that the proposed multi-objective optimal control strategy would effectively yield benefits.

  17. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  18. Ramping Performance Analysis of the Kahuku Wind-Energy Battery Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    High penetrations of wind power on the electrical grid can introduce technical challenges caused by resource variability. Such variability can have undesirable effects on the frequency, voltage, and transient stability of the grid. Energy storage devices can be an effective tool in reducing variability impacts on the power grid in the form of power smoothing and ramp control. Integrating anenergy storage system with a wind power plant can help smooth the variable power produced from wind. This paper explores the fast-response, megawatt-scale, wind-energy battery storage systems that were recently deployed throughout the Hawaiian islands to support wind and solar projects.

  19. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...... by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities...

  20. Simulation of Ni-MH Batteries via an Equivalent Circuit Model for Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurement was conducted at the entire cell level for studying of the Ni-MH rechargeable batteries. An improved equivalent circuit model considering diffusion process is proposed for simulation of battery impedance data at different charge input levels. The cell capacity decay was diagnosed by analyzing the ohmic resistance, activation resistance, and mass transfer resistance of the Ni-MH cells with degraded capacity. The capacity deterioration of this type, Ni-MH cell, is considered in relation to the change of activation resistance of the nickel positive electrodes. Based on the report and surface analysis obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the composition formula of metal-hydride electrodes can be closely documented as the AB5 type alloy and the “A” elements are recognized as lanthanum (La and cerium (Ce. The capacity decay of the Ni-MH cell is potentially initiated due to starved electrolyte for the electrochemical reaction of active materials inside the Ni-MH battery, and the discharge product of Ni(OH2 at low state-of-charge level is anticipated to have more impeding effects on electrode kinetic process for higher power output and efficient energy delivery.

  1. Simulation and experiment of thermal energy management with phase change material for ageing LiFePO4 power battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Zhang Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We study the thermal energy management performance of ageing LiFePO 4 power battery. → 3-D modules of single cell and battery pack are formulated according to the experimental results. → Thermal resistance in the battery cell leaded to an inevitable temperature difference. → It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and lower the melting point of phase change material. → Thermal conductivity of phase change material and battery exist an effective proportion. - Abstract: Thermal energy management performance of ageing commercial rectangular LiFePO 4 power batteries using phase change material (PCM) and thermal behavior related to thermal conductivity between the PCM and the cell are discussed in this paper. The heat sources are simplified according to the experimental results of the cells discharged at 35 A (∼5 C). 3-D modules of a single cell and battery pack are formulated, respectively. The results show that the thermal resistance in the cell leads to an inevitable temperature difference. It is necessary to improve the thermal conductivity and to lower the melting point of the PCM for heat transfer enhancement. The PCM with a melting point lower than 45 deg. C will be more effective for heat dissipation, with a desired maximum temperature below 50 deg. C. The temperature difference in the whole unit before PCM melting will be decreased significantly. In addition, a proper k PCM :k c is necessary for a well designed battery thermal energy management system.

  2. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-01-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery

  3. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Akimoto, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  4. Simulation-based design of energy management system with storage battery for a refugee shelter in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, K.; Zhang, J.; Horie, H.; Tanaka, K. [Department of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Since the massive earthquake hit eastern Japan in March, 2011, our team has participated in the recovery planning for Kesen Association, which is a group of cities in northeastern Japan. As one of our proposals for the recovery planning for the community, we are designing energy management system with renewable energy (RE) and storage batteries. Some public facilities in the area have been used as refugee shelters, but refugees had to put up with life without electricity for a while after the disaster. If RE generator and storage batteries are introduced into the facilities, it is possible to provide refugees with electricity. In this study, the sizes of photovoltaic (PV) appliances and storage batteries to be introduced into one public facility are optimized. The optimization is based on simulation, in which electric energy is managed by charge and discharge of storage battery.

  5. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stand-alone wind system with Vanadium Redox Battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Barote, L.; Weissbach, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. A Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) system has many features which make its integration with a stand-alone wind energy system attractive. This paper proposes the integration of a VRB system...... with a typical stand-alone wind energy system during wind speed variation as well as transient performance under variable load. The investigated system consists of a variable speed wind turbine with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), diode rectifier bridge, buck-boost converter, bidirectional charge...... controller, transformer, inverter, ac loads and VRB (to store a surplus of wind energy and to supply power during a wind power shortage). The main purpose is to supply domestic appliances through a single phase 230V, 50Hz inverter. Simulations are accomplished in order to validate the stability of the supply....

  7. Big things expected from Little's new battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.

    1993-01-01

    Spire Corp. of Bedford, Mass., is onto a new technology that its chief executive officer, Roger Little, believes may change people's lives and enhance the performance of many electronic devices. It is a novel battery aimed at things small - medical devices, computer chips and possibly even micro machines. The battery uses a radioisotope as a power source and can achieve energy densities 1,000 times that of conventional batteries. To overcome the problem of radiation damage to the semiconductor material, the battery uses indium phosphide from photovoltaic cells

  8. Comment on 'Kinetic energy as a density functional'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; March, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent paper, Nesbet [Phys. Rev. A 65, 010502(R) (2001)] has proposed dropping ''the widespread but unjustified assumption that the existence of a ground-state density functional for the kinetic energy, T s [ρ], of an N-electron system implies the existence of a density-functional derivative, δT s [ρ]/δρ(r), equivalent to a local potential function,'' because, according to his arguments, this derivative 'has the mathematical character of a linear operator that acts on orbital wave functions'. Our Comment demonstrates that the statement called by Nesbet an 'unjustified assumption' happens, in fact, to be a rigorously proven theorem. Therefore, his previous conclusions stemming from his different view of this derivative, which undermined the foundations of density-functional theory, can be discounted

  9. Synthesis and characterization of high-density LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhaorong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)], E-mail: czr_56@163.com; Lv Haojie; Tang Hongwei; Li Huaji [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Yuan Xiaozi; Wang Haijiang [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2009-08-01

    To achieve a high-energy-density lithium electrode, high-density LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode material for a lithium-ion battery was synthesized using self-produced high-density FePO{sub 4} as a precursor, glucose as a C source, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a Li source, in a pipe furnace under an atmosphere of 5% H{sub 2}-95% N{sub 2}. The structure of the synthesized material was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the charge/discharge process. The tap-density of the synthesized LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite powder with a carbon content of 7% reached 1.80 g m{sup -3}. The charge/discharge tests show that the cathode material has initial charge/discharge capacities of 190.5 and 167.0 mAh g{sup -1}, respectively, with a volume capacity of 300.6 mAh cm{sup -3}, at a 0.1C rate. At a rate of 5C, the LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite shows a high discharge capacity of 98.3 mAh g{sup -1} and a volume capacity of 176.94 mAh cm{sup -3}.

  10. Technical and economic design of photovoltaic and battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolini, Marco; Gamberi, Mauro; Graziani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of grid connected photovoltaic system integrating battery energy storage system. • A model to manage the energy flows and assess the system profitability is presented. • The model evaluates the effective PV power rate and battery energy system capacity. • An application and multi-scenario analysis based on an Italian context is discussed. • Results show the system technical feasibility and an energy cost save of 52 €/MW h. - Abstract: In the last years, the technological development and the increasing market competitiveness of renewable energy systems, like solar and wind energy power plants, create favorable conditions to the switch of the electricity generation from large centralized facilities to small decentralized energy systems. The distributed electricity generation is a suitable option for a sustainable development thanks to the environmental impact reduction, the load management benefits and the opportunity to provide electricity to remote areas. Despite the current cut off of the national supporting policies to the renewables, the photovoltaic (PV) systems still find profitable conditions for the grid connected users when the produced energy is self-consumed. Due to the intermittent and random nature of the solar source, PV plants require the adoption of an energy storage system to compensate fluctuations and to meet the energy demand during the night hours. This paper presents a technical and economic model for the design of a grid connected PV plant with battery energy storage (BES) system, in which the electricity demand is satisfied through the PV–BES system and the national grid, as the backup source. The aim is to present the PV–BES system design and management strategy and to discuss the analytical model to determine the PV system rated power and the BES system capacity able to minimize the Levelized Cost of the Electricity (LCOE). The proposed model considers the hourly energy demand profile for a reference

  11. Density Functional Methods for Shock Physics and High Energy Density Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics with density functional theory has emerged over the last two decades as a powerful and accurate framework for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties with broad application to dynamic compression, high energy density science, and warm dense matter. These calculations have been extensively validated against shock and ramp wave experiments, are a principal component of high-fidelity equation of state generation, and are having wide-ranging impacts on inertial confinement fusion, planetary science, and shock physics research. In addition to thermodynamic properties, phase boundaries, and the equation of state, one also has access to electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and lower energy optical properties. Importantly, all these properties are obtained within the same theoretical framework and are manifestly consistent. In this talk I will give a brief history and overview of molecular dynamics with density functional theory and its use in calculating a wide variety of thermodynamic and transport properties for materials ranging from ambient to extreme conditions and with comparisons to experimental data. I will also discuss some of the limitations and difficulties, as well as active research areas. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  13. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  14. Density and starting-energy dependent effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Norio; Nagata, Sinobu; Kasuga, Teruo

    1979-01-01

    A new effective potential constructed from the reaction matrix calculation of nuclear matters is proposed, taking three-body effects into account. Starting from the two-body scattering equation for nuclear matters, an equation with averaged momentum is introduced as the definition of effective interaction. The parameters in the equation are the Fermi momentum and the starting energy. The nuclear density dependence and the starting energy dependence are independently treated in the potential. The effective interactions including three-body effects were calculated. The dependence on the starting energy is large. The effective interaction is more attractive in the triplet E state, and assures overall saturation without any artificial renormalization. The reaction matrix calculation can be well reproduced by the calculation with this effective potential. The results of calculation for the binding energy of He-4 and O-16 and the shell model matrix elements of O-16 are represented. (Kato, T.)

  15. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  16. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  17. Modeling of Materials for Energy Storage: A Challenge for Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltak, Merzuk; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    Hollandite α-MnO2 is a promising material for rechargeable batteries and is studied extensively in the community because of its interesting tunnel structure and the corresponding large capacity for lithium as well as sodium ions. However, the presence of partially reduced Mn ions due to doping with Ag or during lithiation makes hollandite a challenging system for density functional theory and the conventionally employed PBE+U method. A naive attempt to model the ternary system LixAgyMnO2 with density functionals, similar to those employed for the case y = 0 , fails and predicts a strong monoclinic distortion of the experimentally observed tetragonal unit cell for Ag2Mn8O16. Structure and binding energies are compared with experimental data and show the importance of van der Waals interactions as well as the necessity for an accurate description of the cooperative Jan-Teller effects for silver hollandite AgyMnO2. Based on these observations a ternary phase diagram is calculated allowing to predict the physical and chemical properties of LixAgyMnO2, such as stable stoichiometries, open circuit voltages, the formation of Ag metal and the structural change during lithiation. Department of Energy (DOE) under award #DE-SC0012673.

  18. Microfabricated pseudocapacitors using Ni(OH)2 electrodes exhibit remarkable volumetric capacitance and energy density

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-09-10

    Metal hydroxide based microfabricated pseudocapacitors with impressive volumetric stack capacitance and energy density are demonstrated. A combination of top-down photolithographic process and bottom-up chemical synthesis is employed to fabricate the micro-pseudocapacitors (μ-pseudocapacitors). The resulting Ni(OH)2-based devices show several excellent characteristics including high-rate redox activity up to 500 V s-1 and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF cm-2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F cm-3. This volumetric capacitance is two-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based μ-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode architecture. Furthermore, these μ-pseudocapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh cm-3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. The heterogeneous growth of Ni(OH)2 over the Ni surface during the chemical bath deposition is found to be the key parameter in the formation of uniform monolithic Ni(OH)2 mesoporous nanosheets with vertical orientation, responsible for the remarkable properties of the fabricated devices. Additionally, functional tandem configurations of the μ-pseudocapacitors are shown to be capable of powering a light-emitting diode.

  19. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  20. Neutron and proton densities and the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    2003-01-01

    The neutron/proton distributions in nuclei, in particular, the n-p difference, are considered in a 'macroscopic' Thomas-Fermi approach. The density dependence F(ρ) of the symmetry-energy density, where ρ is the total density, drives this difference in the absence of Coulomb and density-gradient contributions when we obtain an explicit solution for the difference in terms of F. If F is constant then the n-p difference and, in particular, the difference δR between the neutron and proton rms radii are zero. The Coulomb energy and gradient terms are treated variationally. The latter make only a small contribution to the n-p difference, and this is then effectively determined by F. The Coulomb energy reduces δR. Switching off the Coulomb contribution to the n-p difference then gives the maximum δR for a given F. Our numerical results are for 208 Pb. We consider a wide range of F; for these, both δR and the ratio χ of the surface to volume symmetry-energy coefficient depend, approximately, only on an integral involving F -1 . For δR < or approx. 0.45 fm this dependence is one valued and approximately linear for small δR, and this integral is then effectively determined by δR. There is a strong correlation between δR and χ, allowing an approximate determination of χ from δR. δR has a maximum of congruent with 0.65 fm

  1. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  2. A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Telaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion and sodium-sulfur (NaS batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system.

  3. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.

    2005-01-01

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  4. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  5. Harvesting energy an sustainable power source, replace batteries for powering WSN and devices on the IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Latinovic, T.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2017-05-01

    Harvesting energy from nonconventional sources in the environment has received increased attention over the past decade from researchers who study these alternative energy sources for low power applications. Although that energy harvested is small and in the order of milliwatt, it can provide enough power for wireless sensors and other low-power applications. In the environment there is a lot of wasted energy that can be converted into electricity to power the various circuits and represents a potentially cheap source of power. Energy harvesting is important because it offers an alternative power supply for electronic devices where is does not exist conventional energy sources. This technology applied in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and devices on the IoT, will eliminate the need for network-based energy and conventional batteries, will minimize maintenance costs, eliminate cables and batteries and is ecological. It has the same advantage in applications from remote locations, underwater, and other hard to reach places where conventional batteries and energy are not suitable. Energy harvesting will promote environmentally friendly technologies that will save energy, will reduce CO2 emissions, which makes this technology indispensable for achieving next-generation smart cities and sustainable society. In response to the challenges of energy, in this article we remind the basics of harvesting energy and we discuss the various applications of this technology where traditional batteries cannot be used.

  6. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    ). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot

  7. Feasibility study and economic analysis of pumped hydro storage and battery storage for a renewable energy powered island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Batteries and pumped hydro storage schemes are examined. • Sizing procedure for each option is investigated in detail. • The two schemes are compared in terms of life cycle cost and technical viability. • Sensitivity analyses are conducted on five key input parameters. - Abstract: This study examined and compared two energy storage technologies, i.e. batteries and pumped hydro storage (PHS), for the renewable energy powered microgrid power supply system on a remote island in Hong Kong. The problems of energy storage for off-grid renewable energy were analyzed. The sizing methods and economic models were developed, and finally applied in the real project (case study). The results provide the most suitable energy storage scheme for local decision-makers. The two storage schemes were further divided into 4 options. Accordingly, the life-cycle costs (LCC), levelized costs for the renewable energy storage system (LCRES) and the LCC ratios between all options were calculated and compared. It was found that the employment of conventional battery (Option 2) had a higher LCC value than the advanced deep cycle battery (Option 1), indicating that using deep cycle batteries is more suitable for a standalone renewable power supply system. The pumped storage combined with battery bank option (Option 3) had only 55% LCC of that of Option 1, making this combined option more cost-competitive than the sole battery option. The economic benefit of pumped storage is even more significant in the case of purely pumped storage with a hydraulic controller (Option 4), with the lowest LCC among all options at 29–48% of Option 1. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that PHS is even more cost competitive by controlling some adjustments such as increasing energy storage capacity and days of autonomy. Therefore, the renewable energy system coupled with pumped storage presents technically feasible opportunities and practical potential for continuous power supply in remote

  8. Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROTE, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. The main purpose is to supply 230 V / 50 Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The experimental waveforms, compared to the simulation results, show a good prediction of the electrical variable parameters. Furthermore, it can be seen that the results validate the stability of the supply.

  9. Energy Management System Optimization for Battery-Ultracapacitor Powered Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Koroglu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy usage and environment pollution in the transportation are major problems of today’s world. Although electric vehicles are promising solutions to these problems, their energy management methods are complicated and need to be improved for the extensive usage. In this work, the heuristic optimization methods; Differential Evolution Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, are used to provide an optimal energy management system for a battery/ultracapacitor powered electric vehicle without prior knowledge of the drive cycle. The proposed scheme has been simulated in Matlab and applied on the ECE driving cycle. The differences between optimization methods are compared with reproducible and measurable error criteria. Results and the comparisons show the effectiveness and the practicality of the applied methods for the energy management problem of the multi-source electric vehicles.

  10. Yolk-shell structured Sb@C anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Junhua; Yan, Pengfei; Luo, Langli; Qi, Xingguo; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Biwei; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Chongmin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Yuehe; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Despite great advances in sodium-ion battery developments, the search for high energy and stable anode materials remains a challenge. Alloy or conversion-typed anode materials are attractive candidates of high specific capacity and low voltage potential, yet their applications are hampered by the large volume expansion and hence poor electrochemical reversibility and fast capacity fade. Here, we use antimony (Sb) as an example to demonstrate the use of yolk-shell structured anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries. The Sb@C yolk-shell structure prepared by controlled reduction and selective removal of Sb2O3 from carbon coated Sb2O3 nanoparticles can accommodate the Sb swelling upon sodiation and improve the structural/electrical integrity against pulverization. It delivers a high specific capacity of ~554 mAh•g-1, good rate capability (315 mhA•g-1 at 10C rate) and long cyclability (92% capacity retention over 200 cycles). Full-cells of O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathodes and Sb@C-hard carbon composite anodes demonstrate a high specific energy of ~130 Wh•kg-1 (based on the total mass of cathode and anode) in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V, ~1.5 times energy of full-cells with similar design using hard carbon anodes.

  11. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  12. Control and management of energy in a PV system equipped with batteries storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Hirech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage. The objective is to exploit the maximum of power using Hill climbing improved algorithm that considers optimal electrical characteristics of PV panels regardless of the system perturbation, to manage the energy between blocs of PV system in order to control the charge/discharge process and inject the energy surplus into the grid and also to estimate the state of charge with precision. Moreover, the system guarantees the acquisition and presentation of results on computer, supervision and so on. The results obtained show the robustness of the PV system, good control and protection of batteries under the maximum of energy provided by the PV panels. The state of charge estimation is evaluated by using measured parameters in real time; it shows an improvement of around 5% compared to the conventional technique.

  13. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  14. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  15. Vacuum stress energy density and its gravitational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ricardo; Fulling, Stephen A.; Kaplan, Lev; Kirsten, Klaus; Liu, Zhonghai; Milton, Kimball A.

    2008-04-01

    In nongravitational physics the local density of energy is often regarded as merely a bookkeeping device; only total energy has an experimental meaning—and it is only modulo a constant term. But in general relativity the local stress-energy tensor is the source term in Einstein's equation. In closed universes, and those with Kaluza-Klein dimensions, theoretical consistency demands that quantum vacuum energy should exist and have gravitational effects, although there are no boundary materials giving rise to that energy by van der Waals interactions. In the lab there are boundaries, and in general the energy density has a nonintegrable singularity as a boundary is approached (for idealized boundary conditions). As pointed out long ago by Candelas and Deutsch, in this situation there is doubt about the viability of the semiclassical Einstein equation. Our goal is to show that the divergences in the linearized Einstein equation can be renormalized to yield a plausible approximation to the finite theory that presumably exists for realistic boundary conditions. For a scalar field with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions inside a rectangular parallelepiped, we have calculated by the method of images all components of the stress tensor, for all values of the conformal coupling parameter and an exponential ultraviolet cutoff parameter. The qualitative features of contributions from various classes of closed classical paths are noted. Then the Estrada-Kanwal distributional theory of asymptotics, particularly the moment expansion, is used to show that the linearized Einstein equation with the stress-energy near a plane boundary as source converges to a consistent theory when the cutoff is removed. This paper reports work in progress on a project combining researchers in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. It is supported by NSF Grants PHY-0554849 and PHY-0554926.

  16. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  17. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  18. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  19. Increased Energy Delivery for Parallel Battery Packs with No Regulated Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Ti

    In this dissertation, a new approach to paralleling different battery types is presented. A method for controlling charging/discharging of different battery packs by using low-cost bi-directional switches instead of DC-DC converters is proposed. The proposed system architecture, algorithms, and control techniques allow batteries with different chemistry, voltage, and SOC to be properly charged and discharged in parallel without causing safety problems. The physical design and cost for the energy management system is substantially reduced. Additionally, specific types of failures in the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a photovoltaic (PV) system when tracking only the load current of a DC-DC converter are analyzed. The periodic nonlinear load current will lead MPPT realized by the conventional perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm to be problematic. A modified MPPT algorithm is proposed and it still only requires typically measured signals, yet is suitable for both linear and periodic nonlinear loads. Moreover, for a modular DC-DC converter using several converters in parallel, the input power from PV panels is processed and distributed at the module level. Methods for properly implementing distributed MPPT are studied. A new approach to efficient MPPT under partial shading conditions is presented. The power stage architecture achieves fast input current change rate by combining a current-adjustable converter with a few converters operating at a constant current.

  20. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.