WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy cost burden

  1. Fully Burdened Cost of Energy Analysis: A Model for Marine Corps Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and the lognormal parameters are not used in the creation of the output distribution since they are not required values for a triangular distribution...Army energy security implementation strategy. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Bell Helicopter. (n.d.). The Bell AH-1Z Zulu [Image

  2. Tax compliance costs: A review of cost burdens and cost structures

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Vaillancourt, François

    2014-01-01

    Our paper provides a comprehensive report of empirical research on tax compliance costs. Compared to previous reviews, our focus is on average costs for sub-groups (individual taxpayers, small business-es, large businesses) and the composition of the cost burden with regards to different cost components(in-house time effort, external adviser costs, other monetary expenses), different taxes (e.g. income tax, value added tax) and different activities like tax accounting and tax planning. In add...

  3. Kyoto, coal and sharing the cost burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.

    1998-01-01

    Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (the Rio Treaty) at their first conference in 1995 agreed that the commitments entered into under the Convention were 'not adequate' to achieve its objective. These nations determined to proceed to strengthen those commitments under a protocol to be prepared for the third conference at Kyoto. Also it was to contain 'quantified emissions limitation objectives' (binding targets) on the industrial countries. For such targets to be consistent with Australia's interests, they would need to recognise Australia's relatively fast population and economic growth (both of which imply relatively faster growth in emissions), the increasing preponderance of energy intensive industries in the Australian economy, and our dependence on the export of energy intensive manufactures (like aluminium and other metals) and direct export of fossil fuels (including coal and natural gas). Major parties to the protocol negotiations - the USA and the EU - were advocates of uniform percentage emissions reductions from 1990 levels. Uniform percentage reductions, however intuitively appealing, impose widely different costs on different parties on account of their different circumstances. Australia would have been penalised by uniform reductions because our projected business-as-usual emissions trajectory is relatively steep, and measures adopted internationally to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions impact disproportionately on this economy (notably on account of reduced demand for Australian coal). The accompanying charts depict ABAREs 'less stringent' emissions scenario - addressing a goal of stabilising industrial countries' emissions of C0 2 rather than reducing them. ABARE's simulation for Australia by sector shows big negative impacts on output of non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, and coal. The metals industries, directly or indirectly are the coal industry's most important domestic customers. It is argued that because of the impact

  4. Developing macroeconomic energy cost indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Indicators are more and more drawn on for policy making and assessment. This is also true for energy policy. However, while numerous different energy price figures are available, subordinate energy cost indicators are lacking. This paper lays out a general concept for such indicator sets and presents a flexible framework for representative and consistent energy cost indicators with an underlying weighting principle based on consumption shares. Their application would provide interesting new insights into the relationship between energy cost burdens of different sectors and countries. It would allow for more rigorous analysis in the field of energy economics and policy, particularly with regard to market monitoring and impact assessment as well as ex-post-policy analysis.

  5. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives. We studied patients ≥ 18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32 in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date. Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12% had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70% than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P  Conclusions Nonunions in TSF’s are associated with substantial healthcare resource use, common use of strong opioids, and high per-patient costs. Open fractures are associated with higher likelihood of nonunion than closed ones. Effective screening of nonunion risk may decrease this morbidity and subsequent healthcare resource use and costs.

  6. The real cost of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Gas prices only seem high. When you say fillerup, you pay but a fraction of the actual cost. Not included are the tens of billions (close to $50 for each barrel of oil) the military spends annually to protect oil fields in the Persian Gulf. Then tack on the hidden costs of environmental degradation, health effects, lost employment, government subsidies and more. Sooner or later, the public pays the entire price. Bringing market prices in line with energy's hidden burdens will be one of the great challenges of the coming decades. The author describes these hidden costs and makes estimates of them

  7. Cost and disease burden of Dengue in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauté Julien

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is endemic in Cambodia (pop. estimates 14.4 million, a country with poor health and economic indicators. Disease burden estimates help decision makers in setting priorities. Using recent estimates of dengue incidence in Cambodia, we estimated the cost of dengue and its burden using disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Methods Recent population-based cohort data were used to calculate direct and productive costs, and DALYs. Health seeking behaviors were taken into account in cost estimates. Specific age group incidence estimates were used in DALYs calculation. Results The mean cost per dengue case varied from US$36 - $75 over 2006-2008 respectively, resulting in an overall annual cost from US$3,327,284 in 2008 to US$14,429,513 during a large epidemic in 2007. Patients sustain the highest share of costs by paying an average of 78% of total costs and 63% of direct medical costs. DALY rates per 100,000 individuals ranged from 24.3 to 100.6 in 2007-2008 with 80% on average due to premature mortality. Conclusion Our analysis confirmed the high societal and individual family burden of dengue. Total costs represented between 0.03 and 0.17% of Gross Domestic Product. Health seeking behavior has a major impact on costs. The more accurate estimate used in this study will better allow decision makers to account for dengue costs particularly among the poor when balancing the benefits of introducing a potentially effective dengue vaccine.

  8. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  9. Social costs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    There have been many studies over the past 20 years which have looked at the environmental and other impacts of energy production, conversion and use. A number of these have attempted to put a monetary value to the external costs which are not reflected in the prices charged for energy. The topic has received increased attention recently as a direct result of the recognition of the potentially large social costs that might arise from the depletion of the ozone layer, the consequences of global warming and the continued releases of acid gases from fossil fuel combustion. The determination of external costs was attempted in the report for the European Economic Community, EUR11519, ''Social Costs of Energy Consumption'', by O Hohmeyer. Due to its official sponsorship, this report has been afforded greater respect than it deserves and is being used in some quarters to claim that the external costs of nuclear power are high relative to those of fossil fuels. The remainder of this note looks at some of the serious deficiencies of the document and why its conclusions offer no meaningful guidance to policy makers. So far as the present author is aware no serious criticism of the Hohmeyer study has previously appeared. (author)

  10. A case study: The economic cost of net metering in Maryland: Who bears the economic burden?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.; Cross, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Maryland legislature approved net-metering legislation for residential consumer generators with photovoltaic systems during 1997. Before the legislation passed, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) examined its potential economic impact on both the affected utilities and consumer ratepayers--with and without net-metered PV systems. The MEA discovered that the impact on the affected utility is minimal when the net-metered PV capacity is limited to a small percentage of utility peak load. The analysis also determined that the cost burden on other customers under a net-metered scenario is likewise limited. For Maryland's largest investor-owned utility, the maximum amount of any cross-subsidy (or cost) on a per customer basis is 46 cents annually. Furthermore, their analysis showed that when distribution system savings and environmental externalities are incorporated, net-metered customers may actually subsidize other utility customers. The MEA analysis also determined that about 50% of the value of the energy produced is lost if net metering is not available to those customers with grid tied PV systems. Over the long term, most if not all of any potential cost is borne by other residential customers, not utility shareholders. Finally, the additional cost burden to the utility under net metering--compensating the consumer at the retail rate versus the avoided cost rate--is less than expected when one considers the administrative costs associated with a dual-metered billing approach

  11. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Effects of burden sharing and certificate trade on the renewable electricity market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Noord, M.; Skytte, K.; Nielsen, L.H.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.; Chapman, M.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous European Union (EU) greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed upon an overall target of 22% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project provides insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving RES-E targets. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets), the specification of cost potential curves for renewable electricity options in each of the 15 EU Member States and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, utilities and consumer organisations were interviewed on their requirements and expectations for an international burden sharing scheme. 49 refs

  12. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Manual for the REBUS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.

    2001-03-01

    The REBUS model quantifies the effects of implementing renewable electricity targets, and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Results are obtained for a range of so-called burden sharing options that reflect differences in economic, social and geographical possibilities to increase the share of renewables in individual geographical regions. The REBUS model furthermore analyses the impact of other supporting mechanisms for renewable electricity on the effects of a burden sharing mechanism. With this, the REBUS model is a framework that can be used for quantifying the most equitable distribution of costs (burden sharing) and compare consequences of different equity criteria. Therewith it aims to support key policy makers, industrial stakeholders and consumers in making decisions on the possibilities to achieve their joint RES-E targets

  13. Marine Corps Expeditionary Rifle Platoon Energy Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    26  a.  Step 1: The Flight to MRP AOR ............................................26  b...Terrain and Troops MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MRP Marine Rifle Platoon NVG Night Vision Goggles SAW Squad automatic weapon SPOD Seaport...rifle platoon ( MRP ). The MRP is an infantry unit, which is the core component of the GCE. Each MRP consists of 40–45 Marines and requires energy

  14. High Burden of Protein–Energy Malnutrition in Nigeria: Beyond the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is still a high burden of protein–energy malnutrition in Nigeria. The severe forms of the disease are usually associated with high level of mortality even in the tertiary health facilities. To review the cost-effective health promotional strategies at community levels that could aid prevention, early detection, and prompt ...

  15. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  16. Implementation of Department of Defense Survey Burden Action Plan - Reducing Survey Burden, Cost and Duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    vulnerable populations (e.g., minors); or 3) sensitive topics (e.g., gender relations, discrimination , UCMJ violations) to improve tracking of survey...e.g., gender relations, discrimination , UCMJ violations) to improve tracking of survey burden. The applicable ISSCC-member Survey Office will...their families per year; or 2) vulnerable populations (e.g., minors); or 3) sensitive topics (e.g., gender relations, discrimination , UCMJ violations

  17. Real energy cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, I.

    1992-01-01

    Different methods of calculating the real power cost in the USA taking account of damage brought to the environment, public health expenses etc., are considered. Application of complex methods allowing one to directly determine the costs linked with ecology has shown that the most expensive power is generated at the new NPPs and thermal plants using coal. Activities on power saving and increasing the capacity of the existing hydroelectrotechnical equipment are considered to be the most effective from the viewpoint of expenses

  18. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, Marie Josée J; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122

    2015-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be

  19. Priority setting of foodborne pathogens: disease burden and costs of selected enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren JM; Mangen MJJ; Duynhoven YTHP van; Havelaar AH; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis causes the highest disease burden among seven evaluated foodborne pathogens. This is the preliminary conclusion of a major study of the disease burden and related costs of foodborne pathogens. The other micro-organisms that were studied are Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp.,

  20. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  1. Social costs of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    1988-01-01

    This study systematically compares the external costs and benefits of different electricity generating technologies. It covers environmental and employment effects, the depletion of natural resources, and public subsidies. Electricity production based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy compared with electricity production based on wind energy and photovoltaic systems. The study shows that wind and photovoltaic solar energy induce far less social costs than conventionally generated electricity. The impact of excluding social costs on the competitive position of the different energy technologies is analyzed. It is shown that the allocation process is seriously distorted resulting in sub-optimal investment decisions concerning competing energy technologies. This exclusion of social costs can delay the introduction of renewable energy sources by more than ten years and results in considerable losses to society. (orig./HSCH) With 17 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Evaluating the Impact of the Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    174,864,115( ) AverageDFMCost DDG NumberDDGsCE CostOfFuel gal DestroyerDFMConsumed gal perDDG gal gal    (3.1) Underway Not Underway Auxillary Cost...DFM Underway 4,512,879 5,722,483 10,235,362 Barrels DFM Not Underway 438,907 518,164 957,071 Barrels DFM Auxillary 9,165 16,226 25,392 2008 DFM

  3. Burden and direct costs of non infectious uveitis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adán-Civera, Alfredo Manuel; Benítez-Del-Castillo, José Manuel; Blanco-Alonso, Ricardo; Pato-Cour, Esperanza; Sellas-Fernández, Agustí; Bañares-Cañizares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There is no updated information on epidemiology and cost of management of non infectious uveitis (NIU) in Spain. This study assessed the frequency of various types of uveítis as well as associated costs of resources used in their management. NIU epidemiological data and direct costs were collected from a literature search. This was complemented with consensus information from 2 expert panel meetings and data from questionnaires to ophthalmologists and rheumatologists, experts on these conditions. Healthcare resources costs were obtained from the Oblikue database, from a medical society and from approved drug prices in Spain. During 2011 the estimate number of NIU was 9,398 (45% male, 70% aged 16-65 years). Incidence per type of uveitis was: acute anterior uveitis (AAU) 55%; posterior uveitis (PU) and pan-uveitis (PanU) 15% each; adult chronic anterior uveitis, paediatric chronic anterior uveitis and intermediate uveitis 5% each. Among total costs (77,834,282.10€), initial drug therapy was the highest (43,602,359.29€), followed by surgical treatment of complications (8,367,420.43€). With respect to types of uveitis, PanU (26,692,948.29€), PU (22,283,330.50€) and AAU (14,336,755.38€) showed the highest associated costs. Non infectious uveitis is associated to high costs in Spain, both in its diagnosis and in its treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment should allow for substantial savings for the National Health System. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic cost and burden of dengue during epidemics and non-epidemic years in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dih-Ling Luh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining the disease and economic burden of dengue is critical for the allocation of public health resources. Several studies have used disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs to estimate the disease burden of dengue in different regions. However, there are no published studies discussing the estimates of dengue-related economic and disease burden specifically in Taiwan. Objectives: We assessed the economic cost and disease burden of dengue infections in Taiwan for the period 1998–2014, and compared these during epidemic and non-epidemic years. Methods: We estimated the annual DALYs per million population using the disability weights for dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, dengue shock syndrome (DSS, and death cases. Economic costs were estimated and divided into direct (medical costs and indirect costs (lost work days and caregiver fees. Results: For the period 1998–2014, a mean of 115.3 (range: 6.3–934.3 DALYs per million population annually were lost to dengue. In epidemic years, direct costs associated with dengue resulted mostly from hospitalization (86.09%, emergency (7.77%, outpatient (6.10%, and drug costs (0.03%. For indirect costs, lost productivity due to death (70.76% was the dominant contributor. Overall, the costs were 12.3 times higher in epidemic years than in non-epidemic years (Wilcoxon rank sum test, p < 0.05. Conclusions: This study is the first to evaluate the economic costs and disease burden of dengue infections for this period in Taiwan, and reveals significant differences in economic impact between epidemic and non-epidemic years. Keywords: Economic cost of disease, Disease burden, Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, Dengue, Epidemic

  5. Listen, wind energy costs nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, F.

    2008-09-01

    The author discusses the affirmation of the ADEME and the Environmental and sustainable development Ministry: the french wind park will costs in 2008 0,5 euro year for each household. He criticizes strongly this calculi, bringing many data on energy real cost today and in the next 10 years. Many references are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Economic burden and cost determinants of coronary heart disease in rural southwest China: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C; Fang, Y; Linxiong, W; Shulan, Z; Golden, A R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the economic burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a given year (2010), including direct and indirect costs, and examine the impact of contextual and individual socio-economic (SES) predictors on the costs of CHD among adults in rural southwest China. Cross-sectional community survey. In total, 4595 adults (aged ≥18 years) participated in this study. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was used to estimate the economic burden of CHD. Information on demographic characteristics of the study population and the economic consequences of CHD was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to model the variation in costs of CHD. In the study population, the overall prevalence of CHD was 2.9% (3.5% for males, 2.3% for females). The total cost of CHD was estimated to be US$17 million. Inpatient hospitalizations represented the main component of direct costs of CHD, and direct costs accounted for the greatest proportion of the economic burden of CHD. Males were more likely to have a higher economic burden of CHD than females. A positive association was found between the individual's level of education and the economic burden of CHD. Residence in a higher-income community was associated with higher costs related to CHD. This study found that both contextual and individual SES were closely associated with the costs of CHD. Future strategies for CHD interventions and improved access to affordable medications to treat and control CHD should focus on less-educated individuals and communities with lower SES. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Disconformity in State Corporate Income Tax Systems Affect Compliance Cost Burdens?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sanjay; Mills, Lillian F.

    2003-01-01

    Prior multistate tax research on differences in state tax rules, while investigating the effects on revenue, investment, and tax burden, is silent regarding the effect on compliance costs. We investigate factors that explain state income tax compliance costs for large firms. We find that state compliance costs increase in the number of filing states and entities (or in the number of state tax returns), firm size, and variables proxying for state tax complexity. Our evidence that multistate di...

  8. The burden of pediatric diarrhea: a cross-sectional study of incurred costs and perceptions of cost among Bolivian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Embrey, Sally R; Wagner, Laura Danielle; Cowden, Carter L; Kelly, Fiona M; Smith, Emily R; Iñiguez, Volga; Leon, Juan S

    2013-08-02

    Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis represents an enormous public health threat to children under five years of age, causing one billion episodes and 1.9 to 3.2 million deaths per year. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, an estimated 15% of under-five deaths are caused by diarrhea. Bolivian caregiver expenses related to diarrhea are believed to be minimal, as citizens benefit from universal health insurance for children under five. The goals of this report were to describe total incurred costs and cost burden associated with caregivers seeking treatment for pediatric gastroenteritis, and to quantify relationships among costs, cost burden, treatment setting, and perceptions of costs. From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n=1,107) of pediatric patients (costs (e.g. medication, consult fees) and indirect costs (e.g. lost wages). Patient populations were similar across cities in terms of gender, duration of illness, and age, but familial income varied significantly (pcosts to families were significantly higher for inpatients as compared to outpatients of urban (pcosts made up a large proportion of total costs. Forty-five percent of patients' families paid ≥1% of their annual household income for this single diarrheal episode. The perception that cost was affecting family finances was more frequent among those with higher actual cost burden. This study demonstrated that indirect costs due to acute pediatric diarrhea were a large component of total incurred familial costs. Additionally, familial costs associated with a single diarrheal episode affected the actual and perceived financial situation of a large number of caregivers. These data serve as a baseline for societal diarrheal costs before and immediately following the implementation of the rotavirus vaccine and highlight the serious economic importance of a diarrheal episode to Bolivian caregivers.

  9. The real cost of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Valdalbero, Domenico Rossetti

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out in recent years to assess the external costs (externalities) of energy, among them the European Commission's ExternE research project. An external cost occurs when the social or economic activities of one group of people have an impact on another group but that impact is not fully accounted for or compensated for by the first group. For example, a power station that generates emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases imposes an external cost if these emissions cause damage to human health (fatal or non-fatal), contribute to global warming, or have adverse effects on crops and building materials. ExternE, which was carried out during the 1990s, is the most exhaustive study to date on the evaluation of the external costs associated with the production and consumption of energy and with energy-related activities. Despite the uncertainties associated with setting a value on external costs, the ExternE project has been successful in several ways and these are summarised together with the ways in which external costs to the environment and health can be taken into account or 'internalised'. One possibility is the imposition of eco-taxes. Another option would be to encourage or subsidise cleaner technologies, thereby avoiding socio-environmental costs. Renewable energy technologies, for example, have limited external costs. The results of ExternE have already been used as a basis for European Commission guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. The project's findings are also being used to support the Council of the European Union in formulating proposals for a Directive on the limits to be set for sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, particulates and lead in the atmosphere. In 2000, under the EU's Fifth Research and Technological Development Framework programme, a follow-up project was initiated. The purpose of NewExt (New Elements for the Assessment of External Costs from Energy Technologies) is to refine the methodology

  10. Economic burden of malignant blood disorders across Europe: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richeal; Leal, Jose; Sullivan, Richard; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon

    2016-08-01

    Malignant blood disorders are a leading contributor to cancer incidence and mortality across Europe. Despite their burden, no study has assessed the economic effect of blood cancers in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Malignant blood disorder-related costs were estimated for 28 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for 2012. Country-specific costs were estimated with aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use obtained from international and national sources. Health-care costs were estimated from expenditure on primary, outpatient, emergency, inpatient care, and drugs. Costs of informal care and productivity losses due to morbidity and early death were also included. For countries in the EU, malignant blood disorders were compared with the economic burden of overall cancer. Malignant blood disorders cost the 31 European countries €12 billion in 2012. Health-care cost €7·3 billion (62% of total costs), productivity losses cost €3·6 billion (30%), and informal care cost €1 billion (8%). For the EU countries, malignant blood disorders cost €6·8 billion (12%) of the total health-care expenditure on cancer (€57 billion), with this proportion being second only to breast cancer. In terms of total cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion), malignant blood disorders cost €12 billion (8%). Malignant blood disorders represent a leading cause of death, health-care service use, and costs, not only to European health-care systems, but to society overall. Our results add to essential public health knowledge needed for effective national cancer-control planning and priorities for public research funding. European Hematology Association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic Burden of Pediatric Asthma: Annual Cost of Disease in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Laleh; Dashti, Raheleh; Pourpak, Zahra; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Movahedi, Masoud; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Soheili, Habib; Bokaie, Saied; Kazemnejad, Anoushiravan; Moin, Mostafa

    2018-02-01

    Asthma is the first cause of children hospitalization and need for emergency and impose high economic burden on the families and governments. We aimed to investigate the economic burden of pediatric asthma and its contribution to family health budget in Iran. Overall, 283 pediatric asthmatic patients, who referred to two tertiary pediatric referral centers in Tehran capital of Iran, included from 2010-2012. Direct and indirect asthma-related costs were recorded during one-year period. Data were statistically analyzed for finding association between the costs and factors that affect this cost (demographic variables, tobacco smoke exposure, control status of asthma and asthma concomitant diseases). Ninety-two (32.5%) females and 191(67.5%) males with the age range of 1-16 yr old were included. We found the annual total pediatrics asthma related costs were 367.97±23.06 USD. The highest cost belonged to the medications (69%) and the lowest one to the emergency (2%). We noticed a significant increasing in boys' total costs ( P =0.011), and 7-11 yr old age group ( P =0.018). In addition, we found significant association between total asthma costs and asthma control status ( P =0.011). The presence of an asthmatic child can consume nearly half of the health budget of a family. Our results emphasis on improving asthma management programs, which leads to successful control status of the disease and reduction in economic burden of pediatric asthma.

  12. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  13. Caregiver burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs associated with caring for patients with poststroke spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vaidyanathan; Graham, Glenn D; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Gillard, Patrick J; Goren, Amir; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many stroke survivors experience poststroke spasticity and the related inability to perform basic activities, which necessitates patient management and treatment, and exerts a considerable burden on the informal caregiver. The current study aims to estimate burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs for caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity. Methods Internet survey data were collected from 153 caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity including caregiving time and difficulty (Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment measures, and caregiver and patient characteristics. Fractional logit models examined predictors of work-related restriction, and work losses were monetized (2012 median US wages). Results Mean Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale time and difficulty scores were 46.1 and 32.4, respectively. Employed caregivers (n=71) had overall work restriction (32%), absenteeism (9%), and presenteeism (27%). Caregiver characteristics, lack of nursing home coverage, and stroke survivors’ disability predicted all work restriction outcomes. The mean total lost-productivity cost per employed caregiver was US$835 per month (>$10,000 per year; 72% attributable to presenteeism). Conclusion These findings demonstrate the substantial burden of caring for stroke survivors with spasticity illustrating the societal and economic impact of stroke that extends beyond the stroke survivor. PMID:26609225

  14. The cost of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbert, E.

    1994-01-01

    Analyses reveal that the economic efficiency of plants for solar water heating and of wind power plants and photovoltaic power plants must be evaluated carefully. The growing photovoltaics market must be cherished and expanded. Energy demands cannot be covered by photovoltaics before 2050, and much research remains to be done until then. The efficiency and service life of plants must be improved, and the cost must be reduced considerably. (orig.) [de

  15. Introducing a GP copayment in Australia: Who would carry the cost burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Rosemary Kate; Schurer, Stefanie

    2017-05-01

    Recent policy changes designed to contain unsustainable health expenditure growth imply that many more Australians may soon be charged a copayment to consult a GP. We explore the distributional consequences associated with a range of hypothetical GP copayment scenarios using nationally-representative Australian survey data. For each scenario, we estimate the cost burden that individuals and households across the income distribution would need to absorb to maintain their current GP service utilisation. Even when concessional patients are charged a third or a quarter of the non-concessional copayment rate, the average estimated cost burden in the lowest income quartile is typically between three and six times that of the highest, and the average cost burden for women is significantly higher than for men within every income quartile. These disparities are intensified for those with a chronic illness. We conclude that the widespread implementation of GP copayments would disproportionately burden lower-income families, who experience higher rates of chronic illness, higher demand for GP services, and lower capacity to absorb price increases. The regressive nature of GP copayments is reduced when concessional and child patients are exempted entirely, highlighting the importance of supporting GPs-particularly in disadvantaged areas-to maintain bulk-billing arrangements for vulnerable patient groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The economic burden of adult asthma in Cyprus; a prevalence-based cost of illness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Zannetos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is one of the main non-infectious diseases of the respiratory system with substantial economic burden worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic burden of adult asthma in Cyprus during 2015. Methods A retrospective probabilistic prevalence-based cost of illness model was developed to calculate the economic burden of asthma including direct and indirect costs. The bottom-up approach (person-based data was used for the calculation of direct costs while for the calculation of indirect costs the approach of human capital was employed. In addition, bootstrapped sensitivity analysis with 1000 bootstrap simulations was performed in order to calculate a 95% Confidence Interval (CI. Results Mean patient cost of asthma in Cyprus in 2015 was estimated at €579.64 (95% CI: €376.90–€813.68. Direct costs accounted for 82.08% of the overall expenses, €475.75 per patient (95% CI: €296.94–€697.69. Indirect costs of €103.89 (95% CI: €49.59–€181.46 accounted for 17.92% of the overall expenses. Conclusion This was the first study in Cyprus, which used bootstrapped prevalence-based cost of illness model to estimate the cost of asthma. This study confirms that asthma is an expensive disease for the society. In addition, it provides important information and analysis of the economic consequences of asthma to policy makers in order to strengthen surveillance of the disease as well as draft the national health policy accordingly.

  17. The burden of prenatal exposure to alcohol: revised measurement of cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stade, Brenda; Ali, Alaa; Bennett, Dainel; Campbell, Douglas; Johnston, Mary; Lens, Cynthia; Tran, Sofia; Koren, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    In Canada the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. FASD is the leading cause of developmental and cognitive disabilities in Canada. Only one study has examined the cost of FASD in Canada. In that study we did not include prospective data for infants under the age of one year, costs for adults beyond 21 years or costs for individuals living in institutions. To calculate a revised estimate of direct and indirect costs associated with FASD at the patient level. Cross-sectional study design was used. Two-hundred and fifty (250) participants completed the study tool. Participants included caregivers of children, youth and adults, with FASD, from day of birth to 53 years, living in urban and rural communities throughout Canada participated. Participants completed the Health Services Utilization Inventory (HSUI). Key cost components were elicited: direct costs: medical, education, social services, out-of-pocket costs; and indirect costs: productivity losses. Total average costs per individual with FASD were calculated by summing the costs for each in each cost component, and dividing by the sample size. Costs were extrapolated to one year. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant determinants of costs and to calculate the adjusted annual costs associated with FASD. Total adjusted annual costs associated with FASD at the individual level was $21,642 (95% CI, $19,842; $24,041), compared to $14,342 (95% CI, $12,986; $15,698) in the first study. Severity of the individual's condition, age, and relationship of the individual to the caregiver (biological, adoptive, foster) were significant determinants of costs (p Cost of FASD annually to Canada of those from day of birth to 53 years old, was $5.3 billion (95% CI, $4.12 billion; $6.4 billion). Study results demonstrated the cost burden of FASD in Canada was profound. Inclusion of infants aged 0 to 1 years, adults beyond the age of 21 years

  18. Caregiver burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs associated with caring for patients with poststroke spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaidyanathan Ganapathy,1 Glenn D Graham,2 Marco D DiBonaventura,3 Patrick J Gillard,1 Amir Goren,3 Richard D Zorowitz41Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA; 2Department of Veterans Affairs, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 4Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USAObjective: Many stroke survivors experience poststroke spasticity and the related inability to perform basic activities, which necessitates patient management and treatment, and exerts a considerable burden on the informal caregiver. The current study aims to estimate burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs for caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity.Methods: Internet survey data were collected from 153 caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity including caregiving time and difficulty (Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment measures, and caregiver and patient characteristics. Fractional logit models examined predictors of work-related restriction, and work losses were monetized (2012 median US wages.Results: Mean Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale time and difficulty scores were 46.1 and 32.4, respectively. Employed caregivers (n=71 had overall work restriction (32%, absenteeism (9%, and presenteeism (27%. Caregiver characteristics, lack of nursing home coverage, and stroke survivors’ disability predicted all work restriction outcomes. The mean total lost-productivity cost per employed caregiver was US$835 per month (>$10,000 per year; 72% attributable to presenteeism.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the substantial burden of caring for stroke survivors with spasticity illustrating the societal and economic impact of stroke that extends beyond the stroke survivor.Keywords: burden, caregiver, productivity, spasticity, stroke

  19. The economic cost of Alzheimer's disease: Family or public-health burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD patients suffer progressive cognitive, behavioral and functional impairment which result in a heavy burden to patients, families, and the public-health system. AD entails both direct and indirect costs. Indirect costs (such as loss or reduction of income by the patient or family members are the most important costs in early and community-dwelling AD patients. Direct costs (such as medical treatment or social services increase when the disorder progresses, and the patient is institutionalized or a formal caregiver is required. Drug therapies represent an increase in direct cost but can reduce some other direct or indirect costs involved. Several studies have projected overall savings to society when using drug therapies and all relevant cost are considered, where results depend on specific patient and care setting characteristics. Dementia should be the focus of analysis when public health policies are being devised. South American countries should strengthen their policy and planning capabilities by gathering more local evidence about the burden of AD and how it can be shaped by treatment options.

  20. The economic burden of unintentional injuries: a community-based cost analysis in Bavi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Hang, Hoang Mihn; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Relatively little is known about patterns of injury at the community level in Vietnam and their economic consequences. This study sought to estimate the costs of various unintentional injuries in Bavi District during one year; to describe how costs depended on gender, age, circumstances, and severity of injury; and to describe how the economic burden of unintentional injuries was distributed between households, government, and health insurance agency. A cohort study was undertaken, which involved four cross-sectional household surveys among sampled communities in the Bavi District during the year 2000, each asking about injuries in the preceding three months. The costing system in public healthcare in Vietnam was applied as well as information from the victims. The total cost of injuries over one year in Bavi District was estimated to be D3,412,539,000 (Vietnamese dong) (US$235,347), equivalent to the annual income of 1,800 people. In total, 90% of this economic burden fell on households, only 8% on government, and 2% on the health insurance agency. The cost of a severe injury to the corresponded to approximately seven months of earned income. Home and traffic injuries together accounted for more than 80% of the total cost, 45% and 38% respectively. The highest unit cost was related to traffic injuries, followed by home, "other", work-related, and school injuries in descending order. The results can be considered as an economic baseline that can be used in evaluations of future interventions aimed at preventing injuries.

  1. Cost and economic burden of illness over 15 years in Nepal: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swe, Khin Thet; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    With an increasing burden of non-communicable disease in Nepal and limited progress towards universal health coverage, country- and disease-specific estimates of financial hardship related to healthcare costs need to be evaluated to protect the population effectively from healthcare-related financial burden. To estimate the cost and economic burden of illness and to assess the inequality in the financial burden due to catastrophic health expenditure from 1995 to 2010 in Nepal. This study used nationally representative Nepal Living Standards Surveys conducted in 1995 and 2010. A Bayesian two-stage hurdle model was used to estimate average cost of illness and Bayesian logistic regression models were used to estimate the disease-specific incidence of catastrophic health payment and impoverishment. The concentration curve and index were estimated by disease category to examine inequality in healthcare-related financial hardship. Inflation-adjusted mean out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for chronic illness and injury increased by 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively, while the cost of recent acute illness declined by 1.5% between 1995 and 2010. Injury showed the highest incidence of catastrophic expenditure (30.7% in 1995 and 22.4% in 2010) followed by chronic illness (12.0% in 1995 and 9.6% in 2010) and recent acute illness (21.1% in 1995 and 7.8% in 2010). Asthma, diabetes, heart conditions, malaria, jaundice and parasitic illnesses showed increased catastrophic health expenditure over time. Impoverishment due to injury declined most (by 12% change in average annual rate) followed by recent acute illness (9.7%) and chronic illness (9.6%) in 15 years. Inequality analysis indicated that poorer populations with recent acute illness suffered more catastrophic health expenditure in both sample years, while wealthier households with injury and chronic illnesses suffered more catastrophic health expenditure in 2010. To minimize the economic burden of illness, several approaches need to be

  2. Economic burden and cost-effective management of Clostridium difficile infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, S M; Cruz Aguilar, M R; Mellinghof, S; Vehreschild, M J G T

    2018-02-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. We performed a literature review of the overall economic burden of initial and recurrent CDI as well as of the cost-effectiveness of the various treatment strategies applied in these settings. Even though analysis of health economic data is complicated by the limited comparability of results, our review identified several internationally consistent results. Authors from different countries have shown that recurrent CDI disproportionally contributes to the overall economic burden of CDI and therefore offers considerable saving potential. Subsequent cost-effectiveness analyses almost exclusively identified fidaxomicin as the preferred treatment option for initial CDI and fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for recurrent CDI. Among the various FMT protocols, optimum results were obtained using early colonoscopy-based FMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic burden of heart failure: investigating outpatient and inpatient costs in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogah, Okechukwu S; Stewart, Simon; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Falase, Ayodele O; Adebayo, Saheed O; Olunuga, Taiwo; Sliwa, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a deadly, disabling and often costly syndrome world-wide. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data describing its economic impact in sub Saharan Africa; a region in which the number of relatively younger cases will inevitably rise. Heath economic data were extracted from a prospective HF registry in a tertiary hospital situated in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria. Outpatient and inpatient costs were computed from a representative cohort of 239 HF cases including personnel, diagnostic and treatment resources used for their management over a 12-month period. Indirect costs were also calculated. The annual cost per person was then calculated. Mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 15.1 years and 53.1% were men. The total computed cost of care of HF in Abeokuta was 76, 288,845 Nigerian Naira (US$508, 595) translating to 319,200 Naira (US$2,128 US Dollars) per patient per year. The total cost of in-patient care (46% of total health care expenditure) was estimated as 34,996,477 Naira (about 301,230 US dollars). This comprised of 17,899,977 Naira- 50.9% ($US114,600) and 17,806,500 naira -49.1%($US118,710) for direct and in-direct costs respectively. Out-patient cost was estimated as 41,292,368 Naira ($US 275,282). The relatively high cost of outpatient care was largely due to cost of transportation for monthly follow up visits. Payments were mostly made through out-of-pocket spending. The economic burden of HF in Nigeria is particularly high considering, the relatively young age of affected cases, a minimum wage of 18,000 Naira ($US120) per month and considerable component of out-of-pocket spending for those affected. Health reforms designed to mitigate the individual to societal burden imposed by the syndrome are required.

  4. Economic burden of heart failure: investigating outpatient and inpatient costs in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu S Ogah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF is a deadly, disabling and often costly syndrome world-wide. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data describing its economic impact in sub Saharan Africa; a region in which the number of relatively younger cases will inevitably rise. METHODS: Heath economic data were extracted from a prospective HF registry in a tertiary hospital situated in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria. Outpatient and inpatient costs were computed from a representative cohort of 239 HF cases including personnel, diagnostic and treatment resources used for their management over a 12-month period. Indirect costs were also calculated. The annual cost per person was then calculated. RESULTS: Mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 15.1 years and 53.1% were men. The total computed cost of care of HF in Abeokuta was 76, 288,845 Nigerian Naira (US$508, 595 translating to 319,200 Naira (US$2,128 US Dollars per patient per year. The total cost of in-patient care (46% of total health care expenditure was estimated as 34,996,477 Naira (about 301,230 US dollars. This comprised of 17,899,977 Naira- 50.9% ($US114,600 and 17,806,500 naira -49.1%($US118,710 for direct and in-direct costs respectively. Out-patient cost was estimated as 41,292,368 Naira ($US 275,282. The relatively high cost of outpatient care was largely due to cost of transportation for monthly follow up visits. Payments were mostly made through out-of-pocket spending. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of HF in Nigeria is particularly high considering, the relatively young age of affected cases, a minimum wage of 18,000 Naira ($US120 per month and considerable component of out-of-pocket spending for those affected. Health reforms designed to mitigate the individual to societal burden imposed by the syndrome are required.

  5. [Financial burden of hepatitis B-related diseases and factors influencing the costs in Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sen; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Ma, Qi-shan; Xiao, He-wei; Lü, Qiu-ying; Xie, Xu; Mei, Shu-jiang; Hu, Dong-sheng; Zhou, Bo-ping; Li, Bing; Chen, Jing-fang; Cui, Fu-qiang; Wang, Fu-zhen; Liang, Xiao-feng

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the direct, indirect and intangible costs due to hepatitis B-related diseases and to explore main factors associated with the costs in Shenzhen. Cluster sampling for cases collected consecutively during the study period was administrated. Subjects were selected from eligible hepatitis B-related patients. By pre-trained professional investigators, health economics-related information was collected, using a structured questionnaire. Hospitalization expenses were obtained through hospital records after the patients were discharged from hospital. Total economic burden of hepatitis B-related patients would involve direct, indirect and intangible costs. Direct costs were further divided into direct medical costs and direct nonmedical costs. Human Capital Approach was employed to measure the indirect costs both on patients and the caregivers in 1-year time span. Willing to pay method was used to estimate the intangible costs. Multiple linear stepwise regression models were conducted to determine the factors linked to the economic burden. On average, the total annual cost of per patient with hepatitis B-related diseases was 81 590.23 RMB Yuan. Among which, direct, indirect and intangible costs were 30 914.79 Yuan (account for 37.9%), 15 258.01 Yuan (18.7%), 35 417.43 Yuan (43.4%), respectively. The total annual costs per patient for hepatocellular carcinoma, severe hepatitis B, decompensated cirrhosis, compensated cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B and acute hepatitis B were 194 858.40 Yuan, 144 549.20 Yuan, 120 333.60 Yuan, 79 528.81 Yuan, 66 282.46 Yuan and 39 286.81 Yuan, respectively. The ratio of direct to indirect costs based on the base-case estimation foot add to 2.0:1, increased from hepato-cellular carcinoma (0.7:1) to compensated cirrhosis (3.5:1), followed by acute hepatitis B (3.3:1), severe hepatitis B (2.8:1), decompensate cirrhosis (2.3:1) and chronic hepatitis B (2.2:1). Direct medical costs were more than direct nonmedical. Ratio between the

  6. Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S. Attributable Burden and Economic Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Malecha, Patrick; Attina, Teresa M

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) rates (11.4% in 2013) in the United States remain high and are a substantial cause of morbidity. Studies of prenatal exposure have associated particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and other ambient air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes; yet, to our knowledge, burden and costs of PM2.5-attributable PTB have not been estimated in the United States. We aimed to estimate burden of PTB in the United States and economic costs attributable to PM2.5 exposure in 2010. Annual deciles of PM2.5 were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We converted PTB odds ratio (OR), identified in a previous meta-analysis (1.15 per 10 μg/m3 for our base case, 1.07-1.16 for low- and high-end scenarios) to relative risk (RRs), to obtain an estimate that better represents the true relative risk. A reference level (RL) of 8.8 μg/m3 was applied. We then used the RR estimates and county-level PTB prevalence to quantify PM2.5-attributable PTB. Direct medical costs were obtained from the 2007 Institute of Medicine report, and lost economic productivity (LEP) was estimated using a meta-analysis of PTB-associated IQ loss, and well-established relationships of IQ loss with LEP. All costs were calculated using 2010 dollars. An estimated 3.32% of PTBs nationally (corresponding to 15,808 PTBs) in 2010 could be attributed to PM2.5 (PM2.5 > 8.8 μg/m3). Attributable PTBs cost were estimated at $5.09 billion [sensitivity analysis (SA): $2.43-9.66 B], of which $760 million were spent for medical care (SA: $362 M-1.44 B). The estimated PM2.5 attributable fraction (AF) of PTB was highest in urban counties, with highest AFs in the Ohio Valley and the southern United States. PM2.5 may contribute substantially to burden and costs of PTB in the United States, and considerable health and economic benefits could be achieved through environmental regulatory interventions that reduce PM2.5 exposure in pregnancy. Citation: Trasande L, Malecha P, Attina TM. 2016

  7. Does the cost of robotic cholecystectomy translate to a financial burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, Alexander; Ryan, Carrie; Klein, Richard; Sukharamwala, Prashant; Wood, Thomas; Ross, Sharona

    2015-08-01

    Robotic application to cholecystectomy has dramatically increased, though its impact on cost of care and reimbursement has not been elucidated. We undertook this study to evaluate and compare cost of care and reimbursement with robotic versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The charges and reimbursement of all robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomies at one hospital undertaken from June 2012 to June 2013 were determined. Operative duration is defined as time into and time out of the operating room. Data are presented as median data. Comparisons were undertaken using the Mann-Whitney U-test with significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Robotic cholecystectomy took longer (47 min longer) and had greater charges ($8,182.57 greater) than laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p depreciation, interest, and taxes (EBDIT), and Net Income were not impacted by approach. Relative to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, robotic cholecystectomy takes longer and has greater charges. Revenue, EBDIT, and Net Income are similar after either approach; this indicates that costs with either approach are similar. Notably, this is possible because much of hospital-based costs are determined by cost allocation and not cost accounting. Thus, the cost of longer operations and costs inherent to the robotic approach for cholecystectomy do not translate to a perceived financial burden.

  8. Economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across Europe: a population-based cost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Burns, Richeal; Leal, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Blood disorders comprise a wide range of diseases including anaemia, malignant blood disorders, and haemorrhagic disorders. Although they are a common cause of disease, no systematic cost-of-illness studies have been done to assess the economic effect of non-malignant blood disorders in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries of the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Non-malignant blood disorder-related costs (WHO International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD] D50-89) were estimated for 28 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for 2012. Country-specific costs were estimated with aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use obtained from international and national sources. Health-care costs were estimated from expenditure on primary care, outpatient care, emergency care, hospital inpatient care, and drugs. Costs of informal care and productivity losses due to morbidity and early death were also included. To these costs we added those due to malignant blood disorders (ICD-10 C81-96 and D47) as estimated in a Burns and colleagues' companion Article to obtain the total costs of blood disorders. Non-malignant disorders of the blood cost the 31 European countries €11 billion in 2012. Health-care costs accounted for €8 billion (75% of total costs), productivity losses for €2 billion (19%), and informal care for less than €1 billion (6%). Averaged across the European population studied, non-malignant disorders of the blood represented an annual health-care cost of €159 per ten citizens. Combining malignant and non-malignant blood disorders, the total cost of blood disorders was €23 billion in 2012. Our study highlights the economic burden that non-malignant blood disorders place on European health-care systems and societies. Our study also shows that blood disorder costs were evenly distributed between malignant and non

  9. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-11-01

    In 2008, 2·45 million people were diagnosed with cancer and 1·23 million died because of cancer in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU). We aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer in the EU. In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. We obtained country-specific aggregate data for morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use from international and national sources. We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. Cancer cost the EU €126 billion in 2009, with health care accounting for €51·0 billion (40%). Across the EU, the health-care costs of cancer were equivalent to €102 per citizen, but varied substantially from €16 per person in Bulgaria to €184 per person in Luxembourg. Productivity losses because of early death cost €42·6 billion and lost working days €9·43 billion. Informal care cost €23·2 billion. Lung cancer had the highest economic cost (€18·8 billion, 15% of overall cancer costs), followed by breast cancer (€15·0 billion, 12%), colorectal cancer (€13·1 billion, 10%), and prostate cancer (€8·43 billion, 7%). Our results show wide differences between countries, the reasons for which need further investigation. These data contribute to public health and policy intelligence, which is required to deliver affordable cancer care systems and inform effective public research funds allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mass screening and treatment for reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowell Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past experience and modelling suggest that, in most cases, mass treatment strategies are not likely to succeed in interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. However, this does not preclude their use to reduce disease burden. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT is preferred to mass drug administration (MDA, as the latter involves massive over-use of drugs. This paper reports simulations of the incremental cost-effectiveness of well-conducted MSAT campaigns as a strategy for P. falciparum malaria disease-burden reduction in settings with varying receptivity (ability of the combined vector population in a setting to transmit disease and access to case management. Methods MSAT incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were estimated in different sub-Saharan African settings using simulation models of the dynamics of malaria and a literature-based MSAT cost estimate. Imported infections were simulated at a rate of two per 1,000 population per annum. These estimates were compared to the ICERs of scaling up case management or insecticide-treated net (ITN coverage in each baseline health system, in the absence of MSAT. Results MSAT averted most episodes, and resulted in the lowest ICERs, in settings with a moderate level of disease burden. At a low pre-intervention entomological inoculation rate (EIR of two infectious bites per adult per annum (IBPAPA MSAT was never more cost-effective than scaling up ITNs or case management coverage. However, at pre-intervention entomological inoculation rates (EIRs of 20 and 50 IBPAPA and ITN coverage levels of 40 or 60%, respectively, the ICER of MSAT was similar to that of scaling up ITN coverage further. Conclusions In all the transmission settings considered, achieving a minimal level of ITN coverage is a “best buy”. At low transmission, MSAT probably is not worth considering. Instead, MSAT may be suitable at medium to high levels of transmission and at moderate ITN coverage

  11. Diabetes management in Thailand: a literature review of the burden, costs, and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Management of diabetes represents an enormous challenge for health systems at every level of development. The latter are tested for their ability to continuously deliver high quality care to patients from the day they are diagnosed throughout their life. In this study, we review the status of diabetes management in Thailand and try to identify the key challenges the country needs to address to reduce the current (and future) medical and economic burden caused by the disease. We conducted a literature review on the burden, costs, and outcomes of diabetes in Thailand. This information was complemented by personal communication with senior officials in the Thai Ministry of Health. We identified the following priorities for the future management of diabetes in Thailand. First, increasing screening of diabetes in high risk population and promoting annual screening of diabetes complications in all diabetic patients. Second, identifying and addressing factors affecting poor treatment outcomes. Third, policy should specify clear targets and provide and use a monitoring framework to track progress. Fourth, efforts are needed to further improve data availability. Up-to-date data on the medical and economic burden of diabetes representative at the national level and at least the regional level are essential to identify needs and monitor progress towards established targets. Fifth, promotion of a healthy lifestyle for prevention of diabetes through education and quality information delivered to the public. PMID:23497447

  12. The German energy transition. Design, implementeation, cost and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnerstall, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The book presents a comprehensive and systematic account of the concept, the current status and the costs of the German energy transition: the Energiewende. Written by an insider who has been working in the German energy industry for over 20 years, it follows a strictly non-political, neutral approach and clearly outlines the most relevant facts and figures. In particular, it describes the main impacts of the Energiewende on the German power system and Germany's national economy. Furthermore, it addresses questions that are of global interest with respect to energy transitions, such as the cost to the national economy, the financial burden on private households and companies and the actual effects on CO{sub 2} emissions. The book also discusses what could have been done better in terms of planning and implementing the Energiewende, and identifies important lessons for other countries that are considering a similar energy transition.

  13. The German energy transition. Design, implementeation, cost and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnerstall, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive and systematic account of the concept, the current status and the costs of the German energy transition: the Energiewende. Written by an insider who has been working in the German energy industry for over 20 years, it follows a strictly non-political, neutral approach and clearly outlines the most relevant facts and figures. In particular, it describes the main impacts of the Energiewende on the German power system and Germany's national economy. Furthermore, it addresses questions that are of global interest with respect to energy transitions, such as the cost to the national economy, the financial burden on private households and companies and the actual effects on CO 2 emissions. The book also discusses what could have been done better in terms of planning and implementing the Energiewende, and identifies important lessons for other countries that are considering a similar energy transition.

  14. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  15. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  16. Nuclear energy: the real cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.; Marshall, R.; Sweet, C.; Prior, M.; Welsh, I.; Bunyard, P.; Goldsmith, E.; Hildyard, N.; Jeffery, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report on the discussions within a small group of academics falls under the headings: chairman's foreword; summary and recommendations; the government's nuclear power programme and its implications; the CEGB's planning record; the past performance of Britain's nuclear power stations - a guide for the future (query); nuclear power -early uncertainties; historic costs - 'the fraud inherent in all inflationary finance'; current cost accounting; fuel costs - coal stays steady, nuclear rises; net effective cost and the rationale for nuclear power; reinterpreting net effective costs; other considerations; conclusions and recommendations; references. (U.K.)

  17. Costs comparison of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, D.; Menegassi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cost comparison study of various sources of electric energy generation was performed using uniform analysis criteria. The results indicate higher costs for coal, followed by nuclear and hidro. It was verified that presently, large hidro-power plants can only be located far from the load centers, with increasing costs of hidro-power energy in Brazil. These costs become higher than the nuclear plant if the hidro plant is located at distances exceeding 1000 Km. (Author) [pt

  18. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  19. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  20. Energy costs form European wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.

    1995-01-01

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  1. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vestergaard; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with cost data. This, in turn, requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting current data on resource consumption, work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in 2015 Danish Kronor (DKK). A total of 830 patients (mean age of 54 years) participated; 78% were below retirement age and of these, 43% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS was felt to affect productivity at work by 73% of patients, most often through fatigue. Overall, 95% and 65% of patients felt that fatigue and cognition, respectively, were a problem. Mean utility and costs were 0.770 and 196,900DKK at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.619 and 287,300DKK at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.302 and 533,250DKK at EDSS 7-9. The average cost of a relapse was estimated at 19,000DKK. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Danish patients and provides current data that are important for the development of health policies.

  2. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundin, Lou; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    To assess the value of management strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS), outcome data have to be combined with cost data. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting current data on resource consumption, work capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity; costs are estimated in the societal perspective, in 2015 SEK. A total of 1864 patients (mean age 56 years) participated in Sweden; 74% were below retirement age, and of these, 55% were employed. MS was reported to affect productivity at work in 78% of patients. Overall, 94% and 72% of patients felt that fatigue and cognition were a problem, respectively. The mean utility and costs were 0.757 and 244,000SEK at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.563 and 384,000SEK at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.202 and 888,000SEK at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The average cost of a relapse was 36,900SEK. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Swedish patients and provides current data that are important for the development of health policies.

  3. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmaj, Krzysztof; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Orlewska, Ewa; Capsa, Daniela; Dalén, Johan

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 European countries collecting current data on resource consumption, work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in 2015 Polish Zloty (PLN). A total of 411 MS patients (mean age = 40 years) participated in Poland; 94% were below retirement age, and of these, 59% were employed. Employment was related to disability, and MS affected productivity for 85% of those working. Overall, 97% and 71% of patients experienced fatigue and cognition as important problems, respectively. Mean utility and total annual costs were 0.686 and 48,700 PLN at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.521 and 59,200 PLN at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.208 and 81,600 PLN at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The average cost of a relapse was 3,900 PLN. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Polish patients and provides current data that are important for developing health policies.

  4. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Mario; Kobelt, Gisela; Ponzio, Michela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Dalén, Johan

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 1010 patients (mean age = 45 years) participated in Italy. In total, 94% were below retirement age, and of these, 56% were employed. Employment was related to disability, and MS affected productivity at work in 77% of the patients. Overall, 96% and 65% of the patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties as a problem, respectively. Mean utility and total annual costs were 0.735 and €22,900 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 0-3, 0.534 and €40,100 at EDSS of 4-6.5, and 0.135 and €53,300 at EDSS of 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated to be €2600. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Italian patients and provides current data on MS that are important for the development of health policies.

  5. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Alexey; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Boyko, Olga; Popova, Ekaterina; Capsa, Daniela; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    In order to assess the value of management strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS), outcome data have to be combined with cost data. This, in turn, requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting current data on resource consumption, work capacity and health-related quality of life (HQoL). Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity; costs are estimated in the societal perspective, in RUB 2015. A total of 208 patients (mean age: 38.5 years) participated in the Russian study; 97% were below retirement age, and of these, 49% were employed. MS was reported to affect productivity at work in 63% of patients. Overall, 87% and 41% of patients felt that fatigue and cognition were a problem. The mean utility and costs were 0.769 and 578,000 RUB at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.509 and 826,000 RUB at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.071 and 1,013,000 RUB at EDSS 7-9. The average cost of a relapse was 33,000 RUB. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Russian patients and provides current data that are important for developing health policies.

  6. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek, Márta; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Dalén, Johan; Bíró, Zita; Mátyás, Klotild; Komoly, Sámuel

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption, work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of disability, from the societal perspective, in HUF 2015. A total of 521 patients (mean age 47 years) participated; 85% were below retirement age, and of these, 47% were employed. Employment was related to disability and MS affected productivity at work for 82% of those working. Overall, 94% and 66% of patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties as a problem, respectively. The mean utility and annual costs were 0.691 and 3,432,000HUF at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.491 and 5,262,000HUF at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.076 and 6,235,000HUF at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The average cost of a relapse was estimated at 240,500HUF. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Hungarian patients and provides current data that are important for the development of health policies.

  7. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed, outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption, work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 462 patients (mean age 43 years) participated in Spain; 96% were below retirement age and of these, 45% were employed. Employment was related to disability, and MS affected productivity at work for 72% of those working. Overall, 92% and 64% of patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties as a problem, respectively. Mean utility and total annual costs were estimated at 0.772 and €20,600 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.486 and €48,500 at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.182 and €68,700 at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The mean cost of a relapse was €2050. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Spanish patients and provides current data that are important for development of health policies.

  8. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria José; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Dalén, Johan

    2017-08-01

    In order to assess the value of management strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS), outcome data have to be combined with cost data. This, in turn, requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting current data on resource consumption, work capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity; costs are estimated in the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 535 patients (mean age 48.5 years) participated; 92% were below retirement age and of these, 43% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS was felt to affect productivity at work by 72% of patients, most often through fatigue. Overall, 98% and 74% of patients felt that fatigue and cognition were a problem. Mean utility and costs were 0.756 and €16,500 at the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.572 and €28,700 at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.206 and €34,400 at EDSS 7-9. The average cost of a relapse was estimated at €2930. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Portuguese patients and provides current data that are important for the development of health policies.

  9. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 516 patients (mean age, 53 years) participated in Austria; 72% were below retirement age, and of these, 46% were employed. Employment was related to disability, and MS affected productivity at work for 77% of those working. Overall, 94% and 67% of patients experienced fatigue and cognition as a problem. Mean utility and total annual costs were 0.778 and 25,100€ at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.579 and 44,100€ at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.244 and 73,800€ at EDSS 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated at 2563€. This study illustrates the burden of MS on Austrian patients and provides current data on MS that are important for development of health policies.

  10. Heavier tax burden on energy utilities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenrijk, A.J.; Van Peer, A.J.M.; Thomas, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order for the energy market to develop into a market with business economical starting points, competition and free access the Dutch Electric Power Law is revised. Part of the Energy Distribution Law (WED, abbreviated in Dutch) came into effect February 1, 1997. The WED also has far-going fiscal consequences for the energy market and people working in that market. The companies have to pay corporation taxes, are not allowed to activate goodwill and to deduct environmental investments anymore. 2 figs

  11. Burden and cost of neurological diseases: a European North-South comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, A; Leonardi, M

    2015-07-01

    To address the relationship between years lived with a disability (YLDs), prevalence and cost of neurological diseases, and to test whether there is a European North-South gradient for national health expenditure, disability, costs and prevalence of neurological diseases. Information on costs, prevalence and YLDs referred to 2010 were taken from the Study on the Cost of Disorders of the Brain and from the Global Burden of Disease study; data on health expenditure were taken from OECD reports. Selected conditions were as follows: brain tumours, stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine and tension-type headache; selected countries were from North (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) and South (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) Europe. The association between the variables for each condition was tested using Spearman's correlation; Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to test North-South Europe differences. Correlations were largely non-significant (except for stroke). YLDs and cost were generally lower in South-European countries, and prevalence was lower in North-European countries, but no significant differences were found. Health expenditure, YLDs, costs and prevalence of neurological conditions were generally not correlated across the eight countries. A clear North-South gradient was found for health expenditures, and partially for YLDs, costs and diseases' prevalence. We hypothesized that this is a consequence of the expansion of morbidity of neurological conditions connected to ageing, that health and welfare systems of selected countries were not prepared to face. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Gisela; Thompson, Alan; Berg, Jenny; Gannedahl, Mia; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current focus in multiple sclerosis (MS) is on early diagnosis and drug intervention, with a view to modifying disease progression. Consequently, healthcare costs have shifted from inpatient care and rehabilitation to outpatient care. Objectives: This European burden of illness study provides data that can be combined with other evidence to assess whether management approaches provide value to society. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 countries. Patients reported on their disease, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resource consumption. Descriptive analyses were performed by disease severity. Costs are reported from a societal perspective in 2015€ PPP (adjusted for purchasing power parity). Results: The 16,808 participants had a mean age of 51.5 years, and 52% had relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Work capacity declined from 82% to 8%, and utility declined from normal population values to less than zero with advancing disease. Mean costs were 22,800€ PPP in mild, 37,100€ PPP in moderate and 57,500€ PPP in severe disease; healthcare accounted for 68%, 47% and 26%, respectively. Fatigue and cognitive difficulties were reported by 95% and 71% of participants, respectively; both had a significant independent effect on utility. Conclusion: Costs and utility were highly correlated with disease severity, but resource consumption was heavily influenced by healthcare systems organisation and availability of services. PMID:28273775

  13. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Gisela; Thompson, Alan; Berg, Jenny; Gannedahl, Mia; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    The current focus in multiple sclerosis (MS) is on early diagnosis and drug intervention, with a view to modifying disease progression. Consequently, healthcare costs have shifted from inpatient care and rehabilitation to outpatient care. This European burden of illness study provides data that can be combined with other evidence to assess whether management approaches provide value to society. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 countries. Patients reported on their disease, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resource consumption. Descriptive analyses were performed by disease severity. Costs are reported from a societal perspective in 2015€ PPP (adjusted for purchasing power parity). The 16,808 participants had a mean age of 51.5 years, and 52% had relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Work capacity declined from 82% to 8%, and utility declined from normal population values to less than zero with advancing disease. Mean costs were 22,800€ PPP in mild, 37,100€ PPP in moderate and 57,500€ PPP in severe disease; healthcare accounted for 68%, 47% and 26%, respectively. Fatigue and cognitive difficulties were reported by 95% and 71% of participants, respectively; both had a significant independent effect on utility. Costs and utility were highly correlated with disease severity, but resource consumption was heavily influenced by healthcare systems organisation and availability of services.

  14. The economic costs of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    At a recent symposium, the economic costs of nuclear power were examined in four lectures which considered; (1) The performance of different types, size and ages of nuclear power plants. (2) The comparison between coal and nuclear power costs based on the principle of net effective cash. (3) The capital requirements of a nuclear programme. (4) The comparative costs, now and in the future, of coal-fired and nuclear plants. It is concluded that uncertainties seem to get greater rather than smaller with time probably due to the high and fluctuating world inflation rates and the great uncertainty about world economic performance introduced by the politicising of world oil supplies. (UK)

  15. Nuclear energy and social costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellens, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The author introduces a new concept under the name 'social costs', defining it more or less as that which society is prepared to pay to solve the risks taken when a new technological system is introduced into that society. Social costs are the result of a complex of advantages and disadvantages inherent to a system. Applying this principle, a comparison is given of the health hazards involved in power generation by nuclear power plants and plants working on natural gas, oil or coal

  16. Macroeconomic costs of the unmet burden of surgical disease in Sierra Leone: a retrospective economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Quaife, Matthew; Kamara, Thaim B; Lavy, Christopher B D; Leather, Andy J M; Bolkan, Håkon A

    2018-03-14

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone. We calculated estimated disability-adjusted life years from morbidity and mortality for the estimated unmet burden and modelled the likely economic impact using three different methods-gross national income per capita, lifetime earnings foregone and value of a statistical life. In 2012, estimated, discounted lifetime losses to the Sierra Leone economy from the unmet burden of surgical disease was between US$1.1 and US$3.8 billion, depending on the economic method used. These lifetime losses equate to between 23% and 100% of the annual GDP for Sierra Leone. 80% of economic losses were due to mortality. The incremental losses averted by scale up of surgical provision to the Lancet Commission target of 80% were calculated to be between US$360 million and US$2.9 billion. There is a large economic loss from the unmet need for surgical care in Sierra Leone. There is an immediate need for massive investment to counteract ongoing economic losses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Costs and Burden Associated with Loss of Labor Productivity in Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: Results from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Kostov, Belchin; Haro, Josep Maria; Cabrera, Esther; Risco, Ester; Alvira, MCarmen; Miguel, Susana; Zabalegui, Adelaida

    2017-11-13

    We analyzed indirect costs related to loss of labor productivity (LLP) in informal caregivers (ICs) of people with dementia (PwD) and the associated caregiver burden and patients' clinical variables. Multicenter cohort study of PwD and their ICs (n = 287) focused on two groups: (1) home care and (2) institutional long-term care. The costs of LLP were assessed using the Resource Utilization Dementia instrument and a human capital approach. The cost for LLP was 378&OV0556;/month or 4.536&OV0556;/year. Greater disease severity increased the likelihood of reducing working hours and missing a working day. There was a significant association between partial absenteeism and burden in employed informal caregiver in both the home and institutional setting. Cognitive impairment contributes to the cost of LLP in IC especially in home-care. LLP has a negative impact on IC burden.

  18. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  19. Classification of nuclear plant cost to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to understand why the fixed-cost/variable-cost method of classifying nuclear plant costs can lead to rate discontinuities, the author must examine the factors which lead to the decision to build a nuclear power plant and the interrelationship between demand (KW) and energy (KWH). The problems and inequities associated with the nuclear plants can be avoided by recognizing that fixed costs are related to both demand and energy and by using a costing methodology which closely relates to the functional purpose of the plant. Generally, this leads to classifying fixed costs of nuclear plants primarily to the energy function in an embedded cost-of-service study and through either implicit or explicit recognition of fuel savings in a marginal cost study. The large rate discontinuities which occurred in the scenario can be resolved. Costs associated with demand or energy charges remain relatively stable compared to actual capacity costs and customers would not experience large changes in their bills due solely to a particular costing convention

  20. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  1. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Requirements and expectations of utilities and consumer organisations in the European energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Skytte, K.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous EU greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed on an overall target of 21.7% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project aimed at providing insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving targets for electricity from renewable sources (RES-E), compared to strictly national implementation measures. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets) and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, the project has paid special attention to the participation of stakeholders such as utilities, traders, and consumers of electricity. What is their opinion on the target setting, on the design of a trading system and its practical implementation and monitoring aspects? Utilities and consumer organisations in Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom have been asked to comment on these issues. This report is a result of a series of interviews with these stakeholders on their reaction to different burden sharing proposals, and on the socio-economic and financial impacts they foresee. The utilities take a critical view of their position in the renewable energy market and possible future international trading scheme. The main conclusions from the interviews are: Generally, target setting and burden sharing are regarded political questions, on which governments should decide; Stakeholders emphasise

  2. Comparative cost of illness analysis and assessment of health care burden of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Klug, Constanze; Thiele, Simone; Schorling, Elisabeth; Zowe, Janet; Reilich, Peter; Nagels, Klaus H; Walter, Maggie C

    2014-12-18

    Our study aimed to determine the burden of illness in dystrophinopathy type Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD), both leading to progressive disability, reduced working capacity and high health care utilization. A micro-costing method was used to examine the direct, indirect and informal care costs measuring the economic burden of DMD in comparison to BMD on patients, relatives, payers and society in Germany and to determine the health care burden of these diseases. Standardized questionnaires were developed based on predefined structured interview guidelines to obtain data directly from patients and caregivers using the German dystrophinopathy patient registry. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was analyzed using PedsQL™ Measurement Model. In total, 363 patients with genetically confirmed dystrophinopathies were enrolled. Estimated annual disease burden including direct medical/non-medical, indirect and informal care costs of DMD added up to € 78,913 while total costs in BMD were € 39,060. Informal care costs, indirect costs caused by loss of productivity and absenteeism of patients and caregivers as well as medical costs of rehabilitation services and medical aids were identified as the most important cost drivers. Total costs notably increased with disease progression and were consistent with the clinical severity; however, patients' HRQOL declined with disease progression. In conclusion, early assessments of economic aspects and the disease burden are essential to gain extensive knowledge of a distinct disease and above all play an important role in funding drug development programs for rare diseases. Therefore, our results may help to accelerate payer negotiations such as the pricing and reimbursement of new therapies, and will hopefully contribute to facilitating the efficient translation of innovations from clinical research over marketing authorization to patient access to a causative treatment.

  3. 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, Christopher; Hand, Maureen; Bolinger, Mark; Rand, Joseph; Heimiller, Donna; Ho, Jonathan

    2017-04-05

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2015. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  4. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Edward [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  5. Nuclear fuel: sustainable source of energy or burden on society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.; Klaiber, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the question concerning the sustainability of a resource primarily addressed its finite nature. Accordingly, electricity production using renewable energies was clearly sustainable. Contrasting this are systems based on oil, gas, coal or uranium. However, from the perspective of 'neo-sustainability' being analyzed today, this assessment appears less clear-cut, especially in light of the definition of sustainability as provided by the Brundtland report. Nowadays, the depletion time of fuel resources is thus not the only significant aspect, but factors such as efficiency, ecofriendliness and social responsibility also figure in. The nuclear fuel supply is analyzed from a sustainability perspective. After a short description of the supply chain, each of the most important aspects of sustainability are related to the individual stages of the supply chain and evaluated. This method aims at answering the question concerning to what extent nuclear fuel is a sustainable source of energy. Although the recycling of fissile materials from reprocessing and the deployment of advanced reactors are key factors as regards the issue of sustainability, these topics are deliberately only touched on. The main focus lies on the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle as it is currently utilized in light water reactors, without discussing the subject of reprocessing. (orig.)

  6. On the Costs of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    In considering the use of nuclear energy as a primary source of electricity the important thing is not that it should be ''cheap'' in absolute terms but that it should be competitive, that is to say that the cost of nuclear electricity should be produced at a cost comparable with or less than that of electricity generated by conventional sources - hydroelectric plants or thermo-plants based on coal, natural gas or oil. If energy is vital to a country's development one must be prepared to pay what it is worth; the problem is to obtain the energy at the lowest possible cost

  7. Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2015-04-01

    the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those EDCs with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs.

  8. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  9. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  10. Energy and GHG abatement cost curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Rafael [BHP Billiton Base Metals (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Global warming due to various reasons but especially to emission of green house gases (GHGs) has become a cause for serious concern. This paper discusses the steps taken by BHP Billiton to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions using cost curves. According to forecasts, global warming is expected to impact Chile badly and the rise in temperature could be between 1 and more than 5 degrees Celsius. Mining in Chile consumes a lot of energy, particularly electricity. Total energy and electricity consumption in 2007 was 13 and 36 % respectively. BHP base metals developed a set of abatement cost curves for energy and GHG in Chile and these are shown in figures. The methodology for the curves consisted of consultant visits to each mine operation. The study also includes mass energy balance and feasibility maps. The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate the potential for reducing emissions and energy and their associated costs.

  11. Cost evolution of electric energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Contreras, E.C.A.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of electric energy costs in Brazil is presented. Hydro, coal and nuclear costs are analysed and the final conclusion seems to indicate that nuclear power plants are not economically interesting untill the Brazilian electric capacity attains 110 GW average power. (Author) [pt

  12. Nuclear energy: the real costs; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.; Jones, P.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a review by Jones (Atom. 306 April 1982) of 'Nuclear Energy: the Real Costs' - a special report by the Committee for the Study of the Economics of Nuclear Electricity, and criticisms contained in the review of the analysis of nuclear costs presented in the report are discussed. Dr Jones replies. (U.K.)

  13. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  14. What will abandonment of nuclear energy cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany holds position five on the list of the world's biggest energy consumers. This alone is a fact that puts special emphasis on the public discussion about the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in addition to the current events such as incidents and accidents in nuclear installations. A sober review of the pros and cons of nuclear energy for power generation has to take into account the economic effects and the costs to be borne by the national economy as a result of immediate abandonment of nuclear energy. The article in hand discusses chances, problems, and alternatives to nuclear energy (solar energy and wind power). (orig.) [de

  15. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  16. 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moné, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, Maureen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-27

    This report uses representative utility-scale projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States. Data and results detailed here are derived from 2015 commissioned plants. More specifically, analysis detailed here relies on recent market data and state-of-the-art modeling capabilities to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind energy cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs as well as a basis for understanding variability in LCOE across the industry. This publication reflects the fifth installment of this annual report.

  17. 2016 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehly, Tyler J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-29

    This report uses representative utility-scale projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for land-based and offshore wind power plants in the United States. Data and results detailed here are derived from 2016 commissioned plants. More specifically, analysis detailed here relies on recent market data and state-of-the-art modeling capabilities to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind energy cost trends and drivers. This report is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs as well as a basis for understanding variability in LCOE across the country. This publication represents the sixth installment of this annual report.

  18. Toward a sustainable energy supply with reduced environmental burden. Development of metal fuel fast reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Kensuke

    2009-01-01

    CRIEPI has been studying the metal fuel fast reactor cycle as an outstanding alternative for the future energy sources. In this paper, development of the metal fuel cycle is reviewed in the view point of technological feasibility and material balance. Preliminary estimation of reduction of the waste burden due to introduction of the metal fuel cycle technology is also reported. (author)

  19. Levelized Cost of Energy of the Weptos wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the cost of energy calculations of a wave energy array of 90 MW, consisting of 25 x 3.6 MW Weptos wave energy converters. The calculation has been made in analogy with a publically available document presented by the UK government, covering the case of a similar size wind...

  20. Assessing the Cost of Energy Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, Jannik; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    Battery management strategies that reserve a certain capacity for power outages are able to increase the energy independence of a smart home. However, such strategies come at a certain cost, since these storage strategies are less flexible and energy from the grid may have to be bought at a high

  1. Solutions to Address Diabetes-Related Financial Burden and Cost-Related Nonadherence: Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R.; Resnicow, Kenneth; Lang, Ian; Kraus, Kathleen; Heisler, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to recommended self-management behaviors among adults with chronic conditions such as diabetes is prevalent. Few behavioral interventions to mitigate CRN have been tested and evaluated. Aims: We developed a financial burden resource tool and examined its acceptability and the preliminary effects on…

  2. Costs on the Mind: the Influence of the Financial Burden of College on Academic Performance and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destin, Mesmin; Svoboda, Ryan C.

    2018-01-01

    The current studies test the hypothesis that the financial burden of college can initiate a psychological process that has a negative influence on academic performance for students at selective colleges and universities. Prior studies linking high college costs and student loans to academic outcomes have not been grounded within relevant social…

  3. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  4. The cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality: an economic measure of the cancer burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul A; Sharp, Linda

    2014-03-26

    Most measures of the cancer burden take a public health perspective. Cancer also has a significant economic impact on society. To assess this economic burden, we estimated years of potential productive life lost (YPPLL) and costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland. All cancers combined and the 10 sites accounting for most deaths in men and in women were considered. To compute YPPLL, deaths in 5-year age-bands between 15 and 64 years were multiplied by average working-life expectancy. Valuation of costs, using the human capital approach, involved multiplying YPPLL by age-and-gender specific gross wages, and adjusting for unemployment and workforce participation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted around retirement age and wage growth, labour force participation, employment and discount rates, and to explore the impact of including household production and caring costs. Costs were expressed in €2009. Total YPPLL was lower in men than women (men = 10,873; women = 12,119). Premature cancer-related mortality costs were higher in men (men: total cost = €332 million, cost/death = €290,172, cost/YPPLL = €30,558; women: total cost = €177 million, cost/death = €159,959, cost/YPPLL = €14,628). Lung cancer had the highest premature mortality cost (€84.0 million; 16.5% of total costs), followed by cancers of the colorectum (€49.6 million; 9.7%), breast (€49.4 million; 9.7%) and brain & CNS (€42.4 million: 8.3%). The total economic cost of premature cancer-related mortality in Ireland amounted to €509.5 million or 0.3% of gross domestic product. An increase of one year in the retirement age increased the total all-cancer premature mortality cost by 9.9% for men and 5.9% for women. The inclusion of household production and caring costs increased the total cost to €945.7 million. Lost productivity costs due to cancer-related premature mortality are significant. The higher premature mortality cost in males than

  5. Least cost analysis of renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology for evaluating dispersed and centralized rural energy options on a least cost basis. In defining the load to be served, each supply alternative must provide equivalent levels of service. The village to be served is defined by the number of loads, load density, distance from the nearest power distribution line, and load growth. Appropriate rural energy alternatives are identified and sized to satisfy the defined load. Lastly, a net present value analysis (including capital, installation, O and M, fuel, and replacement costs, etc.) is performed to identify the least cost option. A spreadsheet-based analytical tool developed by the World Bank's Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) incorporates this approach and has been applied to compare photovoltaic solar home systems with other rural energy supply options in Indonesia. Load size and load density are found to be the critical factors in choosing between a grid and off-grid solution

  6. The energy cost of quantum information losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Alejandro; de Lima Marquezino, Franklin; Portugal, Renato; Donangelo, Raul

    2018-05-01

    We explore the energy cost of the information loss resulting from the passage of an initial density operator to a reduced one. We use the concept of entanglement temperature in order to obtain a lower bound for the energy change associated with this operation. We determine the minimal energy required for the case of the information losses associated with the trace over the space coordinates of a two-dimensional quantum walk.

  7. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  8. Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Sebastián

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Argentina representing 34.2% of deaths and 12.6% of potential years of life lost (PYLL. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of acute coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke and the cost-effectiveness of preventative population-based and clinical interventions. Methods An epidemiological model was built incorporating prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity, obtained from the Argentine Survey of Risk Factors dataset. Population Attributable Fraction (PAF of each risk factor was estimated using relative risks from international sources. Total fatal and non-fatal events, PYLL and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY were estimated. Costs of event were calculated from local utilization databases and expressed in international dollars (I$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER were estimated for six interventions: reducing salt in bread, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation, pharmacological therapy of high blood pressure, pharmacological therapy of high cholesterol, tobacco cessation therapy with bupropion, and a multidrug strategy for people with an estimated absolute risk > 20% in 10 years. Results An estimated total of 611,635 DALY was lost due to acute CHD and stroke for 2005. Modifiable risk factors explained 71.1% of DALY and more than 80% of events. Two interventions were cost-saving: lowering salt intake in the population through reducing salt in bread and multidrug therapy targeted to persons with an absolute risk above 20% in 10 years; three interventions had very acceptable ICERs: drug therapy for high blood pressure in hypertensive patients not yet undergoing treatment (I$ 2,908 per DALY saved, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation amongst smokers (I$ 3,186 per DALY saved, and lowering cholesterol with

  9. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  10. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  11. Energy Prices and Internal Costs in Croatian Energy System Restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V. , Magdic, M.

    1995-01-01

    After social and political changes in 1990, energy prices in Croatia have been getting closer to the West European averages, faster than in the most European countries in transition. The energy prices for industry are almost at the West European level, while the energy prices of electricity and natural gas for households and those of the gasoline are well behind. If the population purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, these relations change. While the internalization of external energy costs is under way in the developed world, it has not practically started yet in Croatia. The Croatian energy system restructuring shall require gradual adjustment of energy prices, together with multistage internalization of external energy costs. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Posthospital Discharge Medical Care Costs and Family Burden Associated with Osteoporotic Fracture Patients in China from 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study collected and evaluated data on the costs of outpatient medical care and family burden associated with osteoporosis-related fracture rehabilitation following hospital discharge in China. Materials and Methods. Data were collected using a patient questionnaire from osteoporosis-related fracture patients (N = 123 who aged 50 years and older who were discharged between January 2011 and January 2013 from 3 large hospitals in China. The survey captured posthospital discharge direct medical costs, indirect medical costs, lost work time for caregivers, and patient ambulatory status. Results. Hip fracture was the most frequent fracture site (62.6%, followed by vertebral fracture (34.2%. The mean direct medical care costs per patient totaled 3,910¥, while mean indirect medical costs totaled 743¥. Lost work time for unpaid family caregivers was 16.4 days, resulting in an average lost income of 3,233¥. The average posthospital direct medical cost, indirect medical cost, and caregiver lost income associated with a fracture patient totaled 7,886¥. Patients’ ambulatory status was negatively impacted following fracture. Conclusions. Significant time and cost of care are placed on patients and caregivers during rehabilitation after discharge for osteoporotic fracture. It is important to evaluate the role and responsibility for creating the growing and inequitable burden placed on patients and caregivers following osteoporotic fracture.

  13. Estimating the Hospital Burden of Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis in England and its Opportunity Costs for Non-Admitted Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Frank G; Shallcross, Laura; Adams, Natalie; Allen, David J; Coen, Pietro G; Jeanes, Annette; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Larkin, Lesley; Wurie, Fatima; Robotham, Julie V; Jit, Mark; Deeny, Sarah R

    2018-02-26

    Norovirus places a substantial burden on healthcare systems, arising from infected patients, disease outbreaks, beds kept unoccupied for infection control, and staff absences due to infection. In settings with high rates of bed occupancy, opportunity costs arise from patients who cannot be admitted due to beds being unavailable. With several treatments and vaccines against norovirus in development, quantifying the expected economic burden is timely. The number of inpatients with norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in England were modelled using infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal Hospital Episode Statistics codes and laboratory reports of gastrointestinal pathogens collected at Public Health England. The excess length of stay from norovirus was estimated with a multi-state model and local outbreak data. Unoccupied bed-days and staff absences were estimated from national outbreak surveillance. The burden was valued conventionally using accounting expenditures and wages, which we contrasted to the opportunity costs from forgone patients using a novel methodology. Between July 2013 and June 2016, 17.7% (95%-confidence interval: 15.6%‒21.6%) of primary and 23.8% (20.6%‒29.9%) of secondary gastrointestinal diagnoses were norovirus-attributable. Annually, the estimated median 290,000 (interquartile range: 282,000‒297,000) occupied and unoccupied bed-days used for norovirus displaced 57,800 patients. Conventional costs for the National Health Service reached £107.6 million; the economic burden approximated to £297.7 million and a loss of 6,300 quality-adjusted life years annually. In England, norovirus is now the second-largest contributor of the gastrointestinal hospital burden. With the projected impact being greater than previously estimated, improved capture of relevant opportunity costs seems imperative for diseases like norovirus.

  14. Quantifying the costs and benefits of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1975-06-01

    A number of principles which have been developed for cost-benefit assessments in the radiation field are applied to the more general cost-benefit assessment of energy production. Sources of energy may be assessed in relation to a reference practice. If this is done for one and the same electricity production, the main objective is to assess detriments in comparable terms. Detriment rates may be integrated in space and time and might also be expressed in equivalent monetary units. Although there are several practical limitations to any theoretical treatment of the problem, the basic principles may form a useful background to more realistic although more complicated approaches to the task. (author)

  15. Renewable energies: the cost of intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crassous, Renaud; Roques, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    The authors indicate the different adaptations which will be required for the electric system to cope with the intermittency of solar and wind energy production, and propose an approximate assessment of the associated costs. Different types of adaptation are addressed: secure production in case of absence of wind or sun (electricity imports, construction of additional power stations), use of more flexible production means (gas turbines), grid extensions (connection to offshore production sites, routing of production one part of the country to the other). They think that beyond a 20 per cent share for renewable energies, these costs could rapidly increase

  16. Simple Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) Calculator Documentation | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ;M, performance and fuel costs. Note that this doesn't include financing issues, discount issues ). This means that the LCOE is the minimum price at which energy must be sold for an energy project to the balance between debt-financing and equity-financing, and an assessment of the financial risk

  17. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  18. The annual cost of not breastfeeding in Indonesia: the economic burden of treating diarrhea and respiratory disease among children (recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Pitriyan, Pipit; Walters, Dylan

    2018-01-01

    In Indonesia, 96% of children (recommendations. Breastfeeding provides protective benefits such as reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhea and pneumonia/respiratory disease (PRD). This study estimates the potential economic impact of not breastfeeding according to recommendation in Indonesia based on infants suffering from attributable diarrhea and PRD. A cost analysis examined both the healthcare system costs and non-medical costs for children (recommendation from literatures to extrapolate the financial burden of treatment. The healthcare system cost due to not breastfeeding according to recommendation was estimated at US$118 million annually. The mean healthcare system cost and out of pocket costs was US$11.37 and US$3.85 respectively. This cost consists of US$88.64 million of provider costs and US$29.98 million of non-medical patient costs. The cost of not breastfeeding according to recommendation is potentially high, therefore the Indonesian government needs to invest in breastfeeding protection, promotion and support as the potential healthcare system cost savings are significant. As suggested by other studies, the long term cost due to cognitive losses of providing not breastfeeding according to recommendation should also be taken into account to provide a complete understanding of the economic impact of not breastfeeding according to recommendation.

  19. Solutions to Address Diabetes-Related Financial Burden and Cost-Related Nonadherence: Results From a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Resnicow, Kenneth; Lang, Ian; Kraus, Kathleen; Heisler, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to recommended self-management behaviors among adults with chronic conditions such as diabetes is prevalent. Few behavioral interventions to mitigate CRN have been tested and evaluated. We developed a financial burden resource tool and examined its acceptability and the preliminary effects on patient-centered outcomes among adults with diabetes or prediabetes seen in a clinical setting. We report a pre-post one-group design pilot study. From an endocrinology clinic, we recruited 104 adults with diabetes who reported financial burdens with their diabetes management or engaged in CRN behaviors. We offered participants the financial burden resource tool we developed, which provided tailored, low-cost resource options for diabetes management and other social needs. Acceptability and self-reported outcomes were assessed 2 months after use of the tool. Mean age of participants was 50.5 years ( SD = 15.3). Participants found the tool highly acceptable across 15 indicators (e.g., 93% "learned a lot," 98% "topics relevant" 95% "applicable to their lives," 98% "liked the information"). Significant improvements between baseline and 2-month follow-up were observed for discussion of cost concerns with nurses (19% to 29%, p financial management (33.83 to 39.62, p financial burden. A financial burden resource tool is highly acceptable to patients, is easy to administer, and can prompt behavior change. This pilot study supports the need for well-powered trials with longer follow-up to further evaluate the effectiveness of such tools in improving CRN and key outcomes.

  20. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  1. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  2. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkranz, P; Lanata, C F; Penny, M E; Salazar-Lindo, E; Glass, R I

    2001-10-01

    To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384,000 cases, 64,000 clinic visits, 30,000 hospitalizations, and 1,600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal) associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.

  3. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ehrenkranz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. Methods. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Results. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384 000 cases, 64 000 clinic visits, 30 000 hospitalizations, and 1 600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Conclusions. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.

  4. The hidden costs of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1978-01-01

    A lynch pin of the pro-nuclear argument is that atomic energy provides cheap electricity. Many are sceptical of such claims, realising that a lot of figures have been omitted from the accounting - the cost of R and D, of dismantling the obsolete stations and of waste management - but having no access to all the figures, such scepticism has remained little more than a hunch. Using conventional economic accounting it is shown that nuclear power must be considerably more costly than has ever been admitted by any of the authorities. The CEGB claims that reprocessing amounts to no more than 8 per cent of the total costs of nuclear generated electricity. According to the present author the costs are 20 per cent - and that 20 per cent is of a much higher figure. (author)

  5. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  6. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  7. The Economic Burden of Visual Impairment and Comorbid Fatigue: A Cost-of-Illness Study (From a Societal Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, Wouter; van der Aa, Hilde P A; Bode, Christina; Hulshof, Carel T J; van Rens, Ger H M B; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the burden of visual impairment and comorbid fatigue in terms of impact on daily life, by estimating societal costs (direct medical costs and indirect non-health care costs) accrued by these conditions. This cost-of-illness study was performed from a societal perspective. Cross-sectional data of visually impaired adults and normally sighted adults were collected through structured telephone interviews and online surveys, respectively. Primary outcomes were fatigue severity (FAS), impact of fatigue on daily life (MFIS), and total societal costs. Cost differences between participants with and without vision loss, and between participants with and without fatigue, were examined by (adjusted) multivariate regression analyses, including bootstrapped confidence intervals. Severe fatigue (FAS ≥ 22) and high fatigue impact (MFIS ≥ 38) was present in 57% and 40% of participants with vision loss (n = 247), respectively, compared to 22% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7, 7.6]) and 11% (adjusted OR 4.8; 95% CI [2.7, 8.7]) in those with normal sight (n = 233). A significant interaction was found between visual impairment and high fatigue impact for total societal costs (€449; 95% CI [33, 1017]). High fatigue impact was associated with significantly increased societal costs for participants with visual impairment (mean difference €461; 95% CI [126, 797]), but this effect was not observed for participants with normal sight (€12; 95% CI [-527, 550]). Visual impairment is associated with an increased prevalence of high fatigue impact that largely determines the economic burden of visual impairment. The substantial costs of visual impairment and comorbid fatigue emphasize the need for patient-centered interventions aimed at decreasing its impact.

  8. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  9. Russian energy prices, taxes and costs 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Russian energy industry may be the country's most promising exporter, but it is struggling to free itself from the heavy regulation and economic distortions inherited from the Soviet era. This analysis examines Russian price and tax policies as well as production costs in 1993, and their effect on supply and demand in the oil, coal, gas and electricity sectors. The study underscores the broad consensus among both Western and Russian experts that primary energy prices should be lifted to world levels. It offers a framework for addressing the great question about how fast this should be done in a country undergoing a tremendous social and political transformation

  10. Economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany: a cost analysis based on empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Claudia; Roggelin, Marcus; Flessa, Steffen

    2016-02-23

    Infections and colonisations with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) increasingly affect different types of healthcare facilities worldwide. So far, little is known about additional costs attributable to MDROs outside hospitals. The aim of this study was to analysis the economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany. The cost analysis is performed from a microeconomic perspective of the healthcare facilities. Study took place in six long-term care facilities in north-eastern Germany. Data of 71 residents with a positive MDRO status were included. The study analysed MDRO surveillance data from 2011 to 2013. It was supplemented by an empirical analysis to determine the burden on staff capacity and materials consumption. 11,793 days with a positive multidrug-resistant pathogen diagnosis could be included in the analysis. On average, 11.8 (SD ± 6.3) MDRO cases occurred per nursing home. Mean duration per case was 163.3 days (SD ± 97.1). The annual MDRO-related costs varied in nursing homes between €2449.72 and €153,263.74 on an average €12,682.23 per case. Main cost drivers were staff capacity (€43.95 per day and €7177.04 per case) and isolation materials (€24.70 per day and €4033.51 per case). The importance of MDROs in nursing homes could be confirmed. MDRO-related cost data in this specific healthcare sector were collected for the first time. Knowledge about the burden of MDROs will enable to assess the efficiency of hygiene intervention measures in nursing homes in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Preventable health and cost burden of adverse birth outcomes associated with pregestational diabetes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Grosse, Scott D; Li, Rui; Sharma, Andrea J; Razzaghi, Hilda; Herman, William H; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Preconception care for women with diabetes can reduce the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes. We aimed to estimate the preconception care (PCC)-preventable health and cost burden of adverse birth outcomes associated with diagnosed and undiagnosed pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) in the United States. Among women of reproductive age (15-44 years), we estimated age- and race/ethnicity-specific prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. We applied age and race/ethnicity-specific pregnancy rates, estimates of the risk reduction from PCC for 3 adverse birth outcomes (preterm birth, major birth defects, and perinatal mortality), and lifetime medical and lost productivity costs for children with those outcomes. Using a probabilistic model, we estimated the reduction in adverse birth outcomes and costs associated with universal PCC compared with no PCC among women with PGDM. We did not assess maternal outcomes and associated costs. We estimated 2.2% of US births are to women with PGDM. Among women with diagnosed diabetes, universal PCC might avert 8397 (90% prediction interval [PI], 5252-11,449) preterm deliveries, 3725 (90% PI, 3259-4126) birth defects, and 1872 (90% PI, 1239-2415) perinatal deaths annually. Associated discounted lifetime costs averted for the affected cohort of children could be as high as $4.3 billion (90% PI, 3.4-5.1 billion) (2012 US dollars). PCC among women with undiagnosed diabetes could yield an additional $1.2 billion (90% PI, 951 million-1.4 billion) in averted cost. Results suggest a substantial health and cost burden associated with PGDM that could be prevented by universal PCC, which might offset the cost of providing such care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring the societal burden of cancer: the cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Sharp, Linda

    2015-02-15

    Every cancer-related death in someone of working age represents an economic loss to society. To inform priorities for cancer control, we estimated costs of lost productivity due to premature cancer-related mortality across Europe, for all cancers and by site, gender, region and country. Cancer deaths in 2008 were obtained from GLOBOCAN for 30 European countries across four regions. Costs were valued using the human capital approach. Years of productive life lost (YPLL) were computed by multiplying deaths between 15 and 64 years by working-life expectancy, then by country-, age- and gender-specific annual wages, corrected for workforce participation and unemployment. Lost productivity costs due to premature cancer-related mortality in Europe in 2008 were €75 billion. Male costs (€49 billion) were almost twice female costs (€26 billion). The most costly sites were lung (€17 billion; 23% of total costs), breast (€7 billion; 9%) and colorectum (€6 billion; 8%). Stomach cancer (in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe) and pancreatic cancer (in Northern and Western Europe) were also among the most costly sites. The average lost productivity cost per cancer death was €219,241. Melanoma had the highest cost per death (€312,798), followed by Hodgkin disease (€306,628) and brain and CNS cancer (€288,850). Premature mortality costs were 0.58% of 2008 European gross domestic product, highest in Central-Eastern Europe (0.81%) and lowest in Northern Europe (0.51%). Premature cancer-related mortality costs in Europe are significant. These results provide a novel perspective on the societal cancer burden and may be used to inform priority setting for cancer control. © 2014 UICC.

  14. The burden of endometriosis: costs and quality of life of women with endometriosis and treated in referral centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Dunselman, Gerard; Dirksen, Carmen; Hummelshoj, Lone; Bokor, Attila; Brandes, Iris; Brodszky, Valentin; Canis, Michel; Colombo, Giorgio Lorenzo; DeLeire, Thomas; Falcone, Tommaso; Graham, Barbara; Halis, Gülden; Horne, Andrew; Kanj, Omar; Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Kristensen, Jens; Lebovic, Dan; Mueller, Michael; Vigano, Paola; Wullschleger, Marcel; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to calculate costs and health-related quality of life of women with endometriosis-associated symptoms treated in referral centres. A prospective, multi-centre, questionnaire-based survey measured costs and quality of life in ambulatory care and in 12 tertiary care centres in 10 countries. The study enrolled women with a diagnosis of endometriosis and with at least one centre-specific contact related to endometriosis-associated symptoms in 2008. The main outcome measures were health care costs, costs of productivity loss, total costs and quality-adjusted life years. Predictors of costs were identified using regression analysis. Data analysis of 909 women demonstrated that the average annual total cost per woman was €9579 (95% confidence interval €8559-€10 599). Costs of productivity loss of €6298 per woman were double the health care costs of €3113 per woman. Health care costs were mainly due to surgery (29%), monitoring tests (19%) and hospitalization (18%) and physician visits (16%). Endometriosis-associated symptoms generated 0.809 quality-adjusted life years per woman. Decreased quality of life was the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. Costs were greater with increasing severity of endometriosis, presence of pelvic pain, presence of infertility and a higher number of years since diagnosis. Our study invited women to report resource use based on endometriosis-associated symptoms only, rather than drawing on a control population of women without endometriosis. Our study showed that the economic burden associated with endometriosis treated in referral centres is high and is similar to other chronic diseases (diabetes, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis). It arises predominantly from productivity loss, and is predicted by decreased quality of life.

  15. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against...... to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe...... the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most...

  16. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vestergaard; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To estimate the value of treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with cost data. This, in turn, requires that cost data be regularly updated. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This study is part of a cross-s...

  17. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the USA: a population-based disease burden and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attina, Teresa M; Hauser, Russ; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Hunt, Patricia A; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders. We used Monte Carlo methods to produce realistic probability ranges for costs across the exposure-response relation, taking into account uncertainties. Estimates were made based on population and costs in the USA in 2010. Costs for the European Union were converted to US$ (€1=$1·33). The disease costs of EDCs were much higher in the USA than in Europe ($340 billion [2·33% of GDP] vs $217 billion [1·28%]). The difference was driven mainly by intelligence quotient (IQ) points loss and intellectual disability due to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (11 million IQ points lost and 43 000 cases costing $266 billion in the USA vs 873 000 IQ points lost and 3290 cases costing $12·6 billion in the European Union). Accounting for probability of causation, in the European Union, organophosphate pesticides were the largest contributor to costs associated with EDC exposure ($121 billion), whereas in the USA costs due to pesticides were much lower ($42 billion). EDC exposure in the USA contributes to disease and dysfunction, with annual costs taking up more than 2% of the GDP. Differences from the European Union suggest the need for improved screening for chemical disruption to endocrine systems and proactive prevention. Endocrine Society, Ralph S French Charitable Foundation, and Broad Reach Foundation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Out-of-pocket Cost Burden in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Cross-sectional Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Aaron T; Damman, Jennifer L; Ziring, David A; Gleghorn, Elizabeth E; Garcia-Careaga, Manuel G; Gugig, Roberto R; Hunter, Anna K; Burgis, Jennifer C; Bass, Dorsey M; Park, K T

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), can result in significant morbidity requiring frequent health care utilization. Although it is known that the overall financial impact of pediatric IBD is significant, the direct out-of-pocket (OOP) cost burden on the parents of children with IBD has not been explored. We hypothesized that affected children with a more relapsing disease course and families in lower income strata, ineligible for need-based assistance programs, disparately absorb ongoing financial stress. We completed a cross-sectional analysis among parents of children with IBD residing in California using an online HIPAA-secure Qualtrics survey. Multicenter recruitment occurred between December 4, 2013 and September 18, 2014 at the point-of-care from site investigators, informational flyers distributed at regional CCFA conferences, and social media campaigns equally targeting Northern, Central, and Southern California. IBD-, patient-, and family-specific information were collected from the parents of pediatric patients with IBD patients younger than 18 years of age at time of study, carry a confirmed diagnosis of CD or UC, reside in and receive pediatric gastroenterology care in California, and do not have other chronic diseases requiring ongoing medical care. We collected 150 unique surveys from parents of children with IBD (67 CD; 83 UC). The median patient age was 14 years for both CD and UC, with an overall 3.7 years (SD 2.8 yr) difference between survey completion and time of IBD diagnosis. Annually, 63.6%, 28.6%, and 5.3% of families had an OOP cost burden >$500, >$1000, and >5000, respectively. Approximately one-third (36.0%) of patients had emergency department (ED) visits over the past year, with 59.2% of these patients spending >$500 on emergency department copays, including 11.1% who spent >$5000. Although 43.3% contributed $2000 in the past year. Families with household income

  19. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    subsidisation and external costs are often not considered in the price of conventional energy resources but ultimately have to be paid nonetheless, be it the form of tax payments, the social costs of the climate change or of other burdens on humans and the environment. The study furnishes proof that the EEG reallocation charge levied for the promotion of renewable energy (3.59 cents per kWh in 2012) represents a far smaller cost burden than do conventional energy resources, and that it will remain so even if it raised substantially in the future to finance the conversion to a more climate-friendly, sustainable energy supply. Contrary to popular belief, renewable energy resources are not the big cost driving factor in our power supply system but rather a replacement of energy resources that are causing far greater consequential costs for tax payers and society as a whole. If power supply companies were made to include these additional costs of electricity production in their cost calculations, most renewable energy resources would already be competitive today.

  20. Economic burden of mucormycosis in the United States: can a vaccine be cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Edwards, John E; Bryant, Richard; Spellberg, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection which causes unacceptably high morbidity and mortality despite treatment. Therefore, a vaccine to prevent mucormycosis is desirable. A major barrier to developing an anti-mucormycosis vaccine is the perception that such a vaccine would not be cost-effective to deploy because the disease is rare. We used data from a recent retrospective study to calculate the annual cost to the US healthcare system caused by mucormycosis infections. We created a model to estimate the cost-efficacy of a niche, anti-mucormycosis vaccine deployed in a targeted manner to high-risk patients. We found that each case of mucormycosis results in an average direct cost to the US healthcare system of $97,743, for an overall cost of mucormycosis of $50 million per year. In the base case scenario, targeted deployment of an anti-mucormycosis vaccine would result in a net cost per quality adjusted life year saved (QUALY) of $17,249. Variations in the price of the vaccine, its market penetration, or the cost of infection could dramatically decrease the net cost, and could even result in net savings per QUALY. In conclusion, mucormycosis causes considerable cost to the US health care system. Targeted deployment of a niche vaccine could decrease infection rates and mortality from mucormycosis in a cost-effective manner.

  1. Cost of supplying energy from New Zealand resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Robert G.

    1977-10-15

    The kinds of costs which face the community when a power project is promoted are broadly discussed. Sometimes, costs such as social, economic, and environmental impacts do not appear often in budgetary form. The growth of public participation is discussed. Components (investigation costs, development costs, distribution costs, social costs, environmental costs, etc.) which contribute to the cost of energy production and supply are examined in some detail.

  2. Reducing Energy Burden with Solar: Colorado's Strategy and Roadmap for States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shah, Monisha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-03

    The Colorado Energy Office (CEO) recently implemented a multi-pronged strategy to reduce energy burden for low-income (LI) Colorado residents through the deployment of solar electricity generation. Due to these efforts, approximately 20 MW of photovoltaic (PV) solar may be deployed in Colorado by the end of 2019 specifically for low-income households. Relying on interviews with ten subject-matter experts and other research, this report outlines the details of the CEO strategy including why the agency pursued this strategy, how it was carried out, and lessons learned from implementation. Though CEO's strategy is unique and tailored to the needs of Colorado, it is possible that other states might learn from CEO's experiences when designing their own LI strategies. As a result, the report concludes by outlining six primary steps for designing a comprehensive low-income solar strategy.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Free Access to Smoking Cessation Treatment in France Considering the Economic Burden of Smoking-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadier, Benjamin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Thomas, Daniel; Chevreul, Karine

    2016-01-01

    In France more than 70,000 deaths from diseases related to smoking are recorded each year, and since 2005 prevalence of tobacco has increased. Providing free access to smoking cessation treatment would reduce this burden. The aim of our study was to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of providing free access to cessation treatment taking into account the cost offsets associated with the reduction of the three main diseases related to smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To measure the financial impact of such a measure we also conducted a probabilistic budget impact analysis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov state-transition model that compared free access to cessation treatment to the existing coverage of €50 provided by the French statutory health insurance, taking into account the cost offsets among current French smokers aged 15-75 years. Our results were expressed by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in 2009 Euros per life year gained (LYG) at the lifetime horizon. We estimated a base case scenario and carried out a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainty. Assuming a participation rate of 7.3%, the ICER value for free access to cessation treatment was €3,868 per LYG in the base case. The variation of parameters provided a range of ICER values from -€736 to €15,715 per LYG. In 99% of cases, the ICER for full coverage was lower than €11,187 per LYG. The probabilistic budget impact analysis showed that the potential cost saving for lung cancer, COPD and CVD ranges from €15 million to €215 million at the five-year horizon for an initial cessation treatment cost of €125 million to €421 million. The results suggest that providing medical support to smokers in their attempts to quit is very cost-effective and may even result in cost savings.

  4. The size, burden and cost of disorders of the brain in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Peter M; Carpenter, Lewis; Gannon, Brenda; Sharpe, Rachel; Young, Allan H; Joyce, Eileen; Rowe, James; Wellsted, David; Nutt, David J; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to increase awareness of the prevalence and cost of psychiatric and neurological disorders (brain disorders) in the UK. Method: UK data for 18 brain disorders were extracted from a systematic review of European epidemiological data and prevalence rates and the costs of each disorder were summarized (2010 values). Results: There were approximately 45 million cases of brain disorders in the UK, with a cost of €134 billion per annum. The most prevalent were headache, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, mood disorders and somatoform disorders. However, the five most costly disorders (€ million) were: dementia: €22,164; psychotic disorders: €16,717; mood disorders: €19,238; addiction: €11,719; anxiety disorders: €11,687. Apart from psychosis, these five disorders ranked amongst those with the lowest direct medical expenditure per subject (<€3000). The approximate breakdown of costs was: 50% indirect costs, 25% direct non-medical and 25% direct healthcare costs. Discussion: The prevalence and cost of UK brain disorders is likely to increase given the ageing population. Translational neurosciences research has the potential to develop more effective treatments but is underfunded. Addressing the clinical and economic challenges posed by brain disorders requires a coordinated effort at an EU and national level to transform the current scientific, healthcare and educational agenda. PMID:23884863

  5. The Annual Economic Burden of Syphilis: An Estimation of Direct, Productivity, and Intangible Costs for Syphilis in Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming; Liao, Yu; Liu, Fengying; Chen, Lei; Shen, Hongcheng; Huang, Shujie; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-11-01

    Syphilis has continuously posed a great challenge to China. However, very little data existed regarding the cost of syphilis. Taking Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis area as the research site, we aimed to comprehensively measure the annual economic burden of syphilis from a societal perspective. Newly diagnosed and follow-up outpatient cases were investigated by questionnaire. Reported tertiary syphilis cases and medical institutions cost were both collected. The direct economic burden was measured by the bottom-up approach, the productivity cost by the human capital method, and the intangible burden by the contingency valuation method. Three hundred five valid early syphilis cases and 13 valid tertiary syphilis cases were collected in the investigation to estimate the personal average cost. The total economic burden of syphilis was US $729,096.85 in Guangdong Initiative for Comprehensive Control of Syphilis sites in the year of 2014, with medical institutions cost accounting for 73.23% of the total. Household average direct cost of early syphilis was US $23.74. Average hospitalization cost of tertiary syphilis was US $2,749.93. Of the cost to medical institutions, screening and testing comprised the largest proportion (26%), followed by intervention and case management (22%) and operational cost (21%). Household average productivity cost of early syphilis was US $61.19. Household intangible cost of syphilis was US $15,810.54. Syphilis caused a substantial economic burden on patients, their families, and society in Guangdong. Household productivity and intangible costs both shared positive relationships with local economic levels. Strengthening the prevention and effective treatment of early syphilis could greatly help to lower the economic burden of syphilis.

  6. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  7. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... reopening of the time period for submitting comments on the request for information on Building Energy Codes... the request for information on Building Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket number EERE-2011...

  8. The burden of unintended pregnancies in Brazil: a social and public health system cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le HH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hoa H Le,1 Mark P Connolly,1,2 Luis Bahamondes,3 Jose G Cecatti,3 Jingbo Yu,4 Henry X Hu4 1Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 2Global Market Access Solutions, Saint-Prex, Switzerland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 4Merck & Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Unintended pregnancy (UP is an unmet medical need with consequences worldwide. We evaluate the costs of UP based on pregnancies in Brazil from for the year 2010. Methods: The consequences of UP were evaluated using decision analysis based on pregnancy rates and outcomes as miscarriage, induced abortion, and live birth, which were factored into the analysis. The model discriminated between maternal and child outcomes and accounted for costs (in Brazilian currency [Real$, R$] within the Brazilian public health service attributed to preterm birth, neonatal admission, cerebral palsy, and neonatal and maternal mortality. Event probabilities were obtained from local resources. Results: We estimate that 1.8 million UPs resulted in 159,151 miscarriages, 48,769 induced abortions, 1.58 million live births, and 312 maternal deaths, including ten (3% attributed to unsafe abortions. The total estimated costs attributed to UP are R$4.1 billion annually, including R$32 million (0.8% and R$4.07 billion (99.2% attributed to miscarriages and births and complications, respectively. Direct birth costs accounted for approximately R$1.22 billion (30.0%, with labor and delivery responsible for most costs (R$988 million; 24.3% for the year 2010. The remainder of costs were for infant complications (R$2.84 billion; 72.3% with hospital readmission during the first year accounting for approximately R$2.15 billion (52.9%. Based on the national cost, we estimate the cost per UP to be R$2,293. Conclusion: Despite weaknesses in precise estimates in annual

  9. Patients are paying too much for tuberculosis: a direct cost-burden evaluation in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Laokri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing "free care" for Tuberculosis (TB diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. METHODS: Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. RESULTS: Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229 (i.e. 2.8 months of household income. Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services, 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology, 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs. For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. CONCLUSIONS: The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a "free care" policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make "free" health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved.

  10. Patients are paying too much for tuberculosis: a direct cost-burden evaluation in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokri, Samia; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Weil, Olivier; Kafando, Benoît; Dembélé, Sary Mathurin; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Paying for health care may exclude poor people. Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy implementing "free care" for Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment. This should increase universal health coverage and help to overcome social and economic barriers to health access. Straddling 2007 and 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted over a year among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six rural districts of Burkina Faso. Out-of-pocket expenses (direct costs) associated with TB were collected according to the different stages of their healthcare pathway. Median direct cost associated with TB was US$101 (n = 229) (i.e. 2.8 months of household income). Respectively 72% of patients incurred direct costs during the pre-diagnosis stage (i.e. self-medication, travel, traditional healers' services), 95% during the diagnosis process (i.e. user fees, travel costs to various providers, extra sputum smears microscopy and chest radiology), 68% during the intensive treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs) and 50% during the continuation treatment (i.e. medical and travel costs). For the diagnosis stage, median direct costs already amounted to 35% of overall direct costs. The patient care pathway analysis in rural Burkina Faso showed substantial direct costs and healthcare system delay within a "free care" policy for TB diagnosis and treatment. Whether in terms of redefining the free TB package or rationalizing the care pathway, serious efforts must be undertaken to make "free" health care more affordable for the patients. Locally relevant for TB, this case-study in Burkina Faso has a real potential to document how health programs' weaknesses can be identified and solved.

  11. Transaction costs of energy efficiency policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis [International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    This paper identifies the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) under different policy instruments aimed to increase energy efficiency. It analyses three cases: a) GHG-driven initiatives, b) tradable 'White Certificate' (TWC) schemes -taking the Energy Efficiency Commitment in Great Britain as a case study-, and c) energy efficiency audits given by grid companies in Denmark. The analysis focuses on TCs borne by project developers or obliged parties under these initiatives. Several sources of TCs are considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification (M and V) activities. Information has been obtained through a literature review, interviews with stakeholders and questionnaires. Some similarities were found as far as the nature of TCs is concerned. Relevant sources of TCs appear to be the search for information (for both potential measures and beneficiaries), negotiation and contract agreements with third parties, follow-up of measures, M and V activities and due accreditation of savings. The scale of TCs differs to a large extent, ranging from 5 % to 36 % of total audit/project costs. Figures must be taken with caution due to a number of specific factors driving their order of magnitude, including levels of uncertainty and the TCs accounting problem. Indications of economies of scale were only found for the case of GHG policy initiatives. In all, estimations are very case-specific and cannot be comparable. It is concluded that a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants affect the nature and scale of TCs for the analysed cases.

  12. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Eriksson, Jennifer; Miller, David

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of disability, from the societal perspective, in EUR (2015). A total of 779 patients (mean age = 57 years) participated; 72% were below retirement age and of these, 36% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 84% of patients. Overall, 96% and 72% of the patients experienced fatigue and cognition as a problem. Mean utility and annual costs were 0.735 and 11,400GBP at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) = 0-3, 0.534 and 22,700GBP at EDSS = 4-6.5, and 0.135 and 36,500GBP at EDSS = 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated at 790GBP. This study illustrates the burden of MS on UK patients and provides current data on MS that are important for development of health policies.

  13. burden and cost of inpatient care for hiv-positive paediatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paediatric inpatient facilities in the teaching hospitals of the. Cape metropole and ... lifetime hospitalisation cost per infected child was calculated to be RI9 712. ... Prevention Protocol, Provincial Administration of the Western. Cape, 1999) and ...

  14. The financial burden of reexcising incompletely excised soft tissue sarcomas: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamanda, Vignesh K; Delisca, Gadini O; Mathis, Shannon L; Archer, Kristin R; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Miller, Mark W; Homlar, Kelly C; Halpern, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Herbert S; Holt, Ginger E

    2013-09-01

    Although survival outcomes have been evaluated between those undergoing a planned primary excision and those undergoing a reexcision following an unplanned resection, the financial implications associated with a reexcision have yet to be elucidated. A query for financial data (professional, technical, indirect charges) for soft tissue sarcoma excisions from 2005 to 2008 was performed. A total of 304 patients (200 primary excisions and 104 reexcisions) were identified. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and χ2 or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare differences in demographics and tumor characteristics. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed with bootstrapping techniques. The average professional charge for a primary excision was $9,694 and $12,896 for a reexcision (pfinancial burden nearly doubles.

  15. Improving quality in population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Al Jumah, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Population-based studies of headache disorders are important. They inform needs assessment and underpin service policy for a set of disorders that are a public-health priority. On the one hand, our knowledge of the global burden of headache is incomplete, with major geographical gaps; on the other...... issues, and areas where studies might fail. Members had competence and practical experience in headache epidemiology or epidemiology in general, and were drawn from all WHO world regions. We reviewed the relevant literature, and supplemented the knowledge gathered from this exercise with experience...... gained from recent Global Campaign population-based studies, not all yet published. We extracted methodological themes and identified issues within them that were of key importance.We found wide variations in methodology. The themes within which methodological shortcomings had adverse impact on quality...

  16. The burden of mortality with costs in productivity loss from occupational cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazzi, Alessandra; Scarselli, Alberto; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2013-11-01

    The costs of productivity loss due to occupational cancer mortality are rarely investigated. An estimate of occupational cancer deaths in Italy in 2006 and an approximation of the resultant costs from medical and non-medical expenditures together with figures of remuneration lost are provided. Occupational cancer deaths, obtained from the application of the attributable fraction (AF) to mortality data (source: Italian National Institute of Statistics), were used to calculate the Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLLs), the Potential Years of Working Life Lost (PYWLLs) and the costs of the loss of productive life. The health care costs for any cancer was applied to the estimated number of occupational cancer cases to obtain the total cost. Around 8,000-8,500 deaths/year from occupational cancer are estimated to occur in Italy, corresponding to 170,000 PYLLs and more than 16,000 PYWLLs, leading to around 360,000,000 euros in indirect economic loss. Health care costs of occupational cancer are estimated at 456,000,000 euros. Occupational cancer is of major concern in terms of mortality and economic productivity loss. Preventive efforts in evaluating ongoing risks and current exposures are strongly recommended to health policy-makers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transtorno afetivo bipolar: carga da doença e custos relacionados Bipolar disorder: burden of disease and related costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Niccolai Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB é uma doença recorrente, crônica e grave. Comorbidades psiquiátricas e físicas, aumento do risco de suicídio, maior utilização de serviços de saúde e prejuízo na esfera social/profissional aumentam significativamente a carga e custos relacionados à doença. OBJETIVOS: Revisar aspectos clínicos, de carga da doença e conseqüentes desfechos financeiros do TAB. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa de base de dados MEDLINE/PubMed utilizando os termos bipolar disorder, epidemiology, burden of disease, comorbidity, cost of illness, outcomes e financial consequences, publicados entre 1980 e 2006. RESULTADOS: O TAB apresenta alta comorbidade com outros transtornos, o que agrava seu prognóstico e eleva os custos com os serviços de saúde. Os indivíduos com TAB apresentam mais fatores de risco cardiovascular e, conseqüentemente, maior risco de morte por evento cardíaco. O atraso e o erro diagnóstico no TAB elevam consideravelmente a carga e os custos da doença. CONCLUSÕES: As comorbidades, o risco de suicídio, o prejuízo social/profissional e a baixa adesão ao tratamento contribuem para a alta carga e os custos associados à doença. A pesquisa de comorbidades pode ajudar os médicos a ajustarem suas estratégias de tratamento, considerando cuidadosamente todos os fatores de risco e custos associados, fatores estes que devem ser levados em conta também pelos profissionais que trabalham com gestão de saúde, tanto no setor privado quanto público.BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a recurrent, chronic and severe disease. Mental and physical comorbidities, risk of suicide, health services use and impairment of social and professional domains significantly worsen the burden and increase the costs of illness. OBJECTIVES: Review clinical aspects, burden of disease, and consequent financial outcomes of BD. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed database search using the terms bipolar disorder, epidemiology, burden of

  18. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  19. The burden of suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: a pediatric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartick, Melissa; Reinhold, Arnold

    2010-05-01

    A 2001 study revealed that $3.6 billion could be saved if breastfeeding rates were increased to levels of the Healthy People objectives. It studied 3 diseases and totaled direct and indirect costs and cost of premature death. The 2001 study can be updated by using current breastfeeding rates and adding additional diseases analyzed in the 2007 breastfeeding report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Using methods similar to those in the 2001 study, we computed current costs and compared them to the projected costs if 80% and 90% of US families could comply with the recommendation to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Excluding type 2 diabetes (because of insufficient data), we conducted a cost analysis for all pediatric diseases for which the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reported risk ratios that favored breastfeeding: necrotizing enterocolitis, otitis media, gastroenteritis, hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, sudden infant death syndrome, childhood asthma, childhood leukemia, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. We used 2005 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention breastfeeding rates and 2007 dollars. If 90% of US families could comply with medical recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months, the United States would save $13 billion per year and prevent an excess 911 deaths, nearly all of which would be in infants ($10.5 billion and 741 deaths at 80% compliance). Current US breastfeeding rates are suboptimal and result in significant excess costs and preventable infant deaths. Investment in strategies to promote longer breastfeeding duration and exclusivity may be cost-effective.

  20. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Silva, Shana Ginar da

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  1. Cost burden and treatment patterns associated with management of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Lefebvre, Patrick; Laliberté, François; Sarda, Sujata P; Law, Amy; Pocoski, Jennifer; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the healthcare resource use, work productivity loss, costs, and treatment patterns associated with newly diagnosed idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) using a large employer database. Medical and pharmacy claims (1998-2009) from 55 self-insured U.S. companies were analyzed. Women aged 18-52 years with ≥2 HMB claims (ICD-9 626.2, 627.0) and continuously enrolled for ≥6 months before the first claim were matched 1:1 with controls. Exclusion criteria were cancer, pregnancy, and infertility; HMB-related uterine conditions; endometrial ablation; hysterectomy; anticoagulant medications; and other known HMB causes. All-cause healthcare resource use and costs were compared between the HMB and control cohorts using statistical methods accounting for matched study design. Treatment patterns were examined for HMB subjects. HMB and control cohorts (n=29,842 in both) were matched and balanced in baseline characteristics and costs. During follow-up, HMB subjects had significantly higher all-cause resource use than did control subjects: hospitalization incidence rate ratio (IRR)=2.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.62-2.79); emergency room visits IRR=1.35 (95% CI 1.31-1.38); outpatient visits IRR=1.29 (95% CI 1.29-1.30). Average annualized all-cause costs were also higher for HMB subjects than controls (mean difference $2,607, pCosts associated with HMB claims represented 50% ($1,313) of the all-cause cost difference. Of HMB subjects, 63.2% underwent surgical treatment as initial therapy. In this large matched-cohort study, an idiopathic diagnosis of HMB was associated with high rates of surgical intervention and increased healthcare resource use and costs.

  2. Costs and benefits of relaunching nuclear energy in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Faiella; Luciano Lavecchia

    2012-01-01

    This paper supplies elements for assessing the costs and benefits of electronuclear energy in order to pursue three objectives: security of supply, cost reduction, and environmental sustainability. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) the use of nuclear energy increases the diversification of the energy mix and of energy suppliers, raising energy security levels, but it does not reduce Italy�s dependence on foreign energy; 2) the use of nuclear energy would not imply a reduction ...

  3. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in CHF 2015. A total of 721 patients (mean age 48 years) participated in Switzerland; 90% were below retirement age, and of these, 65% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 69% of patients. Overall, 93% and 64% of patients experienced fatigue and cognition as a problem, respectively. The mean utility and annual costs were 0.799 and 29,600CHF at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.614 and 66,800CHF at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.348 and 110,800CHF at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated at 7600CHF. This study provides current data on MS in Switzerland that are important for development of health policies and to estimate the value of current and future treatments.

  4. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachenecker, Peter; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 5475 patients (mean age 52 years) participated in Germany. In all, 84% were below retirement age, and of these, 51% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 80% of patients. Overall, 96% and 78% of patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties as a problem, respectively. The mean utility and total annual costs were 0.786 and 28,200€ at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.586 and €44,000 at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.273 and €62,700 at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated at €2500. This study provides current health economic data on MS in Germany that are important for the development of health policies and for estimating the value of the current and future treatments.

  5. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, in the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 491 patients (mean age 47 years) participated; 82% were below retirement age, and of these 56% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 90% of patients. Overall, 95% and 67% of patients experienced fatigue and cognition as a problem, respectively. The mean utility and annual costs were 0.735 and €22,600 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.500 and €38,100 at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.337 and €48,100 at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The average cost of a relapse was estimated at €2300. This study provides current data on MS in France that are important for developments of health policies and to estimate the value of current and future treatments.

  6. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Bernard; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Dalén, Johan

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 382 patients (mean age: 54 years) participated in the Netherlands; 81% were below retirement age and of these, 31% were employed. Employment was inversely related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 82% of patients. Overall, 96% and 73% of patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties, respectively, as a problem. Mean utility and annual costs were 0.744 and €23,100 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.595 and €32,300 at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.297 and €50,500 at EDSS 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated at €3000. This study provides current data on MS in the Netherlands that are important for the development of health policies and to estimate the value of current and future treatments.

  7. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benedicte; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 1856 patients (mean age: 54 years) participated in Belgium; 66% were below retirement age, and of these, 44% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work in 85% of the patients. Overall, 95% and 72% of the patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties, respectively, as a problem. Mean utility and annual costs were 0.703 and €26,400 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.478 and €45,300 at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.193 and €62,000 at EDSS 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated to be €3000. This study provides current data on MS in Belgium that are important for development of health policies and for estimating the value of current and future treatments.

  8. The Cost and Burden of the Residency Match in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bush, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a residency match, medical students entering emergency medicine (EM must complete away rotations, submit a number of lengthy applications, and travel to multiple programs to interview. The expenses incurred acquiring this residency position are burdensome, but there is little specialty-specific data estimating it. We sought to quantify the actual cost spent by medical students applying to EM residency programs by surveying students as they attended a residency interview. Researchers created a 16-item survey, which asked about the time and monetary costs associated with the entire EM residency application process. Applicants chosen to interview for an EM residency position at our institution were invited to complete the survey during their interview day. In total, 66 out of a possible 81 residency applicants (an 81% response rate completed our survey. The “average applicant” who interviewed at our residency program for the 2015-16 cycle completed 1.6 away, or “audition,” rotations, each costing an average of $1,065 to complete. This “average applicant” applied to 42.8 programs, and then attended 13.7 interviews. The cost of interviewing at our program averaged $342 and in total, an average of $8,312 would be spent in the pursuit of an EM residency. Due to multiple factors, the costs of securing an EM residency spot can be expensive. By understanding the components that are driving this trend, we hope that the academic EM community can explore avenues to help curtail these costs.

  9. The burden of multiple sclerosis 2015: Methods of data collection, assessment and analysis of costs, quality of life and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Gisela; Eriksson, Jennifer; Phillips, Glenn; Berg, Jenny

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the methods used to perform this large European-wide burden-of-illness study on multiple sclerosis (MS) using individual patient data. The study collected all MS-related resource consumption, workforce participation, prevalent disease symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients were recruited by national patient associations and, after informed consent, completed a specific questionnaire either on-line or on paper. Analyses were performed by country as well as for the study overall. Costs were estimated from the societal perspective, using publicly available unit costs and reported in national currencies and in EUR 2015 adjusted for purchasing power parity. The results are reported by disease severity groups according to self-assessed Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (mild, moderate, severe) and by EDSS point to highlight the development of costs as disability progresses. A total of 16,808 patients in 16 countries participated in the study: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This study, endorsed by the European Platform of MS Societies, provides up-to-date information on costs and expands the previously available information on HRQoL and symptoms.

  10. Increased Burden of Healthcare Utilization and Cost Associated with Opioid-Related Constipation Among Patients with Noncancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ancilla W.; Kern, David M.; Datto, Catherine; Chen, Yen-Wen; McLeskey, Charles; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    -related costs per patient totaled $4646 (total average plan-paid costs, $4424; total patient-paid costs, $222). Conclusions Patients using opioids with newly diagnosed constipation had significantly greater healthcare utilization and costs than patients without constipation; these costs accounted for approximately 16% of the total healthcare costs per patient during the 12-month study period. Recognition and effective treatment of opioid-induced constipation may decrease healthcare utilization for patients with chronic noncancer pain and may reduce the economic burden of pain therapy. PMID:27606040

  11. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  12. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Amiri, Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU's ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument. Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST. The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods

  13. Setting priorities for the health care sector in Zimbabwe using cost-effectiveness analysis and estimates of the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at providing information for priority setting in the health care sector of Zimbabwe as well as assessing the efficiency of resource use. A general approach proposed by the World Bank involving the estimation of the burden of disease measured in Disability-Adjusted Life...... a combination of step-down and micro-costing was applied. Effectiveness of health interventions was estimated based on published information on the efficacy adjusted for factors such as coverage and compliance. Results: Very cost-effective interventions were available for the major health problems. Using...... estimates of the burden of disease, the present paper developed packages of health interventions using the estimated cost-effectiveness ratios. These packages could avert a quarter of the burden of disease at total costs corresponding to one tenth of the public health budget in the financial year 1997...

  14. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  15. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  16. Burden of disease associated with cervical cancer in malaysia and potential costs and consequences of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljunid, S; Zafar, A; Saperi, S; Amrizal, M

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 70% of cervical cancers worldwide are attributable to persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18. Vaccination against HPV 16/18 has been shown to dramatically reduce the incidence of associated precancerous and cancerous lesions. The aims of the present analyses were, firstly, to estimate the clinical and economic burden of disease attributable to HPV in Malaysia and secondly, to estimate long-term outcomes associated with HPV vaccination using a prevalence-based modeling approach. In the first part of the analysis costs attributable to cervical cancer and precancerous lesions were estimated; epidemiologic data were sourced from the WHO GLOBOCAN database and Malaysian national data sources. In the second part, a prevalence-based model was used to estimate the potential annual number of cases of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions that could be prevented and subsequent HPV-related treatment costs averted with the bivalent (HPV 16/18) and the quadrivalent (HPV 16/18/6/11) vaccines, at the population level, at steady state. A vaccine efficacy of 98% was assumed against HPV types included in both vaccines. Effectiveness against other oncogenic HPV types was based on the latest results from each vaccine's respective clinical trials. In Malaysia there are an estimated 4,696 prevalent cases of cervical cancer annually and 1,372 prevalent cases of precancerous lesions, which are associated with a total direct cost of RM 39.2 million with a further RM 12.4 million in indirect costs owing to lost productivity. At steady state, vaccination with the bivalent vaccine was estimated to prevent 4,199 cervical cancer cases per year versus 3,804 cases for the quadrivalent vaccine. Vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine was projected to prevent 1,721 cases of genital warts annually, whereas the annual number of cases remained unchanged with the bivalent vaccine. Furthermore, vaccination with the bivalent vaccine was estimated to avert RM 45

  17. Beyond co-pays and out-of-pocket costs: perceptions of health-related financial burden in managing asthma among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Nelson, Belinda W; Id-Deen, Effat; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define perceptions of health-related financial burden based on the views of individuals who report these perceptions through qualitative approaches. Four focus groups were conducted in Southeast Michigan with 26 African American women with asthma, recruited based on maximum variation sampling procedures. A semi-structured interview was employed by facilitators. Coded transcripts were analyzed for themes regarding dimensions of the meaning of financial burden. Major domains of financial burden identified included (1) high out-of-pocket expenses; (2) lost wages from exacerbations, inability to maintain a stable job and stress from making decisions about taking a sick day or coming to work; (3) transport costs; (4) both costs and stress of managing insurance eligibility and correcting erroneous bills. Greater awareness of factors that add to perceptions of financial burden might better equip researchers to develop interventions to help care teams manage such concerns with their patients.

  18. Estimation of cost and value of energy from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.; Fransden, S.

    1995-01-01

    The International Energy Agency expert group on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation is finalizing a second edition of the E stimation of cost of energy from wind energy conversion systems . This paper summarizes those recommendations. Further, the value of wind energy in terms of the associated savings is discussed, and a case study is undertaken to illustrate wind energy cost/benefit analyses. The paper concludes that while the recommended practices on cost estimation may be useful in connection with wind energy feasibility studies there is still a need for further international agreement upon guidelines on how to assess wind energy benefits. (author)

  19. Patterns of trauma care costs and reimbursements: the burden of uninsured motorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, D D; Holcomb, S F; Sherck, J P

    1985-08-01

    In today's rapidly changing medical-economic environment, hospitals must continually reexamine their services to determine which are cost efficient. We used a database system to analyze our financial experience with motor vehicle accident victims discharged between July 1982 and June 1983. We found that motor vehicle accidents accounted for 2.1% of discharges, but 6.6% of patient-days. The average length of stay was 23.8 days, more than three times the hospital average (7.4 days). Charges averaged +723 per day, essentially identical with the hospital average. In terms of patient-days, 51% of accident victims were covered by private insurance, 39% by Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid), and 3% by Medicare; 7% were uninsured and unsponsored. Hospital charges related directly to patient-days and were identical for the four financial categories. Overall reimbursement for these patients was 80.3% of charges, approximately equal to our estimated costs. Reimbursement as a percentage of charges varied greatly according to the category of sponsorship: private insurance, 90%; Medicare, 78%; and unsponsored, 15%. Medi-Cal paid a fixed confidential per diem rate. Caring for victims of motor vehicle accidents was a break-even proposition for our institution in 1982-1983. Uninsured and unsponsored patients produced a large deficit which of necessity had to be made up by cost shifting to privately insured patients or by direct tax subsidies. Motor vehicle insurance per se made only a modest contribution to our reimbursement for the care of these patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...

  1. Heatwave and elderly mortality: An evaluation of death burden and health costs considering short-term mortality displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Bambrick, Hilary; Su, Hong; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2018-06-01

    A heatwave can be a devastating natural disaster to human health, and elderly people are particularly vulnerable. With the continuing rise in earth's surface temperature alongside the world's aging population, research on the mortality burden of heatwave for the older population remains relatively sparse. The potential magnitude of benefits of averting such deaths may be considerable. This paper examined the short-term mortality displacement (or "harvesting") of heatwave, characterized the heatwave-mortality relationship, and estimated death burden and health costs attributable to heatwave among the elderly in Australia. We collected daily data on the temperature and deaths of people aged ≥75 years in the five largest cities of Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide), totaling 368,767 deaths in different periods between 1988 and 2011. A total of 15-tiered heatwave definitions, based on intensity (95th to 99th percentiles of temperature distribution) and duration (two or more consecutive days), were used to quantify heatwave effects, using time-series regression and random-effects meta-analysis. We calculated attributable deaths for each city and by different types of heatwave. Potential economic benefits in monetary terms were also estimated, considering that heat-related deaths are avoidable. Among the Australian elderly population, we found significant associations between heatwave and deaths, with raised mortality immediately in the first few days followed by lower-than-expected mortality. In general, heatwave was associated with an average death increase of 28% (95% confidence interval: 15% to 42%), and greater increases were mostly observed for more intense heatwaves across multiple megacities. During the study period, there were dozens to hundreds of deaths attributable to heatwave for each city, equating to an economic loss of several million Australian dollars every year. Although the estimated attributable deaths varied by heatwave

  2. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  3. The Payer and Patient Cost Burden of Open Breast Conserving Procedures Following Percutaneous Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Chloe C; Nichols, Christine I; Vose, Joshua G

    2018-01-01

    Percutaneous core-needle biopsy (PCNB) is the standard of care to biopsy and diagnose suspicious breast lesions. Dependent on histology, many patients require additional open procedures for definitive diagnosis and excision. This study estimated the payer and patient out-of-pocket (OOP) costs, and complication risk, among those requiring at least 1 open procedure following PCNB. This retrospective study used the Truven Commercial database (2009-2014). Women who underwent PCNB, with continuous insurance, and no history of cancer, chemotherapy, radiation, or breast surgery in the prior year were included. Open procedures were defined as open biopsy or lumpectomy. Study follow-up ended at chemotherapy, radiation, mastectomy, or 90 days-whichever occurred first. In total, 143 771 patients (mean age 48) met selection criteria; 85.1% underwent isolated PCNB, 12.4% one open procedure, and 2.5% re-excision. Incidence of complications was significantly lower among those with PCNB alone (9.2%) vs 1 open procedure (15.6%) or re-excision (25.3%, P  open procedure vs PCNB alone (US $17 125 vs US $3935, P  open procedure vs PCNB alone (US $1527 vs US $669), and US $247 greater for re-excision vs 1 procedure. A meaningful proportion of patients underwent open procedure(s) following PCNB which was associated with increased complication risk and costs to both the payer and the patient. These results suggest a need for technologies to reduce the proportion of cases requiring open surgery and, in some cases, re-excision.

  4. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  5. Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a retrospective analysis of health care costs in a commercially insured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Jalpa A; Cai, Qian; Buono, Jessica L; Spalding, William M; Sarocco, Phil; Tan, Hiangkiat; Stephenson, Judith J; Carson, Robyn T

    2014-04-01

    total all-cause or disease-specific health care costs for patients with IBS-C, while the incremental cost approach was used to examine the excess all-cause costs of IBS-C by comparing IBS-C patients with matched controls. Generalized linear models with bootstrapping were used to assess the incremental all-cause costs attributable solely to IBS-C after adjusting for demographics, Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI) score, and other general and GI-related comorbidities not included in the ECI score. A total of 7,652 patients (n = 3,826 each in the IBS-C and control cohorts) were included in the analysis. The mean (± SD) age was 48 (± 17) years, and 83.6% were female. The mean annual all-cause health care costs for IBS-C patients were $11,182, with over half (53.7%) of the costs attributable to outpatient services, including physician office visits and other outpatient services (13.1% and 40.6%, respectively). Remaining total all-cause costs were attributable to hospitalizations (21.8%), prescriptions (19.1%), and ER visits (5.4%). GI-related costs ($4,456) comprised 39.8% of total all-cause costs, while IBS-C-related costs ($1,335) accounted for 11.9% and were primarily driven by costs of other outpatient services (50.3%). After adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, the incremental annual all-cause health care costs associated with IBS-C were $3,856 ($8,621 for IBS-C patients vs. $4,765 for controls, P less than 0.01) per patient per year, of which 78.1% of the incremental costs were due to medical services, and 21.9% were due to prescription fills. IBS-C imposes a substantial economic burden in terms of direct health care costs in a commercially insured population. Compared with matched controls, IBS-C patients incurred significantly higher total annual all-cause health care costs even after controlling for general and GI-related comorbidities. Incremental all-cause costs associated with IBS-C were mainly driven by costs related to more frequent use of medical

  6. Burden of rheumatoid arthritis from a societal perspective: A prevalence-based study on cost of illness for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Luan, Luan; Yang, Keqin; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2017-02-17

    To provide a comprehensive estimation of the economic burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China, especially for patients from less developed areas, and to explore the cost transferability between regions to assist healthcare decision-making. The study was conducted in south and north China from May 2013 to December 2013. The burden of RA was investigated by interviewing participants with a questionnaire battery containing socio-demographic, cost of illness (COI) and medical treatments. The COI questionnaire captured direct, indirect and intangible costs. Direct costs included hospitalizations, outpatient visits and medications. Indirect costs were estimated using the human capital approach, and intangible costs valued through the willingness-to-pay approach. All cost data were converted to 2013 US dollars by purchasing power parity, and then summarized descriptively and analyzed with mixed models. Questionnaires were administered to 133 RA patients. The average direct costs were $1917.21 ± $2559.06 per patient year, with medications at $1283.89 ± $1898.15 comprising more than 50% of the total. The average indirect costs were $492.88 ± $1739.74 per patient year, while intangible costs were $20396.30 ± $31145.10. There was no significant difference detected between regions. Recent hospitalization was tested as a significant predictor of the direct costs. Age and income were significantly associated with indirect and intangible costs. Besides the substantial burden in terms of direct medical costs and productivity lost, there were notable intangible costs, especially among older patients. This conclusion could be potentially expanded to other provinces in China or even other countries through the adjustments for transferability. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  8. Outlook for costs by energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.J.; Fortune, J.; Booras, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will develop information useful for evaluation future cost trends for generation technology choices within the US electric utility industry. The major forces influencing costs are: environmental constraints and other regulatory requirements, technology choice and future improvements, fuel market and other economic conditions. (TEC). 11 refs., 10 figs

  9. Indirect costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review of the economic burden on employers and individuals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jeetvan G; Nagar, Saurabh P; Dalal, Anand A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review and summarize existing literature on the indirect burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US. Methods Medline, Scopus, and OvidSP databases were searched using defined search terms to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were published in English between January 2000 and April 2012 and calculated the indirect burden of COPD in a US population in terms of prevalence, incidence or costs of productivity loss, disability, morbidity, or mortality. Results Of 53 studies identified, eleven met eligibility criteria, with data years spanning 1987–2009. Estimates of workforce participation range from 56% to 69% among individuals with COPD and from 65% to 77% among individuals without COPD. Approximately 13%–18% of those with COPD are limited in the amount or type of work they can do and one-third or more experience general activity limitation. Estimates of restricted activity days range from 27–63 days per year. Estimates of mean annual sick leave and/or disability days among employed individuals with COPD range from 1.3–19.4 days. Estimates of bed confinement range from 13–32 days per year. Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893–$2,234/person (US dollars) with COPD ($1,521–$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars]) and varied with the population studied, specific cost outcomes, and economic inputs. In studies that assessed total (direct and indirect) costs, indirect costs accounted for 27%–61% of total costs, depending on the population studied. Conclusions COPD is associated with substantial indirect costs. The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost productivity and associated costs and on individuals in terms of lost income related to absenteeism, activity limitation, and disability. Consideration of indirect as well as direct costs is necessary to gain a more complete view of the societal burden of COPD. PMID:24672234

  10. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice document 2011-23236 beginning on page...-23236 Filed 9-16-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1505-01-P ...

  11. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Peter; Gronalt, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO 2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  12. Study of relationship between radioactivity distribution, contamination burden and quality standard, accommodate energy of code river Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani and Muzakky

    2009-01-01

    Study of relationship between distribution, contamination burden of gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water and sediment sample from 11 observation station Code river to quality standard and maximum capacity of Code river have been done. Natural radio nuclides identification and gross β radioactivity measurement of condensed water, dry and homogeneous sediment powder (past through 100 mesh sieve) samples have been done by using spectrometer and GM counter. Radioactivity data was analyzed descriptive with histogram to show the spreading pattern of data. Contamination burden data, quality standard and maximum capacity of river Code was to descriptive analyzed by line diagram to knowing relationship between contamination burden, quality standard, and maximum capacity of Code river. The observation of water and sediment at 11 observation station show that the emitter natural radionuclides: 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 226 Ra, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac and 40 K were detected. The analytical result conclusion was that the pattern spread of average activity gross β and were increase from upstream to downstream of the Code river samples. Contamination burden, quality standard and maximum capacity of radionuclide activity of 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 226 Ra and 228 Ac were more smaller than quality standard of river water according to regulation of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency 02/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 concerning quality standard of radioactivity. It’s mean that Code river still in good contamination burden for the four radionuclides. (author)

  13. Renewable energy technologies: costs and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsch, J.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    A prominent feature of renewable energy utilisation is the magnitude of renewable energy that is physically available worldwide. The present paper attempts an economic valuation of development strategies for renewable energy sources (RES) on the basis of the past development of RES markets. It comes to the conclusion that if current energy prices remain largely unchanged, it will be necessary to promote RES technologies differentially according to the technique and type of energy employed or to provide start-up funding. The more probable a long-term increase in energy prices becomes, the greater will be the proportion of successfully promoted technologies. Energy taxes on exhaustible or environmentally harmful energy carriers and other instruments to this end would contribute greatly to the attractivity of RES investment both in terms of national economy and from the viewpoint of the private investor. Renewable energies will play an important role in the hardware and services sectors of the energy market in the decades to come. Long-term promotion of market introduction programmes and unequivocal energy-political aims on the part of the government are needed if the German industry is to have a share in this growing market and be able to offer internationally competitive products [de

  14. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  15. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity

  17. Device interactions in reducing the cost of tidal stream energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical modelling is used to estimate the levelised cost of tidal stream energy. • As a case study, a model of Lynmouth (UK) is implemented and successfully validated. • The resolution of the model allows the demarcation of individual devices on the model grid. • Device interactions reduce the available tidal resource and the cost increases significantly. - Abstract: The levelised cost of energy takes into account the lifetime generated energy and the costs associated with a project. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of device interactions on the energy output and, therefore, on the levelised cost of energy of a tidal stream project, by means of numerical modelling. For this purpose, a case study is considered: Lynmouth (North Devon, UK), an area in the Bristol Channel in which the first tidal stream turbine was installed − a testimony of its potential as a tidal energy site. A state-of-the-art hydrodynamics model is implemented on a high-resolution computational grid, which allows the demarcation of the individual devices. The modification to the energy output resulting from interaction between turbines within the tidal farm is thus resolved for each individual turbine. The results indicate that significant changes in the levelised cost of energy values, of up to £0.221 kW h −1 , occur due to the aforementioned modifications, which should not be disregarded if the cost of tidal stream energy is to be minimised

  18. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) concept is worldwide recognised as a promising solution for decreasing buildings’ energy use. Nevertheless, a consistent definition of the Net ZEB concept is constantly under discussion. One of the points on the Net ZEB agenda is the zero energy balance...... and taken a view point of private building owner to investigate what types of energy uses should be included in the cost-optimal zero energy balance. The analysis is conducted for five renewable energy supply systems and five user profiles with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB. The results...... have indicated that with current energy prices and technology, a cost-optimal Net ZEB zero energy balance accounts for only the building related energy use. Moreover, with high user related energy use is even more in favour of excluding appliances from the zero energy balance....

  19. Negawatt / Negatep, the cost of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, Claude; Bacher, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Within the debate on energy transition, the Negawatt scenario predicts a strong decrease of final consumption and the end of the nuclear, whereas the Negatep scenario predicts a moderate decrease of consumption, more nuclear energy to face the challenges of low-carbon energy. Independently of the technical feasibility and social acceptance of these both opposite scenarios, this study proposes a comparative economic assessment for each expense and saving of these scenarios in different sectors (housing insulation, infrastructure works for transports, renewable heat, non-intermittent and intermittent energy, nuclear energy, biomass-based fuels, and fossil fuels). This comparison is based on two reference evolutions: a status quo (the energy situation remains the same) and 'business as usual' (growth continuity). Negawatt appears to be less expensive, but would imply a socially dangerous deterioration

  20. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosenquist, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  1. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  2. Lowering operation costs by energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W; Hausmann, H; Hausmann, K H

    1976-01-01

    Heat recovery and the heat sources available as well as possible applications of the heat recovered are discussed. Groundwater, shower water and waste air are considered as energy sources. Energy recovery by means of finned-tube systems and the heat pump, and economic aspects of the techniques are described.

  3. Low cost energy in Canada: The view from downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, K.

    1993-01-01

    The key cost determinants of energy in Canada are analyzed and recommendations are made to ensure the competitiveness of Canadian energy costs and energy-consuming industries in the North American and world markets. Oil supplies 45% of world energy and has a key role in determining prices of all other energy forms since it serves as an incremental source of energy: its consumption changes according to economic growth, changes in weather patterns, and other factors. North America currently accounts for about a third of world oil consumption. North American oil demand is expected to remain flat over the next few decades. As Canada only produces ca 3% of world oil supply, it cannot determine oil prices. However, with an efficient downstream industry, Canada can influence the end-user price of energy. The cost structure of refined products in Canada is analyzed. The cost of raw materials is the single biggest determinant of the final product cost, followed by taxes, operating costs, and profit margin. For gasoline in Ontario, taxes account for half the retail cost, crude oil prices ca 30%, and refining costs ca 4%. Refining costs comprise about two thirds labor costs and one third energy costs. Refiner margins have not exceeded 2 cents/l since 1981, creating reluctance to invest in the refining sector. By 1994, some 200,000 bbl/d of refining capacity is expected to be shut down in Canada. Compared to refineries in the USA, Canadian refineries are smaller and have a much lower capacity to upgrade residual fuel oil to light products. Future challenges to the industry include a projected need for $5 billion in investment, largely to fund new environmental initiatives. Such an investment cannot be met through current industry profits. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  5. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Kim, Wonjoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption.

  6. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Kammen, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low–middle income range facing financial constraints. (letter)

  7. Costly waiting for the future gas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses solutions while waiting for the pollution free gas power plant and points out that Norway will have to import Danish power from coal and Swedish nuclear energy for a long time yet. Various future scenarios are mentioned

  8. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Nadia; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-09-01

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low-middle income range facing financial constraints.

  9. The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool : a shared decision-making instrument that is predictive of healthcare costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-vanMolken, Maureen P. H. M.; Goossens, Lucas M A; Boland, Melinde R. S.; Donkers, Bas; Jonker, Marcel F.; Slok, Annerika H. M.; Salome, Philippe L.; van Schayck, Constant; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M; Stolk, Elly A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) tool is an instrument that supports shared decision making between patients and physicians. It includes a coloured balloon diagram to visualize a patient’s scores on a questionnaire about the experienced burden of COPD and several objective severity

  10. A parametric costing model for wave energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the philosophy and technical approach to a parametric cost model for offshore wave energy systems. Consideration is given both to existing known devices and other devices yet to be conceptualised. The report is complementary to a spreadsheet based cost estimating model. The latter permits users to derive capital cost estimates using either inherent default data or user provided data, if a particular scheme provides sufficient design definition for more accurate estimation. The model relies on design default data obtained from wave energy device designs and a set of specifically collected cost data. (author)

  11. Setting priorities for the health care sector in Zimbabwe using cost-effectiveness analysis and estimates of the burden of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Kristian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at providing information for priority setting in the health care sector of Zimbabwe as well as assessing the efficiency of resource use. A general approach proposed by the World Bank involving the estimation of the burden of disease measured in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs and calculation of cost-effectiveness ratios for a large number of health interventions was followed. Methods Costs per DALY for a total of 65 health interventions were estimated. Costing data were collected through visits to health centres, hospitals and vertical programmes where a combination of step-down and micro-costing was applied. Effectiveness of health interventions was estimated based on published information on the efficacy adjusted for factors such as coverage and compliance. Results Very cost-effective interventions were available for the major health problems. Using estimates of the burden of disease, the present paper developed packages of health interventions using the estimated cost-effectiveness ratios. These packages could avert a quarter of the burden of disease at total costs corresponding to one tenth of the public health budget in the financial year 1997/98. In general, the analyses suggested that there was substantial potential for improving the efficiency of resource use in the public health care sector. Discussion The proposed World Bank approach applied to Zimbabwe was extremely data demanding and required extensive data collection in the field and substantial human resources. The most important limitation of the study was the scarcity of evidence on effectiveness of health interventions so that a range of important health interventions could not be included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. This and other limitations could in principle be overcome if more research resources were available. Conclusion The present study showed that it was feasible to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses for a large number

  12. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  13. Costs and advantages of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almoguera, R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on nuclear energy competitiveness show that considering only the economics this option is the most economic one to generate the base load electricity in most of the countries which do not have plenty of alternative fuels, being this advantage both for the actual prices formation and for their stability on the long term. Should we add the strategic and environmental benefits linked to: Kioto emissions limits, short and long term supply security, national wealth increase due to quality and price of the supply and enhancement of related enterprises, the goodness of nuclear energy to supply a significant share of the electricity demand in most of the countries is evident. For the investors to make decisions for this option, some conditions have to be assured: regulatory stability, favourable national energy policy and expectation for the future, predictable and proven licensing process and expectation for moderate interest rates in the long term. (Author)

  14. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  15. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  16. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  17. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  18. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  19. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  20. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  1. Burden of Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2017-01-02

    Similar to the burden of other diseases, the burden of sexual dysfunction has not been systematically studied. However, there is growing evidence of various burdens (e.g., economic, symptomatic, humanistic) among patients suffering from sexual dysfunctions. The burden of sexual dysfunction has been studied a bit more often in men, namely the burden of erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Erectile dysfunction is frequently associated with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression. These conditions could go undiagnosed, and ED could be a marker of those diseases. The only available report from the United Kingdom estimated the total economic burden of ED at £53 million annually in terms of direct costs and lost productivity. The burden of PE includes significant psychological distress: anxiety, depression, lack of sexual confidence, poor self-esteem, impaired quality of life, and interpersonal difficulties. Some suggest that increase in female sexual dysfunction is associated with partner's PE, in addition to significant interpersonal difficulties. The burden of TDS includes depression, sexual dysfunction, mild cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. One UK estimate of the economic burden of female sexual dysfunctions demonstrated that the average cost per patient was higher than the per annum cost of ED. There are no data on burden of paraphilic disorders. The burden of sexual dysfunctions is underappreciated and not well studied, yet it is significant for both the patients and the society.

  2. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  3. Marine energies. Industries are hunting costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    While a map locates various offshore hydro-kinetic energy projects at the vicinity of Scottish and French coasts, offshore wind farms (North Sea and Mediterranean sea) and also temperature differential marine plant in Martinique, this article discusses the technical and therefore economic challenges faced by the development of marine energies. They are related to the marine environment (wind, swell, currents). These strength requirements concern hydro-kinetic machines as well as floating wind turbines which must be balanced to resist to wind and swell (the Nenuphar project is evoked). Issues of performance and efficiency are present in the Nemo project in Martinique which exploits a rather small temperature differential. Other technological challenges concern the transport of this offshore production of electricity to the ground while reducing losses. For all these aspects, the article mentions the main French actors, notably DCNS, Alstom, and the start-up MPrime Innovation

  4. The geothermal energy for an ecological and low cost heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariet, C.

    2006-01-01

    The geothermal energy concerned by this paper is those of the first layers off the soil, still about 100 m. The main principles of the operating, the cost and some realizations are presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. Cost considerations for an ionising energy treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpitt, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Variables influencing the cost of food irradiation can be included under three broad headings: the physical characteristics of products to be treated; the operational characteristics of the plant to be used; costs of establishment and operation of an ionising energy treatment

  6. Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical study for the Swiss residential sector. It empirically quantifies the marginal costs of energy efficiency investments (i.e. additional insulation, improved window systems, ventilation and heating systems and architectural concepts). For the private sector, first results on the economic valuation of co-benefits such as improved comfort of living, improved indoor air quality, better protection against external noise, etc. may amount to the same order of magnitude as the energy-related benefits are given. The cost-benefit analysis includes newly developed technologies that show large variations in prices due to pioneer market pricing, add-on of learning costs and risk components of the installers. Based on new empirical data on the present cost-situation and past techno-economic progress, the potential of future cost reduction was estimated applying the experience curve concept. The paper shows, for the first time, co-benefits and cost dynamics of energy efficiency investments, of which decision makers in the real estate sector, politics and administrations are scarcely aware

  7. Energy Hub’s Structural and Operational Optimization for Minimal Energy Usage Costs in Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tung Ha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural and optimal operation of an Energy Hub (EH has a tremendous influence on the hub’s performance and reliability. This paper envisions an innovative methodology that prominently increases the synergy between structural and operational optimization and targets system cost affordability. The generalized energy system structure is presented theoretically with all selective hub sub-modules, including electric heater (EHe and solar sources block sub-modules. To minimize energy usage cost, an energy hub is proposed that consists of 12 kinds of elements (i.e., energy resources, conversion, and storage functions and is modeled mathematically in a General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS, which indicates the optimal hub structure’s corresponding elements with binary variables (0, 1. Simulation results contrast with 144 various scenarios established in all 144 categories of hub structures, in which for each scenario the corresponding optimal operation cost is previously calculated. These case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested model and methodology. Finally, avenues for future research are also prospected.

  8. Indirect costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A review of the economic burden on employers and individuals in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel JG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeetvan G Patel,1,2 Saurabh P Nagar,2 Anand A Dalal2 1Pharmacy Administration and Public Health, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To review and summarize existing literature on the indirect burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the US. Methods: Medline, Scopus, and OvidSP databases were searched using defined search terms to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were published in English between January 2000 and April 2012 and calculated the indirect burden of COPD in a US population in terms of prevalence, incidence or costs of productivity loss, disability, morbidity, or mortality. Results: Of 53 studies identified, eleven met eligibility criteria, with data years spanning 1987–2009. Estimates of workforce participation range from 56% to 69% among individuals with COPD and from 65% to 77% among individuals without COPD. Approximately 13%–18% of those with COPD are limited in the amount or type of work they can do and one-third or more experience general activity limitation. Estimates of restricted activity days range from 27–63 days per year. Estimates of mean annual sick leave and/or disability days among employed individuals with COPD range from 1.3–19.4 days. Estimates of bed confinement range from 13–32 days per year. Estimated mean annual indirect costs were $893–$2,234/person (US dollars with COPD ($1,521–$3,348 in 2010 [US dollars] and varied with the population studied, specific cost outcomes, and economic inputs. In studies that assessed total (direct and indirect costs, indirect costs accounted for 27%–61% of total costs, depending on the population studied. Conclusions: COPD is associated with substantial indirect costs. The disease places a burden on employers in terms of lost productivity and associated costs and on individuals in terms of lost income related to absenteeism, activity limitation, and disability

  9. Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rousse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it.

  10. The economic burden of diabetes to French national health insurance: a new cost-of-illness method based on a combined medicalized and incremental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lagasnerie, Grégoire; Aguadé, Anne-Sophie; Denis, Pierre; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Gastaldi-Menager, Christelle

    2018-03-01

    A better understanding of the economic burden of diabetes constitutes a major public health challenge in order to design new ways to curb diabetes health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to develop a new cost-of-illness method in order to assess the specific and nonspecific costs of diabetes from a public payer perspective. Using medical and administrative data from the major French national health insurance system covering about 59 million individuals in 2012, we identified people with diabetes and then estimated the economic burden of diabetes. Various methods were used: (a) global cost of patients with diabetes, (b) cost of treatment directly related to diabetes (i.e., 'medicalized approach'), (c) incremental regression-based approach, (d) incremental matched-control approach, and (e) a novel combination of the 'medicalized approach' and the 'incremental matched-control' approach. We identified 3 million individuals with diabetes (5% of the population). The total expenditure of this population amounted to €19 billion, representing 15% of total expenditure reimbursed to the entire population. Of the total expenditure, €10 billion (52%) was considered to be attributable to diabetes care: €2.3 billion (23% of €10 billion) was directly attributable, and €7.7 billion was attributable to additional reimbursed expenditure indirectly related to diabetes (77%). Inpatient care represented the major part of the expenditure attributable to diabetes care (22%) together with drugs (20%) and medical auxiliaries (15%). Antidiabetic drugs represented an expenditure of about €1.1 billion, accounting for 49% of all diabetes-specific expenditure. This study shows the economic impact of the assumption concerning definition of costs on evaluation of the economic burden of diabetes. The proposed new cost-of-illness method provides specific insight for policy-makers to enhance diabetes management and assess the opportunity costs of diabetes complications

  11. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The Design Energy Consumption shall be calculated by modeling the Proposed Design using the same methods...

  12. The direct costs of intensive care management and risk factors for financial burden of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2015-10-01

    The costs of severe sepsis care from middle-income countries are lacking. This study investigated direct intensive care unit (ICU) costs and factors that could affect the financial outcomes. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the medical ICU of a tertiary referral university teaching hospital in Thailand. A total of 897 patients were enrolled in the study, with 683 (76.1%) having septic shock. Community-, nosocomial, and ICU-acquired infections were documented in 574, 282, and 41 patients, respectively. The median ICU costs per patient were $2716.5 ($1296.1-$5367.6) and $599.9 ($414.3-$948.6) per day. The ICU costs accounted for 64.7% of the hospital costs. In 2008 to 2011, the ICU costs significantly decreased by 40% from $3542.5 to $2124.9, whereas, the daily ICU costs decreased only 3.3% from $609.7 to $589.7. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, nosocomial or ICU infection, admission from the emergency department, number of organ failures, ICU length of stay, and fluid balance the first 72 hours were independently associated with ICU costs. The ICU costs of severe sepsis management significantly declined in our study. However, the ICU costs were a financial burden accounting for two thirds of the hospital costs. It is essential for intensivists to contribute a high standard of care within a restricted budget. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  14. Costs of renewable energies in France. Release 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Marchal, David; Gerson, Raphael; Berrou, Yolene; Grouzard, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    For each renewable energy, this study reports the assessment of the range of the theoretical variation of costs with respect to the most important parameters of the concerned sector. Low range notably corresponds to particularly favourable financing modalities added to a good field quality and to low investment costs. At the opposite, the capital cost is particularly high for high ranges. Thus, after a presentation of the adopted methodology, the report addresses the costs of electric power generation for on-shore wind energy, offshore wind energy, sea hydraulics, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, and geothermal energy. The next part addresses heat production costs in the case of individuals (biomass, individual thermal solar, individual heat pumps) and of collective housing and office and industrial buildings (collective biomass with or without heat network, industrial biomass, thermal solar in collective housing of in network, collective geothermal heat pumps, deep geothermal energy). The fourth chapter addresses the cost of power and heat production by co-generation (biomass co-generation, methanization). Appendices provide computation hypotheses, and reference data

  15. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  16. Energy costs and society: the high price of future energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, A J

    1976-06-01

    Society will not be able to afford nonfossil fuel energy in the future without a major restructuring of industrial activity, involving a complete rethinking of the basis of our present social and economic establishment. This restructuring must be combined with the evident necessity of policies of population restriction and controls in the form of international allocation of the dwindling supply of raw materials, including fossil (and, in future, nonfossil) primary energy. Only by such means, and by adopting a very low-growth future, can some moderate degree of standard of living be expected to be perpetuated for at least a few generations in the industrialized countries, especially in the case of those that are major energy importers at present. This type of future will also be of more help to the third world than one involving the now impossible ideal of a spiraling energy growth rate. The society which, on an optimistic view, will emerge toward the end of the fossil fuel era, will be supplied with abundant, though efficiently applied, energy, and will survive with natural products and by economizing its recylced mineral resources. The approach to this goal will require political leadership, serious education of the public, and a real population policy, all on a world-wide scale. (Conclusions)

  17. Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Horie, Yuhta A.

    2006-01-01

    Although the last decade witnessed dramatic progress in refrigerator efficiencies, inefficient, outdated refrigerators are still in operation, sometimes consuming more than twice as much electricity per year compared with modern, efficient models. Replacing old refrigerators before their designed lifetime could be a useful policy to conserve electric energy and greenhouse gas emissions. However, from a life cycle perspective, product replacement decisions also induce additional economic and environmental burdens associated with disposal of old models and production of new models. This paper discusses optimal lifetimes of mid-sized refrigerator models in the US, using a life cycle optimization model based on dynamic programming. Model runs were conducted to find optimal lifetimes that minimize energy, global warming potential (GWP), and cost objectives over a time horizon between 1985 and 2020. The baseline results show that depending on model years, optimal lifetimes range 2-7 years for the energy objective, and 2-11 years for the GWP objective. On the other hand, an 18-year of lifetime minimizes the economic cost incurred during the time horizon. Model runs with a time horizon between 2004 and 2020 show that current owners should replace refrigerators that consume more than 1000 kWh/year of electricity (typical mid-sized 1994 models and older) as an efficient strategy from both cost and energy perspectives

  18. A compilation of energy costs of physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Karaolis, Nadine; Draper, Alizon; Shetty, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    There were two objectives: first, to review the existing data on energy costs of specified activities in the light of the recommendations made by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation of 1985. Second, to compile existing data on the energy costs of physical activities for an updated annexure of the current Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements. Electronic and manual search of the literature (predominantly English) to obtain published data on the energy costs of physical activities. The majority of the data prior to 1955 were obtained using an earlier compilation of Passmore and Durnin. Energy costs were expressed as physical activity ratio (PAR); the energy cost of the activity divided by either the measured or predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR). The compilation provides PARs for an expanded range of activities that include general personal activities, transport, domestic chores, occupational activities, sports and other recreational activities for men and women, separately, where available. The present compilation is largely in agreement with the 1985 compilation, for activities that are common to both compilations. The present compilation has been based on the need to provide data on adults for a wide spectrum of human activity. There are, however, lacunae in the available data for many activities, between genders, across age groups and in various physiological states.

  19. THE COSTS OF THE ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN THE ALUMINIUM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilianu Marian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has given the opportunity to reconsider the use of resources, so the subject of competitive advantage has become actual. In the aluminium industry the cost of electrical energy is critical not only for competitive reasons but for the mere existence and performance of numerous production facilities . Several ways of resisting the pressure of high energy costs have been experimented the most promising being those based on different forms of public-private partnership/co-operation. In many countries the big industrial producers benefit from a special treatment concerning the energy acquisition and are supported by the government in order to remain competitive.

  20. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  1. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  2. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Bilcke

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies to (1 describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2 assess influential background characteristics, and (3 formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever, a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  3. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, J.

    Microwave and laser-propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability (`beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, beryllium, graphene, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail diameter and frequency. So optimal sails will be larger, lower in mass and driven by higher frequency beams. Estimated costs include economies of scale. We present several starship point concepts. Systems based on microwave, millimeter wave and laser technologies are of equal cost at today's costs. The frequency advantage of lasers is cancelled by the high cost of both the laser and the radiating optic. Cost of interstellar sailships is very high, driven by current costs for radiation source, antennas and especially electrical power. The high speeds necessary for fast interstellar missions make the operating cost exceed the capital cost. Such sailcraft will not be flown until the cost of electrical power in space is reduced orders of magnitude below current levels.

  4. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  5. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '96. Technical session: Energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The two papers of this session deal with the costs of two different energy generation systems, one is based on photovoltaic energy conversion, and the other is the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy generation. The author shows that the costs of these two energy systems in Germany are much more governed by decisions taken in the political domain than is the case in other countries. Although German science and technology in these two engineering fields hold a top rank worldwide, the high costs that seem inevitable in Germany are expected to be a major reason why the photovoltaic industry will have to leave the country and go abroad to exploit the better chances there. (DG) [de

  6. To end with the untruth on the wind energy cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Biez, V.

    2008-01-01

    In a study published by the Montaigne institute, in July 2008, Vincent Le Biez aimed to criticize the development of the wind energy and more especially its cost. Experts of the SER (Syndicat of the Renewable Energies) and the FEE (France Wind Energy ) answer, in this report, to the criticisms of V. Le Biez. Their analysis shows that the wind energy already constitutes a protection against the increase of the electrical market prices and will offer a real benefit for the collectivity in 2020. The increase of the wind energy in the world shows the trumps of this electricity production form. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  8. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  9. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin, 1225 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]|[Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The combination of substantial public funding of nascent energy technologies and recent increases in the costs of those that have been most heavily supported has raised questions about whether policy makers should sustain, alter, enhance, or terminate such programs. This paper uses experience curves for photovoltaics (PV) and wind to (1) estimate ranges of costs for these public programs and (2) introduce new ways of evaluating recent cost dynamics. For both technology cases, the estimated costs of the subsidies required to reach targets are sensitive to the choice of time period on which cost projections are based. The variation in the discounted social cost of subsidies exceeds an order of magnitude. Vigilance is required to avoid the very expensive outcomes contained within these distributions of social costs. Two measures of the significance of recent deviations are introduced. Both indicate that wind costs are within the expected range of prior forecasts but that PV costs are not. The magnitude of the public funds involved in these programs heightens the need for better analytical tools with which to monitor and evaluate cost dynamics. (author)

  10. Long-term cost targets for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) began the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) to help guide nuclear R and D strategies targeted on anticipated mid-century energy system needs. One part of INPRO seeks to develop cost targets for new designs to be competitive in mid-century markets. The starting point was the 40 scenarios of the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This paper summarizes four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families. It discusses their implications for nuclear energy, including cost targets, and develops for each an 'aggressive nuclear' variant. The aggressive nuclear variants estimate the potential market for nuclear energy if, by improving faster than assumed by the SRES authors, nuclear energy can make inroads into vulnerable market shares projected for its competitors. In addition to projected demands for nuclear generated electricity, hydrogen and heat, the aggressive variants include prospective demand for nuclear desalination and use in upgrading fossil fuels. The paper then presents learning rates and implied cost targets consistent with the aggressive nuclear variants of the SRES scenarios. One provocative initial result is that many of the scenarios with substantial nuclear expansion do not seem to require big reductions in nuclear investment costs. One interpretation discussed at the end of the paper highlights the difference between cost reductions consistent with long-term energy system optimization based on perfect foresight, and cost reductions necessary to attract private investment in today's 'deregulating' and uncertain energy markets. (orig.)

  11. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vittuari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energy and the inputs used for production. Secondary data regarding direct and indirect energy inputs and FLW have been collected for the Italian food chain to estimate the embodied energy of food waste. Since in 2011 the production and distribution of food implied the use of 822 PJ and 18 Mt of food was discarded, 67 PJ of food energy and 100 PJ of embodied energy were wasted. These figures are equivalent to 12.2% of the total nutritional energy output and to 1.3% of the final energy use in Italy, respectively. The concept of double energy waste sheds new light on the intertwined relationship between energy and food security, suggesting that appropriate food waste reduction policies could result in a higher food production level and relevant energy savings.

  12. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  13. Operation optimization of a distributed energy system considering energy costs and exergy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Somma, M.; Yan, B.; Bianco, N.; Graditi, G.; Luh, P.B.; Mongibello, L.; Naso, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation optimization model of a Distributed Energy System (DES). • Multi-objective strategy to optimize energy cost and exergy efficiency. • Exergy analysis in building energy supply systems. - Abstract: With the growing demand of energy on a worldwide scale, improving the efficiency of energy resource use has become one of the key challenges. Application of exergy principles in the context of building energy supply systems can achieve rational use of energy resources by taking into account the different quality levels of energy resources as well as those of building demands. This paper is on the operation optimization of a Distributed Energy System (DES). The model involves multiple energy devices that convert a set of primary energy carriers with different energy quality levels to meet given time-varying user demands at different energy quality levels. By promoting the usage of low-temperature energy sources to satisfy low-quality thermal energy demands, the waste of high-quality energy resources can be reduced, thereby improving the overall exergy efficiency. To consider the economic factor as well, a multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated. The Pareto frontier, including the best possible trade-offs between the economic and exergetic objectives, is obtained by minimizing a weighted sum of the total energy cost and total primary exergy input using branch-and-cut. The operation strategies of the DES under different weights for the two objectives are discussed. The operators of DESs can choose the operation strategy from the Pareto frontier based on costs, essential in the short run, and sustainability, crucial in the long run. The contribution of each energy device in reducing energy costs and the total exergy input is also analyzed. In addition, results show that the energy cost can be much reduced and the overall exergy efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimized operation of the DES as compared with the

  14. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to present key findings regarding costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance–primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. Building codes, if complied with, have the ability to save a significant amount of energy. However, energy code compliance rates have been significantly lower than 100%. Renewed interest in building energy codes has focused efforts on increasing compliance, particularly as a result of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requirement that in order for states to receive additional energy grants, they must have “a plan for the jurisdiction achieving compliance with the building energy code…in at least 90 percent of new and renovated residential and commercial building space” by 2017 (Public Law 111-5, Section 410(2)(C)). One study by the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) estimated the costs associated with reaching 90% compliance to be $810 million, or $610 million in additional funding over existing expenditures, a non-trivial value. [Majersik & Stellberg 2010] In this context, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted a study to better pinpoint the costs of enforcement through a two-phase process.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  16. Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User's guide. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Willing, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option

  17. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  18. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  19. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Neely, Michael J.; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically ...

  20. Costs and Benefits to EU Member States of 2030 Climate and Energy Targets - February 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Costs and Benefits to EU Member States of 2030 Climate and Energy Targets is based on analyses using the POLES-Enerdata model and presents an overview of the main European energy and climate policies: reduction of CO_2 emissions, development of renewable energies, and promotion of energy efficiency. The report looks forward to 2030 and beyond to evaluate possible targets and the goal of maintaining global temperature rise to 2 deg. C. This publication was produced by Enerdata's Global Energy Forecasting team, including the modelling and scenario analysis, within the framework of an external service contract to the UK's Department of Energy and Climate Change. This project looks ahead to 2030. To do this, scenarios were developed using the POLES-Enerdata model, a world energy-economy model that fully describes the energy system and associated GHG emissions. This report analyses the costs and benefits to all EU Member States under different scenarios of the level and type of EU targets defined within a 2030 climate and energy framework. Scenarios include progressively more stringent GHG targets in 2030 (40%, 50%, and 60% reductions compared to 1990), alternative assumptions on access to international credits (0%, 5% and 10% of 1990 emissions), the addition of RES burden shares by Member State, accelerated CCS commercial availability and reduced renewables learning rates. These are the sensitivities commissioned as part of this report; however, they are not a comprehensive range covering all possible outcomes that could arise in reality. What are the costs and benefits to Member States under different scenarios of the level and type of EU targets? The analysis assesses the benefits of different scenarios to improved air quality and health, diversity of energy supply, and reduced costs of meeting longer term emission reduction targets (notably the EU's commitment to reduce emissions by 80-95% by 2050). Relying on more low-carbon, domestic, or diversified sources of

  1. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency. Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France)

    1999-05-01

    In the face of the uncertainties concerning the importance and the actual impacts of anthropogeneous climate change the extent to which measures should be adopted to avoid greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) already today and in the near future is highly controversial. More specifically, part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called 'no-regret' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be 'worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so' (Bruce et al. 1996, p. 271). The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs (Grubb et al. 1993). This paper will examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures especially in the context of energy system modelling will be shown (section 3). (orig.)

  2. Department of Defense Energy and Logistics: Implications of Historic and Future Cost, Risk, and Capability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisa, Paul C.

    Every year the DoD spends billions satisfying its large petroleum demand. This spending is highly sensitive to uncontrollable and poorly understood market forces. Additionally, while some stakeholders may not prioritize its monetary cost and risk, energy is fundamentally coupled to other critical factors. Energy, operational capability, and logistics are heavily intertwined and dependent on uncertain security environment and technology futures. These components and their relationships are less understood. Without better characterization, future capabilities may be significantly limited by present-day acquisition decisions. One attempt to demonstrate these costs and risks to decision makers has been through a metric known as the Fully Burdened Cost of Energy (FBCE). FBCE is defined as the commodity price for fuel plus many of these hidden costs. The metric encouraged a valuable conversation and is still required by law. However, most FBCE development stopped before the lessons from that conversation were incorporated. Current implementation is easy to employ but creates little value. Properly characterizing the costs and risks of energy and putting them in a useful tradespace requires a new framework. This research aims to highlight energy's complex role in many aspects of military operations, the critical need to incorporate it in decisions, and a novel framework to do so. It is broken into five parts. The first describes the motivation behind FBCE, the limits of current implementation, and outlines a new framework that aids decisions. Respectively, the second, third, and fourth present a historic analysis of the connections between military capabilities and energy, analyze the recent evolution of this conversation within the DoD, and pull the historic analysis into a revised framework. The final part quantifies the potential impacts of deeply uncertain futures and technological development and introduces an expanded framework that brings capability, energy, and

  3. Accounting for Energy Cost When Designing Energy-Efficient Wireless Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Vallero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase of the data traffic demand, wireless access networks, through which users access telecommunication services, have expanded, in terms of size and of capability and, consequently, in terms of power consumption. Therefore, costs to buy the necessary power for the supply of base stations of those networks is becoming very high, impacting the communication cost. In this study, strategies to reduce the amount of money spent for the purchase of the energy consumed by the base stations are proposed for a network powered by solar panels, energy batteries and the power grid. First, the variability of the energy prices is exploited. It provides a cost reduction of up to 30%, when energy is bought in advance. If a part of the base stations is deactivated when the energy price is higher than a given threshold, a compromise between the energy cost and the user coverage drop is needed. In the simulated scenario, the necessary energy cost can be reduced by more than 40%, preserving the user coverage by greater than 94%. Second, the network is introduced to the energy market: it buys and sells energy from/to the traditional power grid. Finally, costs are reduced by the reduction of power consumption of the network, achieved by using microcell base stations. In the considered scenario, up to a 31% cost reduction is obtained, without the deterioration of the quality of service, but a huge Capex expenditure is required.

  4. Overcoming the Challenges in Implementing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Programs Can Decrease the Burden on Healthcare Costs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, identifying prediabetics would reduce the diabetic burden on the American healthcare system. As we expect the prevalence rate of prediabetes to continue increasing, we wonder if there is a better way of managing prediabetics and reducing the economic cost on the healthcare system. To do so, understanding the demographics and behavioral factors of known prediabetics was important. For this purpose, responses of prediabetic/borderline diabetes patients from the most recent publicly available 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS survey were analyzed. The findings showed that there was a correlation between household income, geographic residence in the US, and risk for developing diabetes mellitus type 2, aside from the accepted risk factors such as high BMI. In conclusion, implementation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program is a rational way of reducing the burden of DM on the healthcare system both economically and by prevalence. However, difficulties arise in ensuring patient compliance to the program and providing access to all regions and communities of the United States. Technology incorporation in the NDPP program would maintain a low-cost implementation by the healthcare system, be affordable and accessible for all participants, and decrease economic burden attributed to diabetes mellitus.

  5. Marginal costs for intensified energy-efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, J.; Jochem, E.; Christen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The costs and benefits of investments in measures designed to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings (in particular investments in heat insulation) were calculated as a function of increasing energy efficiency for new and renovated buildings and for single-family homes and apartment buildings. These investments in measures to improve efficiency mostly involve with the building envelope and ventilation systems and aim to successively reduce the space-heating needs of the buildings. The measures range from present-day building and renovation methods through to the 'Minergie' and 'Passive House' ('Minergie-P' in Switzerland) standards for low and very-low energy consumption buildings. Cost-benefit ratios were determined for individual building components, individual building concepts and for the whole of Switzerland, using both the average-cost as well as the pure marginal-cost methods (energy-economics level). The collection of empirical data (especially on costs) was an integral and important part of the project. The marginal costs were then compared with the benefits arising from the costs for space heating that were avoided, and, using a few typical cases as examples, with the so-called co-benefits, which are to be implemented in part by private persons and companies. For their quantification, methods were developed and used in case studies; in addition, avoided external costs are also considered. The marginal costs were also calculated for periods of time in the future, whereby they were made dynamic, according to their share of innovation, using the learning-curve method (learning and scaling effects). As far as the findings are concerned, there can be no doubt that the potential to be opened up for increasing energy efficiency using heat insulation measures is high, both for renovations and new construction work. A large portion of this potential is already economically viable and even more so when the possible risks of energy price increases

  6. A model for energy pricing with stochastic emission costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Robert J.; Lyle, Matthew R.; Miao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    We use a supply-demand approach to value energy products exposed to emission cost uncertainty. We find closed form solutions for a number of popularly traded energy derivatives such as: forwards, European call options written on spot prices and European Call options written on forward contracts. Our modeling approach is to first construct noisy supply and demand processes and then equate them to find an equilibrium price. This approach is very general while still allowing for sensitivity analysis within a valuation setting. Our assumption is that, in the presence of emission costs, traditional supply growth will slow down causing output prices of energy products to become more costly over time. However, emission costs do not immediately cause output price appreciation, but instead expose individual projects, particularly those with high emission outputs, to much more extreme risks through the cost side of their profit stream. Our results have implications for hedging and pricing for producers operating in areas facing a stochastic emission cost environment. (author)

  7. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  8. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  10. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P. [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  11. Nuclear energy: the cost of opting-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a study made on the financial and ecological costs that would be incurred if Switzerland opted out of the use of nuclear energy. Figures are quoted for the costs if two Swiss popular initiatives on the subject of opting out of nuclear energy were accepted in voting. The disadvantages offered by the alternatives such as combined gas and steam-turbine power plant, photovoltaics and wind power are quoted. Possible negative effects of opting out on the Swiss economy are looked at and the political aspects of renewing operational permits for nuclear power stations are discussed

  12. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels...... of minimum energy performance requirements. In addition to the summary report released in August 2011, the full detailed report on this study is now also made available, just as the EC is about to publish its proposed Regulation for MS to apply in their process to update national building requirements....

  13. Fair Division of Costs in Green Energy Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers cost allocation in networks where agents are characterized by stochastic demand and supply of a non-storable good, e.g. green energy. The grid itself creates possibilities of exchanging energy between agents and we propose to allocate common costs in proportion to the economi...... gain of being part of the grid. Our model includes a set of fundamental requirements for the associated trading platform. In particular, it is argued that a suitable mechanism deviates from a traditional market. The approach is illustrated by simulations....

  14. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamei, A.; Zaag, P. van der; Munch, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W p (W p is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W p . Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W p ), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst penalties on usage

  15. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  16. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  17. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    . However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private...... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...... in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...

  18. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    . However, before being fully implemented in the national building codesand international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building...... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...... in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that isbalanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...

  19. The hidden costs of installing Xpert machines in a tuberculosis high-burden country: experiences from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, Saddiq Tsimiri; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Obasanya, Olusegun Joshua; Lawson, Lovett; Dacombe, Russell; Muhammad, Muhammad; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Cuevas, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Since the endorsement of GeneXpert MTB/RIF by the WHO, many countries have embarked on implementing this technology. We outline the cost of installing GeneXpert in district hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria. We prospectively documented costs related to the installation of GeneXpert at five sites. Costs were collected from receipts received from suppliers and normalized to USD 2012 values. Costs were often identified after initiating installation for many reasons. Installation varied widely between sites with sufficient space and power supply; sites with insufficient space or power supply and costs not directly associated with site installation. The basic cost for installation was USD 2,621.98 per machine. Sites that required additional space cost close to USD 7,000.00. Space and power requirements have a significant effect on installation costs. Countries need to carefully consider the placement of Xpert machines based on the quality and size of the available infrastructure.

  20. Assessing energy supply security: Outage costs in private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron J.; Hähnel, Alexander; Erdmann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the topic of energy supply security by proposing a Monte Carlo-based and a survey based model to analyze the costs of power interruptions. Outage cost estimations are particularly important when deciding on investments to improve supply security (e.g. additional transmission lines) in order to compare costs to benefits. But also other policy decisions on measures that have direct or indirect consequences for the supply security (e.g. a phasing out of nuclear energy) need to be based on results from outage cost estimations. The main focus of this paper lies with residential consumers, but the model is applied to commercial, industrial and governmental consumers as well. There are limited studies that have approached the problem of evaluating outage cost. When comparing the results of these studies, they often display a high degree of diversification. As consumers have different needs and dependencies towards the supply of electricity because of varying circumstances and preferences, a great diversity in outage cost is a logical consequence. To take the high degree of uncertainties into account, a Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in this study for the case of private households in Germany. - Highlights: ► A macroeconomic model to assess outage cost is proposed. ► Possibilities for substitution are considered by analyzing individual preferences for the time-use. ► Uncertainties are taken into account by using a Monte Carlo simulation. ► This study reveals the distribution of outage costs to different electricity consumers. ► Implications for energy policy decisions are discussed.

  1. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Vittuari; Fabio De Menna; Marco Pagani

    2016-01-01

    The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW) have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energ...

  2. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  3. Cost-covering remuneration - wind and solar energy skinned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the details of Switzerland's cost-covering remuneration scheme for electrical energy from renewable resources are discussed. Several experts from the renewable energies area express their opinions on the scheme's tariffs for the remuneration of electrical energy fed into the public mains. Wind energy is quoted as being 'skinned', with a lower tariff than before and solar energy is quoted as being promoted 'with the hand brake still on'. Geothermal energy and power from biomass power stations is quoted as being 'undamaged' by the new remuneration system. In general, the opinion is expressed that small investors and producers have, once more, been put at a disadvantage. The situation in Switzerland is briefly compared with that in Germany, France, Spain and Italy. An overview of the tariffs is presented in tabular form

  4. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  5. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278).

  6. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOODIN, D.T; NOBILE, A; SCHROEN, D.G; MAXWELL, J.L; RICKMAN, W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE

  7. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

  8. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  9. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    , is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated numerically...

  10. Cost and benefit of renewable energy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    An assessment is made as to whether renewable energy use for electricity generation in the EU was beneficial throughout the cycle of high and low oil prices. Costs and benefits are calculated with the EU statistics for the period of low oil prices 1998–2002 and high oil prices 2003–2009. The share

  11. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  12. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  13. Promoting a low cost energy future in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robert Kirchner

    confidence of financial institutions and investors in RETs. The publication of a national solar and wind atlas, for example, informs potential investors about suitable areas and reduces the costs for feasibility studies (Renewable. Energy Ventures, 2012). Due to a lack of knowledge and project experience with RETs, obtaining ...

  14. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara M. Fontanazza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In systems experiencing water scarcity and consequent intermittent supply, users often adopt private tanks that collect water during service periods and supply users when the service is not available. The tank may be fed by gravity or by private pumping stations depending on the network pressure level. Once water resources are collected, the tank can supply users by gravity if it is located on the rooftop or by additional pumping if underground. Private tanks thus increase the energy cost of the water supply service for users by introducing several small pumping structures inside the network. The present paper aims to evaluate this users’ energy cost for different private tank configurations. A real case study was analysed, and the results showed that intermittent distribution causes inequalities not only in users’ access to water resource but also costs that users have to bear to have access to water.

  15. Energy transition. A complete view on costs, performance, flexibility and prices of energies - Journal nr 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncorps, Jean-Claude; Larzilliere, Marc; Bomo, Nicole; Bruder, Michel; Buscailhon, Jean-Marie; Cappe, Daniel; DobiaS, Georges; Fregere, Jean-Pierre; Garipuy, Yves; Hougueres, Gerard; Martin, Jean-Loup; Mollard, Dominique; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Wiltz, Bruno; Roudier, Jacques

    2013-02-01

    This publication aims at proposing information on the issues of energy prices, of energy production costs and of energy delivery costs, and at showing their complexity while clearing up some wrong ideas about them. After an introduction on the addressed problematic, on information sources and on uncertainties, the authors give a general overview of the definitions of a cost, of a price, of primary, secondary and final energies, of user diversity and energy demand variation in time, of energy production variations in time, and present energy taxing in France and in the European Union, the CO 2 market, and energy savings in France in various sectors (transports, buildings, industry). Then, they address the various primary energies (coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, geothermal heat, thermal solar) and secondary energies (nuclear, hydroelectricity, ground-based wind energy, renewable sea energies, geothermal electricity, electricity grids, heat networks and co-generation) and discuss for each or some of them issues like: world market, costs and pricing, perspectives, resources and constraints, technologies

  16. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  17. Optimal replacement of residential air conditioning equipment to minimize energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and consumer cost in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kleine, Robert D.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Kelly, Jarod C.

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle optimization of the replacement of residential central air conditioners (CACs) was conducted in order to identify replacement schedules that minimized three separate objectives: life cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and consumer cost. The analysis was conducted for the time period of 1985-2025 for Ann Arbor, MI and San Antonio, TX. Using annual sales-weighted efficiencies of residential CAC equipment, the tradeoff between potential operational savings and the burdens of producing new, more efficient equipment was evaluated. The optimal replacement schedule for each objective was identified for each location and service scenario. In general, minimizing energy consumption required frequent replacement (4-12 replacements), minimizing GHG required fewer replacements (2-5 replacements), and minimizing cost required the fewest replacements (1-3 replacements) over the time horizon. Scenario analysis of different federal efficiency standards, regional standards, and Energy Star purchases were conducted to quantify each policy's impact. For example, a 16 SEER regional standard in Texas was shown to either reduce primary energy consumption 13%, GHGs emissions by 11%, or cost by 6-7% when performing optimal replacement of CACs from 2005 or before. The results also indicate that proper servicing should be a higher priority than optimal replacement to minimize environmental burdens. - Highlights: → Optimal replacement schedules for residential central air conditioners were found. → Minimizing energy required more frequent replacement than minimizing consumer cost. → Significant variation in optimal replacement was observed for Michigan and Texas. → Rebates for altering replacement patterns are not cost effective for GHG abatement. → Maintenance levels were significant in determining the energy and GHG impacts.

  18. The economic burden of inpatient paediatric care in Kenya: household and provider costs for treatment of pneumonia, malaria and meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Ulla K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of treatment cost is essential in assessing cost effectiveness in healthcare. Evidence of the potential impact of implementing available interventions against childhood illnesses in developing countries challenges us to define the costs of treating these diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe the total costs associated with treatment of pneumonia, malaria and meningitis in children less than five years in seven Kenyan hospitals. Methods Patient resource use data were obtained from largely prospective evaluation of medical records and household expenditure during illness was collected from interviews with caretakers. The estimates for costs per bed day were based on published data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using WHO-CHOICE values for costs per bed day. Results Treatment costs for 572 children (pneumonia = 205, malaria = 211, meningitis = 102 and mixed diagnoses = 54 and household expenditure for 390 households were analysed. From the provider perspective the mean cost per admission at the national hospital was US $95.58 for malaria, US $177.14 for pneumonia and US $284.64 for meningitis. In the public regional or district hospitals the mean cost per child treated ranged from US $47.19 to US $81.84 for malaria and US $54.06 to US $99.26 for pneumonia. The corresponding treatment costs in the mission hospitals were between US $43.23 to US $88.18 for malaria and US $ 43.36 to US $142.22 for pneumonia. Meningitis was treated for US $ 189.41 at the regional hospital and US $ 201.59 at one mission hospital. The total treatment cost estimates were sensitive to changes in the source of bed day costs. The median treatment related household payments within quintiles defined by total household expenditure differed by type of facility visited. Public hospitals recovered up to 40% of provider costs through user charges while mission facilities recovered 44% to 100% of costs. Conclusion Treatments cost for

  19. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Montanino, G.

    1992-01-01

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  20. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  2. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: Principles and recommendations from the Global Campaign against Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most of all, these recommendations seek to encourage collaborations between specialists in headache disorders and epidemiologists. The focus is on migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache, but they are not intended to be exclusive to these. The burdens arising from secondary headaches are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey instruments. PMID:24467862

  3. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  4. Feedback Survey of the Effect, Burden, and Cost of the National Endoscopic Quality Assessment Program during the Past 5 Years in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kyung Cho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims In Korea, the nationwide gastric cancer screening program recommends biennial screening for individuals aged 40 years or older by way of either an upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy. The national endoscopic quality assessment (QA program began recommending endoscopy in medical institutions in 2009. We aimed to assess the effect, burden, and cost of the QA program from the viewpoint of medical institutions. Methods We surveyed the staff of institutional endoscopic units via e-mail. Results Staff members from 67 institutions replied. Most doctors were endoscopic specialists. They responded as to whether the QA program raised awareness for endoscopic quality (93% or improved endoscopic practice (40%. The percentages of responders who reported improvements in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the qualifications of endoscopists, the quality of facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, and endoscopic reprocessing were 69%, 60%, 66%, 82%, and 75%, respectively. Regarding reprocessing, many staff members reported that they had bought new automated endoscopic preprocessors (3%, used more disinfectants (34%, washed endoscopes longer (28%, reduced the number of endoscopies performed to adhere to reprocessing guidelines (9%, and created their own quality education programs (59%. Many responders said they felt that QA was associated with some degree of burden (48%, especially financial burden caused by purchasing new equipment. Reasonable quality standards (45% and incentives (38% were considered important to the success of the QA program. Conclusions Endoscopic quality has improved after 5 years of the mandatory endoscopic QA program.

  5. An assessment of the energy tax burden on the Philippine economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, Roy

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses an aggregate modelling approach to assess the impacts of a redistribution of the taxes and duties that currently exist on crude oil and refined petroleum products in the Philippine economy. The approach used in the analysis consists of a general equilibrium model composed of fourteen producing sectors, fourteen consuming sectors, three household categories classified by income and a government. The effects of replacing the taxes and duties on crude oil and refined petroleum products with a more broad-based tax on manufacturing and service sectors output on prices and quantities are examined. The results are revealing. For example, the consequences of redistributing the tax burden away from petroleum products to the manufacturing and service sectors of the Philippine economy would be an increase in output by all producing sectors of about 3.5% or about 2.4 hundred billion Philippine pesos, a rise in the consumption of goods and services by about 6.1% or 1.6 hundred billion Philippine pesos, a rise in total utility by 6.9% or 1.9 hundred billion Philippine pesos and virtually no change in tax revenue for the government. When subjected to a sensitivity analysis, the results are reasonably robust with regard to the assumption of the values of the substitution elasticities. That is, while the model's equilibrium values do vary in response to different assumptions of the values of these elasticities, the fluctuations are not so enormous to suggest that the model is unrealistically sensitive to these parameters. (author)

  6. Energy-dense fast food products cost less: an observational study of the energy density and energy cost of Australian fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between energy cost and energy density of fast food products. Twenty Sydney outlets of the five largest fast food chains were surveyed four times. Price and kilojoule data were collected for all limited-time-only menu items (n=54) and a sample of standard items (n=67). Energy cost ($/kilojoule) and energy density (kilojoules/gram) of menu items were calculated. There was a significant inverse relationship between menu item energy density and energy cost (pFast food chains could provide a wider range of affordable, lower-energy foods, use proportional pricing of larger serve sizes, or change defaults in meals to healthier options. More research is required to determine the most effective strategy to reduce the negative impact of fast food on the population's diet. Current pricing in the fast food environment may encourage unhealthier purchases. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Mirghaed, Mohammad; Roshandel, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

  8. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  10. Energy saving and cost saving cooling; Energie und Kosten sparende Kuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W. [Architektur- und Fachpressebuero Klaus W. Koenig, Ueberlingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the case of cost reduction, energy conservation and resource savings, rain water is an ideal medium offering more advantages in comparison to the cooling with drinking water. There are no fees for the drinking water and drainage of rain water. It is not necessary to soften rain water so that further operational costs for the treatment and drainage of waste water can be saved. The avoidance of the related material flows and necessary energy is a practiced environmental protection and climate protection.

  11. The health system burden of chronic disease care: an estimation of provider costs of selected chronic diseases in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settumba, Stella Nalukwago; Sweeney, Sedona; Seeley, Janet; Biraro, Samuel; Mutungi, Gerald; Munderi, Paula; Grosskurth, Heiner; Vassall, Anna

    2015-06-01

    To explore the chronic disease services in Uganda: their level of utilisation, the total service costs and unit costs per visit. Full financial and economic cost data were collected from 12 facilities in two districts, from the provider's perspective. A combination of ingredients-based and step-down allocation costing approaches was used. The diseases under study were diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), epilepsy and HIV infection. Data were collected through a review of facility records, direct observation and structured interviews with health workers. Provision of chronic care services was concentrated at higher-level facilities. Excluding drugs, the total costs for NCD care fell below 2% of total facility costs. Unit costs per visit varied widely, both across different levels of the health system, and between facilities of the same level. This variability was driven by differences in clinical and drug prescribing practices. Most patients reported directly to higher-level facilities, bypassing nearby peripheral facilities. NCD services in Uganda are underfunded particularly at peripheral facilities. There is a need to estimate the budget impact of improving NCD care and to standardise treatment guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. "It is me who endures but my family that suffers": social isolation as a consequence of the household cost burden of Buruli ulcer free of charge hospital treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available Despite free of charge biomedical treatment, the cost burden of Buruli ulcer disease (Bu hospitalisation in Central Cameroon accounts for 25% of households' yearly earnings, surpassing the threshold of 10%, which is generally considered catastrophic for the household economy, and calling into question the sustainability of current Bu programmes. The high non-medical costs and productivity loss for Bu patients and their households make household involvement in the healing process unsustainable. 63% of households cease providing social and financial support for patients as a coping strategy, resulting in the patient's isolation at the hospital. Social isolation itself was cited by in-patients as the principal cause for abandonment of biomedical treatment. These findings demonstrate that further research and investment in Bu are urgently needed to evaluate new intervention strategies that are socially acceptable and appropriate in the local context.

  13. Economic burden of fire-related deaths in Finland, 2000-2010: Indirect costs using a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikonen, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo M; Lunetta, Philippe; Kokki, Esa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the indirect economic burden of fire-related deaths in Finland in the period 2000-2010. The Human Capital (HC) approach was the main method used to estimate productivity losses due to fire-related deaths. Additionally, Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) due to deaths were reported. A total of 1090 fire-related deaths occurred in the period 2000-2010 within a population of some 5.4 million. The majority were male (76% vs 24%), with a mean age of 52 (CI: 51.0-53.2) years for males and 57 (CI: 54.6-59.6) for females; 24% (CI: 21.1-26.2%) of victims were over the retirement age. Most of the victims died of combustion gas poisoning (65%, CI: 61.8-67.6%), followed by burns (33%, CI: 30.6-36.3%). Alcohol was often involved and victims were often socially disadvantaged, with socioeconomic features significantly deviating from those of the general population. Annual PYLL ranged from 2094 (CI: 1861-2326) to 3299 (CI: 3008-3594), with an annual average PYLL of 2763 (CI: 2675-2851). PYLL per death fell in the study period from 34.3 (2000, CI: 31.0-37.7) to 24.6 (2010, CI: 21.8-27.6). The reduction is attributable to a decreasing fraction of young victims and an increase in average ages. Total productivity loss in the period 2000-2010 was c.a. EUR 342 million (CI: 330-354 million), giving an annual average of EUR 31.1 million (CI: 30.0-32.2 million), with the mean for a victim being EUR 0.315 million (CI: 0.30-0.33 million). The economic burden of deaths is considerable and this study remedies the lack of academic knowledge about the burden of fire-related deaths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  16. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  17. The economic burden of Tuberculosis in Denmark 1998-2010. Cost analysis in patients and their spouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ,180 more health costs per year than controls. Excess health costs in the 2 years around diagnosing and treating TB were € 10,509. Cases received an average excess public transfer income of € 3,345 before vs. € 3,121 after diagnosis. Average employment income deficiency was € 11,635 before vs. € 13......,885 after diagnosis, but the increasing difference showed a linear shape throughout the period. Spouses also had lower income, more social transfer, and posed higher health-related costs than matched controls. CONCLUSION: We estimate the direct costs per TB patient to be €10,509. TB patients...... and their households are characterized by increasingly lower employment income, lower employment rate, and higher dependency on public transfer, but the socio/economic deterioration is rather a risk factor for TB than a direct consequence of the disease....

  18. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  19. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  20. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  1. The reliability of running economy expressed as oxygen cost and energy cost in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Fudge, Barry W; Folland, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    This study assessed the between-test reliability of oxygen cost (OC) and energy cost (EC) in distance runners, and contrasted it with the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) of these measures. OC and EC displayed similar levels of within-subject variation (typical error < 3.85%). However, the typical error (2.75% vs 2.74%) was greater than the SWC (1.38% vs 1.71%) for both OC and EC, respectively, indicating insufficient sensitivity to confidently detect small, but meaningful, changes in OC and EC.

  2. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  3. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrdova, Eva; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia; Doležal, Tomáš

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, in the societal perspective, in CZK 2015. A total of 747 patients (mean age 47 years) participated; 86% were below retirement age and of these, 49% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 82% of those working. Overall, 92% and 66% of patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties as a problem. Mean utility and annual costs were 0.832 and 257,000CZK at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.530 and 425,500CZK at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.141 and 489,000CZK at EDSS 7-9. The average cost of a relapse was estimated at 12,600CZK. This study provides current data on MS in the Czech Republic that are important for the development of health policies.

  4. The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyousef, Yousef; Stevens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: → How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? → How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? → What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? → What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

  5. Burden, duration and costs of hospital bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis in England per winter, 2010/11-2015/16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, F G; Jit, M; Robotham, J V; Deeny, S R

    2017-09-01

    Bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis put hospitals under pressure each winter. In England, the National Health Service (NHS) has monitored the winter situation for all acute trusts since 2010/11. To estimate the burden, duration and costs of hospital bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis in winter. A retrospective analysis of routinely collected time-series data of bed closures due to diarrhoea and vomiting was conducted for the winters 2010/11 to 2015/16. Two key issues were addressed by imputing non-randomly missing values at provider level, and filtering observations to a range of dates recorded in all six winters. The lowest and highest values imputed were taken to represent the best- and worst-case scenarios. Bed-days were costed using NHS reference costs, and potential staff absence costs were based on previous studies. In the best-to-worst case, a median of 88,000-113,000 beds were closed due to gastroenteritis each winter. Of these, 19.6-20.4% were unoccupied. On average, 80% of providers were affected, and had closed beds for a median of 15-21 days each winter. Hospital costs of closed beds were £5.7-£7.5 million, which increased to £6.9-£10.0 million when including staff absence costs due to illness. The median number of hospital beds closed due to acute gastroenteritis per winter was equivalent to all general and acute hospital beds in England being unavailable for a median of 0.88-1.12 days. Costs for hospitals are high but vary with closures each winter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The “cost of not doing” energy planning: The Spanish energy bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, Antonio; Dopazo, César; Fueyo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    The Spanish power generation sector is facing dire problems: generation overcapacity, various tariff hikes over recent years, uncertainty over the financial viability of many power plants and a regulatory framework that lacks stability. This situation is the consequence of both poor energy policies and the economic crisis in the late 2000s and early 2010s. In this paper we analyze the following three points from an energy planning perspective: how the country has arrived at this situation; whether other alternatives would have been possible through adequate planning; and the quantitative benefits that would have been accrued from such planning. We do so by developing a LEAP model, and building three scenarios that allow to segregate the costs of the economic crisis from the costs of the lack of planning. We find that appropriate energy planning could have reduced investments in the Spanish power sector by 2010€28.6 billion without compromising on performance in terms of sustainability or energy security, while improving affordability. The main causes of these surplus investments were two supply bubbles: those of gas combined cycles and of solar technologies. The results of this work highlight the value of rigorous, quantitative energy planning, and the high costs of not doing it. - Highlights: • We analyze the costs of the lack of quantitative planning for energy-policy making. • We separate the costs of the economic crisis in Spain from the cost of not planning. • We find the “cost of not doing” energy planning to be 28.6 billion 2010EUR.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  8. Energy cost of ambulation in healthy and disabled Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Reyes, O B; Reyes, T M; So, F Y; Matti, B M; Lardizabal, A A

    1988-11-01

    The energy expenditures (Ee) for locomotion by nondisabled and disabled Filipino children aged 7 to 13 were determined and compared using indirect calorimetry. Forty-one controls (20 boys and 21 girls) ambulated at a comfortable pace; 16 children (eight boys and eight girls) with lower extremity poliomyelitis of varying severity ambulated by (1) wheelchair propulsion, (2) bilateral axillary crutches, (3) unilateral lower extremity ankle-foot orthoses or knee-ankle-foot orthoses, and (4) unassisted. Disabled children, regardless of their mode of ambulation, had to expend significantly more energy to ambulate than normal children (p less than 0.05). Wheelchair propulsion cost 16% more energy than the normal gait; crutch ambulation cost 41% more than the control. Children using unilateral braces sacrificed speed to attain near-normal Ee. When they ambulated without orthoses, their Ee increased by 109% over the control. In ascending order, the least energy was expanded by normal ambulation followed by disabled ambulation with unilateral brace, disabled propelling a wheelchair, disabled ambulation with bilateral axillary crutches, and disabled ambulation without brace. Efficiency of locomotion was reflected in the values obtained for Ee in terms of kcal x 10(-3)/kg/m, as demonstrated by the lower Ee but slower ambulation of children with braces, as compared to the nondisabled children.

  9. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  10. The costs and profitability of heat-energy entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmio, H.

    1998-01-01

    Heat-energy entrepreneurs are responsible for the supply of fuel to and the labour input required by heating of buildings in their locality. An individual heat-energy entrepreneur or a consortium of them, a company or a co-operative is paid for the work according to the amount of heat-energy produced. In Finland there are about 50 operational heating targets and about 100 in planning stage. TTS-Institute has studied the activities of heat-energy entrepreneurs since 1993 in connection with research projects included in the national Bioenergy research programme. This study covered 10 heating plants with capacities 60 - 1000 kW, two of which are district heating plants. Five of the targets (60 - 370 kW) were included in the previous heat-energy entrepreneurs follow-up study conducted in 1993 - 1995 and five (80 - 1000 kW) were new. The main fuel used in all the targets was wood chips with light fuel oil reserve or auxiliary fuel. All but one of the entrepreneurs, supplying these heating targets located in Central and Southern Finland, are farmers, who procure the fuelwood and take care of heating and its supervision. Transportation of wood chips, topping up of the silo and heating work and working path consumed 0.12-0.78 h of time/MWh. When compared to the five study targets' follow-up results of the years 1993 - 1995, the results of the present study show reduction in labour consumption on part of the heat-energy entrepreneurs in all these targets. Profit margins of the entrepreneurs supplying heating energy were 73 - 132 FIM/h (excluding the interest on the equipment acquisition (agricultural tractor and associated equipment), and insurance and storage costs). When these costs were also taken into account, the resulting profit margin was 71 - 127 FIM/h. The margin included the entrepreneurs' earnings incl. monitoring of the heating plant, social security costs connected to earnings and entrepreneur's risk. When compared to the previous follow-up study, also the

  11. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  12. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants [it

  13. The economic burden of Tuberculosis in Denmark 1998-2010. Cost analysis in patients and their spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fløe

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: We estimate the direct costs per TB patient to be €10,509. TB patients and their households are characterized by increasingly lower employment income, lower employment rate, and higher dependency on public transfer, but the socio/economic deterioration is rather a risk factor for TB than a direct consequence of the disease.

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  15. Real-world dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost comparison of conversion between sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate and lanthanum carbonate monotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Michael S; Sibbel, Scott; Copley, J Brian; Wilson, Rosamund J; Brunelli, Steven M

    2014-10-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate (SH/C) and lanthanum carbonate (LC) are noncalcium-based phosphate binders used for the management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost difference of bidirectional conversion between SH/C and LC monotherapy in a large cohort of real-world patients with ESRD. This retrospective cohort study included three 30-day preconversion periods (days -90 to -61, -60 to -31, and -30 to -1) followed by three 30-day postconversion periods (days 1 to 30, 31 to 60, and 61 to 90); day 0 was the index date of conversion. The full analysis population (FAP) comprised two cohorts: SH/C to LC (S-L) converters and LC to SH/C (L-S) converters. The SH/C:LC dose-relativity ratio was assessed in the dose-relativity subset, defined as patients whose serum phosphate levels fell within a caliper range of ± 0.5 mg/dL in the final preconversion (days -30 to -1) and postconversion (days 61 to 90) periods. Tablet burden and phosphate binder costs were assessed in the FAP. Phosphate binder costs were based on average wholesale prices. The FAP contained a total of 303 patients, comprising the S-L (128 patients) and L-S (175 patients) converter cohorts. The dose-relativity subset contained 159 patients, 72 from the S-L cohort and 87 from the L-S cohort. The overall mean SH/C:LC dose-relativity ratio was 2.27 (95% CI, 2.04 to 2.52). In SH/C dose strata >800 to 2400, >2400 to 4800, >4800 to 7200, and >7200 mg/d, overall mean dose-relativity ratios were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.57 to 1.10), 1.45 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75), 2.05 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.39), and 3.24 (95% CI, 2.89 to 3.66), respectively. The overall mean tablet burden was 6.6 tablets per day lower with LC monotherapy than with SH/C monotherapy (95% CI, -7.1 to -6.0; P 7800 mg/d was the inflection point at which conversion to LC resulted in mean cost savings. Patients requiring SH/C >7800 mg/d comprised

  16. Climate impacts on the cost of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Mallory E.; Smith, Matthew K.; Parsekian, Ara W.; Boyuk, Dmitriy S.; McGrath, Jenna K.; Yates, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) estimates are widely utilized by decision makers to predict the long-term cost and benefits of solar PV installations, but fail to consider local climate, which impacts PV panel lifetime and performance. Specific types of solar PV panels are known to respond to climate factors differently. Mono-, poly-, and amorphous-silicon (Si) PV technologies are known to exhibit varying degradation rates and instantaneous power losses as a function of operating temperature, humidity, thermal cycling, and panel soiling. We formulate an extended LCOE calculation, which considers PV module performance and lifespan as a function of local climate. The LCOE is then calculated for crystalline and amorphous Si PV technologies across several climates. Finally, we assess the impact of various policy incentives on reducing the firm's cost of solar deployment when controlling for climate. This assessment is the first to quantify tradeoffs between technologies, geographies, and policies in a unified manner. Results suggest crystalline Si solar panels as the most promising candidate for commercial-scale PV systems due to their low degradation rates compared to amorphous technologies. Across technologies, we note the strong ability of investment subsidies in removing uncertainty and reducing the LCOE, compared to production incentives. - Highlights: •We integrate local climate into the Levelized Cost of photovoltaic technology. •Climate dictates panel degradation rates and the impact of temperature on efficiency. •We compare LCOE under policy scenarios for three technologies in four U. S. states. •Degradation is highly variable, increasing costs by shortening panel life in many regions. •Incentives targeting investment are most effective at reducing solar deployment costs.

  17. Burden of illness in multiple sclerosis (DEFENSE) study: the costs and quality-of-life of Finnish patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutiainen, Juhani; Viita, Anna-Mari; Hahl, Jarmo; Sundell, Jesse; Nissinen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common causes of non-traumatic disability among young adults, no published data on its economic and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) burden is available from Finland. The DEFENSE study aimed to estimate the costs and HRQoL of patients with MS (PwMS) in Finland and explore how these variables are influenced by disease severity and relapses. Overall, 553 PwMS registered with the Finnish Neuro Society, a national patient association in Finland, completed a self-administered questionnaire capturing information on demographics, disease characteristics and severity (Expanded Disease Severity Scale [EDSS]), relapses, resource consumption and HRQoL. The PwMS had a mean EDSS score of 4.0. Overall, 44.1% had relapsing-remitting form of the disease (RRMS). The mean age was 53.8 years and 55.7% had retired prematurely due to MS. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) were used by 42.7% of the study population, and 21.5% across all disease types and severities had experienced relapses during the previous year. The mean total annual cost of MS was €46,994, which increased with advancing disease from €10,835 (EDSS score = 0) to €109,901 (EDSS score = 8-9). The mean utility was 0.644. HRQoL decreased with increasing disease severity. Relapses imposed an additional utility decrement among the PwMS with RRMS and EDSS ≤5 and had a trend-like effect on total costs. The cross-sectional setting did not allow assessment of the significance of relapses in early MS or the use of DMTs on the prognosis of the disease. The study confirms previous findings from other countries regarding a significant disease burden associated with MS and provides, for the first time, published numerical estimates from Finland. Treatments that slow disease progression and help PwMS retain employment for a longer duration have the highest potential to reduce the disease burden associated with MS.

  18. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  19. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  20. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  1. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with § 436.14(c). (b) When energy costs begin to accrue in the base year, the present value of energy... present value of energy costs over the delay, calculated using the adjusted, modified uniform present worth factor for the period of delay, from the present value of energy costs over the study period or...

  2. Economic burden of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea: a cost-of-illness study from a German tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, S M; Vehreschild, J J; Cornely, O A; Wisplinghoff, H; Hallek, M; Goldbrunner, R; Böttiger, B W; Goeser, T; Hölscher, A; Baldus, S; Müller, F; Jazmati, N; Wingen, S; Franke, B; Vehreschild, M J G T

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhoea. In the context of the German health-care system, direct and indirect costs of an initial episode of CDAD and of CDAD recurrence are currently unknown. We defined CDAD as presence of diarrhoea (≥3 unformed stools/day) in association with detection of Clostridium difficile toxin in an unformed faecal sample. Patients treated with metronidazole (PO or IV) and/or vancomycin (PO) were included. Comprehensive data of patients were retrospectively documented into a database using the technology of the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (CoCoNut). Patients with CDAD were matched to control patients in a 1:1 ratio. Analysis was split in three groups: incidence group (CDAD patients without recurrence), recurrence group (CDAD patients with ≥1 recurrence) and control group (matched non-CDAD patients). Between 02/2010 and 12/2011, 150 patients with CDAD (114 patients in the incidence and 36 (24 %) in the recurrence group) and 150 controls were analysed. Mean length of stay was: 32 (95 %CI: 30-37), 94 (95 %CI: 76-112) and 24 days (95 %CI: 22-27; P = costs per patient of €18,460 (95 %CI: €14,660-€22,270), €73,900 (95 %CI: €50,340-€97,460) and €14,530 (95 %CI: €11,730-€17,330; P = costs, which were mostly attributable to a significantly longer overall length of stay. Innovative treatment strategies are warranted to reduce treatment costs and prevent recurrence of CDAD.

  3. Estimating the burden of smoking: premature mortality, morbidity, and costs Estimaciones de la carga debido al consumo de tabaco: mortalidad, morbilidad prematura, y costo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Samet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the burden of disease attributable to smoking has now become standard in documenting the impact of the tobacco epidemic and in motivating tobacco control. This paper addresses the methods used to estimate the attributable burden of mortality and the related estimation of morbidity and economic costs. Estimates of attributable mortality and morbidity for the Americas range widely, reflecting the maturity of the tobacco epidemic. The estimates are highest for the United States, and lower for Mexico and other countries of the Americas.La medida del impacto de la epidemia de tabaquismo y la promoción del control del tabaco ha sido el estándar para estimar la carga total de enfermedades atribuible al consumo de tabaco. Este artículo estudia los métodos usados para estimar la mortalidad atribuible al consumo de tabaco, así como su morbilidad y los costos económicos. La mortalidad y morbilidad atribuible para la población de los Estados Unidos varía ampliamente, lo que refleja la madurez de la epidemia de tabaquismo. Las estimaciones para los Estados Unidos son altas, y más bajas para México y otros países de América.

  4. A fuzzy levelised energy cost method for renewable energy technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Daniel G.; Dey, Prasanta K.; Brammer, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy project development is highly complex and success is by no means guaranteed. Decisions are often made with approximate or uncertain information yet the current methods employed by decision-makers do not necessarily accommodate this. Levelised energy costs (LEC) are one such commonly applied measure utilised within the energy industry to assess the viability of potential projects and inform policy. The research proposes a method for achieving this by enhancing the traditional discounting LEC measure with fuzzy set theory. Furthermore, the research develops the fuzzy LEC (F-LEC) methodology to incorporate the cost of financing a project from debt and equity sources. Applied to an example bioenergy project, the research demonstrates the benefit of incorporating fuzziness for project viability, optimal capital structure and key variable sensitivity analysis decision-making. The proposed method contributes by incorporating uncertain and approximate information to the widely utilised LEC measure and by being applicable to a wide range of energy project viability decisions. -- Highlights: •Proposes a fuzzy levelised energy cost (F-LEC) methodology to support energy project development. •Incorporates the terms and cost of project finance into the F-LEC method. •Applies the F-LEC method to an example bioenergy project development case

  5. Sizing Combined Heat and Power Units and Domestic Building Energy Cost Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dongmin Yu; Yuanzhu Meng; Gangui Yan; Gang Mu; Dezhi Li; Simon Le Blond

    2017-01-01

    Many combined heat and power (CHP) units have been installed in domestic buildings to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy costs. However, inappropriate sizing of a CHP may actually increase energy costs and reduce energy efficiency. Moreover, the high manufacturing cost of batteries makes batteries less affordable. Therefore, this paper will attempt to size the capacity of CHP and optimise daily energy costs for a domestic building with only CHP installed. In this paper, electricity ...

  6. Open-wheel race car driving: energy cost for pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, Bruno; Durand, Sylvain; Mariot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy cost of speedway open-wheel race car driving using actimetry. Eight pilot students participated in a training session consisting of 5 successive bouts of around 30 minutes driving at steady speed on the Bugatti speedway of Le Mans (France). Energy expenditure (EE, kcal) was determined continuously by the actimetric method using the standard equation. Energy cost was estimated through physical activity ratio (PAR = EE/BMR ratio, Mets) calculation after basal metabolism rate (BMR, kcal·min-1) estimation. A 1-met PAR value was attributed to the individual BMR of each volunteer. Bout durations and EE were not significantly different between driving bouts. Mean speed was 139.94 ± 2.96 km·h-1. Physical activity ratio values ranged 4.92 ± 0.50 to 5.43 ± 0.47 Mets, corresponding to a 5.27 ± 0.47-Mets mean PAR values and a 1.21 ± 0.41 kcal·min-1 mean BMR value. These results suggest that actimetry is a simple and efficient method for EE and PAR measurements in motor sports. However, further studies are needed in the future to accurately evaluate relationships between PAR and driving intensity or between PAR and race car type.

  7. Social costs of energy. Present status and future trends. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.; Ottinger, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The social or external costs of energy have received a high degree of internatinal attention since the publication of the first empirical results in 1988. Possible global climate change and the call for a sustainable future of mankind have put the question of social costs onto the agenda of many national and international converences like the 'Earth Summit' in Rio 1992. A scientific discussion has been sparked off, searching for the best methodoligical approaches and reliable empirical data. An overview of this discussion was given by the report on the 1st international workshop published in 1991. This book reports on the 2nd international workshop on the subject and gives a broad overview of the discussion in the 25 papers presented. It is the most comprehensive picture of this subject matter avvailable. (orig.)

  8. Cost analysis of low energy electron accelerator for film curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Low energy electron accelerators are recognized as one of the advanced curing means of converting processes for films and papers. In the last three years the price of the accelerator equipment has been greatly reduced. The targeted application areas are mainly processes of curing inks, coatings, and adhesives to make packaging materials. The operating cost analyses were made for electron beam (EB) processes over the conventional ones without EB. Then three new proposals for cost reduction of EB processes are introduced. Also being developed are new EB chemistries such as coatings, laminating adhesives and inks. EB processes give instantaneous cure and EB chemistries are basically non solvent causing less VOC emission to the environment. These developments of both equipment and chemistries might have a potential to change conventional packaging film industries. (author)

  9. Costs and results of federal incentives for commercial nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, R.H.; Wendling, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper (1) estimates the total costs of federal expenditures in support of incentives for the development of commercial nuclear energy through 1988, and (2) analyzes the results and benefits to the nation of this federal investment. The federal incentives analyzed include research and development, regulation of commercial nuclear energy, tax incentives, waste management and disposal, enrichment plants, liability insurance, the uranium mining industry, and all other federal support activities. The authors estimate that net federal incentives totaled about $45-50 billion (1988 dollars). They estimate the results of the federal incentives, focusing on six categories, namely, electric energy produced, the total (direct plus indirect) economic benefits of the industry created, R and D program benefits, value of energy imports displaced, environmental effects, and health, safety, and risk effects. The results total $1.9 trillion, with approximately $250-300 billion identified as net benefits. The authors conclude that the high return on the investment justified federal incentives for nuclear energy development over the past four decades and that the federal government and the nation have received a significant return on the incentives investment

  10. A new energy paradigm for Turkey: A political risk-inclusive cost analysis for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksay, Serhan; Iseri, Emre

    2011-01-01

    Implementing sustainable development policies in order to achieve economic and social development while maintaining adequate environmental protection to minimize the damage inflicted by the constantly increasing world population must be a major priority in the 21st century. While the emerging global debate on potential cost-effective responses has produced potential solutions such as cap and trade systems and/or carbon taxes as part of evolving sustainable energy/environmental policies, this kind of intellectual inquiry does not seem to be an issue among Turkish policy-making elites. This is mainly due to their miscalculation that pursuing sustainable energy policies is much more expensive in comparison to the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas. Nevertheless, the pegged prices of an energy sector dominated by natural gas are illusive, as both the political risks and environmental damage have not been incorporated into the current cost calculations. This paper evaluates energy policies through a lens of risk management and takes an alternative approach to calculating energy costs by factoring in political risks. This formulation reveals that the cost of traditional fossil-based energy is in fact more expensive than renewable energy. In addition to being environmentally friendly, the paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies would provide Turkey with a significant opportunity to stimulate its economy by being one of the first countries to develop green technologies and as a result this burgeoning sector would prompt job creation as well; mainly due to the externalities. - Research highlights: → This paper evaluates Turkish energy policies through risk management scope and takes an alternative approach on calculating electricity costs by factoring in political risks. → The cost of traditional fossil-based energy turns out to be more expensive than renewable energy. → The paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies could provide Turkey

  11. A new energy paradigm for Turkey: A political risk-inclusive cost analysis for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksay, Serhan, E-mail: serhano@khas.edu.t [Kadir Has University, Department of Business Administration (Turkey); Iseri, Emre, E-mail: eiseri@khas.edu.t [Kadir Has University, Department of International Relations, Cibali Campus, Kadir Has Caddesi 34083, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Implementing sustainable development policies in order to achieve economic and social development while maintaining adequate environmental protection to minimize the damage inflicted by the constantly increasing world population must be a major priority in the 21st century. While the emerging global debate on potential cost-effective responses has produced potential solutions such as cap and trade systems and/or carbon taxes as part of evolving sustainable energy/environmental policies, this kind of intellectual inquiry does not seem to be an issue among Turkish policy-making elites. This is mainly due to their miscalculation that pursuing sustainable energy policies is much more expensive in comparison to the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas. Nevertheless, the pegged prices of an energy sector dominated by natural gas are illusive, as both the political risks and environmental damage have not been incorporated into the current cost calculations. This paper evaluates energy policies through a lens of risk management and takes an alternative approach to calculating energy costs by factoring in political risks. This formulation reveals that the cost of traditional fossil-based energy is in fact more expensive than renewable energy. In addition to being environmentally friendly, the paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies would provide Turkey with a significant opportunity to stimulate its economy by being one of the first countries to develop green technologies and as a result this burgeoning sector would prompt job creation as well; mainly due to the externalities. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper evaluates Turkish energy policies through risk management scope and takes an alternative approach on calculating electricity costs by factoring in political risks. {yields} The cost of traditional fossil-based energy turns out to be more expensive than renewable energy. {yields} The paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies could

  12. South Korean energy scenarios show how nuclear power can reduce future energy and environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is an important case study for understanding the future role of nuclear power in countries with on-going economic growth, and limited renewable energy resources. We compared quantitatively the sustainability of two ‘future-mapping’ exercises (the ‘Governmental’ scenario, which relies on fossil fuels, and the Greenpeace scenario, which emphasises renewable energy and excludes nuclear power). The comparison was based on a range of environmental and technological perspectives, and contrasted against two additional nuclear scenarios that instead envisage a dominant role for nuclear energy. Sustainability metrics included energy costs, external costs (greenhouse-gas emissions, air pollutants, land transformation, water consumption and discharge, and safety) and additional costs. The nuclear-centred scenarios yielded the lowest total cost per unit of final energy consumption by 2050 ($14.37 GJ −1 ), whereas the Greenpeace scenario has the highest ($25.36 GJ −1 ). We used probabilistic simulations based on multi-factor distributional sampling of impact and cost metrics to estimate the overlapping likelihoods among scenarios to understand the effect of parameter uncertainty on the integrated recommendations. Our simulation modelling implies that, despite inherent uncertainties, pursuing a large-scale expansion of nuclear-power capacity offers the most sustainable pathway for South Korea, and that adopting a nuclear-free pathway will be more costly and produce more greenhouse-gas emissions. - Highlights: • Nuclear power has a key role to play in mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions. • The Greenpeace scenario has higher total external cost than the nuclear scenarios. • The nuclear-centred scenarios offer the most sustainable option for South Korea. • The similar conclusions are likely to apply to other Asian countries

  13. Atmospheric and geological CO2 damage costs in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.E.L.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2006-05-01

    Geological carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is currently seriously considered for addressing, in the near term, the problem of climate change. CCS technology is available today and is expected to become an increasingly affordable CO2 abatement alternative. Whereas the rapidly growing scientific literature on CCS as well as experimental and commercial practice demonstrate the technological and economic feasibility of implementing this clean fossil fuel option on a large scale, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the risks and environmental externalities of geological storage of CO2. This paper assesses the effects of including CCS damage costs in a long-term energy scenario analysis for Europe. An external cost sensitivity analysis is performed with a bottom-up energy technology model that accounts not only for CCS technologies but also for their external costs. Our main conclusion is that in a business-as-usual scenario (i.e. without climate change intervention or externality internalisation), CCS technologies are likely to be deployed at least to some extent, mainly in the power generation sector, given the economic benefits of opportunities such as enhanced coal bed methane, oil and gas recovery. Under a strict climate (CO2 emissions) constraint, CCS technologies are deployed massively. With the simultaneous introduction of both CO2 and CCS taxation in the power sector, designed to internalise the external atmospheric and geological effects of CO2 emissions and storage, respectively, we find that CCS will only be developed if the climate change damage costs are at least of the order of 100 euro/t CO2 or the CO2 storage damage costs not more than a few euro/t CO2. When the internalised climate change damage costs are as high as 67 euro/t CO2, the expensive application of CCS to biomass-fuelled power plants (with negative net CO2 emissions) proves the most effective CCS alternative to reduce CO2 emissions, rather than CCS applied to fossil

  14. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  15. Least cost energy services for Australia: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Australian electricity industry is in the process of major structural reforms, the most significant of its 100 year history. The industry is being separated into generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply businesses. Competition will be introduced to the wholesale (generation) and retail supply markets. The remaining monopoly elements of the industry, the networks and retail franchise businesses, will be regulated. This report considers a range of mechanisms to incorporate integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand management (DM) into the proposed competitive electricity markets in Australia. The mechanisms are analysed in terms of international experience and their application in the reformed Australian energy sector. The advantages and disadvantages of a range of mechanisms are discussed in relation to achieving a least cost energy services outcome, pricing reforms, regulation of utilities, and other DM activities outside the utilities. The paper concludes with recommendations for a national approach to DM and IRP in the electricity sector. (author). 22 tabs.

  16. Discount rates for social cost benefit analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question that this paper addresses is how decisions affecting many citizens should be made when there are uncertain outcomes in the distant future. By distant is meant beyond the lifetimes of individuals alive now. Thus the proposed methodology would apply to many decisions in nuclear energy from the investment in new energy sources such as fusion, to the long-term storage of wastes. Decisions of this type have usually been analyzed using cost benefit analysis. In this case, future outcomes are discounted at the so-called social discount rate. By comparison, the proposed methodology uses information on individual citizen's preferences and willingness to pay to make a future generation better off. The connection between the proposed approach and more traditional discounting techniques is examined using the government decision about storing helium for the future as an example

  17. Burden of paediatric respiratory syncytial virus disease and potential effect of different immunisation strategies: a modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Deborah; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Newall, Anthony T; Pollard, Andrew J; Jit, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Vaccines and prophylactic antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are in development and likely to be available in the next 5-10 years. The most efficient way to use these products when they become available is an important consideration for public health decision makers. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the burden of RSV in children younger than 5 years in England (UK), a representative high-income temperate country, and used these results to assess the potential effect of different RSV immunisation strategies (targeting vaccination for infants, or pregnant women, or prophylactic antibodies for neonates). We did a cost-effectiveness analysis for these strategies, implemented either separately or concurrently, and assessed the effect of restricting vaccination to certain months of the year. We estimated that RSV is responsible for 12 primary care consultations (95% CI 11·9-12·1) and 0·9 admissions to hospital annually per 100 children younger than 5 years (95% CI 0·89-0·90), with the major burden occurring in infants younger than 6 months. The most cost-effective strategy was to selectively immunise all children born before the start of the RSV season (maximum price of £220 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 208-232] per vaccine, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life-year). The maximum price per fully protected person that should be paid for the infant, newborn, and maternal strategies without seasonal restrictions was £192 (95% UI 168-219), £81 (76-86), and £54 (51-57), respectively. Nearly double the number of primary care consultations, and nearly five times the number of admissions to hospital occurred with RSV compared with influenza. RSV vaccine and antibody strategies are likely to be cost-effective if they can be priced below around £200 per fully protected person. A seasonal vaccination strategy is likely to provide the most direct benefits. Herd effects might

  18. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  19. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  20. Geographic variation in fee-for-service medicare beneficiaries' medical costs is largely explained by disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James D; Hadley, Jack; Romano, Patrick S

    2013-10-01

    Control for area differences in population health (casemix adjustment) is necessary to measure geographic variations in medical spending. Studies use various casemix adjustment methods, resulting in very different geographic variation estimates. We study casemix adjustment methodological issues and evaluate alternative approaches using claims from 1.6 million Medicare beneficiaries in 60 representative communities. Two key casemix adjustment methods-controlling for patient conditions obtained from diagnoses on claims and expenditures of those at the end of life-were evaluated. We failed to find evidence of bias in the former approach attributable to area differences in physician diagnostic patterns, as others have found, and found that the assumption underpinning the latter approach-that persons close to death are equally sick across areas-cannot be supported. Diagnosis-based approaches are more appropriate when current rather than prior year diagnoses are used. Population health likely explains more than 75% to 85% of cost variations across fixed sets of areas.

  1. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Manne, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    National energy policy requires realistic totaling of costs in assessing energy alternatives. The Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division (BEAD) at Brookhaven is estimating biomedical and environmental costs of energy production and use. All forms of energy, including new technologies, are being considered. Beginning with a compilation of pollutants from the energy system, the various paths to man are traced and health effects evaluated. Excess mortality and morbidity in the U.S. attributable to a total fuel cycle to produce 6.6x10 9 kwh - about a year's production of a 1000-MWe power plant - are being estimated. Where enough information is available, estimates are quantitative. In some instances only the nature of the potential hazard can be described. This assessment aims at providing initial estimates of relative impacts to identify where the important health hazards in each fuel cycle arise, thereby identifying key areas for judging the total costs of alternative energy sources, and those areas of research likely to improve the accuracy of the estimates. It was thus estimated that the production of electric power from all sources in the U.S. in 1975 was associated with between two to nineteen thousand deaths and twenty-nine to fourty-eight thousand disabilities; this is roughly between 0.2 and 2% of total deaths in U.S. ages 1-74. The estimated health effects associated with a total fuel cycle standardized to produce 10 10 kwh electric power were: from coal estimated deaths 20-200, estimated disabilities 300-500; from oil estimated deaths 3-150, estimated disabilities 150-300; from gas estimated deaths 0.2, estimated disabilities 20; from nuclear estimated deaths 1-3, estimated disabilities 8-30. The differences in the year 2000 between health impacts of the U.S. energy system under normal growth expectations and under conditions of a nuclear moratorium were estimated. On the assumption that the nuclear moratorium would require 320 additional 1000-MWe

  2. Wind energy - The facts. Vol. 2: Costs and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    From a European, as well as a global perspective, wind power is undergoing rapid development. Within the past 10 years the global installed capacity of wind power has increased from approximately 2.5 GW in 1992 to a little below 40 GW at the end of 2003, with an annual growth rate of around 30%. However, only at few sites with high wind speeds can wind power compete economically with conventional power production at present. This section focuses on the cost structures of a wind power plant, including the lifetime of the turbine and operation and maintenance costs. Finally, it analyses how the costs of wind power have developed in previous years and how they are expected to develop in the near future. Wind power is used in a number of different applications, including both grid connected and stand-alone electricity production, as well as water pumping. This section analyses the economics of wind energy primarily in relation to grid connected turbines which account for the vast bulk of the market value of installed turbines. (au)

  3. Environmental damage costs in Iran by the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-Pour, Majid; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the energy supply and demand, this paper assesses the environmental damage from air pollution in Iran using the Extern-E study that has extended over 10 years and is still in progress in the European Union (EU) commission. Damage costs were transferred from Western European practice to the conditions of Iran by scaling according to GDP per capital measured in PPP terms. Using this approach, the total health damage from air pollution in 2001 is assessed at about $7 billion; equivalent to 8.4% of nominal GDP. In the absence of price reform and control policies, it is estimated that damage in Iran will grow to $9 billion by 2019, in the money of 2001. This is equivalent to 10.9% of nominal GDP, i.e. a larger percentage of a larger GDP. Of this total, $8.4 billion comes from the transport sector. The damage cost to the global environment from the flaring of natural gas, assessed on the basis of a carbon price of $10/ton CO 2 and found to be approximately $600 million per year. This is equal to a little less than 1% of current GDP. There are larger costs associated with recovery and use of such gas, but equally there are large potential benefits

  4. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  5. The German energy audit program for firms. A cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleiter, T.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Str. 48, 76139, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruber, E. [Institute for Resource Efficiency and Energy Strategies IREES GmbH, Schoenfeldstr. 8, 76131, Karlsruhe (Germany); Worrell, E. [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We evaluate the program's impact in terms of energy savings, CO2 mitigation, and cost-effectiveness. We find that firms adopt 1.7-2.9 energy efficiency measures, which they would not have adopted without the program. Taking a firm's perspective, the program shows a net present value ranging from -0.4 to 6 euro/MWh saved, which very likely implies a net benefit. For the government, each ton of CO2 mitigated costs between 1.8 and 4.1 euro. Each euro of public expenditure on audit grants led to 17-33 euro of private investment. The cost-effectiveness of the program for firms and the low share of public expenditure underline its value for the German energy efficiency policy mix and suggest that it should be expanded in Germany. Further, the good experiences with the program in Germany should encourage countries which have not yet established an audit program to do so.

  6. The epidemiology, healthcare and societal burden and costs of asthma in the UK and its member nations: analyses of standalone and linked national databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mome; Stoddart, Andrew; Gupta, Ramyani P; Nwaru, Bright I; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Aftab, Chantelle; Simpson, Colin R; Lyons, Ronan A; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael D; Phillips, Ceri J; Strachan, David P; Davies, Gwyneth A; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-08-29

    There are a lack of reliable data on the epidemiology and associated burden and costs of asthma. We sought to provide the first UK-wide estimates of the epidemiology, healthcare utilisation and costs of asthma. We obtained and analysed asthma-relevant data from 27 datasets: these comprised national health surveys for 2010-11, and routine administrative, health and social care datasets for 2011-12; 2011-12 costs were estimated in pounds sterling using economic modelling. The prevalence of asthma depended on the definition and data source used. The UK lifetime prevalence of patient-reported symptoms suggestive of asthma was 29.5 % (95 % CI, 27.7-31.3; n = 18.5 million (m) people) and 15.6 % (14.3-16.9, n = 9.8 m) for patient-reported clinician-diagnosed asthma. The annual prevalence of patient-reported clinician-diagnosed-and-treated asthma was 9.6 % (8.9-10.3, n = 6.0 m) and of clinician-reported, diagnosed-and-treated asthma 5.7 % (5.7-5.7; n = 3.6 m). Asthma resulted in at least 6.3 m primary care consultations, 93,000 hospital in-patient episodes, 1800 intensive-care unit episodes and 36,800 disability living allowance claims. The costs of asthma were estimated at least £1.1 billion: 74 % of these costs were for provision of primary care services (60 % prescribing, 14 % consultations), 13 % for disability claims, and 12 % for hospital care. There were 1160 asthma deaths. Asthma is very common and is responsible for considerable morbidity, healthcare utilisation and financial costs to the UK public sector. Greater policy focus on primary care provision is needed to reduce the risk of asthma exacerbations, hospitalisations and deaths, and reduce costs.

  7. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  8. Comparative environmental effects and cost analysis between conventional and non-conventional energy sources - A case for objective analysis and decision making in Nigeria's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinbami, J. F. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy, which is simply 'ability to do work' is the central cross-sectoral issue which affects all human activities either directly or indirectly. It is a vital input to economic growth and development of any economy, developing or developed. However, as there are two sides to a coin, so is the issue of energy use. While it contributes to the economic growth and development of a nation, its usage has with it attendant environmental consequences. At every stage along the chain, from resource delineation and extraction, through conversion, transportation, and end-use, the energy industry faces environmental challenges. Each of these stages and even the associated environmental burdens is not without a cost. This paper therefore sets out to review and compare the environmental effects as well as the cost analysis of both the conventional and non-conventional energy resources generally and with particular emphasis on Nigeria. This hopefully should then inform the citizenry in their drive for energy consumption as well as the nation's planners and decision makers in their efforts at adequate energy planning and management for both economic and environmental sustainability in the country

  9. China’s regional industrial energy efficiency and carbon emissions abatement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    ) The Chinese major cities could have, on average, an approximately 19% or 17% efficiency increase on energy utilization or CO 2 emissions during 2006–2010. (v) Promoting the industrial energy utilization efficiency is comparatively more crucial for Chinese cities at the current stage, and the efficiency promotion burdens on the west area cities are the heaviest among all Chinese cities. (vi) An N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) exists between the level of industrial CO 2 emissions efficiency and income, and the inflection point the EKC is located between 12,052 and 12,341 US$ of GDP per capita, indicating that an accelerated CO 2 emissions efficiency increase will accrue when this income level is reached. (vii) In 2010, the industrial total energy saving and CO 2 emissions reduction potentials for Chinese major cities were 41 million tce and 143 million tCO 2 , respectively. (viii) The average industrial CO 2 emissions abatement cost for Chinese major cities is 45 US$ during 2006–2010, and the existence of large gap on CO 2 shadow prices between different Chinese regions provide a necessity and possibility for establishing a regional carbon emissions trading system in China

  10. Disease burden and costs from excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis: fourth report of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Alexander, Graeme; Armstrong, Iain; Baker, Alastair; Bhala, Neeraj; Camps-Walsh, Ginny; Cramp, Matthew E; de Lusignan, Simon; Day, Natalie; Dhawan, Anil; Dillon, John; Drummond, Colin; Dyson, Jessica; Foster, Graham; Gilmore, Ian; Hudson, Mark; Kelly, Deirdre; Langford, Andrew; McDougall, Neil; Meier, Petra; Moriarty, Kieran; Newsome, Philip; O'Grady, John; Pryke, Rachel; Rolfe, Liz; Rice, Peter; Rutter, Harry; Sheron, Nick; Taylor, Alison; Thompson, Jeremy; Thorburn, Douglas; Verne, Julia; Wass, John; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-03-17

    This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost. The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, affecting more than 60% of adults in the UK, is leading to an increasing liver disease burden. Favourable responses by industry to the UK Government's soft drinks industry levy have been seen, but the government cannot continue to ignore the number of adults being affected by diabetes, hypertension, and liver disease. New direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection have reduced mortality and the number of patients requiring liver transplantation, but more screening campaigns are needed for identification of infected people in high-risk migrant communities, prisons, and addiction centres. Provision of care continues to be worst in regions with the greatest socioeconomic deprivation, and deficiencies exist in training programmes in hepatology for specialist registrars. Firm guidance is needed for primary care on the use of liver blood tests in detection of early disease and the need for specialist referral. This report also brings together all the evidence on costs to the National Health Service and wider society, in addition to the loss of tax revenue, with alcohol misuse in England and Wales costing £21 billion a year (possibly up to £52 billion) and obesity costing £27 billion a year (treasury estimates are as high as £46 billion). Voluntary restraints by the food and drinks industry have had little effect on

  11. Report on estimated nuclear energy related cost for fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report first describes major actions planned to be taken in Japan in fiscal 1991 in the field of nuclear energy utilization. Major activities to be made for comprehensive strengthening of safety assurance measures are described, focusing on improvement of nuclear energy related safety regulations, promotion of research for safety assurance, improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures, environmental radioactivity surveys, control of exposure of workers engaged in radioactivity related jobs, etc. The report then describes actions required for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the procurement of uranium resources, establishment of a uranium enrichment process, reprocessing of spent fuel, application of recovered uranium, etc. Other activities are required for the development of new type reactors, effective application of plutonium, development of basic techniques, international contributions, cooperation with the public. Then, the report summarizes estimated costs required for the activities to be performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. (N.K.)

  12. Main influence factors on the final energy generation cost of a nuclear power plant in comparison with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de; Glardon, C.; Schmidt, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The main factors in the construction and in the operation of nuclear power plants that affect the final energy generation cost are presented. The structure of the energy generation cost, of the nuclear fuel cost and the total investment are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  14. Energy information. Status, cost, and need for energy, consumption and fuel switching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Hale, Richard A.; Weaver, Joanne E.; D'Amico, Nicholas C.

    1989-04-01

    In 1986, EIA's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey collected calendar year 1985 fuel switching and energy consumption information from a sample of manufacturers. Although the construction, agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry segments of the industrial sector were not surveyed, in 1985 the manufacturing segment accounted for about 75 to 80 percent of the total energy consumed in the industrial sector. The results of the energy consumption segment of the survey were published in November 1988, and the results of the fuel switching segment were published in December 1988. In 1989, EIA will conduct the second triennial survey, collecting energy consumption and fuel switching data for 1988. EIA estimated that the cost of the survey to the U.S. government, consisting of EIA and Census Bureau costs to design and conduct the survey, was about $1.8 million (in 1988 dollars) and that the cost to the manufacturers participating in the survey was more than $4 million (in 1988 dollars). According to EIA's justification to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for the survey, most of the potential users of the survey data were federal offices. Officials of seven of the eight federal offices we contacted indicated various uses for the energy consumption data, such as updating the national input-output tables and energy accounts, analyzing the competitiveness of U.S. industries, and doing energy emergency contingency planning. Officials of five of the eight federal offices indicated uses for the fuel switching data and most frequently cited its use for contingency planning for emergencies or supply disruptions. EIA's justification to OMB also identified 17 states as potential users, but officials of the 3 state offices that we contacted told us that the EIA data would not be useful because it cannot be summarized for individual states

  15. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  16. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... intends to calculate three metrics. Life-cycle cost. Simple payback period. Cash flow. Life-cycle cost... exceed costs) will be considered cost effective. The payback period and cash flow analyses provide... of LCC analysis is the summing of costs and benefits over multiple years, it requires that cash flows...

  17. Smart campus: Data on energy generation costs from distributed generation systems of electrical energy in a Nigerian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Okeniyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents comparisons of energy generation costs from gas-fired turbine and diesel-powered systems of distributed generation type of electrical energy in Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, a smart university campus driven by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Cumulative monthly data of the energy generation costs, for consumption in the institution, from the two modes electric power, which was produced at locations closed to the community consuming the energy, were recorded for the period spanning January to December 2017. By these, energy generation costs from the turbine system proceed from the gas-firing whereas the generation cost data from the diesel-powered generator also include data on maintenance cost for this mode of electrical power generation. These energy generation cost data that were presented in tables and graphs employ descriptive probability distribution and goodness-of-fit tests of statistical significance as the methods for the data detailing and comparisons. Information details from this data of energy generation costs are useful for furthering research developments and aiding energy stakeholders and decision-makers in the formulation of policies on energy generation modes, economic valuation in terms of costing and management for attaining energy-efficient/smart educational environment. Keywords: Smart campus, Energy consumption, Energy efficiency, Load forecasting, Energy management, Learning analytics, Nigerian university, Education data mining

  18. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  19. Sound stabilizes locomotor-respiratory coupling and reduces energy cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A natural synchronization between locomotor and respiratory systems is known to exist for various species and various forms of locomotion. This Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC is fundamental for the energy transfer between the two subsystems during long duration exercise and originates from mechanical and neurological interactions. Different methodologies have been used to compute LRC, giving rise to various and often diverging results in terms of synchronization, (de-stabilization via information, and associated energy cost. In this article, the theory of nonlinear-coupled oscillators was adopted to characterize LRC, through the model of the sine circle map, and tested it in the context of cycling. Our specific focus was the sound-induced stabilization of LRC and its associated change in energy consumption. In our experimental study, participants were instructed during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus whose rhythm corresponded to their individual preferential breathing or cycling frequencies. Results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure with auditory stimulation, accompanied by a stabilization of LRC. The sound-induced effect was asymmetrical, with a better stabilizing influence of the metronome on the locomotor system than on the respiratory system. A modification of the respiratory frequency was indeed observed when participants cycled in synchrony with the tone, leading to a transition toward more stable frequency ratios as predicted by the sine circle map. In addition to the classical mechanical and neurological origins of LRC, here we demonstrated using the sine circle map model that information plays an important modulatory role of the synchronization, and has global energetic consequences.

  20. Mind your step: Energy cost while walking at an enforced gait pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, D.; de Haan, A.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.; Houdijk, J.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    The energy cost of walking could be attributed to energy related to the walking movement and energy related to balance control. In order to differentiate between both components we investigated the energy cost of walking an enforced step pattern, thereby perturbing balance while the walking movement

  1. Mind your step: metabolic energy cost while walking an enforced gait pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, D.; de Haan, A.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Houdijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    The energy cost of walking could be attributed to energy related to the walking movement and energy related to balance control. In order to differentiate between both components we investigated the energy cost of walking an enforced step pattern, thereby perturbing balance while the walking movement

  2. Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK: Cost competitiveness and the importance of 'banded' Renewables Obligation Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant; Gilmartin, Michelle; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, publicly available cost data are used to calculate the private levelised costs of two marine energy technologies for UK electricity generation: Wave and Tidal Stream power. These estimates are compared to those for ten other electricity generation technologies whose costs were identified by the UK Government (). Under plausible assumptions for costs and performance, point estimates of the levelised costs of Wave and Tidal Stream generation are Pounds 190 and Pounds 81/MWh, respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows how these relative private levelised costs calculations are affected by variation in key parameters, specifically the assumed capital costs, fuel costs and the discount rate. We also consider the impact of the introduction of technology-differentiated financial support for renewable energy on the cost competitiveness of Wave and Tidal Stream power. Further, we compare the impact of the current UK government support level to the more generous degree of assistance for marine technologies that is proposed by the Scottish government. - Research highlights: → Levelised costs of electricity generation from wave and tidal stream in UK calculated. → Comparison to ten renewable and non-renewable technologies demonstrated. → Sensitivity of levelised costs to key assumptions is demonstrated. → Technology-specific financial support revealed to be insufficient at current costs.

  3. Electrical energy and cost for the mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, G.

    1983-01-01

    An operational scenario has been developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) based on the System Requirements, our experience with existing systems, and discussions with the project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to predict the amount of electrical energy needed for running the facility. A generic type listing is included for the equipment considered in each system. A figure shows the anticipated power drain during a five-minute shot sequence from the 115-kV substation, and from the 230-kV and direct feed substations. At this time, the three major substations that will be used for the MFTF-B are billed under three different rate schedules. A table lists these schedules and what they are anticipated as being when the facility becomes operational. The system availability, which is expected to be 0.7 or better, has not been factored into these calculations. This gives a worst case cost for the MFTF-B. Based on this study, it appears that our energy bill will be over $500 000 per month, on the average. This expenditure will constitute a significant portion of the budget needed to operate the MFTF-B. As the systems are refined, and a more accurate picture is obtained as to the size and operational cycles of the equipment, this report will be updated

  4. Least-cost model predictive control of residential energy resources when applying ?mCHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Heijnen, P.W.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2007-01-01

    With an increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which households manage their own energy generation and consumption,

  5. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  6. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  7. Development of concepts for low-cost energy storage assemblies for annual cycle energy system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G. H.; Cooper, D. L.; Cummings, C. A.; Reiber, E. E.

    1981-10-01

    Low cost energy storage assemblies were developed. In the search for low overall cost assemblies, many diverse concepts and materials were postulated and briefly evaluated. Cost rankings, descriptions, and discussions of the concepts were presented from which ORNL selected the following three concepts for the Phase 2 development: (1) a site constructed tank with reinforced concrete walls formed with specialized modular blocks which eliminates most concrete form work and provides integral R-20 insulation designated ORNLFF; (2) a site constructed tank with earth supported walls that are formed from elements common to residential, in-ground swimming pools, designated SWPL; (3) and a site assembled tank used in underground utility vaults, designated UTLBX. Detailed designs of free standing versions of the three concepts are presented.

  8. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  9. Smart campus: Data on energy generation costs from distributed generation systems of electrical energy in a Nigerian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua O; Atayero, Aderemi A; Popoola, Segun I; Okeniyi, Elizabeth T; Alalade, Gbenga M

    2018-04-01

    This data article presents comparisons of energy generation costs from gas-fired turbine and diesel-powered systems of distributed generation type of electrical energy in Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, a smart university campus driven by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Cumulative monthly data of the energy generation costs, for consumption in the institution, from the two modes electric power, which was produced at locations closed to the community consuming the energy, were recorded for the period spanning January to December 2017. By these, energy generation costs from the turbine system proceed from the gas-firing whereas the generation cost data from the diesel-powered generator also include data on maintenance cost for this mode of electrical power generation. These energy generation cost data that were presented in tables and graphs employ descriptive probability distribution and goodness-of-fit tests of statistical significance as the methods for the data detailing and comparisons. Information details from this data of energy generation costs are useful for furthering research developments and aiding energy stakeholders and decision-makers in the formulation of policies on energy generation modes, economic valuation in terms of costing and management for attaining energy-efficient/smart educational environment.

  10. Energy and Protein Intake, Anthropometrics, and Disease Burden in Elderly Home-care Receivers--A Cross-sectional Study in Germany (ErnSIPP Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlhausen, S; Uhlig, K; Kiesswetter, E; Diekmann, R; Heseker, H; Volkert, D; Stehle, P; Lesser, S

    2016-03-01

    To date, no study has examined the nutritional status and disease burden of elderly home-care receivers living in Germany. Aim of this cross-sectional study was, first, to assess disease burden and nutritional status, denoted in anthropometrics, and, second, to investigate associations between anthropometrics and disease burden. Cross-sectional multi-centre study. Home-care receivers living in three urban areas of Germany in 2010. 353 elderly (>64 years) in home care (128 males aged 79.1 ±7.8 years, 225 females aged 82.0 ±7.5 years). Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and calf circumference (CC). Medical conditions were assessed in personal interviews. A 3-day prospective nutrition diary was kept. Metric data are reported as mean±SD or median (interquartile range), pChewing problems were reported for 52% of study participants, and more than one quarter of elderly had swallowing problems. Daily mean energy intake was 2017±528 kcal in men (n=123) and 1731±451 kcal in women (n=216; pchewing and swallowing problems. We recommend to pay special attention to the nutritional status of elderly persons in home-care exhibiting named disease burden.

  11. The Energy Cost of Running with the Ball in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Atmatzidis, Charalampos; Merni, Franco; Di Michele, Rocco

    2017-11-01

    Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver. The EC measured with indirect calorimetry was higher in running with the ball (4.60±0.42 J/kg/m) than in normal running (4.19±0.33 J/kg/m), with a very likely moderate difference between conditions. Instead, a likely small difference was observed between conditions for EC estimated from GPS data (4.87±0.07 vs. 4.83±0.08 J/kg/m). This study sheds light on the energy expenditure of playing soccer, providing relevant data about the EC of a typical soccer-specific activity. These findings may be a reference for coaches to precisely determine the training load in drills with the ball, such as soccer-specific circuits or small-sided games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Cost and performance of coal-based energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temchin, J.; DeLallo, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to establish the strategic benefits of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT), there is a need to evaluate the specific market potential where coal is a viable option. One such market is Brazil, where significant growth in economic development requires innovative and reliable technologies to support the use of domestic coal. While coal is Brazil's most abundant and economic fossil energy resource, it is presently under utilized in the production of electrical power. This report presents conceptual design for pulverized coal (PC) and circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) options with resulting capital, operating and financial parameters based on Brazil application conditions. Recent PC and CFBC plant capital costs have dropped with competition in the generation market and have established a competitive position in power generation. Key issues addressed in this study include: Application of market based design approach for FBC and PC, which is competitive within the current domestic, and international power generation markets. Design, fabrication, purchase, and construction methods which reduce capital investment while maintaining equipment quality and plant availability. Impact on coast and performance from application of Brazilian coals, foreign trade and tax policies, construction logistics, and labor requirements. Nominal production values of 200 MWe and 400 MWe were selected for the CFBC power plant and 400 MWe for the PC. The 400 MWe size was chosen to be consistent with the two largest Brazilian PC units. Fluidized bed technology, with limited experience in single units over 200 MW, would consist of two 200 MWe circulating fluidized bed boilers supplying steam to one steam turbine for the 400 MWe capacity. A 200 MWe capacity unit was also developed for CFBC option to support opportunities in re-powering and where specific site or other infrastructure constraints limit production

  13. Costs and profitability of renewable energies in metropolitan France - ground-based wind energy, biomass, solar photovoltaic. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    After a general presentation of the framework of support to renewable energies and co-generation (purchasing obligation, tendering, support funding), of the missions of the CRE (Commission for Energy Regulation) within the frame of the purchasing obligation, and of the methodology adopted for this analysis, this document reports an analysis of production costs for three different renewable energy sectors: ground-based wind energy, biomass energy, and solar photovoltaic energy. For each of them, the report recalls the context (conditions of purchasing obligation, winning bid installations, installed fleet in France at the end of 2012), indicates the installations taken into consideration in this study, analyses the installation costs and funding (investment costs, exploitation and maintenance costs, project funding, production costs), and assesses the profitability in terms of capital and for stakeholders

  14. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cost indexes? 591.220 Section 591.220 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM...

  15. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources; Was Strom wirklich kostet. Vergleich der staatlichen Foerderungen und gesamtgesellschaftlichen Kosten konventioneller und erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-07-01

    subsidisation and external costs are often not considered in the price of conventional energy resources but ultimately have to be paid nonetheless, be it the form of tax payments, the social costs of the climate change or of other burdens on humans and the environment. The study furnishes proof that the EEG reallocation charge levied for the promotion of renewable energy (3.59 cents per kWh in 2012) represents a far smaller cost burden than do conventional energy resources, and that it will remain so even if it raised substantially in the future to finance the conversion to a more climate-friendly, sustainable energy supply. Contrary to popular belief, renewable energy resources are not the big cost driving factor in our power supply system but rather a replacement of energy resources that are causing far greater consequential costs for tax payers and society as a whole. If power supply companies were made to include these additional costs of electricity production in their cost calculations, most renewable energy resources would already be competitive today.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of solar energy in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, S.; Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Haller, A.; Ochs, M.; Keller, L.

    2005-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined the potentials and restraints with respect to the use of solar energy in the new construction and refurbishment of residential buildings in Switzerland. The method used is based on a 'learning-curve' technique. The first part of the report deals with the development of prices for solar-collector installations from 1990 until now. The second part deals with today's costs and future developments up to the year 2030. A reference building is used as the basis for the comparison of eight system variants. A further eight variants combine solar technology with traditional heating installations such as oil, gas and wood boilers and heat-pumps. Scenarios for the market situation for solar energy in 2030 are discussed

  17. Exergy costing for energy saving in combined heating and cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian T.; Willatzen, Morten; Andersen, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the basis for cost apportioning of simultaneous heating and cooling. • Two thermoeconomic methods based on energy and exergy costing is demonstrated. • The unit cost of heating and cooling for a heat pump system is found and compared. • Energy costing may obstruct efficient use of energy. • Exergy costing provides the most rational cost apportioning for energy saving. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a price model that motivates energy saving for a combined district heating and cooling system. A novel analysis using two thermoeconomic methods for apportioning the costs to heating and cooling provided simultaneously by an ammonia heat pump is demonstrated. In the first method, referred to as energy costing, a conventional thermoeconomic analysis is used. Here the ammonia heat pump is subject to a thermodynamic analysis with mass and energy balance equations. In the second method referred to as exergy costing, an exergy based economic analysis is used, where exergy balance equations are used in conjunction with mass and energy balance equations. In both costing methods the thermodynamic analysis is followed by an economic analysis which includes investment and operating costs. For both methods the unit costs of heating and cooling are found and compared. The analysis shows that the two methods yield significantly different results. Rather surprisingly, it is demonstrated that the exergy costing method results in about three times higher unit cost for heating than for cooling as opposed to equal unit costs when using the energy method. Further the exergy-based cost for heating changes considerably with the heating temperature while that of cooling is much less affected

  18. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes. More Information: Fact Sheet Image of a report cover | Presentation Image of a report cover for A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits State policymakers, public utilities commissions, and

  19. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of eternality in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalisation are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalisation such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals resulted obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the Extern E Methodology in the EU . Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalisation of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in te market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs

  20. Burden on family carers and difficulty in covering costs of care at the end of life: a cross-national retrospective study via representative networks of general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pivodic, L.; Block, L. van den; Pardon, K.; Miccinesi, G.; Vega, T.; Boffin, N.; Donker, G.; Cancian, M.; Lopéz-Maside, A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Given a growing number of people with long disease trajectories and a preference for home death, need for family care is expected to increase. However, populationbased data on the prevalence of burden in family carers of people at the end of life and of care-related financial burden are

  1. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in

  2. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... Design. 504.2The form, orientation, occupancy and use profiles for the Prototype Building shall be fixed...

  3. Low-Cost In-Fill Installation for High-Energy-Saving, Dynamic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    increase 2% annually. This is consistent with national recognized energy prediction models. Electrical Labor costs: Electrical labor cost for wiring...Technology Description: ................................................................................................ 3 2.1.2 Energy Consumption ...22 Figure 15. Energy Consumption for the Calibration Period of 9/2/2015 - 9/16/2015

  4. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  5. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  6. Ripple Effects: Budgets Grow Modestly, but Energy Costs Cloud the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports the ripple effects of the energy squeeze due to Hurricane Katrina and other factors that sent energy costs skyrocketing. Energy costs are a good part of why budget growth, which has been steady over the past five years, has been slowing down. The projected change from FY2005 to FY2006 is only 3.3%, compared to…

  7. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement. CONCLUSION: HAE poses a considerable burden on patients...... and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks....

  8. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  9. Nuclear energy: the real cost. A special report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, K.; Marshall, R.; Sweet, C.; Prior, M.; Welsh, I.; Bunyard, P.; Goldsmith, E.; Hildyard, N.; Jeffery, J.W. (Committee for the Study of the Economics of Nuclear Electricity, Camelford (UK))

    1981-12-01

    This report on the discussions within a small group of academics falls under the headings: chairman's foreword; summary and recommendations; the government's nuclear power programme and its implications; the CEGB's planning record; the past performance of Britain's nuclear power stations - a guide for the future (query); nuclear power -early uncertainties; historic costs - 'the fraud inherent in all inflationary finance'; current cost accounting; fuel costs - coal stays steady, nuclear rises; net effective cost and the rationale for nuclear power; reinterpreting net effective costs; other considerations; conclusions and recommendations; references.

  10. Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy-Based Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldez Miner, Julieta I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, Shruti [University of Denver; Gao, David Wenzhong [University of Denver

    2017-11-16

    This paper analyzes the cost composition of microgrid construction as well as the influencing key factors. The Microgrid Cost Study aims at identifying the average cost of a typical microgrid project. The project is limited to the vicinity of U.S. and hence takes into account of only existing microgrid projects in U.S. The project's objective is to find cost of microgrid and its individual components for next 5 years. This will help in R&D for future microgrid projects as well as help investors/developers/researchers get an idea about the cost of their projects that they might want to start in near future.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  12. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  13. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Johannes; Wilhelm, Erik; Schenler, Warren

    2014-01-01

    In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduc...

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  15. A New Curriculum: Energy Outsourcing Brings Cost and Efficiency Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the value of colleges and universities upgrading their energy infrastructure and using outsourcing energy management functions to save money and gain greater control of energy operations without substantial investments in staff and resources. (GR)

  16. Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Mahmood; Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Households as well as community water-supply systems for utilisation of underground aquifers are massive consumers of energy. Prevailing energy crisis and focus of the government on demand-side energy policies (i.e., energy conservation) in Pakistan raises need of using energy efficient techniques in almost every aspect of life. This paper analyses performance of community relative to household water-supply system in connection with efficient energy utilisation. Results suggest that total ope...

  17. An energy and cost analysis of residential heat pumps in northern climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. K.; Oneal, D. L.

    1980-04-01

    Lack of natural gas and high oil prices, combined with the large energy costs of electric resistance heat have forced renewed attention to the heat pump in colder climates. The diversity in heating energy use and cost effectiveness of forty-one currently retailed heat pumps in three northern cities, Boston, Denver, and Minneapolis, were examined. Heat pump heating energy use and annualized life cycle costs were compared with other forms of space heating equipment in those same cities.

  18. Exergy costing for energy saving in combined heating and cooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chan; Veje, Christian T.; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    . In the first method, referred to as energy costing, a conventional thermoeconomic analysis is used. Here the ammonia heat pump is subject to a thermodynamic analysis with mass and energy balance equations. In the second method referred to as exergy costing, an exergy based economic analysis is used, where...... exergy balance equations are used in conjunction with mass and energy balance equations. In both costing methods the thermodynamic analysis is followed by an economic analysis which includes investment and operating costs. For both methods the unit costs of heating and cooling are found and compared...

  19. Consistent cost curves for identification of optimal energy savings across industry and residential sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Baldini, Mattia

    the costs are incurred and savings (difference in discount rates both private and social) • The issue of marginal investment in a case of replacement anyway or a full investment in the energy saving technology • Implementation costs (and probability of investment) differs across sectors • Cost saving...... with constructing and applying the cost curves in modelling: • Cost curves do not have the same cost interpretation across economic subsectors and end-use technologies (investment cost for equipment varies – including/excluding installation – adaptation costs – indirect production costs) • The time issue of when...... options are not additive - meaning that marginal energy savings from one option depends on what other options implemented We address the importance of these issues and illustrate with Danish cases how large the difference in savings cost curves can be if different methodologies are used. For example...

  20. High burden of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) fecal carriage at a teaching hospital: cost-effectiveness of screening in low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidah, Abdul Rahman; Mohammad, Nurul Izzah; Suraiya, Siti; Harun, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) have been continuously growing and pose challenge to health institution globally. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE) was identified as one of the MDR-GNB which has limited treatment options and higher mortality compared to those of sensitive strains. We report an increased burden of CRE fecal carriage at a hospital in the North-eastern region of Malaysia. A retrospective descriptive study from August 2013 to December 2015 was conducted in the Medical Microbiology & Parasitology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, which is a tertiary teaching hospital with more than 700 beds. This hospital treats patients with various medical and surgical conditions. Suspected CRE from any clinical specimens received by the laboratory was identified and confirmed using standard protocols. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed to determine the genotype. Altogether, 8306 Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from various clinical specimens during the study period and 477/8306 (5.74%) were CRE. Majority of the isolated CRE were Klebsiella [408/477, (85.5%)], of which Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species, 388/408 (95%). CRE were mainly isolated from rectal swab (screening), 235/477 (49.3%); urine, 76/477 (15.9%); blood, 46/477 (9.6%) and about 7.1% from tracheal aspirate. One hundred and thirty-six isolates were subjected to genotype determination and., 112/136 (82.4%) showed positive detection of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) gene ( bla NDM1 ). The study noted a high numbers of CRE isolated especially from rectal swabs. Active screening results in significant cost pressures and therefore should be revisited and revised, especially in low resource settings.

  1. High burden of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE fecal carriage at a teaching hospital: cost-effectiveness of screening in low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zaidah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB have been continuously growing and pose challenge to health institution globally. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE was identified as one of the MDR-GNB which has limited treatment options and higher mortality compared to those of sensitive strains. We report an increased burden of CRE fecal carriage at a hospital in the North-eastern region of Malaysia. Methods A retrospective descriptive study from August 2013 to December 2015 was conducted in the Medical Microbiology & Parasitology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, which is a tertiary teaching hospital with more than 700 beds. This hospital treats patients with various medical and surgical conditions. Suspected CRE from any clinical specimens received by the laboratory was identified and confirmed using standard protocols. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was performed to determine the genotype. Results Altogether, 8306 Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from various clinical specimens during the study period and 477/8306 (5.74% were CRE. Majority of the isolated CRE were Klebsiella [408/477, (85.5%], of which Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species, 388/408 (95%. CRE were mainly isolated from rectal swab (screening, 235/477 (49.3%; urine, 76/477 (15.9%; blood, 46/477 (9.6% and about 7.1% from tracheal aspirate. One hundred and thirty-six isolates were subjected to genotype determination and., 112/136 (82.4% showed positive detection of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 gene (bla NDM1. Conclusion The study noted a high numbers of CRE isolated especially from rectal swabs. Active screening results in significant cost pressures and therefore should be revisited and revised, especially in low resource settings.

  2. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  3. Renewable portfolio standards and cost-effective energy-efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahone, A.; Woo, C.K.; Williams, J.; Horowitz, I.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency (EE) are increasingly popular policy tools to combat climate change and dependence on fossil fuels. These supply-side and demand-side policies, however, are often uncoordinated. Using California as a case in point, this paper demonstrates that states could improve resource allocation if these two policies were coordinated by incorporating renewable-energy procurement cost into the cost-effectiveness determination for EE investment. In particular, if renewable energy is relatively expensive when compared to conventional energy, increasing the RPS target raises the cost-effective level of EE investment

  4. Comparison of approximate electrical energy generating costs in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Bertel, E.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of power generating in nuclear power plants have been predicted taking into account all factors connected with investment, maintenance, exploitation and decommissioning, basing on last OECD report. The costs have been compared with alternative solutions. In majority of OECD countries the direct costs of electricity generation are very close for nuclear fossil-fuel and gas power plants. All indirect costs such as environmental impact, public health hazard, waste management, accident risk and also public acceptance for nuclear power have been discussed. 13 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Building Energy and Cost Performance: An Analysis of Thirty Melbourne Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lay Langston

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy and cost performance of thirty recent buildings in Melbourne, Australia. Commonly, building design decisions are based on issues pertaining to construction cost, and consideration of energy performance is made only within the context of the initial project budget. Even where energy is elevated to more importance, operating energy is seen as the focus and embodied energy is nearly always ignored. For the first time, a large sample of buildings has been assembled and analyzed to improve the understanding of both energy and cost performance over their full life cycle, which formed the basis of a wider doctoral study into the inherent relationship between energy and cost. The aim of this paper is to report on typical values for embodied energy, operating energy, capital cost and operating cost per square metre for a range of building functional types investigated in this research. The conclusion is that energy and cost have quite different profiles across projects, and yet the mean GJ/m2 or cost/m2 have relatively low coefficients of variation and therefore may be useful as benchmarks of typical building performance.  

  6. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  7. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  8. Methodology to Calculate the Costs of a Floating Offshore Renewable Energy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro-Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a general methodology to calculate the life-cycle cost of floating offshore renewable energy devices, applying it to wave energy and wind energy devices. It is accounts for the contributions of the six main phases of their life-cycle: concept definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling, the costs of which have been defined. Moreover, the energy produced is also taken into account to calculate the Levelized Cost of Energy of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. The methodology proposed has been applied to two renewable energy devices: a floating offshore wave energy device and a floating offshore wind energy device. Two locations have been considered: Aguçadoura and São Pedro de Moel, both in Portugal. Results indicate that the most important cost in terms of the life-cycle of a floating offshore renewable energy farm is the exploitation cost, followed by the manufacturing and the installation cost. In addition, the best area in terms of costs is the same independently of the type of floating offshore renewable energy considered: Aguçadoura. However, the results in terms of Levelized Cost of Energy are different: Aguçadoura is better when considering wave energy technology and the São Pedro de Moel region is the best option when considering floating wind energy technology. The method proposed aims to give a direct approach to calculate the main life-cycle cost of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. It helps to assess its feasibility and evaluating the relevant characteristics that influence it the most.

  9. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  10. Assessment of nuclear energy cost competitiveness against alternative energy sources in Romania envisaging the long-term national energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper includes some of the results obtained by RATEN ICN Pitesti experts in the IAEA.s Collaborative Project INPRO-SYNERGIES. The case study proposed to evaluate and analyze the nuclear capacity development and increasing of its share in the national energy sector, envisaging the long term national and regional energy sustainability by keeping collaboration options open for the future while bringing solutions to short/medium-term challenges. The following technologies, considered as future competing technologies for electric energy generation in Romania, were selected: nuclear technology (represented by PHWR CANDU Units 3 and 4 - CANDU new, advanced HWR - Adv. HWR, and advanced PWR - Adv. PWR) and, as alternative energy sources, classical technology (represented by Coal-fired power plant using lignite fossil fuel, with carbon capture - Coal_new, and Gas-fired power plant operating on combined cycle, with carbon capture - Gas_new). The study included assessment of specific economic indicators, sensitivity analyses being performed on Levelised Unit Energy Cost (LUEC) variation due to different perturbations (e.g. discount rate, overnight costs, etc). Robustness indices (RI) of LUEC were also calculated by considering simultaneous variation of input parameters for the considered power plants. The economic analyses have been performed by using the IAEA.s NEST program. The study results confirmed that in Romania, under the national specific conditions defined, electricity produced by nuclear power plants is cost competitive against coal and gas fired power plants electricity. The highest impact of considered perturbations on LUEC has been observed for capital intensive technologies (nuclear technologies) comparatively with the classic power plants, especially for discount rate changes. (authors)

  11. The energy costs of crisis for Italian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasini, S.

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic fluctuations recorded by oil price over the last two years have refreshes the debate on the costs for economies, as the Italian one, that are net oil importer. With some econometric models such costs are estimated. Future perspectives are discussed. [it

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  13. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  14. Audit of the management and cost of the Department of Energy`s protective forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s safeguards and security program is designed to provide appropriate, efficient, and effective protection of the Department`s nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, facilities, and classified information. These items must be protected against theft, sabotage, espionage, and terrorist activity, with continuing emphasis on protection against the insider threat. The purpose of the audit was to determine if protective forces were efficiently managed and appropriately sized in light of the changing missions and current budget constraints. The authors found that the cost of physical security at some sites had grown beyond those costs incurred when the site was in full production. This increase was due to a combination of factors, including concerns about the adequacy of physical security, reactions to the increase in terrorism in the early 1980s with the possibility of hostile attacks, and the selection of security system upgrades without adequate consideration of cost effectiveness. Ongoing projects to upgrade security systems were not promptly reassessed when missions changed and levels of protection were not determined in a way which considered the attractiveness of the material being protected. The authors also noted several opportunities for the Department to improve the operational efficiency of its protective force operations, including, eluminating overtime paid to officers prior to completion of the basic 40-hour workweek, paying hourly wages of unarmed guards which are commensurate with their duties, consolidating protective force units, transferring law enforcement duties to local law agencies, eliminating or reducing paid time to exercise, and standardizing supplies and equipment used by protective force members.

  15. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEMP

    2016-07-01

    Fact sheet offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  16. Energy from trash is costly says California study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-17

    An evaluation by South California Edison Company of marketing, siting, environmental, technical and economic factors for three leading waste-to-fuel systems, concludes that it is a useful fuel conservation and waste 'treatment method', but it would be costly. The systems considered are: gasification of solid waste by pyrolysis with steam or electricity production; oil production by pyrolysis; or low Btu gas production. System disposal costs range from $13 to 31/ton (1983 $) depending on system and site; the three systems appear technically feasible; air emissions are low; the capacity of such plants could be 1000 tpd with a construction cost of $50 to $70 million.

  17. Omitted Costs, Inflated Benefits: Renewable Energy Policy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Parker; Fox, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The government of Ontario has adopted wind energy development as an alternative energy source. It enacted the Green Energy and Economy Act, May 2009, with the intention to fast track the approval process regarding industrial wind turbines. The Act legislated a centralized decision making process while removing local jurisdictional authority.…

  18. Promoting a low cost energy future in Africa | Kirchner | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a large part of the population not having access to modern energy services in their daily life, energy poverty remains one of the most pressing development challenges on the African continent. Africa's fossil fuel resources as well as its renewable energy potential can serve as the means to achieve this. For Africa's ...

  19. More cost effectiveness from public tendering of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2006-01-01

    From the results of an energy market analysis it appears that parties which are obliged to tender for energy contracts do not make the most of it. Timing is crucial in a liberalized market. Contracting in spring seems to deliver the best prices for energy in combination with tailor-made contracts [nl

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. Export growth, energy costs, and sustainable supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The report examines sustainable supply chains in North America and the role played by rail intermodal : operations in lowering ten-mile fuel and emission costs. It examines whether current systems favor imports : over exports a current complaint ...

  2. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited.

  3. Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-05-14

    This document summarizes findings from a literature review into the incremental costs associated with low-energy buildings. The goal of this work is to help establish as firm an analytical foundation as possible for the Building Technology Program's cost-effective net-zero energy goal in the year 2025.

  4. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  5. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfil...

  6. Use of an expert system for energy cost calculations in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viinikainen, S.; Malinen, H.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, an application for the calculation of energy prices and product energy costs in the pulp and paper industry by using the Xi Plus expert system is presented. The use of expert systems in the energy field and also the Xi Plus expert system and its general features are also discussed. The application has been made after collecting data from several sources. It runs in an IBM AT compatible microcomputer therefore being easily used in mills. The name of the application is PRODUCT ENERGY COST. It has a three level structure: the mill level, the department level and the main equipment level. Currently, the mill level and, in the energy production area, the department level (power plant) and the equipment level (boilers, turbines) are used. The application consists of four knowledge base groups. Altogether there are 52 separate knowledge bases having 534 rules or demons. The knowledge base groups are: BASIC DATA, ENERGY USE, ENERGY PRODUCTION and ENERGY COSTS. The application can be used for various heat and electrical energy price calculations or for energy cost calculations for different pulp and paper products. In this study, the energy prices for kraft pulp, TMP, newsprint and fine paper in different operating conditions and the associated energy costs of the products are calculated. Also, in some cases a sensitivity analysis is done. The expert system is quite suitable for this type of calculation and the method could be further developed for specific industrial needs, e.g. to enhance the energy management systems

  7. Data on cost-optimal Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Delia; Parker, Danny

    2018-04-01

    This data article refers to the research paper A model for the cost-optimal design of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in representative climates across Europe [1]. The reported data deal with the design optimization of a residential building prototype located in representative European locations. The study focus on the research of cost-optimal choices and efficiency measures in new buildings depending on the climate. The data linked within this article relate to the modelled building energy consumption, renewable production, potential energy savings, and costs. Data allow to visualize energy consumption before and after the optimization, selected efficiency measures, costs and renewable production. The reduction of electricity and natural gas consumption towards the NZEB target can be visualized together with incremental and cumulative costs in each location. Further data is available about building geometry, costs, CO 2 emissions, envelope, materials, lighting, appliances and systems.

  8. Data on cost-optimal Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D'Agostino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article refers to the research paper A model for the cost-optimal design of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs in representative climates across Europe [1]. The reported data deal with the design optimization of a residential building prototype located in representative European locations. The study focus on the research of cost-optimal choices and efficiency measures in new buildings depending on the climate. The data linked within this article relate to the modelled building energy consumption, renewable production, potential energy savings, and costs. Data allow to visualize energy consumption before and after the optimization, selected efficiency measures, costs and renewable production. The reduction of electricity and natural gas consumption towards the NZEB target can be visualized together with incremental and cumulative costs in each location. Further data is available about building geometry, costs, CO2 emissions, envelope, materials, lighting, appliances and systems.

  9. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sizing Combined Heat and Power Units and Domestic Building Energy Cost Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many combined heat and power (CHP units have been installed in domestic buildings to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy costs. However, inappropriate sizing of a CHP may actually increase energy costs and reduce energy efficiency. Moreover, the high manufacturing cost of batteries makes batteries less affordable. Therefore, this paper will attempt to size the capacity of CHP and optimise daily energy costs for a domestic building with only CHP installed. In this paper, electricity and heat loads are firstly used as sizing criteria in finding the best capacities of different types of CHP with the help of the maximum rectangle (MR method. Subsequently, the genetic algorithm (GA will be used to optimise the daily energy costs of the different cases. Then, heat and electricity loads are jointly considered for sizing different types of CHP and for optimising the daily energy costs through the GA method. The optimisation results show that the GA sizing method gives a higher average daily energy cost saving, which is 13% reduction compared to a building without installing CHP. However, to achieve this, there will be about 3% energy efficiency reduction and 7% input power to rated power ratio reduction compared to using the MR method and heat demand in sizing CHP.

  11. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  12. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  13. Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, M.S.; Paul, S.S.; Oyedepo, S.O.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria are investigated. → Economical evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. → Locations that are suitable electricity generation and small scale applications are identified. - Abstract: In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in selected six locations in north central part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 19 and 37 years measured at 10 m height. The performance of small to medium size commercial wind turbine models were examined and economic evaluation of the wind energy in the selected sites was made by using the levelised cost method. The results showed that the cost of energy production per kWh for the selected sites vary between cents 4.02 and cents 166.79. It was shown that Minna is most viable site while Bida is found to be least among the sites considered. Using three selected wind turbine models (in Minna) as case study, an increase in the escalation rate of operating and maintenance cost from 0% to 10%, lead to an increase in the unit energy cost by about 7%. It was further shown that by increasing the escalation rate of inflation from 0% to 5%, the cost of energy decreases by about 29% while the discount rate (return on investment) decreases from 11.54% to 6.23%.

  14. Documenting success of energy management cost reduction initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.

    1993-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to offer methods to document energy saving projects. The examples used are based on actual industrial facilities. I will define concepts to be used in the analysis of the industrial work place energy consumption. With the concepts defined we can begin to apply the documentation strategy for some specific examples. Why should we be interested in auditing the results of energy projects? Nearly every industrial facility has embarked on the road to energy efficiency. As one of my plant engineer associates relates open-quotes If all our energy saving programs were working as stated the power company would be paying us.close quotes The underlying principles in this statement are true. Does it mean we as technicians, engineers and managers of energy projects have failed? No, we have however failed to finish the job and document there results. My experience has shown there is good support and enthusiasm for those energy projects we begin. It is also my experience that a well documented successful project provides many levels of satisfaction. Large energy management projects involve a major financial commitment. Documenting the results provides all those who supported the project from finance, management and the technical staff the positive reinforcement to support your future projects. We should begin by defining what an energy audit is and what is the expected result of an audit

  15. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  16. The impact of geography on energy infrastructure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvoleff, Alex; Kocaman, Ayse Selin; Huh, Woonghee Tim; Modi, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Infrastructure planning for networked infrastructure such as grid electrification (or piped supply of water) has historically been a process of outward network expansion, either by utilities in response to immediate economic opportunity, or in response to a government mandate or subsidy intended to catalyze economic growth. While significant progress has been made in access to grid electricity in Asia, where population densities are greater and rural areas tend to have nucleated settlements, access to grid electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa remains low; a problem generally ascribed to differences in settlement patterns. The discussion, however, has remained qualitative, and hence it has been difficult for planners to understand the differing costs of carrying out grid expansion in one region as opposed to another. This paper describes a methodology to estimate the cost of local-level distribution systems for a least-cost network, and to compute additional information of interest to policymakers, such as the marginal cost of connecting additional households to a grid as a function of the penetration rate. We present several large datasets of household locations developed from satellite imagery, and examine them with our methodology, providing insight into the relationship between settlement pattern and the cost of rural electrification.

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of techniques for measuring lung burdens of low-energy X-ray emitters. Part of a coordinated programme on the calibration of burdens of inhaled plutonium by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.; Fry, F.A.; Taylor, B.T.; Eagle, M.C.; Sharma, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    An interlaboratory exercise has been conducted to assess techniques of detection and calibration in the direct measurement of lung contamination with plutonium and other nuclides emitting only low-energy X-rays. Three volunteers, of small, intermediate and large physique, inhaled an aerosol incorporating Pd-103, a 20-keV X-ray emitter, and visited 13 other laboratories in the UK, Europe and North America. Participants in the exercise were asked to estimate each subject's lung content, using their procedures for assessing burdens of plutonium, and their estimates were compared with values derived independently from measurements of Cr-51, also incorporated in the inhaled particles, by gamma-ray spectrometry. Laboratories' calibration procedures were in most cases based on elaborate thorax phantoms, and these generally led to underestimates of the subjects' contents, in some instances by a factor of three or more; only one such laboratory produced estimates in satisfactory agreement with the independently-known values. The ''phoswich'' detectors, employed by most participants, appeared to be more sensitive than gas counters. If a standard configuration were required, offering the highest sensitivity in most situations, the choice would be a pair of 12-cm diameter phoswich detectors viewing the left and right anterior surfaces of the upper thorax. No improvement in sensitivity would result from increasing the size, although larger units may offer other advantages

  18. Modelling the existing Irish energy-system to identify future energy costs and the maximum wind penetration feasible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    energy- system to future energy costs by considering future fuel prices, CO2 prices, and different interest rates. The final investigation identifies the maximum wind penetration feasible on the 2007 Irish energy- system from a technical and economic perspective, as wind is the most promising fluctuating...... for the existing Irish energy-system is approximately 30% from both a technical and economic perspective based on 2020 energy prices. Future studies will use the model developed in this study to show that higher wind penetrations can be achieved if the existing energy-system is modified correctly. Finally...... renewable resource available in Ireland. It is concluded that the reference model simulates the Irish energy-system accurately, the annual fuel costs for Ireland’s energy could increase by approximately 58% from 2007 to 2020 if a business-as-usual scenario is followed, and the optimum wind penetration...

  19. Energy balance and cost analysis for raisin production in Aegean Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Hülya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine energy consumption of input and output used in raisin production and making a cost analysis in Aegean Region. Energy output-input analysis is generally done to determine the scope of environment and energy efficiency of agricultural production. In this study the cost of raisin production was calculated by Manisa Viticulture Research Institute's records in 2015. Costs of inputs and prices of raisin were obtained from various sources such as Turkish Statistical Institute, Aegean Exporters' Association and Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The total energy input necessity for raisin production was 39,066.91 MJ/ha. The research results indicated that the total energy input used for raisin was mainly dependent on non-renewable energy forms (%97. The high ratio of non-renewable energy in the total used energy inputs causes negative effects on the sustainability in agricultural production. Among input energy sources, diesel oil, chemical fertilizers and electricity contained highest energy shares with 34.30%, 26.96%, and 22.50% respectively. The energy ratio and energy productivity were found to be 6.04 and 0.51 kg/MJ. Gross production value and total variable costs for raisin were $ 8,600 and $ 4,528.25, respectively. As a result of cost analysis, gross margin was calculated as $ 4,071.75.

  20. Energy cost of swimming of elite long-distance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, P; Bonifazi, M; Faina, M; Milan, A; Sardella, F; Schena, F; Capelli, C

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was: (1) to assess the energy cost of swimming (C(s), kJ km(-1)) in a group of male (n = 5) and female (n = 5) elite swimmers specialised in long-distance competitions; (2) to evaluate the possible effect of a 2-km trial on the absolute value of C(s). C(s) was assessed during three consecutive 400-m trials covered in a 50-m pool at increasing speeds (v1, v2, v3). After these experiments the subjects swam a 2-km trial at the 10-km race speed (v2km) after which the three 400-m trials were repeated at the same speed as before (v5 = v1, v6 = v2, v7 = v3). C(s) was calculated by dividing the net oxygen uptake at steady state VO2ss by the corresponding average speed (v, m s(-1)). VO2ss was estimated by using back extrapolation technique from breath-to-breath VO2 recorded during the first 30 s of recovery after each test. C(s) increased (from 0.69 kJ m(-1) to 1.27 kJ m(-1)) as a function of v (from 1.29 m s(-1) to 1.50 m s(-1)), its values being comparable to those measured in elite short distance swimmers at similar speeds. In both groups of subjects the speed maintained during the 2-km trial (v2km) was on the average only 1.2% faster than of v2 and v6 (P>0.05), whereas C(s) assessed at the end of the 2-km trial (v2km) turned out to be 21 +/- 26% larger than that assessed at v2 and v6 (P<0.05); the average stroke frequency (SF, cycles min(-1)) during the 2-km trial turned to be about 6% (P<0.05) faster than that assessed at v2 and v6. At v5, C(s) turned out to be 19 +/- 9% (P<0.05) and 22 +/- 27% (0.1 < P = 0.05) larger than at v1 in male and female subjects (respectively). SF was significantly faster (P<0.05, in male subjects) and the distance per stroke (Ds = v/SF) significantly shorter (P<0.05) in female subjects at v5 and v6 than at v1 and v2. These data suggest that the increase of C(s) found after the 2-km trial was likely related to a decrease in propelling efficiency, since the latter is related to the distance per stroke.

  1. Capital and operating cost estimates for high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenung, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Fagaly, R.L.; Heiberger, M.; Stephens, R.B.; Leuer, J.A.; Guzman, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Capital and operating costs have been estimated for mid-scale (2 to 200 Mwh) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) designed to use high temperature superconductors (HTS). Capital costs are dominated by the cost of superconducting materials. Operating costs, primarily for regeneration, are significantly reduced for HTS-SMES in comparison to low temperature, conventional systems. This cost component is small compared to other O and M and capital components, when levelized annual costs are projected. In this paper, the developments required for HTS-SMES feasibility are discussed

  2. Audit Office's report on the costs of nuclear energy in january 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The cost of nuclear power ranges between 33 and 49.5 euros/KWh according to accountable hypothesis. This cost includes all, it means that provisions for dismantling and waste managing are included. The impact of uncertainties on the costs of dismantling and of waste managing is low and represents only a few per cent of the cost. Maintenance costs of the reactors are going to soar because the fleet of reactors face important upgrading works for life extension and for complying to new safety requirements. The impact on the cost of nuclear energy is expected to be between 10 and 15 percent. (A.C.)

  3. Cost minimization in a full-scale conventional wastewater treatment plant: associated costs of biological energy consumption versus sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S; Volant, A; Lesage, G; Heran, M

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption and sludge production minimization represent rising challenges for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The goal of this study is to investigate how energy is consumed throughout the whole plant and how operating conditions affect this energy demand. A WWTP based on the activated sludge process was selected as a case study. Simulations were performed using a pre-compiled model implemented in GPS-X simulation software. Model validation was carried out by comparing experimental and modeling data of the dynamic behavior of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and nitrogen compounds concentration, energy consumption for aeration, mixing and sludge treatment and annual sludge production over a three year exercise. In this plant, the energy required for bioreactor aeration was calculated at approximately 44% of the total energy demand. A cost optimization strategy was applied by varying the MLSS concentrations (from 1 to 8 gTSS/L) while recording energy consumption, sludge production and effluent quality. An increase of MLSS led to an increase of the oxygen requirement for biomass aeration, but it also reduced total sludge production. Results permit identification of a key MLSS concentration allowing identification of the best compromise between levels of treatment required, biological energy demand and sludge production while minimizing the overall costs.

  4. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vliet, Oscar; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Kuramochi, Takeshi; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km -1 (using renewables) and 155 g km -1 (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO 2 eq km -1 . We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year -1 . TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh -1 , even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh -1 in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug-in hybrid cars are currently 400-1400 EUR tonne -1 CO 2eq and may come down to -100 to 300 EUR tonne -1 . Abatement cost using

  5. The energy cost for balance control during upright standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Fickert, R.; van Velzen, J.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether balance control during a static upright standing task with and without balance perturbations elicits a significant and meaningful metabolic energy demand and to test whether this energy demand correlates with conventional posturography measures for

  6. The free-energy cost of interaction between DNA loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifang; Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Zhou, Tianshou; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-10-03

    From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, the formation of DNA loops and the interaction between them, which are all non-equilibrium processes, result in the change of free energy, affecting gene expression and further cell-to-cell variability as observed experimentally. However, how these processes dissipate free energy remains largely unclear. Here, by analyzing a mechanic model that maps three fundamental topologies of two interacting DNA loops into a 4-state model of gene transcription, we first show that a longer DNA loop needs more mean free energy consumption. Then, independent of the type of interacting two DNA loops (nested, side-by-side or alternating), the promotion between them always consumes less mean free energy whereas the suppression dissipates more mean free energy. More interestingly, we find that in contrast to the mechanism of direct looping between promoter and enhancer, the facilitated-tracking mechanism dissipates less mean free energy but enhances the mean mRNA expression, justifying the facilitated-tracking hypothesis, a long-standing debate in biology. Based on minimal energy principle, we thus speculate that organisms would utilize the mechanisms of loop-loop promotion and facilitated tracking to survive in complex environments. Our studies provide insights into the understanding of gene expression regulation mechanism from the view of energy consumption.

  7. The energy issue. Demand and potentials, utilization, risks, costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinloth, K.

    1997-01-01

    Will the demand for energy be growing or decreasing in future? How are prosperity and energy consumption linked up? How can the CO 2 reduction target announced at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro be achieved? What is the price for ''''benign'''' energy as compared to ''''malignant'''' energy? What is the future contribution to energy supplies that can be expected from renewable energy sources? What are the good and the evil aspects of nuclear energy? These are questions that will sooner or later concern us all, and in any case when it comes to paying the bill for our present squandering. The author Klaus Heinloth, a renown expert in this field, presents with this book a scientifically well-founded and unbiased analysis and source of information that may serve politicians as a basis for objective debates about the future energy policy. Provided with a generous grant by the Heraeus foundation, the author was free to pursue his studies and inquiries independent of industry and relevant associations, and collect, evaluate and analyse the required information. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Designing a Portable and Low Cost Home Energy Management Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Al Mahmud, A.; De Hoogh, M.; Luxen, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of a home energy and comfort management system. The system has three components such as a smart plug with a wireless module, a residential gateway and a mobile app. The combined system is called a home energy management and comfort toolkit. The design is inspired

  9. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL HEATING: TAXATION, SUBSIDIES, AND COMPARATIVE COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This analysis is in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. It examines the effect of economic incentives on public and private decisions affecting energy production and us...

  10. The pion (muon) energy production cost in muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeev, N.G.; Solov'ev, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    The article presents the main steps in the history of the study on the muon catalysis of nuclear fusion. The practical application of the muon catalysis phenomenon to obtain the energy gain is briefly discussed. The details of the problem to produce pion (muon) yield with minimal energy expenses have been considered. 31 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Landis, Florian; Tovar Reaños, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of r...

  12. The evaluation of external costs from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Valette, P.; Krupnick, A.; Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper outlines the progress of the joint EC-US Fuel Cycle study. This study seeks to provide a methodological framework for precisely the evaluation of external costs over the complete fuel cycle, from fuel extraction to decommissioning, conservation technologies, solar and wind power. (authors). 19 refs., 4 figs

  13. Rightsizing HVAC Systems to Reduce Capital Costs and Save Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, James

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every institution is faced with the situation of having to reduce the cost of a construction project from time to time through a process generally referred to as "value engineering." Just the mention of those words, however, gives rise to all types of connotations, thoughts, and memories (usually negative) for those in the…

  14. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.; Brouwer, A.S.; Kuramochi, T.; van den Broek, M.A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate

  15. Using stool antigen to screen for Helicobacter pylori in immigrants and refugees from high prevalence countries is relatively cost effective in reducing the burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Schulz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Refugees and immigrants from developing countries settling in industrialised countries have a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Screening these groups for H. pylori and use of eradication therapy to reduce the future burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease is not currently recommended in most countries. We investigated whether a screening and eradication approach would be cost effective in high prevalence populations. METHODS: Nine different screening and follow-up strategies for asymptomatic immigrants from high H. pylori prevalence areas were compared with the current approach of no screening. Cost effectiveness comparisons assumed population prevalence's of H. pylori of 25%, 50% or 75%. The main outcome measure was the net cost for each cancer prevented for each strategy. Total costs of each strategy and net costs including savings from reductions in ulcers and gastric cancer were also calculated. RESULTS: Stool antigen testing with repeat testing after treatment was the most cost effective approach relative to others, for each prevalence value. The net cost per cancer prevented with this strategy was US$111,800 (assuming 75% prevalence, $132,300 (50% and $193,900 (25%. A test and treat strategy using stool antigen remained relatively cost effective, even when the prevalence was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori screening and eradication can be an effective strategy for reducing rates of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in high prevalence populations and our data suggest that use of stool antigen testing is the most cost effective approach.

  16. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  17. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  18. Energy and labor cost of gasoline engine remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.

  19. Implementing a solar energy technology in Canada: The costs, benefits, and role of government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M K

    1978-01-01

    Canadian studies on the cost of solar energy to the user are described. Realistic estimates are developed of the initial capital cost and comparative lifetime costs of solar and conventional heating systems. Interfacing solar home heating with electric utilities is also discussed, along with the social benefits of solar space and water heating. Results are presented of a Canada-wide survey of public attitudes to the energy situation in general and to solar energy in particular. A computer simulation was used to examine the cost to the government and effects on the lifetime cost to the user of various incentive schemes to encourage solar use. Optimal government strategy is suggested and recommendations implied by the analyses in this study are made. It was found that not only is a package-designed solar heating system cost-effective when compared with conventional systems, but the public is eager and receptive to large-scale solar use. 14 refs.

  20. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  1. External costs from electricity generation of China up to 2030 in energy and abatement scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Weili, Tian; Yumei, Wei; Yingxu, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents estimated external costs of electricity generation in China under different scenarios of long-term energy and environmental policies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop a simple model of electricity demand and to estimate gross electricity generation in China up to 2030 under these scenarios. Because external costs for unit of electricity from fossil fuel will vary in different government regulation periods, airborne pollutant external costs of SO 2 , NO x , PM 10 , and CO 2 from fired power plants are then estimated based on emission inventories and environmental cost for unit of pollutants, while external costs of non-fossil power generation are evaluated with external cost for unit of electricity. The developed model is run to study the impact of different energy efficiency and environmental abatement policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement and also reduce external costs of electricity generation. It is shown that external costs of electricity generation may reduce 24-55% with three energy policies scenarios and may further reduce by 20.9-26.7% with two environmental policies scenarios. The total reduction of external costs may reach 58.2%. (author)

  2. Offshore wind energy storage concept for cost-of-rated-power savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chao; Saunders, Gordon; Loth, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Investigated CAES + HPT system concept for offshore wind energy; •Validated cost model for offshore wind farm including CAPEX and OPEX items; •Quantified cost-of-rated-power savings associated with CAES + HPT concept; •Estimated savings of 21.6% with CAES + HPT for a sample $2.92 billion project. -- Abstract: The size and number of off-shore wind turbines over the next decade is expected to rapidly increase due to the high wind energy potential and the ability of such farms to provide utility-scale energy. In this future, inexpensive and efficient on-site wind energy storage can be critical to address short-time (hourly) mismatches between wind supply and energy demand. This study investigates a compressed air energy storage (CAES) and hydraulic power transmission (HPT) system concept. To assess cost impact, the NREL Cost and Scaling Model was modified to improve accuracy and robustness for offshore wind farms with large turbines. Special attention was paid to the support structure, installation, electrical interface and connections, land leasing, and operations and maintenance cost items as well as specific increased/reduced costs reductions associated with CAES + HPT systems. This cost model was validated and applied to a sample $2.92 billion project Virginia Offshore case It was found that adaption of CAES + HPT can lead to a substantial savings of 21.6% of this 20-year lifetime cost by dramatically reducing capital and operating cost of the generator and power transmission components. However, there are several additional variables that can impact the off-shore energy policy and planning for this new CAES + HPT concept. Furthermore, these cost-savings are only first-order estimates based on linear mass-cost relationships, and thus detailed engineering and economic analysis are recommended.

  3. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Landis, Florian [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Tovar Reanos, Miguel Angel [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be ameliorated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms which achieve the same level of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.

  4. "You Pay Your Share, We'll Pay Our Share": The College Cost Burden and the Role of Race, Income, and College Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Friedline, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether parents' college savings for their children helps reduce the burden on students to pay for college. Using trivariate probit analysis with predicted probabilities, in this exploratory study we find recent changes in the financial aid…

  5. Setting priorities for the health care sector in Zimbabwe using cost-effectiveness analysis and estimates of the burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at providing information for priority setting in the health care sector of Zimbabwe as well as assessing the efficiency of resource use. A general approach proposed by the World Bank involving the estimation of the burden of disease measured in Disability-Adjusted Life...

  6. The HUMTICK study: protocol for a prospective cohort study on post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome and the disease and cost burden of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geebelen, Laurence; Lernout, Tinne; Kabamba-Mukadi, Benoît; Saegeman, Veroniek; Sprong, Hein; Van Gucht, Steven; Beutels, Philippe; Speybroeck, Niko; Tersago, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    In Belgium, different routine surveillance systems are in place to follow-up Lyme borreliosis trends. However, accurate data on the disease and monetary burden for the different clinical manifestations are lacking. Despite recommended antibiotic treatment, a proportion of Lyme patients report

  7. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  8. Cost-optimal electricity systems with increasing renewable energy penetration for islands across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Velzen, Leonore

    2018-01-01

    Cost-optimal electricity system configurations with increasing renewable energy penetration were determined in this article for six islands of different geographies, sizes and contexts, utilizing photovoltaic energy, wind energy, pumped hydro storage and battery storage. The results of the

  9. Energy cost of running instability evaluated with wearable trunk accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kurt H; Sackey, Saint; Venter, Rachel; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2018-02-01

    Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless triaxial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (triaxial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to interindividual variance in Ec (J/m) during treadmill running. Accelerometry and indirect calorimetry data were collected concurrently from 30 recreational runners (16 men; 14 women) running at their highest steady-state running speed (80.65 ± 5.99% V̇o 2max ). After reducing dimensionality with factor analysis, the effect of dynamic stability features on Ec was evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Three accelerometry-based measures could explain an additional 10.4% of interindividual variance in Ec after controlling for body mass, attributed to anteroposterior stride regularity (5.2%), anteroposterior root mean square ratio (3.2%), and mediolateral sample entropy (2.0%). Our results lend support to a cost of instability hypothesis, with trunk acceleration waveform signals that are 1) more consistent between strides anteroposterioly, 2) larger in amplitude variability anteroposterioly, and 3) more complex mediolaterally and are energetically advantageous to endurance running performance. This study shows that wearable trunk accelerometry is a useful tool for understanding the Ec of running and that running stability is important for economy in recreational runners. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study evaluates and more directly lends support to a cost of instability hypothesis between runners. Moreover, this hypothesis was tested using a minimalist setup including a single triaxial trunk mounted accelerometer

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  11. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  12. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  13. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... 5-year average ratio with heating oil prices published in the Monthly Energy Review, but the propane... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  14. Mind your step: metabolic energy cost while walking an enforced gait pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezenberg, D; de Haan, A; van Bennekom, C A M; Houdijk, H

    2011-04-01

    The energy cost of walking could be attributed to energy related to the walking movement and energy related to balance control. In order to differentiate between both components we investigated the energy cost of walking an enforced step pattern, thereby perturbing balance while the walking movement is preserved. Nine healthy subjects walked three times at comfortable walking speed on an instrumented treadmill. The first trial consisted of unconstrained walking. In the next two trials, subject walked while following a step pattern projected on the treadmill. The steps projected were either composed of the averaged step characteristics (periodic trial), or were an exact copy including the variability of the steps taken while walking unconstrained (variable trial). Metabolic energy